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Sample records for adult black-tailed deer

  1. Fluorosis in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Newman, J P; Yu, M H

    1976-01-01

    Marked dental disfigurement and abnormal tooth wear patterns were observed in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) taken from an area near an industrial fluoride source in northwestern Washington. Fluoride levels in the bones of these deer were from 10 to 35 times higher than levels in the bones of normal animals. These levels are similar to those associated with fluorosis of cattle.

  2. Xenobiotic biotransformation in livers and lungs of adult black-tailed deer: comparison with domestic goat and sheep.

    PubMed

    Helferich, W G; Silva, M H; Flueck, W T; Hammock, B D; Shull, L R

    1987-01-01

    1. The capacity of liver and lung tissue of black-tailed dear (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to biotransform xenobiotics was compared in vitro to the domestic sheep and goat. Donor animals were all females of varying ages. Tissues from the black-tailed deer were collected in the wild. A variety of biotransformation enzymes were measured in both microsomal and cytosolic fractions. 2. Deer liver was lower in total cytochrome P450 concentration, but mono-oxygenase activities were greater compared to sheep and goat. The opposite was true for the lung. 3. Epoxide hydrolase activities were significantly different in deer vs sheep and goat. 4. In general, both hepatic and pulmonary activities were more similar between sheep and goat than either species compared to the deer, however, the magnitude of the hepatic differences did not exceed 5-fold. 5. Based on these limited results, there is no reason to discredit the sheep or goat as a toxicity testing model for deer.

  3. Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Abrams, Arthur; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger; Hoberg, Eric P; Bildfell, Robert J; Green, Richard L

    2006-07-01

    Documenting the occurrence of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei has historically relied on the morphological examination of adult worms collected from the skeletal muscle of definitive hosts, including deer. Recent advances in the knowledge of protostrongylid genetic sequences now permit larvae to be identified. Dorsal-spined larvae (DSLs) collected in 2003-2004 from the lung and feces of six Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Oregon were characterized genetically. The sequences from unknown DSLs were compared to those from morphologically validated adults and larvae of P. odocoilei at both the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene. We provide the first unequivocal identification of P. odocoilei in Columbian black-tailed deer from Oregon. The broader geographic distribution, prevalence, and pathology of P. odocoilei are not known in populations of Oregon deer.

  4. Experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Kistner, T P; Koller, L D

    1975-04-01

    The susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to the common liver fluke (F. hepatica) was studied. Two deer and one sheep comprised each of three experimental groups. Animals in each group were inoculated individually with 250, 500, or 1000 F. hepatica metacercariae. One deer and one sheep given 1000 metacercariae died with lesions consistent with black disease 7 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy 6 or 15 weeks postinoculation, the mean percentage recovery of the inoculum was 38.9% from the deer and 51.9% from the sheep. Fluke eggs recovered from the deer were viable and metacercariae cultured from the eggs were fully infective for sheep. Pathologic changes associated with F. hepatica infection were more severe in the infected deer; consequently, the deer were less resistant to the lethal effects of the parasite than sheep. Considering the experimental results and the fact that naturally acquired common liver fluke infection has been reported infrequently from black-tailed deer, it was concluded that black-tailed deer do not constitute a significant reservoir for F. hepatica in domestic livestock.

  5. Experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in yearling black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Burd, M; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

    1997-10-01

    An apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California (USA) during 1993-1994. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. Six black-tailed yearling deer (O. hemionus columbianus) were inoculated with purified adenovirus isolated from a black-tailed fawn that died of acute adenovirus hemorrhagic disease during the epizootic. Three of six inoculated deer also received intramuscular injections of dexamethasone sodium phosphate every 3 days during the study. Eight days post-inoculation, one deer (without dexamethasone) developed bloody diarrhea and died. Necropsy and histopathologic findings were identical to lesions in free-ranging animals that died of the natural disease. Hemorrhagic enteropathy and pulmonary edema were the significant necropsy findings and there was microscopic vascular damage and endothelial intranuclear inclusion bodies in the vessels of the intestines and lungs. Adenovirus was identified in necrotic endothelial cells in the lungs by fluorescent antibody staining, immunohistochemistry and by transmission electron microscopy. Adenovirus was reisolated from tissues of the animal that died of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease. Similar gross and microscopic lesions were absent in four of six adenovirus-inoculated deer and in the negative control animal which were necropsied at variable intervals during the 14 wk study. One deer was inoculated with purified adenovirus a second time, 12 wk after the first inoculation. Fifteen days after the second inoculation, this deer developed severe ulceration of the tongue, pharynx and rumen and necrotizing osteomyelitis of the mandible which was associated with

  6. Evaluation for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Antognini, J F; Eisele, P H; Gronert, G A

    1996-10-01

    To investigate a possible link of malignant hyperthermia to capture myopathy, between June 1990 and July 1993 we anesthetized four black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and challenged them with halothane and succinylcholine. Halothane had no significant effect on oxygen consumption. Succinylcholine significantly (P < 0.05) increased cardiac output (mean +/- SD), from 2.94 +/- 1.05 l/min to 5.26 +/- 1.79 l/min, and oxygen consumption, from 5.5 +/- 2.1 ml/kg/min to 10.1 +/- 2.9 ml/kg/min. Muscle biopsy specimens tested for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility responded normally to halothane and caffeine. We conclude that these deer did not experience malignant hyperthermia; suggesting no link to capture myopathy.

  7. Sarcocystis mehlhorni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Sarcocystis is common in many species of wild cervids but none is reported from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Here, we report Sarcocystis infection in two black-tailed deer from northwest USA for the first time. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 556 µm long...

  8. Nonlethal experimental inoculation of Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with virus of epizootic hemorrhagic deer disease.

    PubMed

    Stauber, E H; Farrell, R K; Spencer, G R

    1977-03-01

    Intramuscular or intravenous inoculation of 5 Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with virus of epizootic hemorrhagic deer disease (EHD) did not produce overt clinical disease. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exposed identically died in 5 to 6 days. There were no significant lesions in 1 black-tailed deer euthanatized on postinoculation day 5. The EHd virus was not isolated from the spleen of that deer. Seroconversion occurred in black-tailed deer, from zero EHD virus antibody titer before inoculation to titers of 1:128 to 1:256 after inoculation.

  9. Meningeal worm-induced neurologic disease in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Nettles, V F; Prestwood, A K; Nichols, R G; Whitehead, C J

    1977-04-01

    Neurologic disease attributable to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in five black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) relocated from Oregon to Tennessee. Mortality occurred in the pre-release enclosure and in the release area. Infection with P. tenuis was considered the cause of an unsuccessful stocking attempt. In addition, neurologic disease was produced by experimental infection of a black-tailed x white-tailed deer hybrid. Clinical and pathologic findings were described for black-tailed and hybrid deer, and epizootiologic aspects of P. tenuis infections were discussed.

  10. An epizootic of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease in captive black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Boyce, W M; Woods, L W; Keel, M K; MacLachlan, N J; Porter, C O; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-09-01

    Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute, systemic infections, a diagnosis was made by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The serum neutralization test was useful for confirming a diagnosis in animals with prolonged, localized infections. Deer originating from herds with a history of adenovirus infection should not be transferred to other captive herds or released into free-ranging populations because they may serve as carriers of adenovirus.

  11. Sarcocystis mehlhorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Schafer, Laurence M; Van Wilpe, Erna; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-12-01

    Infection with Sarcocystis is common in many species of wild cervids but none is reported from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Here, we report Sarcocystis infection in two black-tailed deer from northwest USA for the first time. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 556 μm long and mature. The sarcocyst wall was up to 1.39 μm thick and had rectangular 1.17-μm-long villar protrusions, type 17, with thin (230 nm) electron dense ground substance layer. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sarcocystis in the black-tailed deer is related to structurally distinct Sarcocystis species in cervids. A new name, Sarcocystis mehlhorni, is proposed for the Sarcocystis species in black-tailed deer.

  12. Plasma and blood volumes of maternally reared, captive black-tailed deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, N K

    1981-01-01

    Plasma and blood volumes determined by the indocyanine green and plasma-hematocrit methods increased curvilinearly as maternally reared black-tailed deer (5F, 5M) grew in body mass from 3.8 to 34.3 kg. Expressed on a weight-relative basis, however, the volumes of both sexes declined curvilinearly with growth. The volumes of blood and cell but not plasma were significantly larger in males than females. Although these fawns were comparable to young of other species of Cervidae in weight-specific blood volumes, they exceeded by 29% or more than 66 ml/kg body mass that characterizes adult mammals of other species.

  13. Isolation of a poxvirus from a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Patton, J F; Nordhausen, R W; Woods, L W; MacLachlan, N J

    1996-07-01

    A poxvirus was isolated during the latter half of 1993 from a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) that died of fulminant adenovirus infection in California (USA). The poxvirus was isolated from a pooled tissue homogenate, after repeated serial blind passages in primary black-tailed deer testicular cells. Based on electron microscopic examination of the virus, we observed morphologic features typical of the genus Orthopoxvirus, although definitive characterization was not done.

  14. SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN BLACK TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS COLUMBIANUS) AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deer are considered important intermediate hosts for the coccidian parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were determined in sera of 42 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and 43 black tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from the Wash...

  15. Winter fawn survival in black-tailed deer populations affected by hair loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bender, Louis C; Hall, P Briggs

    2004-07-01

    Overwinter fawn mortality associated with hair loss syndrome (HLS) is anecdotally thought to be important in declines of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) populations in Washington and Oregon (USA). We determined prevalence of HLS in black-tailed deer, September and April fawn:doe ratios, and minimum overwinter survival rates of fawns for selected game management units (GMUs) in western Washington from 1999 to 2001. Prevalence of HLS ranged from 6% to 74% in fawns and 4% to 33% in does. Minimum fawn survival ranged from 0.56 to 0.83 and was unrelated to prevalence of HLS in either does (r=0.005, P=0.991) or fawns (r=-0.215, P=0.608). The prevalence of HLS in either does or fawns was also unrelated to either fall fawn:doe ratios (HLS does: r=-0.132, P=0.779; HLS fawns: r=0.130, P=0.760) or spring fawn:doe ratios (HLS does: r=-0.173, P=0.711; HLS fawns: r=-0.020, P=0.963). However, the prevalence of HLS in does and fawns was strongly related (r=0.942, P=0.002), and GMUs with high prevalence of HLS had lower deer population densities (fawns: r=-0.752, P=0.031; does: r=-0.813, P=0.026). Increased overwinter mortality of fawns because of HLS was not supported by our data. Decreased production of fawns, increased summer mortality of fawns, or both were seen in six of eight study GMU-year combinations. Observed rates of productivity and minimum fawn survival were inadequate to maintain population size in five of eight study GMU-year combinations, assuming an annual doe survival rate of 0.75. The influence of deer condition and population health on adult survival, fawn production, preweaning fawn survival, parasitism, and prevalence of HLS in both fawns and adults need to be clarified to identify what factors are limiting black-tailed deer productivity.

  16. Experimental bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in California black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Jessup, D A; Sawyer, M M

    1992-10-01

    Four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemioneus columbianus) and five fawns were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) and one adult deer was inoculated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus to produce clinical signs and lesions of hemorrhagic disease. Serologic response was monitored using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA). Embryonating chicken eggs and vero cells were used to detect viremia. No animal exhibited clinical or pathologic signs of hemorrhagic disease. Bluetongue viremia was detected as early as 2 days post-inoculation (DPI-2) and in some animals, persisted until at least DPI-12. The earliest detection of BTV antibodies using the AGID was DPI-8. Two adult deer remained seropositive for BTV antibodies for > 9 mo and 1 yr, respectively, using both the AGID and C-ELISA tests. We observed cross reactions between BT and EHD antibodies using the AGID tests. Also, the AGID test did not consistently detect exposure to BTV. Viremia was not detected in the deer inoculated with EHD although this animal was AGID positive between DPI-6 and DPI-49.

  17. Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Parker, John M; White, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds in 1987, 1988, and from 2000-02 were assayed for borrelial infection with microscopic and molecular methods. Serum specimens from two (5%) of 39 deer from the Dye Creek Preserve in Tehama County versus 13 (20%) of 64 animals from the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in Mendocino County, California were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test positive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. DNA sequencing analyses revealed that eight animals were infected with B. bissettii, six with three unclassified genotypes, and one with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. One serum sample (2%) from HREC was positive for a relapsing-fever group spirochete that had a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 99% with the C053 type strain of B. coriaceae. Spirochetes undetermined to geno-species were detected in thick-blood drops prepared from three (8%) of 36 deer from the HREC by direct immunofluorescence. Adults of the hippoboscid flies Lipoptena depressa (n=73) and Neolipoptena ferrisi (n=24), the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) (n=22), and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) (n=1) that had been removed from deer from both study areas in 2002 were PCR test negative for borreliae. The occurrence of diverse borreliae in deer from northern California confounds and, consequently, reduces the utility of borrelial serosurveys for detecting specific genospecies, unless they are complemented by more specific assays (e.g., immunoblotting, PCR/sequencing analysis). PMID:15827217

  18. Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Parker, John M; White, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds in 1987, 1988, and from 2000-02 were assayed for borrelial infection with microscopic and molecular methods. Serum specimens from two (5%) of 39 deer from the Dye Creek Preserve in Tehama County versus 13 (20%) of 64 animals from the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in Mendocino County, California were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test positive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. DNA sequencing analyses revealed that eight animals were infected with B. bissettii, six with three unclassified genotypes, and one with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. One serum sample (2%) from HREC was positive for a relapsing-fever group spirochete that had a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 99% with the C053 type strain of B. coriaceae. Spirochetes undetermined to geno-species were detected in thick-blood drops prepared from three (8%) of 36 deer from the HREC by direct immunofluorescence. Adults of the hippoboscid flies Lipoptena depressa (n=73) and Neolipoptena ferrisi (n=24), the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) (n=22), and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) (n=1) that had been removed from deer from both study areas in 2002 were PCR test negative for borreliae. The occurrence of diverse borreliae in deer from northern California confounds and, consequently, reduces the utility of borrelial serosurveys for detecting specific genospecies, unless they are complemented by more specific assays (e.g., immunoblotting, PCR/sequencing analysis).

  19. Survival, cause-specific mortality, and harvesting of male black-tailed deer in washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schirato, G.A.; Spencer, R.D.; McAllister, K.R.; Murphie, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    We determined survival rates, causes of mortality, and documented impacts of harvest on ???1.5-year-old male (hereafter, male) Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 2 Washington, USA, game management units (GMUs; Skookumchuck and Snoqualmie) characterized by different hunting-season structures. We monitored 66 males (n = 28 and 38 annually) in Skookumchuck and 58 males (n = 26 and 32 annually) in Snoqualmie, September 1999-September 2001. Annual survival rates were 0.498 (SE = 0.066) in Skookumchuck and 0.519 (SE = 0.067) in Snoqualmie. Survival rates derived from population age structure did not differ from rates derived from radiotelemetry. Harvest was the primary mortality factor for each population, accounting for 67% (SE = 7; Skookumchuck) to 44% (SE = 9; Snoqualmie) of total annual mortality. Annual harvest-specific mortality rates were 0.317 (SE = 0.032) in Skookumchuck and 0.211 (SE = 0.021) in Snoqualmie, likely due to longer hunting seasons and greater hunter effort in Skookumchuck. Following the elimination of a late buck season centered on the rut in Snoqualmie, male harvest declined 56% and annual survival increased 60%, indicating that male harvest was largely additive to other mortality. Our results indicated that harvest was the primary influence on male black-tailed deer populations in Washington, was additive, and that the effect of harvest varied with hunting-season structure and hunter effort. Managers should not assume that harvesting removes a constant proportion of the male population annually, and management models that assume compensatory mortality in adult harvest may result in over-harvest of male populations.

  20. Testicular atrophy in Columbian black-tailed deer in California.

    PubMed

    DeMartini, J C; Connolly, G E

    1975-01-01

    During an 18-year period, 4.1% (34/831) of male deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) killed on a field station during the autumn hunting season had velvet-covered, often misshapen antlers, and at least two deer had testicular atrophy (gonads from most deer were not available for examination). Testes from six similarly affected deer and several normal deer were compared histologically. Lesions ranged from hypocellularity of the semeniferous tubules and relative hyperplasia or degeneration of interstitial cells to complete connective tissue replacement of the testicular parencyma. Chronic vascular changes were present in several testes. The etiology and pathogenesis of the lesions were not determined.

  1. Hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer of the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Bildfell, Robert J; Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Cottam, Doug F

    2004-10-01

    A widespread hair-loss syndrome (HLS) has affected Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in western Oregon and Washington (USA) since 1996. In order to better characterize the condition, 21 HLS-affected black-tailed deer (BTD) were necropsied, and body condition, parasite burdens, and significant lesions were noted. All deer were in poor body condition, and at least 17 had severe internal parasite burdens. A consistent finding was the presence of large numbers of chewing lice, identified as an indeterminate species of Damalinia (Cervicola). Four animals were infested with intrafollicular Demodex sp., the first report of this genus of mites in BTD. We postulate that the hair loss is largely due to ectoparasitism by a species of chewing louse that represents a new pathogen for BTD. This loss of pelage also may be an important contributor to the poor body condition of these animals.

  2. Experimental infection of Columbian black-tailed deer with the Lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Berger, D M; Casher, L E; Burgdorfer, W

    1994-01-01

    The course of Borrelia burgdorferi-infection in Columbian black-tailed deer. (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), its effect on the health of these animals, and their reservoir competence for fleas were evaluated experimentally. Four yearling females inoculated intramuscularly with 10(8) organisms of the CA4 strain of B. burgdorferi, and two yearling males unexposed to spirochetes, were monitored daily for 3 mo. Spirochetes were reisolated from the blood of three does at 14 or 70 days postinjection, and from several tissues of the fourth doe at necropsy. Considerable antigenic heterogeneity was observed among the reisolates as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only two of the four infected deer developed significant antibodies (> or = 1:128) to B. burgdorferi with titers persisting for < or = 2 mo. Hematological values were highly variable and the degree of variation observed was much greater than that reported previously for Columbian black-tailed deer or other subspecies of mule deer. Infected deer did not manifest signs of Lyme disease. On histologic examination of eight tissues per deer, we observed a minimal hepatic lesion in all animals exposed to B. burgdorferi. No spirochetes were detected in 367 fleas (Pulex irritans) that had naturally infested these deer; thus this flea probably is an inefficient host of B. burgdorferi.

  3. Spatial analysis of habitat selection by Sitka black-tailed deer in Southeast Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kang-Tsung; Verbyla, David L.; Yeo, Jeffrey J.

    1995-07-01

    We used a vector-based geographic information system (GIS) to examine habitat selection by radiocollared Sitka black-tailed deer ( Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) in logged forests of southeast Alaska. Our main objective was to explain deer habitat selection relative to old-growth/clear-cut edges and edge habitats at two different spatial scales. Deer home ranges contained higher percentages of recent clear-cuts (50-69%) than the study area (37%; P<0.01) and had higher old-growth/clear-cut edge densities than expected by chance ( P<0.01). Deer relocation points were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges (average=135 m) than random points located within each deer's relocation area (average=168 m; P=0.05). Likewise, deer relocations were closer to old-growth/clear-cut edges than points randomly located within old-growth stands or recent clear-cuts ( P<0.01). As the size of clear-cuts increased, both deer relocation density and the proportion of a clear-cut occupied by deer home ranges decreased. Because old growth is important deer habitat and clear-cuts can produce deer forage for only 20-30 years after logging in southeast Alaska, deer management plans such as preserving entire watersheds and maintaining mixes of old growth and recent clear-cut have been proposed. Our data suggest that deer need a diversity of habitats near each other within their home ranges.

  4. Changes in gonadotrophin and ovarian hormone levels during the estrous cycle of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    McKeown, B A; Sadleir, R M

    1978-01-01

    Daily blood samples over a fifteen day period were obtained from two adult female black-tailed deer and circulating levels of progesterone, estrogens, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay. LH levels showed an apogee at the time when there was observed estrous behaviour. The length of the estrous cycle appeared to be 7 days. Progesterone levels peaked just subsequent to the LH peak. High estrogen levels coincided with high progesterone and prolactin levels. FSH reached maximum levels prior to peak estrogen levels. LH and FSH levels reached maxima on different days. There were two steroid peaks between the LH apogees.

  5. Serologic detection of adenoviral hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer in California.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, J M; Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D; Keel, M K; Rossitto, P V; Swift, P K; MacLachlan, N J

    2000-04-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization (SN) test were developed to measure serum antibodies against the adenovirus causing hemorrhagic disease in free-ranging and captive experimentally-infected black-tailed deer (Odocoilenus hemionus columbianus) in California (USA). There was a strong (rho = 0.874) and significant (P < 0.0001) correlation between ELISA and SN titers, although the SN assay was more sensitive than the ELISA.

  6. Evaluation of ivermectin for treatment of hair loss syndrome in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Hall, Briggs; Bender, Louis

    2004-07-01

    Since 1997, numerous Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in western Washington (USA) have developed a hair loss syndrome that often preceded emaciation, debilitation, pneumonia, and death. To study this syndrome, eight affected free-ranging Columbian black-tailed deer fawns were captured from western Washington in February 1999 to determine the effect of ivermectin treatment. Fecal examinations indicated that the internal parasites were Dictyocaulus viviparus, Parelaphostrongylus sp., Trichuris sp., Moniezia sp., Eimeria spp., and gastrointestinal strongyles. Biting lice (Tricholipeurus parallelus) were observed on all deer, with up to 5 lice/cm(2) on the index areas counted. Three deer were treated with ivermectin subcutaneously at doses between 0.2 and 1.3 mg/kg of body weight monthly for four consecutive months, and five control deer received no anthelmintic treatment. Complete blood counts, parasite evaluations, weight gains, and hair loss evaluations were used to assess effectiveness of treatment. Two untreated deer died during the experiment compared with no deaths among the three treated deer. Treated deer gained significantly more weight (P<0.05) than the untreated deer (22.4 vs. 12.6 kg, respectively) that survived the experiment, had significantly fewer parasite eggs and larvae (P<0.05) in feces and significantly fewer nematodes (P<0.05) at necropsy, and regrew their hair at a faster rate than untreated deer. Lice and all nematode eggs and larval stages in feces were eliminated or greatly reduced following treatment. On the basis of these data, excessive louse populations, gastrointestinal nematodes, and the lung-worms Parelaphostrongylus sp. and D. viviparus, might be important predisposing factors for this hair loss condition and death of affected animals.

  7. Mycobacteriosis in a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) caused by Mycobacterium kansasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, P.B.; Bender, L.C.; Garner, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    An eviscerated hunter-harvested female black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) was submitted to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The deer was emaciated, devoid of adipose tissue, and the parietal surface of the thoracic cavity contained multiple granulomas. Acid-fast bacteria were detected histologically from the granulomas and were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium sporadically reported to cause tuberculosis-like disease in a variety of vertebrates. This was the first report of symptomatic disease caused by M. kansasii in free-ranging deer. This case indicates that atypical mycobacteria can cause tuberculosis-like disease in free-ranging deer and illustrates the importance of identifying causative agents of tuberculosis-like disease in wildlife. Copyright 2005 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  8. Mycobacteriosis in a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) caused by Mycobacterium kansasii.

    PubMed

    Hall, P Briggs; Bender, Louis C; Garner, Michael M

    2005-03-01

    An eviscerated hunter-harvested female black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) was submitted to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The deer was emaciated, devoid of adipose tissue, and the parietal surface of the thoracic cavity contained multiple granulomas. Acid-fast bacteria were detected histologically from the granulomas and were isolated and identified as Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium sporadically reported to cause tuberculosis-like disease in a variety of vertebrates. This was the first report of symptomatic disease caused by M. kansasii in free-ranging deer. This case indicates that atypical mycobacteria can cause tuberculosis-like disease in free-ranging deer and illustrates the importance of identifying causative agents of tuberculosis-like disease in wildlife.

  9. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mansfield, K; Hall, B; Kwok, O C H; Thulliez, P

    2008-10-01

    Deer are considered important intermediate hosts for the coccidian parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were determined in sera of 42 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and 43 black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from Washington state, USA, using direct agglutination test with specific antigens. A titer of 1:25 was considered diagnostic for both parasites. N. caninum antibodies were found in 7 of 42 mule deer and 8 of 43 black-tailed deer. T. gondii antibodies were found in 14 black-tailed deer but not in any of the mule deer. This is probably the first report of seroprevalence of N. caninum in these hosts.

  10. Characterization of a new adenovirus isolated from black-tailed deer in California.

    PubMed

    Lehmkuhl, H D; Hobbs, L A; Woods, L W

    2001-01-01

    An adenovirus associated with systemic and localized vascular damage was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry in a newly recognized epizootic hemorrhagic disease in California black-tailed deer. In this study, we describe the cultural, physicochemical and serological characteristics of a virus isolated from lung using neonatal white-tail deer lung and turbinate cell cultures. The virus had the cultural, morphological and physicochemical characteristics of members of the Adenoviridae family. The virus would not replicate in low passage fetal bovine, caprine or ovine cells. Antiserum to the deer adenovirus, strain D94-2569, neutralized bovine adenovirus type-6 (BAdV-6), BAdV-7, and caprine adenovirus type-1 (GAdV-1). Antiserum to BAdV-6 did not neutralize the deer adenovirus but antiserum to BAdV-7 and GAdV-1 neutralized the deer adenovirus. Cross-neutralization with the other bovine, caprine and ovine adenovirus species was not observed. Restriction endonuclease patterns generated for the deer adenovirus were unique compared to those for the currently recognized bovine, caprine and ovine adenovirus types. Amino acid sequence alignments of the hexon gene from the deer adenovirus strain D94-2569 indicate that it is a member of the proposed new genus (Atadenovirus) of the Adenoviridae family. While closely related antigenically to BAdV-7 and GAdV-1, the deer adenovirus appears sufficiently distinct culturally and molecularly to justify consideration as a new adenovirus type.

  11. The pattern of reproduction in female Columbian black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D C; Cowan, I M

    1975-08-01

    Ovarian cycles and the pattern of reproduction in female black-tailed deer in British Columbia were ascertained largely through examination of the ovaries from 444 females. Cyclic development and degeneration of single follicles of ovulatory size occurred several weeks before first ovulation. As the breeding season approached, a second or third large follicle developed in each cycle but in 48% of adult females the follicles were at different stages of maturation. Those failing to rupture at first ovulation luteinized 1 to 2 days thereafter. The first ovulation of the season, in November, never resulted in a lasting pregnancy even though some ova were penetrated by spermatozoa and began to cleave. First ovulation was apparently 'silent' in five of seven females for their ova lacked spermatozoa. Of sixty-one pregnant females, fifty-nine conceived at second ovulation; the other two conceived at subsequent ovulations more widely spaced than the 8- to 9-day interval between first and second ovulations. The synchrony of ovulatory cycles among adult females was such that half of them ovulated for the second time in a span of 7 or 8 days. Primary CL that formed after first ovulation grew to an average maximum volume of only about 45 mm3, whereas those originating at second ovulation grew to twice that size within 5 to 8 days. First generation CL shrank from 35 mm3 to 10 mm3 within 2 days. They disappeared within 18 months but corpora albicantia persisted for the life of the female. The possible ecological significance of the reproductive pattern is discussed.

  12. Urine fractions that release flehmen in black-tailed deer,Odocoileus hemionus columbianus.

    PubMed

    Crump, D; Swigar, A A; West, J R; Silverstein, R M; Müller-Schwarze, D; Altieri, R

    1984-02-01

    Flehmen (or "lipcurl") is a response of male mammals primarily to female urine, performed primarily during the reproductive season. To elucidate the components of female urine that release the Flehmen, urine of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) was fractionated, and the fractions were presented to captive male conspecifics during three rutting seasons. The active principle (one or more compounds) is watersoluble, of low volatility, not readily extractable with organic solvents, and between 200 and 12,000 daltons in molecular weight. Several urine components were identified, but none of these showed activity.

  13. The modified card agglutination test: an accurate tool for detecting anaplasmosis in Columbian black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Howarth, A; Hokama, Y; Amerault, T E

    1976-07-01

    Inoculation of susceptible calves confirmed that the modified card agglutination test accurately detected the anaplasmosis infection status of each of 35 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Anaplasma marginale, and specific antibodies, were demonstrated only in calves which received blood from deer that were positive by the card test. The modified card agglutination testing of deer serum was performed in the manner recommended for testing cattle serum with bovine-origin antigen and bovine serum factor.

  14. Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Hanley, R S; Chiu, P H; Lehmkuhl, H D; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Swift, P K

    1999-03-01

    Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and

  15. The adenovirus that causes hemorrhagic disease of black-tailed deer is closely related to bovine adenovirus-3.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, J M; Hedges, J F; Woods, L W; Reubel, G H; MacLachlan, N J

    1999-01-01

    DNA sequence data was obtained from an adenovirus previously shown to be the cause of a distinctive, fatal hemorrhagic disease of black-tailed deer in California. A 256 base fragment of the viral hexon gene was amplified by PCR from purified adenovirus preparations. The amplicon then was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships with other mammalian adenoviruses were also determined. Although sequence analysis of this portion of the hexon gene indicates that the black-tailed deer adenovirus is closely related to bovine adenovirus-3, the biologic properties of the two viruses are clearly distinct.

  16. (E)-3-tridecen-2-one, an antibiotic from the interdigital glands of black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus.

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Shaffer, T B; Kubo, A

    1995-04-15

    (E)-3-tridecen-2-one, the major volatile component of interdigital gland extracts from the black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes, and the fungi, Trichophyton mentagrophytes had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 micrograms/mL and 25 micrograms/mL, respectively.

  17. Volatile ketones from interdigital glands of black-tailed deer,Odocileus hemionus columbianus.

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Shaffer, T B; Kubo, A

    1995-10-01

    Three volatile ketones, 2-tridecanone, (E)-3-tridecen-2-one and (E)-4-tridecen-2-one were identified in interdigital gland extracts from black-tailed deer,Odocoileus hemionus columbianus. The major compound, (E)-3-tridecen-2-one, inhibited the growth of several species of fungi and grampositive bacteria. The bacterium,Propionibacterium acnes, and the fungus,Trichophyton mentagrophytes required a minimum concentration (MIC) of 12.5 µg/ml and 25 µg/ml, respectively, for inhibition, (E)-3-Tridecen-2-one represents a new class of lipid antibiotics found on animal skin. The second major compound is this secretion, 2-tridecanone, was not active against any of the organisms tested.

  18. Experimental deerpox infection in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Bildfell, Rob J; Thompson, Kimberly A; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Megan; Jin, Ling; Wolff, Peregrine L; Gillin, Colin M

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenic potential of deerpox virus was investigated via an experimental study utilizing seven black-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) between June and August of 2007. Successful transmission was achieved via intracutaneous and intravenous routes, and by commingling an uninoculated animal with experimentally infected fawns. One fawn became depressed and reluctant to eat but systemic clinical signs in the other fawns were confined to mild transient pyrexia. Typical multifocal poxviral cutaneous lesions of erythema, papules, pustules, ulceration, and crusting were observed. Two locally extensive ulcerative lesions also developed at inoculation sites. Oral lesions were seen in one commingled fawn, with some palatine epithelial cells containing intracytoplasmic inclusions. Microscopic cutaneous lesions included epithelial cell hyperplasia with hydropic change, intraepithelial pustules, erosions, folliculitis, and dense leukocytic dermal infiltrates. Transmission was confirmed by one or more of virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction or serum neutralization tests. Significant internal lesions were not seen at necropsy.

  19. The effect of selenium on reproduction of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in Shasta County California

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was to determine if nutritional inadequacy of selenium may be responsible for a declining reproductive rate of a migratory herd of black-tailed deer. Selenium is an essential trace mineral for mammalian herbivores. Deficiency affects primarily neonates resulting in increased mortality rates. Shasta County, California is indigenously low in selenium due to soil characteristics. Local livestock enterprises have experienced reproductive problems, which were responsive to selenium treatment. The low recruitment rate in the deer herd suggested a physiological link between low selenium status and reproductive problems, and an experimental trial was initiated. Free ranging adult females were supplemented with selenium rumen pellets and marked with radio transmitters. From 1985 to 1987, the selenium dose was doubled as compared to 1984. It was established that evaluation of selenium status by determining whole blood selenium levels adequately describes the major bioactive form of selenium, glutathione peroxidase. To evaluate the experimental trial, the pre-weaning survival rate of progeny of supplemented females was compared with the rate in the untreated herd.

  20. Antibody prevalence of eight ruminant infectious diseases in California mule and black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Carniciu, M L; Kasten, R W; Castelli, P M; Work, T M; Jessup, D A

    1994-01-01

    We tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) herds in California (USA) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, respectively, and 0% for bovine leukosis virus and caprine arthritis/encephalitis virus, respectively. Antibodies against Lyme borreliosis and anaplasmosis were found in deer throughout California, but antibodies against bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease were most prevalent in deer from southern California.

  1. Diversity of rickettsial pathogens in Columbian black-tailed deer and their associated keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Lane, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cervids host multiple species of ixodid ticks, other ectoparasites, and a variety of rickettsiae. However, diagnostic test cross-reactivity has precluded understanding the specific role of deer in rickettsial ecology. In our survey of 128 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson)) and their arthropod parasites from two northern Californian herds, combined with reports from the literature, we identified four distinct Anaplasma spp. and one Ehrlichia species. Two keds, Lipoptena depressa (Say) and Neolipoptena ferrisi Bequaert, and two ixodid ticks, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, were removed from deer. One D. occidentalis was PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis; because it was also PCR-positive for Anaplasma sp., this is an Anaplasma/Ehrlichia co-infection prevalence of 4.3%. 29% of L. depressa, 23% of D. occidentalis, and 14% of deer were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. DNA sequencing confirmed A. bovis and A. ovis infections in D. occidentalis, A. odocoilei in deer and keds, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum strain WI-1 in keds and deer. This is the first report of Anaplasma spp. in a North America deer ked, and begs the question whether L. depressa may be a competent vector of Anaplasma spp. or merely acquire such bacteria while feeding on rickettsemic deer. PMID:27232123

  2. Diversity of rickettsial pathogens in Columbian black-tailed deer and their associated keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Lane, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cervids host multiple species of ixodid ticks, other ectoparasites, and a variety of rickettsiae. However, diagnostic test cross-reactivity has precluded understanding the specific role of deer in rickettsial ecology. In our survey of 128 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson)) and their arthropod parasites from two northern Californian herds, combined with reports from the literature, we identified four distinct Anaplasma spp. and one Ehrlichia species. Two keds, Lipoptena depressa (Say) and Neolipoptena ferrisi Bequaert, and two ixodid ticks, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, were removed from deer. One D. occidentalis was PCR-positive for E. chaffeensis; because it was also PCR-positive for Anaplasma sp., this is an Anaplasma/Ehrlichia co-infection prevalence of 4.3%. 29% of L. depressa, 23% of D. occidentalis, and 14% of deer were PCR-positive for Anaplasma spp. DNA sequencing confirmed A. bovis and A. ovis infections in D. occidentalis, A. odocoilei in deer and keds, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum strain WI-1 in keds and deer. This is the first report of Anaplasma spp. in a North America deer ked, and begs the question whether L. depressa may be a competent vector of Anaplasma spp. or merely acquire such bacteria while feeding on rickettsemic deer.

  3. Serologic detection of bluetongue virus infection of black-tailed deer: comparison of serum neutralization, agar gel immunodiffusion, and competitive ELISA assays.

    PubMed

    Patton, J F; Work, T M; Jessup, D A; Hietala, S K; Oliver, M N; Maclachlan, N J

    1994-01-01

    Three adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and four fawns were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10 or 17, or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 1. Animals were bled at irregular intervals thereafter and the presence of virus-specific antibodies in serum determined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), serum neutralization (SN) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) tests. Serum antibodies to BTV were detected in all three tests for 692 days after inoculation (DAI) of adult deer, but both the SN and AGID tests gave either erroneous or misleading results. Serum from one deer was negative by the AGID test at 409 DAI with BTV-10 but was positive at 248 and 692 DAI; also one adult and one fawn had antibodies by the SN test to serotypes of BTV with which they were not inoculated. The AGID test for EHDV had false positive results with some sera from animals inoculated only with BTV, and it consistently had false negative results with serum samples collected from an EHDV-inoculated deer at 140 DAI and thereafter. The C-ELISA was the most useful test for the detection of antibodies to BTV because it rapidly gave quantitative and accurate results.

  4. Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : II. Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S

    1985-07-01

    The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal and urine) in suppressing feeding damage by black-tailed deer was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of eight bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on deer consumption of salal leaves and coniferous seedlings. Cougar, coyote,and wolf feces as well as coyote, wolf, fox, wolverine, lynx, and bobcat urines provided the most effective suppression of deer feeding damage. Novel odors of ammonia and human urine did not reduce feeding. Predator fecal odor formulations in direct foliar application, adhesive application, and in plastic vials were all effective in suppressing deer feeding. Of all urines tested, coyote provided the most consistent suppression of deer browsing on salal. Deer consumed significantly more untreated Douglas fir and western red cedar seedlings than those protected by coyote urine odor. The active repellent components of predator odors which suppress deer feeding may be suitable for encapsulation in controlled-release devices which could provide long-term protection for forest and agricultural crops.

  5. Risk-spreading larviposition behaviour of female nose bot flies (Cephenemyia) attacking black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2013-06-01

    While baited deer models were under observation nine Cephenemyia jellisoni Townsend (Diptera: Oestridae) females and seven C. apicata Bennett & Sabrosky engaged in a risk-spreading larviposition behaviour by larvipositing on models only once and then flying away. Additionally, analysis of 225 unobserved larvipostions in which larvae were trapped in adhesive on the muzzles of deer models showed that 94% of C. apicata and 95% of C. jellisoni larviposited on a model only once. The number of single larvipositions was highly significant for both species. The principal adaptive significance of such risk-spreading larviposition behaviour is that it spreads the reproductive output of a female among many hosts, and in years when adult eclosion and survival rates are low, it ensures that the larvae of the few surviving females will be distributed among a maximum number of hosts. Several other benefits of such behaviour also are discussed.

  6. Testis and antler dysgenesis in sitka black-tailed deer on Kodiak Island, Alaska: Sequela of environmental endocrine disruption?

    PubMed

    Veeramachaneni, D N Rao; Amann, Rupert P; Jacobson, James P

    2006-04-01

    It had been observed that many male Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Kodiak Island, Alaska, had abnormal antlers, were cryptorchid, and presented no evidence of hypospadias. We sought to better understand the problem and investigated 171 male deer for phenotypic aberrations and 12 for detailed testicular histopathology. For the low-lying Aliulik Peninsula (AP), 61 of 94 deer were bilateral cryptorchids (BCOs); 70% of these had abnormal antlers. Elsewhere on the Kodiak Archipelago, only 5 of 65 deer were BCOs. All 11 abdominal testes examined had no spermatogenesis but contained abnormalities including carcinoma in situ-like cells, possible precursors of seminoma; Sertoli cell, Leydig cell, and stromal cell tumors; carcinoma and adenoma of rete testis; and microlithiasis or calcifications. Cysts also were evident within the excurrent ducts. Two of 10 scrotal testes contained similar abnormalities, although spermatogenesis was ongoing. We cannot rule out that these abnormalities are linked sequelae of a mutation(s) in a founder animal, followed by transmission over many years and causing high prevalence only on the AP. However, based on lesions observed, we hypothesize that it is more likely that this testis-antler dysgenesis resulted from continuing exposure of pregnant females to an estrogenic environmental agent(s), thereby transforming testicular cells, affecting development of primordial antler pedicles, and blocking transabdominal descent of fetal testes. A browse (e.g., kelp) favored by deer in this locale might carry the putative estrogenic agent(s).

  7. Larviposition by nasopharyngeal bot fly parasites of Columbian black-tailed deer: a correction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2001-12-01

    Previous reports of Cephenemyia jellisoni Townsend (Diptera: Oestridae) larvipositing onto the lips/lower muzzle of deer, with larvae invading via the mouth, are shown to be erroneous. Additional studies with deer models baited with CO2, 1-octen-3-ol and Deer Trail Scent, and muzzle and nostrils treated with insect adhesive, revealed that only C. apicata Bennett & Sabrosky larviposited onto the lips/lower muzzle; C. jellisoni, by contrast, larviposited into the nostrils. Larval depositions were associated with females of both species observed attacking models. Females of both species also were found stuck on adhesive-treated, baited models not attended by observers. During several seasons of exposure, such models received 89 C. jellisoni larvipositions into the nostrils and 87 C. apicata larvipositions onto the lips/lower muzzle. In laboratory experiments nearly all larvae of both species remained stuck in adhesive within 1 mm or less of where they were deposited. PMID:11776463

  8. Larviposition by nasopharyngeal bot fly parasites of Columbian black-tailed deer: a correction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    2001-12-01

    Previous reports of Cephenemyia jellisoni Townsend (Diptera: Oestridae) larvipositing onto the lips/lower muzzle of deer, with larvae invading via the mouth, are shown to be erroneous. Additional studies with deer models baited with CO2, 1-octen-3-ol and Deer Trail Scent, and muzzle and nostrils treated with insect adhesive, revealed that only C. apicata Bennett & Sabrosky larviposited onto the lips/lower muzzle; C. jellisoni, by contrast, larviposited into the nostrils. Larval depositions were associated with females of both species observed attacking models. Females of both species also were found stuck on adhesive-treated, baited models not attended by observers. During several seasons of exposure, such models received 89 C. jellisoni larvipositions into the nostrils and 87 C. apicata larvipositions onto the lips/lower muzzle. In laboratory experiments nearly all larvae of both species remained stuck in adhesive within 1 mm or less of where they were deposited.

  9. Effects of Cephenemyia spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) on the nasopharynx of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Cogley, T P

    1987-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine gross and microscopic tissue changes in the nasopharynx of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) infected with nasal bot fly larvae (Cephenemyia spp.). Paired retropharyngeal recesses were the preferred sites for the growing second and third stage larvae of two species of Cephenemyia (C. apicata and C. jellisoni). Retropharyngeal recesses distended into "pouches" that harbored up to 30 larvae. Pouches were oriented caudal-laterally toward the basisphenoid bone of the cranium. Lateral support of the pouch mass was provided by the stylohyoid bone. The laryngeal orifice was never occluded by the enlarged recesses. The distal pouch wall was relatively thin and remained uniform in thickness as expansion progressed. Occasionally, aberrant larvae were found protruding through the distal wall of the pouch. Disruption of the epithelium and submucosa by larval mouth hooks and integumentary spines were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Histological examination of infected recesses revealed substantial loss of epithelium and mucous glands. Enlargement of recesses into pouches resulted from fibrosis. Healing occurred after larvae egressed from the pouches. Degenerating mucous glands, epithelial metaplasia, epithelial desquamation, and intense inflammation were found near larvae. An eosinophilic exudate with a mixture of macrophages and erythrocytes was present in the lumen of the pouch. The presence of larvae within the pouch inhibited secondary bacterial infection and suppuration. Infection by larvae caused severe local trauma and intense tissue response. PMID:3682085

  10. Effects of Cephenemyia spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) on the nasopharynx of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    Cogley, T P

    1987-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine gross and microscopic tissue changes in the nasopharynx of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) infected with nasal bot fly larvae (Cephenemyia spp.). Paired retropharyngeal recesses were the preferred sites for the growing second and third stage larvae of two species of Cephenemyia (C. apicata and C. jellisoni). Retropharyngeal recesses distended into "pouches" that harbored up to 30 larvae. Pouches were oriented caudal-laterally toward the basisphenoid bone of the cranium. Lateral support of the pouch mass was provided by the stylohyoid bone. The laryngeal orifice was never occluded by the enlarged recesses. The distal pouch wall was relatively thin and remained uniform in thickness as expansion progressed. Occasionally, aberrant larvae were found protruding through the distal wall of the pouch. Disruption of the epithelium and submucosa by larval mouth hooks and integumentary spines were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Histological examination of infected recesses revealed substantial loss of epithelium and mucous glands. Enlargement of recesses into pouches resulted from fibrosis. Healing occurred after larvae egressed from the pouches. Degenerating mucous glands, epithelial metaplasia, epithelial desquamation, and intense inflammation were found near larvae. An eosinophilic exudate with a mixture of macrophages and erythrocytes was present in the lumen of the pouch. The presence of larvae within the pouch inhibited secondary bacterial infection and suppuration. Infection by larvae caused severe local trauma and intense tissue response.

  11. Innate threat-sensitive foraging: black-tailed deer remain more fearful of wolf than of the less dangerous black bear even after 100 years of wolf absence.

    PubMed

    Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Malcuit, Hélène; Le Saout, Soizic; Martin, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    Anti-predator behaviors often entail foraging costs, and thus prey response to predator cues should be adjusted to the level of risk (threat-sensitive foraging). Simultaneously dangerous predators (with high hunting success) should engender the evolution of innate predator recognition and appropriate anti-predator behaviors that are effective even upon the first encounter with the predator. The above leads to the prediction that prey might respond more strongly to cues of dangerous predators that are absent, than to cues of less dangerous predators that are actually present. In an applied context this would predict an immediate and stronger response of ungulates to the return of top predators such as wolves (Canis lupus) in many parts of Europe and North America than to current, less threatening, mesopredators. We investigated the existence of innate threat-sensitive foraging in black-tailed deer. We took advantage of a quasi-experimental situation where deer had not experienced wolf predation for ca. 100 years, and were only potentially exposed to black bears (Ursus americanus). We tested the response of deer to the urine of wolf (dangerous) and black bear (less dangerous). Our results support the hypothesis of innate threat-sensitive foraging with clear increased passive avoidance and olfactory investigation of cues from wolf, and surprisingly none to black bear. Prey which have previously evolved under high risk of predation by wolves may react strongly to the return of wolf cues in their environments thanks to innate responses retained during the period of predator absence, and this could be the source of far stronger non-consumptive effects of the predator guild than currently observed. PMID:24288079

  12. Innate threat-sensitive foraging: black-tailed deer remain more fearful of wolf than of the less dangerous black bear even after 100 years of wolf absence.

    PubMed

    Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Malcuit, Hélène; Le Saout, Soizic; Martin, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    Anti-predator behaviors often entail foraging costs, and thus prey response to predator cues should be adjusted to the level of risk (threat-sensitive foraging). Simultaneously dangerous predators (with high hunting success) should engender the evolution of innate predator recognition and appropriate anti-predator behaviors that are effective even upon the first encounter with the predator. The above leads to the prediction that prey might respond more strongly to cues of dangerous predators that are absent, than to cues of less dangerous predators that are actually present. In an applied context this would predict an immediate and stronger response of ungulates to the return of top predators such as wolves (Canis lupus) in many parts of Europe and North America than to current, less threatening, mesopredators. We investigated the existence of innate threat-sensitive foraging in black-tailed deer. We took advantage of a quasi-experimental situation where deer had not experienced wolf predation for ca. 100 years, and were only potentially exposed to black bears (Ursus americanus). We tested the response of deer to the urine of wolf (dangerous) and black bear (less dangerous). Our results support the hypothesis of innate threat-sensitive foraging with clear increased passive avoidance and olfactory investigation of cues from wolf, and surprisingly none to black bear. Prey which have previously evolved under high risk of predation by wolves may react strongly to the return of wolf cues in their environments thanks to innate responses retained during the period of predator absence, and this could be the source of far stronger non-consumptive effects of the predator guild than currently observed.

  13. Demodicosis in a mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Proctor, Heather; Wobeser, Gary

    2007-10-01

    Infestation of deer with Demodex spp. mites has been described in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and in Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in North America, as well as in four species of deer in Europe. We describe Demodex sp. infestation in an adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) with skin lesions found dead near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This is believed to be the first report of demodicosis in mule deer.

  14. Fatal pulmonary edema in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) associated with adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sorden, S D; Woods, L W; Lehmkuhl, H D

    2000-07-01

    Sporadic sudden deaths in adult white-tailed deer occurred from November 1997 through August 1998 on an Iowa game farm. Three of the 4 deer necropsied had severe pulmonary edema, widespread mild lymphocytic vasculitis, and amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in scattered endothelial cells in blood vessels in the lung and abdominal viscera. Immunohistochemistry with bovine adenovirus 5 antisera and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated adenoviral antigen and nucleocapsids, respectively, within endothelial cells. Adenovirus was isolated in cell culture from 1 of the affected deer. The isolate was neutralized by California black-tailed deer adenovirus antiserum. These findings indicate that adenovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of both black-tailed and white-tailed deer with pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy.

  15. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species.

  16. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  17. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungeun; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  18. Potential role of native and exotic deer and their associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the ecology of Lyme disease in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Lane, R S; Burgdorfer, W

    1986-12-01

    The relationship of native Columbian Black-tailed Deer, two species of exotic deer (Axis and Fallow), and their ticks to the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was studied in coastal and inland areas of northern California, USA. Spirochetemias were detected in 27% of Black-tailed Deer, 50% of Axis Deer, and 56% of Fallow Deer collected in late fall and winter. Antibody prevalence was 38% in Black-tailed Deer, 24% in Fallow Deer, and 6% in Axis Deer. One to 3 tick species were collected from each species of deer, and 2 tick species were flagged from vegetation; of these, only the Western Black-legged Tick, Ixodes pacificus, was found to contain spirochetes. These findings suggest that all 3 deer species may be important hosts of spirochetes, possibly B. burgdorferi, and reconfirm that I. pacificus is the primary vector of the latter in California.

  19. Influence of deer abundance on the abundance of questing adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.

  20. A qualitative study on student attitudes towards a controversial species, the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Parrish, Lynne

    This case study determined the attitudes held by high school students toward a controversial, yet keystone, species of the Great Plains, the black-tailed prairie dog. Black-tailed prairie dogs have declined dramatically over the past century as a result of large scale poisoning programs, plague, shooting, and habitat loss. The eradication programs put forth were primarily the result of strongly held misconceptions regarding black-tailed prairie dogs. The misconceptions are ingrained in many agricultural and/or rural communities throughout the prairie dogs' range. The decline of this species has resulted in the decline of many other species and the near extinction of the black-footed ferret. Biodiversity continues to decline and the health of the prairie dog ecosystem (i.e. prairie habitats) is in jeopardy. Although studies have shown that landowners and the adult population that live within the range of black-tailed prairie dogs harbor negative attitudes, nothing is known about the attitudes of adolescents. With an eco-feminist theoretical perspective, a case study methodology was used. Thirty 9th grade students comprised the case. The students lived in a mid-sized urban northern Colorado city whose county ranks 5th in the nation and 1st state wide for the value of their agricultural products. Black-tailed prairie dogs could be found throughout the city and adjacent areas. Students were engaged in a year-long "lesson" on black-tailed prairie dogs and conducted a field research experiment on an active prairie dog town. Interviews were conducted in May 2004. Follow-up interviews were conducted in May 2005. Other data collected were: observations, photographs, journals, and classroom documents. Themes generated were devised by a constant comparative method of data analysis. Three major themes emerged: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. Two smaller themes also emerged: caring and hopelessness. Adolescents are our future policy and decision makers; therefore

  1. Monoterpene effect on feeding choice by deer.

    PubMed

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; De Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Labbé, Alice; Rosolowski, Dimitri; Martin, Jean-Louis; Fritz, Hervé

    2002-12-01

    A previous study showed that Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) consumption was negatively correlated with monoterpene content in western redcedar (Thuja plicata). To test whether these monoterpenes were deterrent to Sitka black-tailed deer, we performed feeding choice experiments with four hydrocarbon (sabinene, myrcene, alpha-pinene, and d + l-limonene) and one oxygenated (alpha,beta-thujone) monoterpene solution at their highest natural concentration in western redcedar foliage. To test whether deer response was species specific, we ran similar experiments on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). In all experiments, monoterpenes were repellent. Solutions with alpha,beta-thujone, the major monoterpene in redcedar leaves, were the most repellent of the solutions tested. We then analyzed how black-tailed and roe deer responded to (1) an increase in concentration of the monoterpenes with the weakest repellent effects (hydrocarbon monoterpenes) and (2) a decrease in concentration of the monoterpene with strongest effect (alpha,beta-thujone). Repellency tended to increase with concentration for hydrocarbon monoterpenes, but remained strong for alpha,beta-thujone. As wild deer regularly feed on plants containing monoterpenes, this raises the question as to how the animals deal with these molecules.

  2. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black-tailed prairie dog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clippinger, Norman W.

    1989-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clippinger, Norman W.

    1989-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  6. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present. PMID:20158327

  7. Phylogeny of wapiti, red deer, sika deer, and other North American cervids as determined from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Polziehn, R O; Strobeck, C

    1998-10-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are divided into three subspecific groups; the first group includes seven subspecies from Europe and northern Africa, the second group includes seven subspecies from central Asia, and the third group includes nine subspecies from eastern Asia, Siberia, and North America. Recognition of the North American wapiti as a species has been denied on the basis of morphological similarity with red deer and the circumpolar distribution of C. elaphus. Sika deer (C. nippon), which are distributed in much of the same range, also share phenotypic and genotypic similarities with the red deer. A comparison of sequences from the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from North American and Siberian wapiti, European red deer, and Asian sika deer was used to construct a phylogenetic relationship among these cervids and other cervids found within North America, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (O. hemionus columbianus), moose (Alces alces), and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). The mtDNA sequence divergence between wapiti and red deer was 5.60%, between wapiti and sika deer 5.19%, and between sika deer and red deer 5.02%, suggesting that the subspecies status of North American wapiti needs to be reviewed. The mtDNA sequence divergence between white-tailed deer and black-tailed deer was 7.82% and is consistant with earlier mtDNA studies in Odocoileus.

  8. "Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P

    1999-12-01

    Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species.

  9. Serologic profile of exotic deer at Point Reyes National Seashore.

    PubMed

    Riemann, H P; Ruppanner, R; Willeberg, P; Franti, C E; Elliott, W H; Fisher, R A; Brunetti, O A; Aho, J H; Howarth, J A; Behymer, D E

    1979-11-01

    Serotests were conducted on axis (Axis axis) and fallow (Dama dama) deer at Point Reyes National Seashore to determine their status with respect to nine diseases enzootic to the native black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) or to resident dairy cattle. In the exotic deer, the proportion of animals that were seropositive included: anaplasmosis, 35%; bluetongue, 48%; brucellosis, 0%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 3%; leptospirosis, 7%; parainfluenza-3, 49%; toxoplasmosis, 8%; and Q fever, 51%. The prevalence of antibodies among a small sample of the black-tailed deer included anaplasmosis, 100%; toxoplasmosis, 29%; and Q fever, 57%. The antibody prevalences in a sample of dairy cattle in the area included anaplasmosis, 19%; toxoplasmosis, 8%; and Q fever, 100%.

  10. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. PMID:21923261

  11. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  12. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Williamson, J.; Cobble, K.R.; Busch, J.D.; Antolin, M.F.; Wagner, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance. ?? 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  13. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (p<0.001), with a mortality rate of nearly 100% over all doses. Colorado and Texas prairie dogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogeneous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  14. Species-wide phylogeography of North American mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): cryptic glacial refugia and postglacial recolonization.

    PubMed

    Latch, Emily K; Heffelfinger, James R; Fike, Jennifer A; Rhodes, Olin E

    2009-04-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations greatly influenced the present-day population genetic structure of animals and plants. For species with high dispersal and reproductive potential, phylogeographic patterns resulting from historical processes can be cryptic, overshadowed by contemporary processes. Here we report a study of the phylogeography of Odocoileus hemionus, a large, vagile ungulate common throughout western North America. We examined sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b) within and among 70 natural populations across the entire range of the species. Among the 1766 individual animals surveyed, we recovered 496 haplotypes. Although fine-scale phylogenetic structure was weakly resolved using phylogenetic methods, network analysis clearly revealed the presence of 12 distinct haplogroups. The spatial distribution of haplogroups showed a strong genetic discontinuity between the two morphological types of O. hemionus, mule deer and black-tailed deer, east and west of the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest. Within the mule deer lineage, we identified several haplogroups that expanded before or during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggesting that mule deer persisted in multiple refugia south of the ice sheets. Patterns of genetic diversity within the black-tailed deer lineage suggest a single refugium along the Pacific Northwest coast, and refute the hypothesis that black-tailed deer persisted in one or more northern refugia. Our data suggest that black-tailed deer recolonized areas in accordance with the pattern of glacial retreat, with initial recolonization northward along a coastal route and secondary recolonization inland.

  15. Tolazoline-induced apnea in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack Alan; Robison, Jason Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Eighteen mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and six Columbia black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) were held in pens and repeatedly anesthetized from April 2004 through June 2005 as part of an external parasite study. Deer were anesthetized using a combination of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (HCL) administered intramuscularly. Tolazoline HCL was slowly administered at 4 mg/kg intravenously to reverse the effects of xylazine with good results. For 17 of the 19 mule deer anesthesias in the fall of 2004, a mean dose of 7.3 mg/kg of intravenous tolazoline (range 6.1-8.4 mg/kg) was given by mistake. This paper describes clinical signs of apnea, muscle tensing, and fasciculations immediately following intravenous administration of tolazoline HCL in mule deer (O. hemionus) at 1.5-3 times the recommended dose. Mean dose for black-tailed deer during this time was 8.1 mg/kg (range 5.5-12.4 mg/kg) with no clinical signs as seen in the mule deer. Based on these findings, intravenous tolazoline use in mule deer is recommended at < or = 4 mg/kg.

  16. Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Euliss, Betty R.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997–1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 ± 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 ± 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of black-tailed prairie dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of hectares of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts.

  17. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations. PMID:11934368

  18. Attachment-site patterns of adult blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer and horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T; Carroll, J F; Watson, D W

    1998-01-01

    The attachment site pattern of adult Ixodes scapularis Say on white-tailed deer and horses in Maryland was determined by whole-body examinations during fall and spring periods of tick host-seeking activity. On deer in the fall, both female and male I. scapularis attached largely to anterior dorsal body regions, with attachment to the ears (outside), head, neck, and brisket accounting for 87.9% of females and 86.6% of males. The attachment pattern of females differed between bucks and does during fall, but not in spring, and both females and males were more abundant on bucks than does during fall, but not in spring. Neither female nor male attachment patterns on deer differed between fall and spring seasons. In contrast to deer, the ears and neck of horses were largely devoid of blacklegged ticks, and 84% of the females were attached either on the chest, in the axillae of the fore and rear legs, or under the jawbone. The restricted attachment of female blacklegged ticks to ventral body regions of horses may reflect avoidance of light. An understanding of the attachment patterns of adult I. scapularis, an increasingly abundant and economically important species, enhances sampling of feeding ticks, deticking to limit host irritation or exposure to tick-borne pathogens, and identifies body areas that should be targeted for delivery of repellents or acaricides. PMID:9542346

  19. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, B.; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  20. Students' Perceptions of a Highly Controversial yet Keystone Species, the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Parrish, Lynne; Jurin, Richard R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a case-study methodology to explore the perceptions of 30 9th-grade biology students relative to black-tailed prairie dogs. The case study, which involved classroom- and field-based experiences that focused on black-tailed prairie dogs, revealed 3 major themes: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. The authors had hoped that…

  1. Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

  2. Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

  3. Physiological and biochemical parameters in response to electroejaculation in adult and yearling anesthetized pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Villagrán, M; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in physiological and biochemical parameters during electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia in adult and yearling pampas deer males (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). The relation between heart rate, pulse rate, respiratory rate and oximetry with EE voltages was studied. The changes in cortisol, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and rectal temperature were determined before and after electroejaculation (BEE and AEE). Heart rate and pulse rate values increased during EE, with a greater increase in heart rate in adults (p < 0.01). Respiratory rate and SpO(2) were not affected by EE or category. The rectal temperature decreased in adults and yearlings during EE (p = 0.0001). Alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased AEE (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in young than in adult males (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the EE under general anaesthesia in the pampas deer provoked increases in heart and pulse rates, as well as in creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and a decrease in rectal temperature in both categories. Oximetry values were especially low during the procedure. Heart rate increase was greater in adult males, and alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase concentrations were greater in yearlings.

  4. Orthopoxvirus variola infection of Cynomys ludovicianus (North American black tailed prairie dog).

    PubMed

    Carroll, Darin S; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Braden, Zach H; Patel, Nishi; Abel, Jason; Li, Yu; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L

    2013-09-01

    Since the eradication of Smallpox, researchers have attempted to study Orthopoxvirus pathogenesis and immunity in animal models in order to correlate results human smallpox. A solely human pathogen, Orthopoxvirus variola fails to produce authentic smallpox illness in any other animal species tested to date. In 2003, an outbreak in the USA of Orthopoxvirus monkeypox, revealed the susceptibility of the North American black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) to infection and fulminate disease. Prairie dogs infected with Orthopoxvirus monkeypox present with a clinical scenario similar to ordinary smallpox, including prodrome, rash, and high mortality. This study examines if Black-tailed prairie dogs can become infected with O. variola and serve as a surrogate model for the study of human smallpox disease. Substantive evidence of infection is found in immunological seroconversion of animals to either intranasal or intradermal challenges with O. variola, but in the absence of overt illness. PMID:23809939

  5. Citizen knowledge of and attitudes toward black-tailed prairie dogs: completion report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, B.L.; Cline, Kurt; Brinson, Ayeisha; Sexton, N.R.; Ponds, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late summer of 2000, we canvassed a random sample of residents in the 11-sate short grass prairie region of the United States. We asked about peoplea??s attitude toward and knowledge of black-tailed prairie dogs and their management. The survey received 1,933 useable responses with a response rate of 56.4% (margin of error 2.2%). We developed a questionnaire (OMB Control Number: 1028-0073; see Appendix B) to answer the following questions: * What is the level of citizen knowledge regarding black-tailed prairie dogs? * What are citizensa?? attitudes and preferences regarding black-tailed prairie dogs and the environment in general? * What are the factors that explain difference in attitudes and knowledge about prairie dogs? * What are the factors that explain citizen participation in these types of issues? * What are the important differences between rural and urban citizens regarding their political participation and their knowledge and attitude about prairie dogs? In general, we found that citizens do not have a high regard for black-tailed prairie dogs. Citizens generally have a positive orientation towards the environment and favor a balanced or somewhat environmental approach on questions--like prairie dog management--that involve environmental protection and economic considerations. People having direct experience with prairie dogs are less inclined to view them as beneficial to society than are those who infrequently see or come in contact with the animals. When asked about prairie dogs specifically, most citizens did not believe the question of what to do about these animals was a highly important environmental issue.

  6. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    PubMed Central

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  7. Heavy metal concentrations in Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jon-Min

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of heavy metals in livers and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks from two islands in Korea. Iron and manganese concentrations were significantly higher in chick livers at Hongdo Island compared to Rando Islnad. In contrast, zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations were significantly higher at Rando Island than Hongdo Island. On Hongdo Island, Black-tailed Gull chicks at a lighthouse site had higher lead concentrations in livers and stomach contents than at a nearby reference site and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull chicks had significantly higher lead concentrations than regurgitated diets. In Hongdo Island, manganese, lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly correlated between livers and stomach contents. Essential elements such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper concentrations from the present study were within the range reported for other seabird species including gulls. Livers of four individual gull chicks (13.3%) were at a level considered lead exposed (6-30 μg g(-1) dry weight), but cadmium concentrations in all specimens were within the background level (<3 μg g(-1) dry weight) for wild birds. Elevated lead concentrations on lighthouse site may be attributed to ingestion of paint chips and these concentrations may negatively affect chick behavior, growth and survival. PMID:25048929

  8. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  9. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species. PMID:23702338

  10. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species.

  11. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Chlorophacinone residues in mammalian prey at a black-tailed prairie dog colony.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nimish B; Hulse, Craig S; Rice, Clifford P

    2012-11-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs), Cynomys ludovicianus, are an important prey for raptors; therefore, the use of the rodenticide Rozol (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) to control BTPDs raises concern for secondary poisonings resulting from the consumption of contaminated prey by raptors. In the present study, the authors observed Rozol exposure and adverse effects to mammalian prey on 11 of 12 search days of the study. Mammalian hepatic chlorophacinone residues ranged from 0.44 to 7.56 µg/g. Poisoned prey availability was greater than previously reported. PMID:22865654

  13. Chlorophacinone residues in mammalian prey at a black-tailed prairie dog colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Hulse, Craig S.; Rice, Clifford P.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs), Cynomys ludovicianus, are an important prey for raptors; therefore, the use of the rodenticide Rozol (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) to control BTPDs raises concern for secondary poisonings resulting from the consumption of contaminated prey by raptors. In the present study, the authors observed Rozol exposure and adverse effects to mammalian prey on 11 of 12 search days of the study. Mammalian hepatic chlorophacinone residues ranged from 0.44 to 7.56 µg/g. Poisoned prey availability was greater than previously reported.

  14. Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Powell, John H; Amish, Stephen J; Haynes, Gwilym D; Luikart, Gordon; Latch, Emily K

    2016-09-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum 20X coverage in each of the seven mule deer, identifying 23 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within, or adjacent to, 6886 exons in 3559 genes. We found 91 SNP loci (from 69 genes) with putatively fixed allele frequency differences between the two major lineages of mule deer (mule deer and black-tailed deer), and our estimate of mean genetic divergence (genome-wide FST  = 0.123) between these lineages was consistent with previous findings using microsatellite loci. We detected an over-representation of gamete generation and amino acid transport genes among the genes with SNPs exhibiting potentially fixed allele frequency differences between lineages. This targeted resequencing approach using exon capture techniques has identified a suite of loci that can be used in future research to investigate the genomic basis of adaptation and differentiation between black-tailed deer and mule deer. This study also highlights techniques (and an exon capture array) that will facilitate population genomic research in other cervids and nonmodel organisms. PMID:27438092

  15. Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Powell, John H; Amish, Stephen J; Haynes, Gwilym D; Luikart, Gordon; Latch, Emily K

    2016-09-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum 20X coverage in each of the seven mule deer, identifying 23 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within, or adjacent to, 6886 exons in 3559 genes. We found 91 SNP loci (from 69 genes) with putatively fixed allele frequency differences between the two major lineages of mule deer (mule deer and black-tailed deer), and our estimate of mean genetic divergence (genome-wide FST  = 0.123) between these lineages was consistent with previous findings using microsatellite loci. We detected an over-representation of gamete generation and amino acid transport genes among the genes with SNPs exhibiting potentially fixed allele frequency differences between lineages. This targeted resequencing approach using exon capture techniques has identified a suite of loci that can be used in future research to investigate the genomic basis of adaptation and differentiation between black-tailed deer and mule deer. This study also highlights techniques (and an exon capture array) that will facilitate population genomic research in other cervids and nonmodel organisms.

  16. Deer Velvet

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Some birth control pills contain estrogen. Deer velvet might have some of the same effects as estrogen. However, deer velvet isn't as strong as the estrogen in birth control pills. Taking deer velvet along with birth ...

  17. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiagarajan, B.; Bal, Y.; Gage, K.L.; Cully, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  18. Birds associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies in southern shortgrass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a census of avifaunal richness and abundance on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and uncolonized shortgrass prairie in the Oklahoma panhandle in July 1995 and April-June 1996. Five black-tailed prairie dog colonies were paired with five uncolonized prairie sites having similar topography and soil structure. Data were collected by walking permanent line transects and making point counts with a 125-m radius at fixed points placed 250 m apart. Avifaunal abundance and species richness were determined for each site. Avifaunal abundance was significantly higher on sites with prairie dog-colonies than at uncolonized sites during the vegetation growing season. However, we found few significant differences in avian abundance between prairie dog colonies and uncolonized prairie during tile drought months of 1996. We suggest these differences are because of drought-induced vegetation dormancy. Drought created homogeneous habitat instead of distinct habitat patches on prairie dog colonies characteristic of normal precipitation years in other regions of the Great Plains.

  19. Relationships of metals between feathers and diets of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2014-03-01

    In birds, metal contaminants in feathers are influenced by prey concentrations and environmental quality. In Black-tailed Gull chicks, Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations were strongly correlated between feathers and stomach contents. Between feathers and livers, Pb, Zn and Fe concentrations were significantly correlated. Cd concentrations were within the range of other seabirds and within the background level for bird feathers (<2 μg/g dw). At the lighthouse, eight chicks exceeded the background for Pb level in feathers (>4 μg/g dw). Elevated Pb concentrations might be attributed to ingestion of paint-based chips and natural (soil and rocks) sources. There is evidence that the analyzed birds suffered from acute toxicity, including high levels of pecking from conspecifics and increased mortality from elevated Pb levels. It seems likely that these birds might experience negative health effects from this increased Pb exposure. As a result, Black-tailed Gull chick feathers are a very useful monitoring tool for assessing Cd, Pb and Cu contamination. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were all within the acceptable range of normal concentrations for seabird species including gulls and may be maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:24414165

  20. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer.

  1. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer. PMID:27240567

  2. Serum biochemical and electrophoretic values from four deer species and from pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Dhindsa, D S; Cochran, T H; Castro, A; Swanson, J R; Metcalfe, J

    1975-10-01

    Serums from 4 species of deer and 1 species of antelope were analyzed for various components in order to define an animal disease model for sickle cell disease in people. Animal species included black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon), fallow deer (Dama dama), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). The mean serum values for total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes were similar in all species and were in the normal range for human beings. Cholesterol and uric acid values for all animals were lower than those for people. Alkaline phosphatase values in the 4 cervid species were higher than in the pronghorn antelope. Values for glutamic oxalacetic transaminase were lower in the cervids than in the pronghorn antelope. Lactic dehydrogenase values were similar in the 5 species. High activities for glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase in the 5 species probably related to muscle mass and great muscular activity.

  3. Systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Swift, P K; Barr, B C; Horzinek, M C; Nordhausen, R W; Stillian, M H; Patton, J F; Oliver, M N; Jones, K R; MacLachlan, N J

    1996-03-01

    Seventeen counties in northern California experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. Thirteen deer submitted to the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System as part of this natural die-off had systemic adenovirus infection. Pulmonary edema was present in all 13 deer. Erosions, ulceration, and abscessation of the upper alimentary tract occurred in 7/13 deer. Four of 13 deer had hemorrhagic enteritis. All 13 deer had widespread systemic vasculitis with endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody directed against bovine adenovirus type 5 bound to antigen in endothelial cells. Adenovirus was identified by transmission electron microscopy within the nuclei of endothelial cells in 6/6 deer examined. An adenovirus was isolated from lung homogenates of one deer that were cultured on black-tailed deer pulmonary artery endothelial cells. With the exception of the intranuclear inclusions evident on histologic evaluation, gross and histologic changes were similar to those described for bluetongue virus infection and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in white-tailed deer. Nine additional deer were emaciated and had pharyngeal abscesses with focal vasculitis, which may represent the chronic affects of previous nonfatal adenovirus infection.

  4. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in adult and fetal mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; McKown, Richard D; DiCristina, Jennifer A; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila; Oates, David W; Sterner, Mauritz C

    2005-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds. Herbivores acquire postnatal infection by ingesting oocysts from contaminated food or water. Toxoplasma gondii infection is common in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, but little is known about the prevalence of infection in mule deer, O. hemionus. We examined sera from 89 mule deer from Nebraska for agglutinating antibodies to T. gondii using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) with formalin-fixed tachyzoites as antigen. Thirty-one (35%) of the samples were positive at dilutions of > or = 1:25. Samples were examined from 29 fetuses from these mule deer and none were positive in the MAT. Sera from 14 white-tailed deer from Nebraska were also examined and 6 (43%) were positive for T. gondii. Samples were examined from 5 fetuses from these white-tailed deer and none was positive in the MAT. Our results in both deer species from Nebraska are similar to studies conducted in white-tailed deer from other regions of the United States. Our findings indicate that mule deer are frequently infected with T. gondii and that mule-deer meat may be a source of human infection.

  5. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  6. Citizen knowledge and perception of black-tailed prairie dog management: Report to respondents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Brinson, Ayeisha; Ponds, Phadrea D.; Cline, Kurt; Lamb, Berton L.

    2001-01-01

    The results show that although people do not believe prairie dogs are a big environmental issue, they favor a balanced approach when dealing with such problems. When asked about their views on environmental policy, respondents reported being more conservative than liberal: 40% reported slightly conservative or conservative environmental views, 24% reported moderate environmental views, and 19% reported slightly liberal or liberal environmental views. Ninteen percent (19%) said they did not know or had not thought about their environmental values. When asked how important black-tailed prairie dogs are compared to other environmental problems, 69% said they are less important than other issues or not an issue at all. Thirty one percent (31%) said prairie dogs are about the same or more important than other issues.

  7. Extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmer, E.M.; Savage, L.T.; Antolin, M.F.; Biggins, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    In the natural environment, hibernating sciurids generally remain dormant during winter and enter numerous deep torpor bouts from the time of first immergence in fall until emergence in spring. In contrast, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) remain active throughout winter but periodically enter short and shallow bouts of torpor. While investigating body temperature (Tb) patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs from six separate colonies in northern Colorado, we observed one population that displayed torpor patterns resembling those commonly seen in hibernators. Five individuals in this population experienced multiple torpor bouts in immediate succession that increased in length and depth as winter progressed, whereas 16 prairie dogs in five neighboring colonies remained euthermic for the majority of winter and entered shallow bouts of torpor infrequently. Our results suggest that these differences in torpor patterns did not result from differences in the physiological indicators that we measured because the prairie dogs monitored had similar body masses and concentrations of stored lipids across seasons. Likewise, our results did not support the idea that differences in overwinter Tb patterns between prairie dogs in colonies with differing torpor patterns resulted from genetic differences between populations; genetic analyses of prairie dog colonies revealed high genetic similarity between the populations and implied that individuals regularly disperse between colonies. Local environmental conditions probably played a role in the unusual T b patterns experienced by prairie dogs in the colony where hibernation-like patterns were observed; this population received significantly less rainfall than neighboring colonies during the summer growing seasons before, during, and after the year of the winter in which they hibernated. Our study provides a rare example of extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging prairie dogs and provides

  8. Trace element contamination in nestling black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2015-05-01

    At Hongdo Island, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea, a breeding site of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), we collected nestlings from two locations: a "reference" site (n = 10) with no known source of lead contamination and "lighthouse" site (n = 10) with suspected lead contamination from leaded paint. Iron concentrations in the kidney and bone, manganese in the muscle, copper in the bone, lead in the muscle and bone, and cadmium in the liver, muscle, and bone at the reference site were significantly higher than at the lighthouse. Manganese concentrations in the liver and kidney, and lead in the kidney were significantly greater at the lighthouse than at the reference site. Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead and cadmium concentrations had tissue-specific accumulation at both sites. Lead concentrations in 10 % of livers and in 80 % of kidneys at the lighthouse, and in 20 % of livers from the reference were within a range considered toxic (>6.00 μg/g dw in the liver and kidney). Lead concentrations in 50 % of black-tailed gull nestlings at the reference and 80 % nestlings at the lighthouse were greater in livers than in bones, which is suggestive of acute lead exposure. For cadmium, all liver and kidney concentrations from two sites were at a level considered background in birds. Cadmium concentrations of every sample were higher in kidneys than in livers, suggestive of chronic cadmium exposure. Lead concentrations in gull nestlings in the present study were relatively higher than other gull species worldwide, but cadmium concentrations were relatively lower. PMID:25763522

  9. Influence of fire on black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, D.J.; Cully, J.F.; Johnson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies are of interest to rangeland managers because of the significant influence prairie dogs can exert on both livestock and biodiversity. We examined the influence of 4 prescribed burns and one wildfire on the rate and direction of prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe of southeastern Colorado. Our study was conducted during 2 years with below-average precipitation, when prairie dog colonies were expanding throughout the study area. Under these dry conditions, the rate of black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion into burned grassland (X?? = 2.6 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.8-5.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 5 colonies) was marginally greater than the expansion rate into unburned grassland (X?? =1.3 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.2-4.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 23 colonies; P = 0.066). For 3 colonies that were burned on only a portion of their perimeter, we documented consistently high rates of expansion into the adjacent burned grassland (38%-42% of available burned habitat colonized) but variable expansion rates into the adjacent unburned grassland (2%-39% of available unburned habitat colonized). While our results provide evidence that burning can increase colony expansion rate even under conditions of low vegetative structure, this effect was minor at the scale of the overall colony complex because some unburned colonies were also able to expand at high rates. This result highlights the need to evaluate effects of fire on colony expansion during above-average rainfall years, when expansion into unburned grassland may be considerably lower.

  10. Black-tailed prairie dogs and the structure of avian communities on the shortgrass plains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory A; Lomolino, Mark V

    2004-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) influence avian community structure on the shortgrass prairie. We surveyed 36 prairie dog towns and 36 paired sites without prairie dogs during summer and fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999 in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Our surveys totaled 9,040 individual observations for 73 avian species. Significantly distinct avian communities were present on prairie dog towns when compared to sites within four different macrohabitats of the surrounding landscape: open rangeland, scrub/sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) habitats, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plots, and fallow crop fields. Relative densities of all bird species combined was higher on prairie dog towns versus paired sites in summer and fall. Mean species richness of birds was significantly higher on prairie dog towns than paired sites during summer, but there were no significant differences in fall. Open rangeland had the highest mean species richness in fall. Assemblages of avian communities differed significantly between prairie dog towns and the four macrohabitat types during summer. Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) were positively and significantly associated with prairie dog towns during summer, while horned larks and ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) were significantly associated with prairie dog towns during fall. Even in their current remnant state, black-tailed prairie dogs continue to play a significant role in the assembly of ecological communities across the Great Plains. Conservation of prairie dogs goes well beyond a single species, and is an important strategy for the preservation of the prairie ecosystem as a whole. PMID:14685848

  11. Black-tailed prairie dogs and the structure of avian communities on the shortgrass plains.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory A; Lomolino, Mark V

    2004-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) influence avian community structure on the shortgrass prairie. We surveyed 36 prairie dog towns and 36 paired sites without prairie dogs during summer and fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999 in the Oklahoma Panhandle. Our surveys totaled 9,040 individual observations for 73 avian species. Significantly distinct avian communities were present on prairie dog towns when compared to sites within four different macrohabitats of the surrounding landscape: open rangeland, scrub/sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) habitats, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plots, and fallow crop fields. Relative densities of all bird species combined was higher on prairie dog towns versus paired sites in summer and fall. Mean species richness of birds was significantly higher on prairie dog towns than paired sites during summer, but there were no significant differences in fall. Open rangeland had the highest mean species richness in fall. Assemblages of avian communities differed significantly between prairie dog towns and the four macrohabitat types during summer. Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) were positively and significantly associated with prairie dog towns during summer, while horned larks and ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) were significantly associated with prairie dog towns during fall. Even in their current remnant state, black-tailed prairie dogs continue to play a significant role in the assembly of ecological communities across the Great Plains. Conservation of prairie dogs goes well beyond a single species, and is an important strategy for the preservation of the prairie ecosystem as a whole.

  12. Relationships between in vivo microdamage and the remarkable regional material and strain heterogeneity of cortical bone of adult deer, elk, sheep and horse calcanei.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Anderson, Wm Erick; Chow, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Natural loading of the calcanei of deer, elk, sheep and horses produces marked regional differences in prevalent/predominant strain modes: compression in the dorsal cortex, shear in medial-lateral cortices, and tension/shear in the plantar cortex. This consistent non-uniform strain distribution is useful for investigating mechanisms that mediate the development of the remarkable regional material variations of these bones (e.g. collagen orientation, mineralization, remodeling rates and secondary osteon morphotypes, size and population density). Regional differences in strain-mode-specific microdamage prevalence and/or morphology might evoke and sustain the remodeling that produces this material heterogeneity in accordance with local strain characteristics. Adult calcanei from 11 animals of each species (deer, elk, sheep and horses) were transversely sectioned and examined using light and confocal microscopy. With light microscopy, 20 linear microcracks were identified (deer: 10; elk: six; horse: four; sheep: none), and with confocal microscopy substantially more microdamage with typically non-linear morphology was identified (deer: 45; elk: 24; horse: 15; sheep: none). No clear regional patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage were found in the three species with microdamage. In these species, the highest overall concentrations occurred in the plantar cortex. This might reflect increased susceptibility of microdamage in habitual tension/shear. Absence of detectable microdamage in sheep calcanei may represent the (presumably) relatively greater physical activity of deer, elk and horses. Absence of differences in microdamage prevalence/morphology between dorsal, medial and lateral cortices of these bones, and the general absence of spatial patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage, might reflect the prior emergence of non-uniform osteon-mediated adaptations that reduce deleterious concentrations of microdamage by the adult stage of bone development.

  13. Mountain plover population responses to black-tailed prairie dogs in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinsmore, S.J.; White, Gary C.; Knopf, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    We studied a local population of mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) in southern Phillips County, Montana, USA, from 1995 to 2000 to estimate annual rates of recruitment rate (f) and population change (??). We used Pradel models, and we modeled ?? as a constant across years, as a linear time trend, as year-specific, and with an additive effect of area occupied by prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We modeled recruitment rate (f) as a function of area occupied by prairie dogs with the remaining model structure identical to the best model used to estimate ??. Our results indicated a strong negative effect of area occupied by prairie dogs on both ?? (slope coefficient on a log scale was -0.11; 95% CI was -0.17, -0.05) and f (slope coefficient on a logit scale was -0.23; 95% CI was -0.36, -0.10). We also found good evidence for a negative time trend on ??; this model had substantial weight (wi = 0.31), and the slope coefficient on the linear trend on a log scale was -0.10 (95% CI was -0.15, -0.05). Yearly estimates of ?? were >1 in all years except 1999, indicating that the population initially increased and then stabilized in the last year of the study. We found weak evidence for year-specific estimates of ??; the best model with year-specific estimates had a low weight (wi = 0.02), although the pattern of yearly estimates of ?? closely matched those estimated with a linear time trend. In southern Phillips County, the population trend of mountain plovers closely matched the trend in the area occupied by black-tailed prairie dogs. Black-tailed prairie dogs declined sharply in the mid-1990s in response to an outbreak of sylvatic plague, but their numbers have steadily increased since 1996 in concert with increases in plovers. The results of this study (1) increase our understanding of the dynamics of this population and how they relate to the area occupied by prairie dogs, and (2) will be useful for planning plover conservation in a prairie dog ecosystem.

  14. Implications of black-tailed prairie dog spatial dynamics to black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies affect the utility of these environments for other wildlife, including the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). We used location data of active and inactive black-tailed prairie dog burrows to investigate colony structure, spatial distribution, and patch dynamics of two colonies at ferret recovery sites. We used kernel-based utilization distributions (UDs) of active and inactive burrows from two time periods (six and 11 years apart) as the basis for our analysis. Overall, the total extent of our prairie dog colonies changed little over time. However, within colonies, areas with high densities of active and inactive prairie dog burrows formed patches and the distribution of these patches changed in size, shape, and connectivity over time. At the Conata Basin site, high-density active burrow patches increased in total area covered while decreasing in connectivity as they shifted towards the perimeter of the colony over time. At the UL Bend site, we observed a similar but less pronounced shift over a longer period of time. At both sites, while at a large scale it appeared that prairie dogs were simply shifting areas of activity towards the perimeter of colonies and abandoning the center of colonies, we observed a dynamic interaction between areas of active and inactive burrows within colonies over time. Areas that previously contained inactive burrows tended to become active, and vice versa, leading us to hypothesize that there are shifts of activity areas within colonies over time as dictated by forage availability. The spatial dynamics we observed have important implications for techniques to estimate the suitability of ferret habitat and for the management of prairie dog colonies. First, fine-scale techniques for measuring prairie dog colonies that account for their patchy spatial distribution are needed to better assess ferret habitat suitability. Second, the shift of

  15. Distribution of black-tailed jackrabbit habitat determined by GIS in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Dyer, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a multivariate description of black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) habitat associations from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) signatures surrounding known jackrabbit locations in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA), in southwestern Idaho. Habitat associations were determined for characteristics within a 1-km radius (approx home range size) of jackrabbits sighted on night spotlight surveys conducted from 1987 through 1995. Predictive habitat variables were number of shrub, agriculture, and hydrography cells, mean and standard deviation of shrub patch size, habitat richness, and a measure of spatial heterogeneity. In winter, jackrabbits used smaller and less variable sizes of shrub patches and areas of higher spatial heterogeneity when compared to summer observations (P 0.05), differed significantly between high and low population phase. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to rank all 50-m cells in a 440,000-ha region relative to the multivariate mean habitat vector. On verification surveys to test predicted models, we sighted jackrabbits in areas ranked close to the mean habitat vector. Areas burned by large-scale fires between 1980 and 1992 or in an area repeatedly burned by military training activities had greater Mahalanobis distances from the mean habitat vector than unburned areas and were less likely to contain habitats used by jackrabbits.

  16. Multiscale habitat selection by burrowing owls in black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantz, S.J.; Conway, C.J.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Some populations of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) have declined in recent decades. To design and implement effective recovery efforts, we need a better understanding of how distribution and demographic traits are influenced by habitat quality. To this end, we measured spatial patterns of burrowing owl breeding habitat selection within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in northeastern Wyoming, USA. We compared burrow-, site-, colony-, and landscape-scale habitat parameters between burrowing owl nest burrows (n = 105) and unoccupied burrows (n = 85). We sampled 4 types of prairie dog colonies: 1) owl-occupied, active with prairie dogs (n = 16); 2) owl-occupied, inactive (n = 13); 3) owl-unoccupied, active (n = 14); and 4) owl-unoccupied, inactive (n = 14). We used an information-theoretic approach to examine a set of candidate models of burrowing owl nest-site selection. The model with the most support included variables at all 4 spatial scales, and results were consistent among the 4 types of prairie dog colonies. Nest burrows had longer tunnels, more available burrows within 30 m, and less shrub cover within 30 m, more prairie dog activity within 100 m, and were closer to water than unoccupied burrows. The model correctly classified 76% of cases, all model coefficients were stable, and the model had high predictive ability. Based on our results, we recommend actions to ensure persistence of the remaining prairie dog colonies as an important management strategy for burrowing owl conservation in the Great Plains of North America.

  17. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  18. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Duration of plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    St Romain, Krista; Tripp, Daniel W; Salkeld, Daniel J; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, triggers die-offs in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but the time-frame of plague activity is not well understood. We document plague activity in fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows on three prairie dog colonies that suffered die-offs. We demonstrate that Y. pestis transmission occurs over periods from several months to over a year in prairie dog populations before observed die-offs. PMID:24057801

  20. Effects of protective fencing on birds, lizards, and black-tailed hares in the Western Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of protective fencing on birds, lizards, black-tailed hares (Lepus californicus), perennial plant cover, and structural diversity of perennial plants were evaluated from spring 1994 through winter 1995 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA), in the Mojave Desert, California. Abundance and species richness of birds were higher inside than outside the DTNA, and effects were larger during breeding than wintering seasons and during a high than a low rainfall year. Ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), cactus wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus), LeConte's thrashers (Toxostoma lecontei), loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli), and verdins (Auriparus flaviceps) were more abundant inside than outside the DTNA. Nesting activity was also more frequent inside. Total abundance and species richness of lizards and individual abundances of western whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorous tigris) and desert spiny lizards (Sceloporus magister) were higher inside than outside. In contrast, abundance of black-tailed hares was lower inside. Structural diversity of the perennial plant community did not differ due to protection, but cover was 50% higher in protected areas. Black-tailed hares generally prefer areas of low perennial plant cover, which may explain why they were more abundant outside than inside the DTNA. Habitat structure may not affect bird and lizard communities as much as availability of food at this desert site, and the greater abundance and species richness of vertebrates inside than outside the DTNA may correlate with abundances of seeds and invertebrate prey.

  1. Landscape structure and plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs on grasslands of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape structure influences the abundance and distribution of many species, including pathogens that cause infectious diseases. Black-tailed prairie dogs in the western USA have declined precipitously over the past 100 years, most recently due to grassland conversion and their susceptibility to sylvatic plague. We assembled and analyzed two long-term data sets on plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to explore the hypotheses that plague occurrence is associated with colony characteristics and landscape context. Our two study areas (Boulder County, Colorado, and Phillips County, Montana) differed markedly in degree of urbanization and other landscape characteristics. In both study areas, we found associations between plague occurrence and landscape and colony characteristics such as the amount of roads, streams and lakes surrounding a prairie dog colony, the area covered by the colony and its neighbors, and the distance to the nearest plague-positive colony. Logistic regression models were similar between the two study areas, with the best models predicting positive effects of proximity to plague-positive colonies and negative effects of road, stream and lake cover on plague occurrence. Taken together, these results suggest that roads, streams and lakes may serve as barriers to plague in black-tailed prairie dog colonies by affecting movement of or habitat quality for plague hosts or for fleas that serve as vectors for the pathogen. The similarity in plague correlates between urban and rural study areas suggests that the correlates of plague are not altered by uniquely urban stressors. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. Small mammals associated with colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Southern High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruett, A.L.; Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Ray, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    We compared diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non-colony sites. Of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in our study area, >80 were on slopes of playa lakes; thus, we used sites of colonies and non-colonies that were on slopes of playa lakes. We trapped small mammals on 29 pairs of sites. Overall abundance did not differ between types of sites, but some taxa exhibited associations with colonies (Onychomys leucogaster) or non-colonies (Chaetodipus hispidus, Reithrodontomys, Sigmodon hispidus). Diversity and evenness of small mammals did not differ between colonies and non-colonies in 2002, but were higher on non-colonies in 2003. Although we may not have detected some rare or infrequently occurring species, our data reveal differences in diversity and evenness of more common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species with their colonies associated with a greater faunal diversity than adjacent lands. Our findings contradict several studies reporting greater diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of prairie dogs. We suggest that additional research across a wider landscape and incorporating landscape variables beyond the immediate trapping plot may further elucidate interspecific associations between black-tailed prairie dogs and species of small rodents.

  3. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  4. Distribution and abundance of fallow deer leks at Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Osbourn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Only two species of ungulates (hoofed mammals) are native to Marin County, tule elk (Cervis elaphus nannodes) and Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). In the 1940s, European fallow deer (Dama dama) obtained from the San Francisco Zoo were released at Point Reyes. When Point Reyes National Seashore was established in 1962, fallow deer were well established within the boundaries of the National Seashore. The fallow deer population was estimated to be 500 in 1973 (Wehausen, 1973) and that number increased to 860 by 2005 (National Park Service, unpubl. data). Fallow deer have an unusual mating system. During the fall mating season (or rut), male fallow deer establish areas known as leks where they display to potential mates (Hirth, 1997). This behavior is unique among deer and elk, but it is similar to breeding systems used by grouse and a few other birds and mammals. Formation of leks in ungulates decreases the number of aggressive encounters in which dominant males are involved when the local male density becomes too high, because the spatial stability of territories in leks reduces the number of aggressive encounters between males (Hovi et al., 1996; Pelabon et al., 1999). A fallow deer lek is typically an area of about 100-150 m2 and typically includes two to five males. Using their hooves and antlers, each male clears away most or all of the vegetation and digs a rutting pit that he defends throughout the breeding season.

  5. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  6. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Rocke, T.E.; Hurley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by plague

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, D.J.; Matchett, M.R.; Toombs, T.P.; Cully, J.F.; Johnson, T.L.; Sidle, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a key component of the disturbance regime in semi-arid grasslands of central North America. Many studies have compared community and ecosystem characteristics on prairie dog colonies to grasslands without prairie dogs, but little is known about landscape-scale patterns of disturbance that prairie dog colony complexes may impose on grasslands over long time periods. We examined spatiotemporal dynamics in two prairie dog colony complexes in southeastern Colorado (Comanche) and northcentral Montana (Phillips County) that have been strongly influenced by plague, and compared them to a complex unaffected by plague in northwestern Nebraska (Oglala). Both plague-affected complexes exhibited substantial spatiotemporal variability in the area occupied during a decade, in contrast to the stability of colonies in the Oglala complex. However, the plague-affected complexes differed in spatial patterns of colony movement. Colonies in the Comanche complex in shortgrass steppe shifted locations over a decade. Only 10% of the area occupied in 1995 was still occupied by prairie dogs in 2006. In 2005 and 2006 respectively, 74 and 83% of the total area of the Comanche complex occurred in locations that were not occupied in 1995, and only 1% of the complex was occupied continuously over a decade. In contrast, prairie dogs in the Phillips County complex in mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush steppe primarily recolonized previously occupied areas after plague-induced colony declines. In Phillips County, 62% of the area occupied in 1993 was also occupied by prairie dogs in 2004, and 12% of the complex was occupied continuously over a decade. Our results indicate that plague accelerates spatiotemporal movement of prairie dog colonies, and have significant implications for landscape-scale effects of prairie dog disturbance on grassland composition and productivity. These findings highlight the need to combine landscape-scale measures of

  8. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against California and Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of California.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G L; Eldridge, B F; Hardy, J L; Reeves, W C; Jessup, D A; Presser, S B

    1989-04-01

    Plaque reduction-serum dilution neutralization was used to evaluate the status of bunyavirus activity in deer in mountainous areas of California. Antibodies against 9 bunyaviruses were measured in 337 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus, O. hemionus californicus, and O. hemionus inyoensis) and black-tailed deer (O. hemionus columbianus). More deer from high mountainous areas had neutralizing antibodies against Jamestown Canyon virus than did deer from low mountainous areas (23% vs. 9%; P less than 0.01). This finding is consistent with transmission by snow pool Aedes mosquitoes. Results for Jerry Slough virus were nearly identical to those for Jamestown Canyon virus, which is further evidence that these are strains of the same virus. Neutralizing antibodies against Northway virus were present in 26% of deer from high mountainous areas and 23% of deer from low mountainous areas, suggesting the involvement of a widespread vector, such as Culiseta inornata. Northway virus is not known to occur outside of Alaska and northwestern Canada. Low prevalences of antibodies were detected in deer to California encephalitis, La Crosse, and snowshoe hare viruses of the California serogroup; and Cache Valley, Lokern, and Main Drain viruses of the Bunyamwera serogroup.

  9. A retrospective study of tumours in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) submitted to a zoological pathology service.

    PubMed

    Thas, I; Garner, M M

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-three tumours were diagnosed in samples originating from 167 different black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) submitted to Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1996 and 2009. Three prairie dogs had more than one type of neoplasm. Thirty-two of the 50 prairie dogs were from zoological parks in the USA; 17 were owned privately and one was from a wildlife centre. Ages ranged from 2-9 years (median age 5.6 years) for 41 animals in which age was known. Thirty-nine (73.6%) of the tumours were classified as malignant and 14 (26.4%) were benign. Common sites for tumours were the liver, the alimentary tract and the haemolymphoid and integumentary systems. Hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocellular adenoma, lymphoid malignancies and elodontoma were diagnosed most commonly. PMID:22424809

  10. Hybrid swarm between divergent lineages of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Latch, Emily K; Kierepka, Elizabeth M; Heffelfinger, James R; Rhodes, Olin E

    2011-12-01

    Studies of hybrid zones have revealed an array of evolutionary outcomes, yet the underlying structure is typically characterized as one of three types: a hybrid zone, a hybrid swarm or a hybrid taxon. Our primary objective was to determine which of these three structures best characterizes a zone of hybridization between two divergent lineages of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mule deer and black-tailed deer. These lineages are morphologically, ecologically and genetically distinct, yet hybridize readily along a zone of secondary contact between the east and west slopes of the Cascade Mountains (Washington and Oregon, USA). Using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA, we found clear evidence for extensive hybridization and introgression between lineages, with varying degrees of admixture across the zone of contact. The pattern of hybridization in this region closely resembles a hybrid swarm; based on data from 10 microsatellite loci, we detected hybrids that extend well beyond the F1 generation, did not detect linkage disequilibrium at the centre of the zone and found that genotypes were associated randomly within the zone of contact. Introgression was characterized as bidirectional and symmetric, which is surprising given that the zone of contact occurs along a sharp ecotone and that lineages are characterized by large differences in body size (a key component of mating success). Regardless of the underlying mechanisms promoting hybrid swarm maintenance, it is clear that the persistence of a hybrid swarm presents unique challenges for management in this region.

  11. Patterns of surface plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m x 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≤1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  12. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pests).

  13. Topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Guiroy, D C; Williams, E S; Yanagihara, R; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and Rocky Mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. We report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in CWD-affected captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques were found in the cerebral gray and white matter, in deep subcortical nuclei, in isolation or in clusters in areas of vacuolation, and perivascularly, in subpial and subependymal regions. In the cerebellum, immunoreactive amyloid plaques were observed in the molecular, pyramidal and granular layers. Scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive deposits were also seen in neuronal perikarya. Furthermore, amyloid plaques in CWD-affected captive mule deer were alcianophilic at 0.3 M magnesium chloride indicating the presence of weakly to moderately sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Our data corroborate that CWD in captive mule deer belongs to the subacute virus spongiform encephalopathies.

  14. Experimental infection of mule deer with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.

    PubMed

    Tyler, G V; Hibler, C P; Prestwood, A K

    1980-10-01

    Six adult and three fawn mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were experimentally infected with a range of 75-100 infective larvae of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Five of the six adult deer developed clinical signs of neurologic disease that terminated in paralysis between 35 and 80 days. The sixth deer developed slight signs of neurologic disease for 10 days, but recovered. All three mule deer fawns developed neurologic disease. Adult meningeal worms were recovered from the subdural space of the spinal cord of two fawns. Eggs were observed on the cranial dura mater of one of these fawns, indicating that P. tenuis can complete its life cycle provided mule deer can survive the damage resulting from the infection. Neither eggs nor larvae of P. tenuis were recovered from the feces or lungs of infected mule deer. Clinical signs and histologic lesions observed in experimentally infected mule deer resembled those reported in infected moose (Alces alces americana). Two critical periods were apparent in mule deer infected with P. tenuis: nematode migration through the spinal neural parenchyma, and penetration of the adult nematodes into the cranial neural parenchyma. While most adult deer were unable to survive the first critical period, fawns survived the first but succumbed to infection during the second critical period.

  15. Capillary damage in the area postrema by venom of the northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus)

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez-Martínez, David; Macias-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro; Gatica-Colima, Ana; Plenge-Tellechea, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus) venom is mainly hemotoxic, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic. Its effects in the central nervous system are unknown and only poorly described for all Viperidae species in general. This is why we are interested in describe the damage induced by C. m. molossus venom in rat brain, particularly in the area postrema capillaries. Four C. m. molossus venom doses were tested (0.02, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20mg/kg) injected intramuscularly at the lower limb, incubated by 24 hours and the brains were harvested. Area postrema coronal sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, and examined to observe the venom effect in quantity of capillaries and porphology. Starting from the 0.10mg/kg treatment we observed lysed extravasated erythrocytes and also capillary breakdown, as a consequence of hemorrhages appearance. The number of capillaries decreased significantly in response to the venom dose increment. Hemorrhages could be caused by the metalloproteinase activity on the basal membrane and the apoptosis generated by L-amino acid oxidases. Hemolysis could be caused by phospholipase A2 hemotoxic effect. We conclude that C. m. molossus crude venom produces hemolysis, capillary breakdown, hemorrhages, and the reduction in number of capillaries in the area postrema. PMID:25035793

  16. SEROLOGIC SURVEY AND RESULTS OF URINARY PCR TESTING FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and a wide variety of mammal species worldwide. Often, rodents and wild animals are identified as important reservoirs for the disease. Twenty-two captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) housed within a zoo were examined as part of a routine census and preventive medicine program. During examinations, blood and urine were collected to screen for exposure to, or infection with, leptospirosis. All animals were apparently healthy at the time of examination. Leptospira microscopic agglutination test identified 12 of 22 (54.5%) prairie dogs with antibody titers ≥1 : 100 against Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava on initial serologic examination. All prairie dogs within this collection were serologically negative for L. interrogans serovars canicola, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona and Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Leptospira polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of urine was negative in all animals tested. This report describes evidence that captive prairie dogs may be exposed to leptospirosis, most likely from wild rodent reservoirs; however, serum titers are low, and lack of leptospiral DNA detected by PCR indicates that these captive animals are unlikely to be important reservoirs for the disease. PMID:26667541

  17. When Siberia came to the Netherlands: the response of continental black-tailed godwits to a rare spring weather event.

    PubMed

    Senner, Nathan R; Verhoeven, Mo A; Abad-Gómez, José M; Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Hooijmeijer, Jos C E W; Kentie, Rosemarie; Masero, José A; Tibbitts, T Lee; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-09-01

    1. Extreme weather events have the potential to alter both short- and long-term population dynamics as well as community- and ecosystem-level function. Such events are rare and stochastic, making it difficult to fully document how organisms respond to them and predict the repercussions of similar events in the future. 2. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which short-term events can incur long-term consequences, we documented the behavioural responses and fitness consequences for a long-distance migratory bird, the continental black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa limosa, resulting from a spring snowstorm and three-week period of record low temperatures. 3. The event caused measurable responses at three spatial scales - continental, regional and local - including migratory delays (+19 days), reverse migrations (>90 km), elevated metabolic costs (+8·8% maintenance metabolic rate) and increased foraging rates (+37%). 4. There were few long-term fitness consequences, however, and subsequent breeding seasons instead witnessed high levels of reproductive success and little evidence of carry-over effects. 5. This suggests that populations with continued access to food, behavioural flexibility and time to dissipate the costs of the event can likely withstand the consequences of an extreme weather event. For populations constrained in one of these respects, though, extreme events may entail extreme ecological consequences.

  18. Trace element concentrations in eggshells and egg contents of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc) were examined in eggs of black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) from Hongdo Island, Korea to determine the difference and distribution of trace elements in eggshells and egg contents. Cadmium, lead and manganese concentrations were greater in eggshells than in egg contents. In contrast, zinc concentrations were higher in egg contents than in eggshells. Trace element concentrations followed the order: zinc > lead = manganese = copper > cadmium (eggshells) and zinc > copper > manganese > lead > cadmium (egg contents). Cadmium concentrations were relatively low (<1 μg/g dw) in egg contents and eggshells. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and copper were significantly correlated between egg contents and eggshells. This indicates that cadmium, lead and copper levels in the eggshell can reflect their levels in the egg contents. There was also a high ratio (3.2) of eggshell/egg content for lead. These results indicate that the eggshell might be useful as a bio-indicator for monitoring cadmium, lead and copper in the egg content.

  19. Evaluation of monkeypox virus infection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A; Londoño-Navas, Angela M; Meteyer, Carol U; Pussini, Nicola; Lopera, Juan G; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-07-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a re-emerging zoonotic disease that is endemic in Central and West Africa, where it can cause a smallpox-like disease in humans. Despite many epidemiologic and field investigations of MPX, no definitive reservoir species has been identified. Using recombinant viruses expressing the firefly luciferase (luc) gene, we previously demonstrated the suitability of in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to study the pathogenesis of MPX in animal models. Here, we evaluated BLI as a novel approach for tracking MPX virus infection in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Prairie dogs were affected during a multistate outbreak of MPX in the US in 2003 and have since been used as an animal model of this disease. Our BLI results were compared with PCR and virus isolation from tissues collected postmortem. Virus was easily detected and quantified in skin and superficial tissues by BLI before and during clinical phases, as well as in subclinical secondary cases, but was not reliably detected in deep tissues such as the lung. Although there are limitations to viral detection in larger wild rodent species, BLI can enhance the use of prairie dogs as an animal model of MPX and can be used for the study of infection, disease progression, and transmission in potential wild rodent reservoirs. PMID:24779460

  20. Interactive Effects of Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs and Cattle on Shrub Encroachment in a Desert Grassland Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ana; Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread encroachment of woody plants throughout the semi-arid grasslands in North America has largely resulted from overgrazing by domestic livestock, fire suppression, and loss of native large and small mammalian herbivores. Burrowing-herbivorous mammals, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), help control shrub encroachment through clipping of shrubs and consumption of their seedlings, but little is known about how this important ecological role interacts with and may be influenced by co-existing large herbivores, especially domestic livestock. Here, we established a long-term manipulative experiment using a 2 × 2 factorial design to assess the independent and interactive effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) abundance and structure. We found that, after five years, mesquite abundance was three to five times greater in plots where prairie dogs were removed compared to plots where they occurred together or alone, respectively. While both prairie dogs and cattle reduced mesquite cover, the effect of prairie dogs on reducing mesquite abundance, cover, and height was significantly greater than that by cattle. Surprisingly, cattle grazing enhanced prairie dog abundance, which, in turn, magnified the effects of prairie dogs on mesquite shrubs. Mesquite canopy cover per hectare was three to five times greater where prairie dogs and cattle were absent compared to where they occurred together or by themselves; whereas, cumulative mesquite height was two times lower on sites where prairie dog and cattle occurred together compared to where they occurred alone or where neither occurred. Data from our experimental study demonstrate that prairie dogs and moderate grazing by cattle can suppress mesquite growth, and, when their populations are properly managed, they may interact synergistically to significantly limit mesquite encroachment in desert grasslands. PMID:27144274

  1. Interactive Effects of Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs and Cattle on Shrub Encroachment in a Desert Grassland Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Davidson, Ana; Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread encroachment of woody plants throughout the semi-arid grasslands in North America has largely resulted from overgrazing by domestic livestock, fire suppression, and loss of native large and small mammalian herbivores. Burrowing-herbivorous mammals, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), help control shrub encroachment through clipping of shrubs and consumption of their seedlings, but little is known about how this important ecological role interacts with and may be influenced by co-existing large herbivores, especially domestic livestock. Here, we established a long-term manipulative experiment using a 2 × 2 factorial design to assess the independent and interactive effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) abundance and structure. We found that, after five years, mesquite abundance was three to five times greater in plots where prairie dogs were removed compared to plots where they occurred together or alone, respectively. While both prairie dogs and cattle reduced mesquite cover, the effect of prairie dogs on reducing mesquite abundance, cover, and height was significantly greater than that by cattle. Surprisingly, cattle grazing enhanced prairie dog abundance, which, in turn, magnified the effects of prairie dogs on mesquite shrubs. Mesquite canopy cover per hectare was three to five times greater where prairie dogs and cattle were absent compared to where they occurred together or by themselves; whereas, cumulative mesquite height was two times lower on sites where prairie dog and cattle occurred together compared to where they occurred alone or where neither occurred. Data from our experimental study demonstrate that prairie dogs and moderate grazing by cattle can suppress mesquite growth, and, when their populations are properly managed, they may interact synergistically to significantly limit mesquite encroachment in desert grasslands. PMID:27144274

  2. Field evaluation of imidacloprid as a systemic approach to flea control in black-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys ludovicianus.

    PubMed

    Jachowski, David S; Skipper, Sherry; Gompper, Matthew E

    2011-06-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of sylvatic plague have dramatically influenced prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) populations across North America. While a great deal of debate surrounds the cause and persistence of plague, flea control can stop the spread of plague epizootic outbreaks and even increase prairie dog survival under non-epizootic conditions. We investigated a newly-developed imidacloprid-treated grain bait that could potentially reduce flea infestations and mitigate the effects of plague on black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus). We used a study design involving randomly assigned experimental and control study plots to assess the effectiveness of the systemic flea control product. We observed a significant difference in flea prevalence and abundance between experimental and control sites on three of the four sites treated with a single application of imidacloprid-treated grain bait for up to 90 days post-treatment. We observed an even greater reduction in flea infestations following the double application of treatment bait on two of three additional experimental sites. While we were unable to reduce flea infestations to the extent reported for more commonly used topical insecticides containing deltamethrin, imidacloprid might still be effective at reducing the risk of plague and halting epizootics. In addition, this systemic product can be more rapidly applied than topical insecticides, providing managers with a tool to quickly reduce flea infestations. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of different application timing and rates, the utility of the product in limiting plague, and the potential effects on non-target species that might also consume the treated bait. PMID:21635647

  3. Black-footed ferrets and recreational shooting influence the attributes of black-tailed prairie dog burrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, Dean E.; Ramakrishnan, Shantini; Goldberg, Amanda R.; Eads, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) plug burrows occupied by black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), and they also plug burrows to entomb dead prairie dogs. We further evaluated these phenomena by sampling connectivity and plugging of burrow openings on prairie dog colonies occupied by ferrets, colonies where recreational shooting was allowed, and colonies with neither shooting nor ferrets. We counted burrow openings on line surveys and within plots, classified surface plugging, and used an air blower to examine subsurface connectivity. Colonies with ferrets had lower densities of openings, fewer connected openings (suggesting increased subsurface plugging), and more surface plugs compared to colonies with no known ferrets. Colonies with recreational shooting had the lowest densities of burrow openings, and line-survey data suggested colonies with shooting had intermediate rates of surface plugging. The extent of surface and subsurface plugging could have consequences for the prairie dog community by changing air circulation and escape routes of burrow systems and by altering energetic relationships. Burrow plugging might reduce prairie dogs' risk of predation by ferrets while increasing risk of predation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus); however, the complexity of the trade-off is increased if plugging increases the risk of predation on ferrets by badgers. Prairie dogs expend more energy plugging and digging when ferrets or shooting are present, and ferrets increase their energy expenditures when they dig to remove those plugs. Microclimatic differences in plugged burrow systems may play a role in flea ecology and persistence of the flea-borne bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis).

  4. Associations of grassland bird communities with black-tailed prairie dogs in the North American Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Augustine, David J; Baker, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    Colonial burrowing herbivores can modify vegetation structure, create belowground refugia, and generate landscape heterogeneity, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of associated species. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are such a species, and they may strongly affect the abundance and composition of grassland bird communities. We examined how prairie dog colonies in the North American Great Plains affect bird species and community composition. Areas occupied by prairie dogs, characterized by low percent cover of grass, high percent cover of bare soil, and low vegetation height and density, supported a breeding bird community that differed substantially from surrounding areas that lacked prairie dogs. Bird communities on colony sites had significantly greater densities of large-bodied carnivores (Burrowing Owls [Athene cunicularia], Mountain Plovers, [Charadrius montanus], and Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus]) and omnivores consisting of Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspurs (Rhynchophanes mccownii) than bird communities off colony sites. Bird communities off colony sites were dominated by small-bodied insectivorous sparrows (Ammodramus spp.) and omnivorous Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and Lark Sparrows (Chondestes grammacus). Densities of 3 species of conservation concern and 1 game species were significantly higher on colony sites than off colony sites, and the strength of prairie dog effects was consistent across the northern Great Plains. Vegetation modification by prairie dogs sustains a diverse suite of bird species in these grasslands. Collectively, our findings and those from previous studies show that areas in the North American Great Plains with prairie dog colonies support higher densities of at least 9 vertebrate species than sites without colonies. Prairie dogs affect habitat for these species through multiple pathways, including creation of belowground

  5. Associations of grassland bird communities with black-tailed prairie dogs in the North American Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Augustine, David J; Baker, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    Colonial burrowing herbivores can modify vegetation structure, create belowground refugia, and generate landscape heterogeneity, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of associated species. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are such a species, and they may strongly affect the abundance and composition of grassland bird communities. We examined how prairie dog colonies in the North American Great Plains affect bird species and community composition. Areas occupied by prairie dogs, characterized by low percent cover of grass, high percent cover of bare soil, and low vegetation height and density, supported a breeding bird community that differed substantially from surrounding areas that lacked prairie dogs. Bird communities on colony sites had significantly greater densities of large-bodied carnivores (Burrowing Owls [Athene cunicularia], Mountain Plovers, [Charadrius montanus], and Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus]) and omnivores consisting of Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspurs (Rhynchophanes mccownii) than bird communities off colony sites. Bird communities off colony sites were dominated by small-bodied insectivorous sparrows (Ammodramus spp.) and omnivorous Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and Lark Sparrows (Chondestes grammacus). Densities of 3 species of conservation concern and 1 game species were significantly higher on colony sites than off colony sites, and the strength of prairie dog effects was consistent across the northern Great Plains. Vegetation modification by prairie dogs sustains a diverse suite of bird species in these grasslands. Collectively, our findings and those from previous studies show that areas in the North American Great Plains with prairie dog colonies support higher densities of at least 9 vertebrate species than sites without colonies. Prairie dogs affect habitat for these species through multiple pathways, including creation of belowground

  6. Transcriptome analysis of sika deer in China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bo-Yin; Ba, Heng-Xing; Wang, Gui-Wu; Yang, Ying; Cui, Xue-Zhe; Peng, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Xing, Xiu-Mei; Yang, Fu-He

    2016-10-01

    Sika deer is of great commercial value because their antlers are used in tonics and alternative medicine and their meat is healthy and delicious. The goal of this study was to generate transcript sequences from sika deer for functional genomic analyses and to identify the transcripts that demonstrate tissue-specific, age-dependent differential expression patterns. These sequences could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sika deer growth and development. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and profiling analysis across ten tissue types and four developmental stages (juvenile, adolescent, adult, and aged) of sika deer, using Illumina paired-end tag (PET) sequencing technology. A total of 1,752,253 contigs with an average length of 799 bp were generated, from which 1,348,618 unigenes with an average length of 590 bp were defined. Approximately 33.2 % of these (447,931 unigenes) were then annotated in public protein databases. Many sika deer tissue-specific, age-dependent unigenes were identified. The testes have the largest number of tissue-enriched unigenes, and some of them were prone to develop new functions for other tissues. Additionally, our transcriptome revealed that the juvenile-adolescent transition was the most complex and important stage of the sika deer life cycle. The present work represents the first multiple tissue transcriptome analysis of sika deer across four developmental stages. The generated data not only provide a functional genomics resource for future biological research on sika deer but also guide the selection and manipulation of genes controlling growth and development. PMID:27423230

  7. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida

  8. Muscleworms, Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae), discovered in Columbia white-tailed deer from Oregon and Washington: implications for biogeography and host associations.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Mortenson, Jack A; Hoberg, Eric P

    2008-01-01

    Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is considered a characteristic nematode infecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Host and geographic distribution for this parasite, however, remain poorly defined in the region of western North America. Fecal samples collected from Columbia white-tailed deer (O. v. leucurus) in a restricted range endemic to Oregon and Washington, USA, were examined for dorsal-spined larvae characteristic of many protostrongylid nematodes. Multilocus DNA sequence data (internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) established the identity and a new record for P. andersoni in a subspecies of white-tailed deer previously unrecognized as hosts. Populations of P. andersoni are now recognized along the basin of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and from south-central Oregon on the North Umpqua River. Current data indicate a potentially broad zone of sympatry for P. andersoni and Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in the western region of North America, although these elaphostrongylines seem to be segregated, respectively, in white-tailed deer or in black-tailed and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) at temperate latitudes. The geographic range for P. andersoni in white-tailed deer is extended substantially to the west of the currently defined limit in North America, and we confirm an apparently extensive range for this elpahostrongyline. These observations are explored in the broader context of host and geographic associations for P. andersoni and related elaphostrongylines in North American cervids.

  9. The effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on plant communities within a complex urban landscape: an ecological surprise?

    PubMed

    Beals, Stower C; Hartley, Laurel M; Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2014-05-01

    Historically, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been considered essential keystone species of western United States grassland ecosystems because they provide unique services and increase vegetation community richness, evenness, and diversity. However, the effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on lands adjacent to or surrounded by urban areas may not result in the same ecosystem benefits historically associated with their presence. An urban landscape presents prairie dogs with movement challenges unparalleled in natural landscapes, as well as suites of nonnative plant species that are more common in disturbed areas. This study examined a complex ecosystem where vegetation communities are being influenced by directional environmental change, and quantified the synergistic effects resulting from the protective management of a native keystone species. The data set for this analysis was comprised of 71 paired (occupied by prairie dogs vs. unoccupied) vegetation surveys and 156 additional unpaired surveys collected from around the city of Boulder, Colorado, USA for 14 yr. Linear mixed models were used to compare data from transects occupied and unoccupied by prairie dogs, as well as to evaluate the effect of prairie dog occupation duration. In the absence of prairie dogs, vegetation in this region exhibited declines in native grasses, no changes in introduced grasses, and increases in native and nonnative forbs and bare soil over the study interval. In the presence of prairie dogs, these observed directional changes were nearly all amplified at rates four to 10 times greater than when prairie dogs were absent. Areas in Boulder occupied by prairie dogs also had significantly lower richness, evenness, and diversity of plant species, compared to unoccupied areas. Analysis of plant functional groups revealed the significant reduction of perennial native grasses, as well as a significantly higher cover of introduced forbs in occupied areas. Prairie dogs

  10. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mencher, J.S.; Smith, S.R.; Powell, T.D.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.; Rocke, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01).

  11. The Missouri Deer Game. A Wildlife Conservation Action Game for 15-40 Players, Ages 10-Adult. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyland, Jim

    This unit consists of a four-part game designed to provide students with a basic understanding of four possible interactions between animal populations. Management of the white-tailed deer, one of the most abundant large wild animals in Missouri, is the central focus of the game. Included with the unit are: (1) unit objectives; (2) pre-game…

  12. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  13. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in deer (Odocoileus spp.) using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Gwilym D; Latch, Emily K

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are growing in popularity as a genetic marker for investigating evolutionary processes. A panel of SNPs is often developed by comparing large quantities of DNA sequence data across multiple individuals to identify polymorphic sites. For non-model species, this is particularly difficult, as performing the necessary large-scale genomic sequencing often exceeds the resources available for the project. In this study, we trial the Bovine SNP50 BeadChip developed in cattle (Bos taurus) for identifying polymorphic SNPs in cervids Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer and black-tailed deer) and O. virginianus (white-tailed deer) in the Pacific Northwest. We found that 38.7% of loci could be genotyped, of which 5% (n = 1068) were polymorphic. Of these 1068 polymorphic SNPs, a mixture of putatively neutral loci (n = 878) and loci under selection (n = 190) were identified with the F(ST)-outlier method. A range of population genetic analyses were implemented using these SNPs and a panel of 10 microsatellite loci. The three types of deer could readily be distinguished with both the SNP and microsatellite datasets. This study demonstrates that commercially developed SNP chips are a viable means of SNP discovery for non-model organisms, even when used between very distantly related species (the Bovidae and Cervidae families diverged some 25.1-30.1 million years before present).

  14. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Hobbs, N Thompson; Hunter, Don O; Miller, Michael W

    2010-04-23

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

  15. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Hobbs, N Thompson; Hunter, Don O; Miller, Michael W

    2010-04-23

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items.

  16. The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov.: a new species of carnivorous marsupial from montane regions of the Tweed Volcano caldera, eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B; Dyck, Steve Van

    2014-02-17

    We describe a new species of dasyurid marsupial within the genus Antechinus that was previously known as a northern outlier of Dusky Antechinus (A. swainsonii). The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov., is known only from areas of high altitude and high rainfall on the Tweed Volcano caldera of far south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales, Australia. Antechinus arktos formerly sheltered under the taxonomic umbrella of A. swainsonii mimetes, the widespread mainland form of Dusky Antechinus. With the benefit of genetic hindsight, some striking morphological differences are herein resolved: A. s. mimetes is more uniformly deep brown-black to grizzled grey-brown from head to rump, with brownish (clove brown-raw umber) hair on the upper surface of the hindfoot and tail, whereas A. arktos is more vibrantly coloured, with a marked change from greyish-brown head to orange-brown rump, fuscous black on the upper surface of the hindfoot and dense, short fur on the evenly black tail. Further, A. arktos has marked orange-brown fur on the upper and lower eyelid, cheek and in front of the ear and very long guard hairs all over the body; these characters are more subtle in A. s. mimetes. There are striking genetic differences between the two species: at mtDNA, A. s. mimetes from north-east New South Wales is 10% divergent to A. arktos from its type locality at Springbrook NP, Queensland. In contrast, the Ebor A. s. mimetes clades closely with conspecifics from ACT and Victoria. A. arktos skulls are strikingly different to all subspecies of A. swainsonii. A. arktos are markedly larger than A. s. mimetes and A. s. swainsonii (Tasmania) for a range of craniodental measures. Antechinus arktos were historically found at a few proximate mountainous sites in south-east Queensland, and have only recently been recorded from or near the type locality. Even there, the species is likely in low abundance. The Black-tailed Antechinus has plausibly been detrimentally

  17. The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov.: a new species of carnivorous marsupial from montane regions of the Tweed Volcano caldera, eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B; Dyck, Steve Van

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of dasyurid marsupial within the genus Antechinus that was previously known as a northern outlier of Dusky Antechinus (A. swainsonii). The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov., is known only from areas of high altitude and high rainfall on the Tweed Volcano caldera of far south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales, Australia. Antechinus arktos formerly sheltered under the taxonomic umbrella of A. swainsonii mimetes, the widespread mainland form of Dusky Antechinus. With the benefit of genetic hindsight, some striking morphological differences are herein resolved: A. s. mimetes is more uniformly deep brown-black to grizzled grey-brown from head to rump, with brownish (clove brown-raw umber) hair on the upper surface of the hindfoot and tail, whereas A. arktos is more vibrantly coloured, with a marked change from greyish-brown head to orange-brown rump, fuscous black on the upper surface of the hindfoot and dense, short fur on the evenly black tail. Further, A. arktos has marked orange-brown fur on the upper and lower eyelid, cheek and in front of the ear and very long guard hairs all over the body; these characters are more subtle in A. s. mimetes. There are striking genetic differences between the two species: at mtDNA, A. s. mimetes from north-east New South Wales is 10% divergent to A. arktos from its type locality at Springbrook NP, Queensland. In contrast, the Ebor A. s. mimetes clades closely with conspecifics from ACT and Victoria. A. arktos skulls are strikingly different to all subspecies of A. swainsonii. A. arktos are markedly larger than A. s. mimetes and A. s. swainsonii (Tasmania) for a range of craniodental measures. Antechinus arktos were historically found at a few proximate mountainous sites in south-east Queensland, and have only recently been recorded from or near the type locality. Even there, the species is likely in low abundance. The Black-tailed Antechinus has plausibly been detrimentally

  18. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  19. DIAGNOSIS AND SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF EIMERIA INFECTION IN A GROUP OF ZOO-KEPT BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS).

    PubMed

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David

    2015-06-01

    A group of seven, zoo-kept, male black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) were examined as part of their quarantine health evaluation. Microscopic fecal examination demonstrated that all animals were passing oocysts of Eimeria spp. All prairie dogs were treated individually with ponazuril (30 mg/kg p.o.) administered in two treatments 48 hr apart. Three weekly pooled fecal samples following treatment were negative, suggesting clearing of the infection. No adverse clinical signs were noted. Most of the reported anti-coccidian treatments in rodents describe prolonged treatment protocols or administration of treatment in the water, which can result in unnecessary stress and handling or ineffective and uncontrolled level of drug administration, respectively. This is the first report of this treatment protocol in a rodent species, suggesting it is efficacious, easy to administer, and safe when treating similar infections in prairie dogs. PMID:26056896

  20. DIAGNOSIS AND SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF EIMERIA INFECTION IN A GROUP OF ZOO-KEPT BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS).

    PubMed

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David

    2015-06-01

    A group of seven, zoo-kept, male black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) were examined as part of their quarantine health evaluation. Microscopic fecal examination demonstrated that all animals were passing oocysts of Eimeria spp. All prairie dogs were treated individually with ponazuril (30 mg/kg p.o.) administered in two treatments 48 hr apart. Three weekly pooled fecal samples following treatment were negative, suggesting clearing of the infection. No adverse clinical signs were noted. Most of the reported anti-coccidian treatments in rodents describe prolonged treatment protocols or administration of treatment in the water, which can result in unnecessary stress and handling or ineffective and uncontrolled level of drug administration, respectively. This is the first report of this treatment protocol in a rodent species, suggesting it is efficacious, easy to administer, and safe when treating similar infections in prairie dogs.

  1. Risk factors associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in a metapopulation of black-tailed prairie dogs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Arteaga, Ana; Atilano, Daniel; Ayanegui, Alejandra; Ceballos, Gerardo; Suzán, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of infectious diseases of wildlife has grown in recent decades and now focuses on understanding host-parasite dynamics and factors involved in disease occurrence. The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a useful species for this type of investigation because it lives in heterogeneous landscapes where human activities take place, and its populations are structured as a metapopulation. Our goal was to determine if colony area, density, and proximity to human settlements are associated with prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in black-tailed prairie dogs of northwestern Chihuahua State, Mexico. We captured 266 prairie dogs in 11 colonies in 2009 and analyzed 248 serum samples with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to any of the 12 pathogenic serovars of L. interrogans. Serologically positive test results for only serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Celledoni, and Tarassovi were considered for statistical analysis. Almost 80% of sera were positive for at least one pathogenic serovar (MAT titer ≥1∶80). The highest recorded antibody prevalences were to serovars Bratislava and Canicola. Correlation analysis showed a negative relationship between L. interrogans antibody prevalence and colony area (r = -0.125, P<0.005), suggesting that animals living in larger colonies were at a lower risk than those in smaller colonies. The correlation between the serovar Canicola and distance was negative (r = -0.171, P<0.007), and this relationship may be explained by the presence of domestic dogs associated with human dwellings. This is the first study of Leptospira spp. antibody prevalence in prairie dogs, and it provides valuable insights into the dynamics of leptospirosis in threatened wildlife species. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of Leptospira serovars in metapopulations of prairie dogs and other domestic and wild mammals in grassland communities. PMID:25380365

  2. Experiments on the ectoparasitic deer ked that often attacks humans; preferences for body parts, colour and temperature.

    PubMed

    Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Hokkanen, P; Härkönen, S; Kaitala, A; Kaunisto, S; Laaksonen, S; Kekäläinen, J; Ylönen, H

    2010-06-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) can fail in its host search. Host search fails when an individual deer ked irreversibly accepts a host unsuitable for its reproduction (e.g. a human) and drops its wings. In northern Europe, the main host of the deer ked is the moose (Alces alces). The deer ked is increasingly causing serious problems for humans (for example, causing deer ked dermatitis) and is considered a threat for the recreational use of forests. The adult deer ked flies in early and mid-autumn to search for a host. Our aims were: (i) to study whether there are ways to avoid deer ked attacks by wearing particular clothing, and (ii) to evaluate deer ked host choice. Using human targets, we explored the cues the deer ked uses for host selection. We studied which part of the host body deer keds target and if body colour and temperature affect their choice. In our experiments, deer keds landed more on dark and red clothing than on white clothing. Moreover, deer keds mostly attacked the upper body parts and preferred the back side of the body over the front side. Finally, deer keds preferred the warmest areas of the host.

  3. Hepatic mineral values of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Virginia.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Magura, Karl; Howell, Jay; Rohm, John; Murphy, Lisa A

    2010-04-01

    There is a lack of information on mineral requirements of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In addition, mineral deficiencies or excesses may play a role in the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome. We measured hepatic mineral values in apparently healthy white-tailed deer from two sites in Virginia, USA, as well as in deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome during 2005-2007. Deer with presumptive parasitism/malnutrition syndrome that were displaying signs of emaciation and chronic diarrhea had significantly higher mean hepatic levels of magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) compared with healthy deer. Healthy deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA (i.e., Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, and Prince William counties) had significantly lower mean hepatic selenium (Se) levels compared with deer from Nottoway County, Virginia, USA, which is 200 km distant. Healthy deer from northern Virginia, USA, also had significantly lower mean hepatic cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo) levels. Adult deer had significantly higher mean levels of hepatic iron (Fe) compared with fawns. In addition, male deer had significantly higher mean hepatic Co levels compared with female deer. The significantly higher mean (+/-SD) level of Zn in sick deer from northern Virginia, USA (78.7+/-54.9 microg/g versus 35.8+/-7.4 microg/g in healthy deer) is potentially clinically significant, although no signs consistent with Zn poisoning were observed. All deer in our study from northern Virginia, USA, had marginal or deficient levels of Cu (mean+/-SD=27.4+/-18.3 microg/g) and Se (mean=0.08+/-0.03 microg/g), which may be predisposing this population to the development of parasitism/malnutrition syndrome.

  4. Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

    2005-01-01

    We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  5. Influence of landscape characteristics on migration strategies of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Deperno, C.S.; Brinkman, T.J.; Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A trade-off exists for migrating animals as to whether to migrate or remain residents. Few studies have documented relationships between landscape variables and deer migration strategies. From 2000 to 2007 we captured 267 adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 7 study sites in Minnesota and South Dakota and monitored 149 individuals through ???3 seasonal migration periods (585 deer-migration seasons). All deer classified as obligate migrators with ???3 migrations (range 3-9 migration seasons) maintained their obligate status for the duration of the study. Multinomial logistic odds ratios from generalized estimating equations indicated that the odds of being a resident increased by 1.4 and 1.3 per 1-unit increase in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to migrating deer. Odds of being an obligate migrator increased by 0.7 and 0.8 per 1-unit decrease in forest patch density and mean area, respectively, compared to resident or conditional migrating deer. Areas inhabited by resident deer were characterized by greater number of forest patches per 100 ha and larger mean forest patch area than conditional and obligate migrant areas. Odds of migrating increased by 1.1 per 1-unit increase in deer winter severity index. Migration behavior of white-tailed deer varied among regions, and land-cover and landscape characteristics provided predictive indicators of migration strategies for deer that could have important implications for conservation, metapopulation dynamics, and species management. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Proximity of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, ranges to wolf Canis lupus, pack homesites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Seven adult female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota lived within 1.8 km of Wolf pack (Canis lupus) homesites without vacating their home ranges. Six of these deer and at least three of their fawns survived through the Wolf homesite period.

  7. DEER-LEMA Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Roy

    1996-01-01

    Students role-play one method the government uses to make decisions: a town council meeting. Groups express opinions for or against proposed resolutions and town council announces its decisions to the groups. Students learn how government resolves issues and develop criteria for making decisions. The example used is whether a limited deer hunt…

  8. Ipnatchiami (Stories About Deering).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmun, Mamie

    Intended for use in a bilingual education program, this document is printed in both Inupiat and English. It is a collection of 32 very short tales about life in Deering, Alaska, and was developed and prepared by Marie Karmun, an Inupiat language teacher. It is printed in large type, written in simple words, and illustrated. Most of the stories are…

  9. Prevalence of the generalist flea Pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: the importance of considering imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was <100% for both species and about 21% lower for P. simulans. Pulex simulans may be especially difficult to detect because it is about half the size of O. hirusta. Monthly occupancy (prevalence) for P. simulans was estimated at 24% (June, 95% confidence interval = 19-30), 39% (July, 32-47), and 56% (August, 49-64) in new prairie dog colonies, and 43% (32-54), 61% (49-71), and 79% (70-87) in old colonies. These results suggest P. simulans can attain high prevalence on prairie dogs, especially in old colonies. If P. simulans is highly prevalent on prairie dogs, it may serve as a "bridge vector" between Cynomys and other mammalian hosts of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks. PMID:25588009

  10. Prevalence of the generalist flea Pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: the importance of considering imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was <100% for both species and about 21% lower for P. simulans. Pulex simulans may be especially difficult to detect because it is about half the size of O. hirusta. Monthly occupancy (prevalence) for P. simulans was estimated at 24% (June, 95% confidence interval = 19-30), 39% (July, 32-47), and 56% (August, 49-64) in new prairie dog colonies, and 43% (32-54), 61% (49-71), and 79% (70-87) in old colonies. These results suggest P. simulans can attain high prevalence on prairie dogs, especially in old colonies. If P. simulans is highly prevalent on prairie dogs, it may serve as a "bridge vector" between Cynomys and other mammalian hosts of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks.

  11. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  12. Deer Tracks in the City?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie Fay; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole; Riggs, Morgan; Rodriguez, Antonia; Buck, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    "Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a deer in the city before this experience. As she retold the story to her classmates, her question…

  13. Wolf predation risk associated with white-tailed deer movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    The survival of 159 yearling and adult deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored by telemetry during 282 spring and 219 fall individual migrations to winter deeryards in northeastern Minnesota. A disproportionate number of deer were killed by wolves (Canis lupus) during fall migration relative to the short time they spent migrating, but not during spring migration. Predation was also significantly greater for male and female yearlings and adult females outside deeryards during winter. Survival of 79 yearlings dispersing from natal ranges was high (1.00). It appears that changing climatic conditions combined with unfamiliar terrain and undetermined factors predispose migratory deer to wolf predation during fall. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that winter yarding is an antipredator strategy.

  14. Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1991-09-30

    Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

  15. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert B; Forsyth, David M; Allen, Roy K J; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut), we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011) to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  16. Molecular identification of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype in the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satomi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuyama, Ryota; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-04-01

    The protozoan Cryptosporidium occurs in a wide range of animal species including many Cervidae species. Fecal samples collected from the Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), a native deer of Hokkaido, in the central, western, and eastern areas of Hokkaido were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect infections with Cryptosporidium and for sequence analyses to reveal the molecular characteristics of the amplified DNA. DNA was extracted from 319 fecal samples and examined with PCR using primers for small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA), actin, and 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) gene loci. PCR-amplified fragments were sequenced and phylogenetic trees were created. In 319 fecal samples, 25 samples (7.8 %) were positive with SSU-rRNA PCR that were identified as the Cryptosporidium deer genotype. Among Cryptosporidium-positive samples, fawns showed higher prevalence (16.1 %) than yearlings (6.4 %) and adults (4.7 %). The result of Fisher's exact test showed a statistical significance in the prevalence of the Cryptosporidium deer genotype between fawn and other age groups. Sequence analyses with actin and HSP70 gene fragments confirmed the SSU-rRNA result, and there were no sequence diversities observed. The Cryptosporidium deer genotype appears to be the prevalent Cryptosporidium species in the wild sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan. PMID:26687968

  17. Deer Fibroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, J. P.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Fibromas are frequent cutaneous neoplasms of young deer of many species, characterized by proliferation of both epithelial and dermal cells. Virus particles, similar to those found in fibrous skin tumors of several wild and domestic species, have been identified in some species by electron microscopy. Attempted transmission of fibromas has not been uniformly successful using filtered preparations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7039810

  18. Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts.

    PubMed Central

    Post, E; Stenseth, N C; Langvatn, R; Fromentin, J M

    1997-01-01

    The variability of two fitness-related phenotypic traits (body weight and a mandibular skeletal ratio) was analysed among cohorts and age-classes of red deer in Norway. Phenotypic variation among cohorts was pronounced for calves, yearlings and reproductively mature adults. Fluctuations in cohort-specific mean body weights and skeletal ratios of adults correlated with global climatic variation in winter conditions influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation while cohorts were in utero. Red deer born following warm winters were smaller than those born after cold winters, and this inter-cohort variability persisted into adulthood. Phenotypic variation among cohorts of red deer influenced by climate change may pose consequences for fitness of cohorts since body size and condition contribute to reproductive success and survival in male and female red deer. In particular, the recent trend of increasingly warm winters in northern Europe and Scandinavia may lead to reduced body size and fecundity of red deer, and perhaps other ungulates, in those areas. PMID:9332016

  19. Effect of GonaCon™ vaccine on black-tailed prairie dogs: immune response and health effects.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Christi A; Miller, Lowell A

    2010-12-16

    Management of prairie dogs in the past has included poisoning, fumigants, barriers, and relocation. Because of the diverse attitudes related to prairie dog management, nonlethal methods that allow the existence of prairie dogs but help minimize damage related to population growth need to be developed. GonaCon™ is an immunocontraceptive vaccine that elicits antibodies to native GnRH; this prevents the secretion of reproductive hormones necessary for sperm and oocyte production. Prairie dogs were vaccinated with 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mL of the GonaCon™ emulsion intramuscularly in the upper thigh containing 100, 200, or 400 μg GnRH conjugate, respectively. Control animals were vaccinated with 0.4 mL saline emulsion in the upper thigh. Blood samples (≤1 mL) were taken from the femoral vein once pretreatment and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 15 months post-vaccination. Age (adult or juvenile) did not affect immune response to GonaCon™. Antibody titers were higher in the 200 and 400 μL GonaCon™ groups than in the 100 μL group, and there was no difference between the 200 and 400 μL GonaCon™ groups. No adverse effects of GonaCon™ were noted on weight or blood chemistry parameters during the study. GonaCon™ will likely contracept prairie dogs for ≥1 year in the field using either 200 or 400 μg conjugate. GonaCon™ could be incorporated into management plans to help maintain prairie dog populations while reducing habitat degradation due to overpopulation. PMID:21055491

  20. Survival and harvest-related mortality of white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcdonald, John E.; Destefano, Stephen; Gaughan, Christopher; Mayer, Michael; Woytek, William A.; Christensen, Sonja; Fuller, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored 142 radiocollared adult (≥1.0 yr old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 study areas of Massachusetts, USA, to estimate annual survival and mortality due to legal hunting. We then applied these rates to deer harvest information to estimate deer population trends over time, and compared these to trends derived solely from harvest data estimates. Estimated adult female survival rates were similar (0.82–0.86), and uniformly high, across 3 management zones in Massachusetts that differed in landscape composition, human density, and harvest regulations. Legal hunting accounted for 16–29% of all adult female mortality. Estimated adult male survival rates varied from 0.55 to 0.79, and legal hunting accounted for 40–75% of all mortality. Use of composite hunting mortality rates produced realistic estimates for adult deer populations in 2 zones, but not for the third, where estimation was hindered by regulatory restrictions on antlerless deer harvest. In addition, the population estimates we calculated were generally higher than those derived from population reconstruction, likely due to relatively low harvest pressure. Legal harvest may not be the dominant form of deer mortality in developed landscapes; thus, estimates of populations or trends that rely solely on harvest data will likely be underestimates.

  1. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

  2. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  3. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer.

  4. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Felix; Manzanell, Ralph; Mathis, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25), roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6) and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7), all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland) were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany. PMID:27617204

  5. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (Hb) (P < 0.06), and packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.07). Cortisol concentrations were lower (P < 0.0001) in capture-collared deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  6. Comparison of Statistical Population Reconstruction Using Full and Pooled Adult Age-Class Data

    PubMed Central

    Skalski, John R.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Clawson, Michael V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Age-at-harvest data are among the most commonly collected, yet neglected, demographic data gathered by wildlife agencies. Statistical population construction techniques can use this information to estimate the abundance of wild populations over wide geographic areas and concurrently estimate recruitment, harvest, and natural survival rates. Although current reconstruction techniques use full age-class data (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, … years), it is not always possible to determine an animal's age due to inaccuracy of the methods, expense, and logistics of sample collection. The ability to inventory wild populations would be greatly expanded if pooled adult age-class data (e.g., 0.5, 1.5, 2.5+ years) could be successfully used in statistical population reconstruction. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the performance of statistical population reconstruction models developed to analyze full age-class and pooled adult age-class data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using a stochastic version of a Leslie matrix model, which generated data over a wide range of abundance levels, harvest rates, and natural survival probabilities, representing medium-to-big game species. Results of full age-class and pooled adult age-class population reconstructions were compared for accuracy and precision. No discernible difference in accuracy was detected, but precision was slightly reduced when using the pooled adult age-class reconstruction. On average, the coefficient of variation increased by 0.059 when the adult age-class data were pooled prior to analyses. The analyses and maximum likelihood model for pooled adult age-class reconstruction are illustrated for a black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population in Washington State. Conclusions/Significance Inventorying wild populations is one of the greatest challenges of wildlife agencies. These new statistical population reconstruction models should expand the demographic capabilities of wildlife agencies

  7. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  8. Intraspecific host selection of Père David's deer by cattle egrets in Dafeng, China.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Eve V; Li, Zhongqiu; Zheng, Wei; Ding, Yuhua; Sun, Daming; Che, Ye

    2014-06-01

    Studies have focused on foraging ecology of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and their selection of ungulate host species. However, few studies have been conducted at intraspecific levels, such as the sex/age class of a specific ungulate. In this study, the foraging behavior and intraspecific host selection of cattle egrets associated with Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) were investigated at the Dafeng National Nature Reserve, China in summer 2011 and 2012. Egret-deer pairing status was analyzed and intraspecific host selection index was calculated. Cattle egrets preferred to feed with female deer compared with male deer and fawns. In contrast to solitary birds, cattle egrets following a deer benefited from a relatively low vigilance output, high foraging success, low energy expenditure, and high total foraging yields. These egrets also maximized benefits when they followed female deer compared with male deer and fawns. Our results further indicated that egrets likely preferred females because of the appropriate moving speed that allowed these egrets to follow and forage sufficiently and effectively. The males of Père David's deer were possibly more aggressive than the females during the rutting season, causing egrets to experience difficulty in accompaniment and feeding. Fawns were not preferred because they were usually motionless and insufficiently large to stir more insects. We did not find any behavioral differences in vigilance and feeding between juveniles and adults. Our results suggested that cattle egrets could obtain significant benefits from their association with Père David's deer, and these benefits were maximized when they followed female deer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  9. Life in the Fast Lane: Road Crossing Behavior of Mule Deer in a Wildland-Urban Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Leslie A.; Biggs, James; Bennett, Kathryn D.; Bare, Carey; Sherwood, Sherri R.

    2012-04-04

    In 2009, approximately 260,000 animal-vehicle collisions were reported in the United States, resulting in 12,000 human injuries and 173 human fatalities. Research has focused on identifying factors associated with high densities of animal-vehicle collisions, including variables such as traffic speed and volume, road design, topographic features, vegetative cover, and local deer or elk (Cervus elaphus) abundance. The purposes of this study were to document how often and where mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) crossed roads in a western United States wildland-urban interface area, and to relate deer road-crossing behavior to deer-vehicle collision locations. Seven adult mule deer (four males [M] and three females [F]) were captured and collared with GPS-enabled collars during December 2001 and January 2002. Five of the seven deployed collars were recovered. None of the roads in the study area appeared to act as a substantial barrier to deer passage. Deer home ranges straddled highways and primary, secondary, and tertiary arterial roads. Deer crossed all types of roads. The average number of times deer crossed road during 24 hours of monitoring ranged from 2.1 to 7.0. Deer in the Los Alamos townsite avoided crossing roads during day and before sunset. Deer-vehicle accidents occurred at 350 percent of the level expected after sunset. All other time periods had fewer accidents than expected. The distribution of accidents across time periods was not similar to the distribution of road crossings across time periods for any deer. Within Los Alamos County there was a clear trend for deer-vehicle collisions to occur on roads with speed limits > 35 mph. Deer in the townsite frequently crossed roads with lower speed limits; therefore, the reason for the paucity of accidents along these roads was evidently the ability of drivers to detect deer (or the ability of deer to detect vehicles) and respond before an accident occurred. There was a significant but not strong correlation

  10. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Jackson, D.H.; Wolfe, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocollared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mortality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was ???0.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these differences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  11. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Jackson, Dewaine H.; Wolfe, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocol- lared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mor- tality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was 20.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these dif- ferences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  12. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E. R.; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml−1 ± 0.13 µg ml−1) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms. PMID:24552838

  13. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  14. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

  15. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans.

  16. Winter habitat selection of mule deer before and during development of a natural gas field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, H.; Nielson, R.M.; Lindzey, F.; McDonald, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    Increased levels of natural gas exploration, development, and production across the Intermountain West have created a variety of concerns for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations, including direct habitat loss to road and well-pad construction and indirect habitat losses that may occur if deer use declines near roads or well pads. We examined winter habitat selection patterns of adult female mule deer before and during the first 3 years of development in a natural gas field in western Wyoming. We used global positioning system (GPS) locations collected from a sample of adult female mule deer to model relative frequency or probability of use as a function of habitat variables. Model coefficients and predictive maps suggested mule deer were less likely to occupy areas in close proximity to well pads than those farther away. Changes in habitat selection appeared to be immediate (i.e., year 1 of development), and no evidence of well-pad acclimation occurred through the course of the study; rather, mule deer selected areas farther from well pads as development progressed. Lower predicted probabilities of use within 2.7 to 3.7 km of well pads suggested indirect habitat losses may be substantially larger than direct habitat losses. Additionally, some areas classified as high probability of use by mule deer before gas field development changed to areas of low use following development, and others originally classified as low probability of use were used more frequently as the field developed. If areas with high probability of use before development were those preferred by the deer, observed shifts in their distribution as development progressed were toward less-preferred and presumably less-suitable habitats.

  17. Observations on the phenotypic relationships between anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody response, nematode infection levels and growth rates in farmed red (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti hybrid deer (Cervus elaphus canadensis).

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, C G; Johnstone, P; Shaw, R J

    2014-06-16

    Nematode parasites are one of the most significant production limiting factors in farmed deer in New Zealand. One long term strategy to reduce reliance on anthelmintics is to select deer that develop resistance to parasites. It has been shown in sheep that secretory antibody (IgA) in the saliva against a Carbohydrate Larval Antigen (CarLA) on infective larvae (L3) of a wide range of gastro-intestinal nematodes protects against reinfection. This paper describes a longitudinal slaughter study undertaken to measure anti-CarLA IgA antibody (CarLA-IgA) levels in the saliva of 5-12 month old farmed red and wapiti-cross-red deer (wapx) grazed together and to attempt to relate these levels to parasite burdens and productivity. The study showed that salivary CarLA-IgA levels peaked in June (late autumn) and October (mid spring), but the levels in wapx deer were significantly lower than in red deer. Over the May-December period 55% of red deer had CarLA-IgA values ≥2 units compared with 26% of wapx deer and over this period red deer had consistently lower adult abomasal parasite burdens than wapx deer. The average number of adult abomasal nematodes was significantly lower at each slaughter from May to December for all deer with CarLA-IgA ≥2 units vs <2 units. There were no demonstrable correlations with liveweight gain in these small groups of deer.

  18. Body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity in tule elk and mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, F.W.; Bleich, V.C.; Chetkiewicz, C.-L.B.; Ricca, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between body size and rumen-reticulum capacity among conspecific individuals is predicted to be isometric. We examined whether the relationship between body weight and rumen-reticulum capacity was isometric in adult male and female rule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) and in adult female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We detected no effect of sex on this relationship in elk, and the slope of the regression was 1.0 for one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity and <1.0 for another. Among deer, the slope of the relationship was <1.0 in one measure of rumen-reticulum capacity, and we detected no relationship with the other.

  19. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  20. Sarcocystis of deer in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Emnett, C W; Hugghins, E J

    1982-04-01

    The prevalence of Sarcocystis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) in South Dakota was determined through microscopic examination of tongue samples. The percentage of Sarcocystis infection for both species of deer was determined for prairies east of the Missouri River, west of the Missouri River, and Black Hills of western South Dakota. Sixteen percent (N = 62) of the white-tailed deer tongues from East River, 69% (N = 42) from West River, and 74% (N = 23) from the Black Hills were infected. Prevalence for mule deer was 88% (N = 24), 78% (N = 63), and 75% (N = 12) from East River, West River, and the Black Hills, respectively. Of 50 tongue samples obtained from both species of deer during a special antlerless deer hunt in the Black Hills in 1978, 66% were infected. Coyotes (Canis latrans), dogs (Canis familiaris), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Felis rufus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor) were fed muscle from white-tailed deer and mule deer naturally infected with Sarcocystis to determine their role as definitive hosts. All coyotes, dogs, and the gray fox shed sporocysts, while none were recovered from the other animals. Sporocysts shed by coyotes were counted and concentrated into an inoculum and administered to a white-tailed deer fawn, which was necropsied 85 days after inoculation. Sections of heart, tongue, esophagus, diaphragm, and skeletal muscle were found to be heavily infected with sarcocysts, while sarcocysts were not detected in a control fawn.

  1. Female white-tailed deer survival across ecoregions in Minnesota and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Swanson, C.C.; Jacques, C.N.; Deperno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Survival and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been well documented in forested and agricultural landscapes, but limited information has been collected in grassland habitats typical of the Northern Great Plains. Our objectives were to document and compare survival and cause-specific mortality of adult female white-tailed deer in four distinct ecoregions. We captured and radiocollared 190 (159 adult, 31 yearling) female white-tailed deer and monitored (including deer from a previous study) a total of 246 (215 adult, 31 yearling) deer from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2007. We documented 113 mortalities; hunting (including wounding loss) accounted for 69.9% of all mortalities and vehicle collisions accounted for an additional 15.0%. Natural causes (e.g., disease, predation) of mortality were minor compared to human-related causes (e.g., hunting, vehicle collisions). We used known fate modeling in program MARK to estimate survival rates and compare ecoregions and seasons. Model {Sseason (winter = summer)} had the lowest AICc value suggesting that survival differed only between seasons where winter and summer survival was equal and differed with fall season. Annual and seasonal (summer, fall, winter) survival rates using the top model {Sseason (summer = winter)} were 0.76 (95% ci  =  0.70–0.80), 0.97 (95% ci  =  0.96–0.98), 0.80 (95% ci  =  0.76–0.83) and 0.97 (95% ci  =  0.96–0.98), respectively. High human-related mortality was likely associated with limited permanent cover, extensive road networks and high hunter density. Deer management in four distinct ecoregions relies on hunter harvest to maintain deer populations within state management goals.

  2. Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waser, Nickolas M.; Price, Mary V.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Arózqueta, S. Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D. Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

    2014-05-01

    Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

  3. Coyotes, deer, and wildflowers: diverse evidence points to a trophic cascade.

    PubMed

    Waser, Nickolas M; Price, Mary V; Blumstein, Daniel T; Arózqueta, S Reneé; Escobar, Betsabé D Castro; Pickens, Richard; Pistoia, Alessandra

    2014-05-01

    Spatial gradients in human activity, coyote activity, deer activity, and deer herbivory provide an unusual type of evidence for a trophic cascade. Activity of coyotes, which eat young mule deer (fawns), decreased with proximity to a remote biological field station, indicating that these predators avoided an area of high human activity. In contrast, activity of adult female deer (does) and intensity of herbivory on palatable plant species both increased with proximity to the station and were positively correlated with each other. The gradient in deer activity was not explained by availabilities of preferred habitats or plant species because these did not vary with distance from the station. Does spent less time feeding when they encountered coyote urine next to a feed block, indicating that increased vigilance may contribute, along with avoidance of areas with coyotes, to lower herbivory away from the station. Judging from two palatable wildflower species whose seed crop and seedling recruitment were greatly reduced near the field station, the coyote-deer-wildflower trophic cascade has the potential to influence plant community composition. Our study illustrates the value of a case-history approach, in which different forms of ecological data about a single system are used to develop conceptual models of complex ecological phenomena. Such an iterative model-building process is a common, but underappreciated, way of understanding how ecological systems work.

  4. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Butler, M.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  5. Effect of deer exclusion by fencing on abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on Fire Island, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Butler, M.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pre-treatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.

  6. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations: Technical progress report. [Odocoileus hemionus

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1987-07-15

    The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This research tested for compensatory mortality in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1986, 60 fawns were telemetered on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirteen adult females also were telemetered which, together with 31 telemetered adults already present, brought the total instrumented population to 164 at the onset of winter. Experimental manipulation to test for compensation in the population was successful, with 18% of the population on the treatment area (328 animals) removed. Line transect estimates of deer groups/ha were 0.12 +- 0.030 (D +- SE) for the control area and 0.14 +- 0.028 for the treatment area, giving 1727 individuals on the control area and 1490 on the treatment area. Thus the number of deer was measurably decreased on the treatment area by the removal operation.

  7. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti in mice on islands inhabited by white-tailed deer.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W; Myers, J E

    1987-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti were isolated from 35 of 51 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) captured on two Narragansett Bay, R.I., islands inhabited by deer, the principal host for the adult stages of the vector tick, Ixodes dammini. Immature ticks parasitized mice from both islands. From 105 mice captured on four other islands not inhabited by deer neither pathogen was isolated, nor were I. dammini found. PMID:3555339

  8. Spatial interactions of yarded White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the spatial interactions of nine female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two deeryards (winter aggregations) in northeastern Minnesota during February-April 1999. Global positioning system (GPS) collars yielded seven pair-wise comparisons of deer that were located at the same time (???1 minute apart) and mat used overlapping areas. Deer traveled separately and did not associate with one another. Within overlapping areas, comparisons of distances between deer and distances between random locations indicated deer moved without regard to each other. Similarly, comparisons of observed and expected probabilities of deer using areas overlapping those of other deer also evinced that deer moved independently.

  9. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-11-01

    As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n = 20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n = 5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans.

  10. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sika deer (Cervus nippon) and red deer (Cervus elaphus): deer specificity and zoonotic potential of ITS genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Weishi; Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Fengkun; Karim, Md Robiul; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-11-01

    As the most common cause of the human microsporidiosis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in a wide variety of animal hosts. Deers are the ruminant mammals living in a variety of biomes, and the distribution of deer species differ by geography. To understand the prevalence of natural infection of E. bieneusi in deer and to assess their epidemiological role in the transmission of microsporidiosis caused by E. bieneusi, 91 fecal specimens were collected from 86 sika deers and five red deers in the northeast of China. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi, an average infection rate of 31.9% (29/91) was observed in deer, with 32.6% (28/86) for sika deer, and 20% (1/5) for red deer. Six ITS genotypes were identified: one known genotype BEB6 (n = 20) and five novel genotypes HLJD-I to HLJD-IV (one each) and HLJD-V (n = 5). A phylogenetic analysis based on a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences of E. bieneusi indicated that genotypes HLJD-II and HLJD-III fell into group 1 of zoonotic potential, while the other genotypes (BEB6, HLJD-I, HLJD-IV, HLJD-V) were clustered into so-called bovine-specific group 2. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in deer in China. The observation of genotype BEB6 in humans previously and in deer here and also the findings of the two novel genotypes (HLJD-II to HLJ-III) belonging to potential zoonotic group 1 suggested the possibility of deer in the transmission of E. bieneusi to humans. PMID:25185666

  11. Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred nine white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were radiotracked in the central Superior National Forest, Minnesota, from 1973 through winter 1983-84; 85 deaths were recorded. Annual survival was 0.31 for fawns (< 1.0 years old), 0.80 for yearling (1.0-2.0 years old) females, 0.41 for yearling males, 0.79 for adult (.gtoreq. 2.0 years old) females, and 0.47 for adult males. Monthly survival rates were high from May through December (0.94-1.00), except for yearling (0.60) and adult (0.69) bucks during the November hunting season. Most mortality occurred from January through April when gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was an important mortality source for all cohorts. Yearling males were most vulnerable to hunting and adult males to wolf predation.

  12. The relationship between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease in a residential community.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Howard J; LaBonte, Andrew M; Stafford, Kirby C

    2014-07-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), serve as the primary host for the adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say), the vector for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Our objective was to evaluate the degree of association between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease in one Connecticut community over a 13-yr period. We surveyed 90-98% of all permanent residents in the community six times from 1995 to 2008 to document resident's exposure to tick-related disease and frequency and abundance of deer observations. After hunts were initiated, number and frequency of deer observations in the community were greatly reduced as were resident-reported cases of Lyme disease. Number of resident-reported cases of Lyme disease per 100 households was strongly correlated to deer density in the community. Reducing deer density to 5.1 deer per square kilometer resulted in a 76% reduction in tick abundance, 70% reduction in the entomological risk index, and 80% reduction in resident-reported cases of Lyme disease in the community from before to after a hunt was initiated. PMID:25118409

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in New York State, USA.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, John J; Kirchgessner, Megan S; Whipps, Christopher M; Mohammed, Hussni O; Bunting, Elizabeth M; Wade, Susan E

    2013-10-01

    Sera collected from 299 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvested in New York State by hunters in November 2010 were assayed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies. White-tailed deer are a useful sentinel for risk of human and domestic animal exposure to Toxoplasma oocysts and pose a potential risk for infection to humans and other animals by ingestion of the meat. White-tailed deer share grazing space with domestic animals raised for meat and are likely to be exposed by horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption, similar to other grazing species of economic concern. Overall, 42.2% of samples were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating a true prevalence of 38.5%, with a significantly higher proportion of adult than immature deer antibody positive. No significant difference in prevalence was found between male and female deer nor was there a significant effect of local human population density on deer antibody prevalence. These results provide insight into the risk of environmental Toxoplasma exposure in New York State and support horizontal transmission through oocyst consumption as the most common mechanism of white-tailed deer infection.

  14. The relationship between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease in a residential community.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Howard J; LaBonte, Andrew M; Stafford, Kirby C

    2014-07-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), serve as the primary host for the adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say), the vector for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Our objective was to evaluate the degree of association between deer density, tick abundance, and human cases of Lyme disease in one Connecticut community over a 13-yr period. We surveyed 90-98% of all permanent residents in the community six times from 1995 to 2008 to document resident's exposure to tick-related disease and frequency and abundance of deer observations. After hunts were initiated, number and frequency of deer observations in the community were greatly reduced as were resident-reported cases of Lyme disease. Number of resident-reported cases of Lyme disease per 100 households was strongly correlated to deer density in the community. Reducing deer density to 5.1 deer per square kilometer resulted in a 76% reduction in tick abundance, 70% reduction in the entomological risk index, and 80% reduction in resident-reported cases of Lyme disease in the community from before to after a hunt was initiated.

  15. Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels. PMID:22711825

  16. Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-07-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels. PMID:22711825

  17. Deer, predators, and the emergence of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Mangel, Marc; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-07-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America, and both the annual incidence and geographic range are increasing. The emergence of Lyme disease has been attributed to a century-long recovery of deer, an important reproductive host for adult ticks. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that Lyme disease risk may now be more dynamically linked to fluctuations in the abundance of small-mammal hosts that are thought to infect the majority of ticks. The continuing and rapid increase in Lyme disease over the past two decades, long after the recolonization of deer, suggests that other factors, including changes in the ecology of small-mammal hosts may be responsible for the continuing emergence of Lyme disease. We present a theoretical model that illustrates how reductions in small-mammal predators can sharply increase Lyme disease risk. We then show that increases in Lyme disease in the northeastern and midwestern United States over the past three decades are frequently uncorrelated with deer abundance and instead coincide with a range-wide decline of a key small-mammal predator, the red fox, likely due to expansion of coyote populations. Further, across four states we find poor spatial correlation between deer abundance and Lyme disease incidence, but coyote abundance and fox rarity effectively predict the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in New York. These results suggest that changes in predator communities may have cascading impacts that facilitate the emergence of zoonotic diseases, the vast majority of which rely on hosts that occupy low trophic levels.

  18. Identity of rumen fluke in deer.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

    2014-11-01

    As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock.

  19. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes "The Deer Hunter" in terms of a psychological/ritual model of criticism. Argues that the rhetorical force of the film is explained by men's participation in rituals, such as deer hunting, which affect the patterns of psychological change they experience during and after war. (JMF)

  20. Tuberculosis in wild and captive deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deer are found on every continent, save for Antarctica and Australia. Of the over 50 species of deer worldwide, tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis has been documented in at least 14. The broad host range of M. bovis includes most mammals, including humans and livestock. Eradication programs hav...

  1. Dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Seven of 35 yearling female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a migratory herd in northeastern Minnesota dispersed 18-168 km from natal ranges during late May through June. Dispersal as a proximate event appears voluntary and independent of deer density.

  2. Identity of rumen fluke in deer.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

    2014-11-01

    As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

  3. Evaluation of vaginal implants for mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; Bartmann, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain information on the biology of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) during the first several months of life because of the seclusive nature of fawns. Radio-transmitter implants were placed in the vaginas of mule deer to facilitate determining the time and location of parturition and to evaluate the effects on dams in the Piceance Basin, northwest Colorado.

  4. Persistent pruritic papules from deer ked bites.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, T; Reunala, T; Vuojolahti, P; Hackman, W

    1982-01-01

    Deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), a haematophagous louse fly of deer, also attacks man and can cause persistent pruritic papules. Nineteen patients with this conditions were examined. They suffered attacks while carrying out their work, or merely walking, in forested areas. The bite papules appeared mostly on the head and back. They were very itchy and resistant to treatment and persisted from 2 weeks up to 12 months. Histologically, a typical insect bite reaction was found without any signs of retained deer ked mouth parts. Direct immunofluorescence showed deposits of C3 in dermal vessel walls in 7 of the 11 papules examined. Skin tests with a deer ked whole body extract were positive in all patients tested, showing both immediate and delayed reactions. Moreover, 57% of the patients tested had elevated serum IgE levels. All these findings suggest that IgE, complement and cell-mediated immune mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of deer ked bite reactions.

  5. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1986-03-15

    The hypothesis of compensatory mortality is critical to understanding population dynamics of wildlife species. This is vital regardless of whether populations are managed for recreational hunting or habitats are altered via energy development projects. The purpose of research summarized herein is to test for compensatory mortality during winter in the juvenile (fawn) portion of a mule deer population. In the fall of 1985, sixty fawns were radio collared on both the control and treatment sites of the Little Hills study area. Thirty-three adult females also were telemetered, bringing the total instrumented population to 167 at the onset of winter. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Observations of captive Rocky Mountain mule deer behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Halford, D.K.; Arthur, W.J. III; Alldredge, A.W.

    1987-01-31

    Observations were made near Fort Collins, Colorado on the behavior of a captive herd of Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Comparisons in general behavior patterns were made between captive and wild deer. Similar behavior was exhibited by captive and wild deer. Captive deer (as well as other species) may be useful for study of certain behavioral aspects of their wild counterparts.

  7. Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

  8. Establishment of the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a novel animal model for comparing smallpox vaccines administered preexposure in both high- and low-dose monkeypox virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Keckler, M S; Carroll, D S; Gallardo-Romero, N F; Lash, R R; Salzer, J S; Weiss, S L; Patel, N; Clemmons, C J; Smith, S K; Hutson, C L; Karem, K L; Damon, I K

    2011-08-01

    The 2003 monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak and subsequent laboratory studies demonstrated that the black-tailed prairie dog is susceptible to MPXV infection and that the ensuing rash illness is similar to human systemic orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infection, including a 7- to 9-day incubation period and, likely, in some cases a respiratory route of infection; these features distinguish this model from others. The need for safe and efficacious vaccines for OPVX in areas where it is endemic or epidemic is important to protect an increasingly OPXV-naïve population. In this study, we tested current and investigational smallpox vaccines for safety, induction of anti-OPXV antibodies, and protection against mortality and morbidity in two MPXV challenges. None of the smallpox vaccines caused illness in this model, and all vaccinated animals showed anti-OPXV antibody responses and neutralizing antibody. We tested vaccine efficacy by challenging the animals with 10(5) or 10(6) PFU Congo Basin MPXV 30 days postvaccination and evaluating morbidity and mortality. Our results demonstrated that vaccination with either Dryvax or Acambis2000 protected the animals from death with no rash illness. Vaccination with IMVAMUNE also protected the animals from death, albeit with (modified) rash illness. Based on the results of this study, we believe prairie dogs offer a novel and potentially useful small animal model for the safety and efficacy testing of smallpox vaccines in pre- and postexposure vaccine testing, which is important for public health planning. PMID:21632764

  9. Effects of maternal and grandmaternal nutrition on deer mass and vulnerability to wolf predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Nelson, M.E.; McRoberts, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    In a Minnesota ecosystem, mass of female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and adults, and survival of adult females in the face of wolf (Canis lupus) predation, were directly related to maternal nutrition during gestation. Mass of single male fawns produced by 2-year-old females, and survival of yearlings to 2 years of age were related directly to the nutrition of their grandmothers.

  10. Increasing density and Borrelia burgdorferi infection of deer-infesting Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Amerasinghe, F P; Breisch, N L; Neidhardt, K; Pagac, B; Scott, T W

    1993-09-01

    A statewide survey of Ixodes dammini Spielman was done in November 1991 as a follow-up to a study in 1989. In total, 3,434 adult ticks were collected from 922 hunter-killed white-tailed deer processed at 22 check stations (1 per county in 22 of 23 counties in the state). Significantly more male than female ticks were collected. Tick infestation was significantly heavier on male than female deer. The pattern of tick distribution was similar to that in 1989, with low prevalence (percentage tick-infested deer) and abundance (mean ticks per deer) in the Appalachian region, moderate values in the Piedmont, and high values in the western and eastern Coastal Plains regions. The pattern of tick infection with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (determined by polyclonal immunofluorescence assay) was similar to the tick distributional pattern. Overall, tick prevalence and abundance were higher in 1991 than in 1989, as was the spirochete infection rate in ticks. Multiple regression analysis of tick prevalence against six selected physical and biotic parameters (elevation, rainfall, summer and winter temperature, percentage of forest land, deer density) showed a significant relationship with rainfall and elevation in 1989 and elevation alone in 1991. A more extensive study in Caroline and Dorchester counties in the eastern Coastal Plains region (which showed exceptionally low tick density indices in a generally tick-abundant region in 1989) demonstrated that I. dammini was well established in Caroline but not in Dorchester County. PMID:8254631

  11. Tuberculosis, genetic diversity and fitness in the red deer, Cervus elaphus.

    PubMed

    Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Alves, Paulo C; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity, infections and fitness interact in wild populations is a major challenge in ecology and management. These interactions were addressed through heterozygosity-fitness correlation analyses, by assessing the genetic diversity, tuberculosis (TB) and body size in adult red deer. Heterozygosity-fitness correlation models provided a better understanding of the link between genetic diversity and TB at individual and population levels. A single local effect was found for Ceh45 locus at individual level, enhancing the importance of its close functional genes in determining TB presence. At population level, the ability of the red deer to control TB progression correlated positively with population genetic diversity, indicating that inbred populations might represent more risk of deer TB severity. Statistical models also gained insights into the dynamics of multi-host interaction in natural environments. TB prevalence in neighbouring wild boar populations was positively associated with deer TB at both individual and population levels. Additionally, TB presence correlated positively with red deer body size, for which "general and local effect" hypotheses were found. Although body size might be correlated with age, an indirect genetic effect on TB presence could be implied. This study provides new insights towards understanding host-pathogen interactions in wild populations and their relation to fitness traits. PMID:27245150

  12. Migrating Mule Deer: Effects of Anthropogenically Altered Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Lendrum, Patrick E.; Anderson, Charles R.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to enhance resource availability and reduce risk of predation at a broad geographic scale. Ungulate migrations generally occur along traditional routes, many of which have been disrupted by anthropogenic disturbances. Spring migration in ungulates is of particular importance for conservation planning, because it is closely coupled with timing of parturition. The degree to which oil and gas development affects migratory patterns, and whether ungulate migration is sufficiently plastic to compensate for such changes, warrants additional study to better understand this critical conservation issue. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied timing and synchrony of departure from winter range and arrival to summer range of female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in northwestern Colorado, USA, which has one of the largest natural-gas reserves currently under development in North America. We hypothesized that in addition to local weather, plant phenology, and individual life-history characteristics, patterns of spring migration would be modified by disturbances associated with natural-gas extraction. We captured 205 adult female mule deer, equipped them with GPS collars, and observed patterns of spring migration during 2008–2010. Conclusions/Significance Timing of spring migration was related to winter weather (particularly snow depth) and access to emerging vegetation, which varied among years, but was highly synchronous across study areas within years. Additionally, timing of migration was influenced by the collective effects of anthropogenic disturbance, rate of travel, distance traveled, and body condition of adult females. Rates of travel were more rapid over shorter migration distances in areas of high natural-gas development resulting in the delayed departure, but early arrival for females migrating in areas with high development compared with less-developed areas. Such shifts in behavior could have

  13. Chronic wasting disease infection patterns in female white-tailed deer related to demographics, genetic relationships, and spatial proximity of infected deer in southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500 km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310 kin2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and non-infected deer. Ow results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) kee-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible non-linear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  14. Deer Lodge Valley investigations, western Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Wideman, C.J.; Sonderegger, J.; Crase, E.; Peterson, J.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A review of the geothermal investigations conducted in the Deer Lodge Valley of Western Montana is briefly presented. Maps of the generalized geology and Bouguer gravity and graphs of selected geothermal gradients and resistivity sounding profiles are presented. (MJF)

  15. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface. PMID:27043709

  16. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  17. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface. PMID:27043709

  18. Drought effect on selection of conservation reserve program grasslands by white-tailed deer on the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding summer resource selection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in grassland regions of the Northern Great Plains. During summers 2005-2006, we analyzed habitat selection of adult female white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota. We collected 1905 summer locations and used 21 and 30 home ranges during 2005 and 2006, respectively, to estimate habitat selection. Results indicated that selection occurred at the population (P < 0.001) and home range (P < 0.001) levels. Deer selected for Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and corn during both summers and shifted selection temporally within summer. Use of CRP grasslands occurred during early summer; 73.1 and 88.9% of locations in CRP were documented prior to 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Conversely, selection for corn occurred during late summer; 86.0 and 68.4% of locations in corn were documented after 1 Jul. during 2005 and 2006, respectively. Additionally, deer selected for forested cover and rural development areas containing permanent water sources during extreme drought conditions during 2006. Deer likely selected for fields of CRP grasslands during early summer for cover and natural forages, such as clover (Trifolium sp.), prior to the period when agricultural crops become available. Drought conditions occurring in semiarid prairie grassland regions may reduce food and water availability and contribute to subsequent changes in deer habitat selection across the range of the species.

  19. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  20. Changes during the holocene in the size of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdue, James R.

    1989-11-01

    White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from central Illinois varied in size during the Holocene. The record, which extends back to 8450 yr B.P., indicates small deer through the mid-Holocene until 3650 yr B.P., after which size increases. Although influences of winter climate, seasonality, anthropogenic effects, and other ecological factors should not be discounted, an intriguing possible cause of the deer size shifts is insolation-driven summer climate and its influence on food resources. In the Holocene, small deer size is correlated with high summer insolation and with low winter insolation. Climatic models indicate that in spite of changes in insolation, Holocene winters did not vary greatly through time, especially in contrast to summers, which were dynamic. Physiological constraints peculiar to O. virginianus make critical the quality of summer forage for determining final adult size. Summer temperature averaged 2°C warmer than present during the middle Holocene, which increased evaporation and probably reduced the period of availability of high-quality forage low in fiber and high in protein. Consequently, less fuel for growth was consumed by mid-Holocene deer and only small body size was achieved. Other possible causes (e.g., Bergmann's rule, seasonality) of clinal variation are considered with reference to central Illinois deer, but at present the most parsimonious explanation appears to be the summer insolation hypothesis.

  1. Cryopreservation of roe deer abomasal nematodes for morphological identification.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Paola; Pascotto, Ernesto

    2014-02-01

    Conventional methods to preserve adult nematodes for taxonomic purposes involve the use of fixative or clearing solutions (alcohol, formaldehyde, AFA and lactophenol), which cause morphological alterations and are toxic. The aim of this study is to propose an alternative method based on glycerol-cryopreservation of nematodes for their subsequent identification. Adults of trichostrongylid nematodes from the abomasum of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus) were glycerol-cryopreserved and compared with those fixed in formaldehyde, fresh and frozen without cryoprotectans. Morphology, transparency and elasticity of the anterior and posterior portion of male nematodes were compared, especially the caudal cuticular bursa and genital accessories. The method presented is quick and easy to use, and the quality of nematode specimens is better than that of nematodes fixed by previously used fixatives. Moreover, glycerol cryopreserved nematodes can be stored for a long time at -20 degrees C in perfect condition and they could be suitable for further analyses, such as histological or ultrastructural examinations.

  2. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Malmsten, Jonas; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Björkman, Camilla

    2011-05-11

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two coccidian parasites with a worldwide distribution. T. gondii is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses in the world and in young children and immunocompromised persons, infection can lead to severe disease and death. N. caninum is an important cause of abortions in cattle. Wildlife have been identified as reservoirs and transmitters for both parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences of T. gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Blood samples were collected from 417 moose during 2000-2005 and from 199 roe deer during 1990-2007. The samples were investigated for presence of antibodies by a T. gondii direct agglutination test and a N. caninum iscom ELISA. Because the iscom ELISA has not been validated for moose or roe deer, sera that gave a positive result were further investigated by immunoblot analysis to verify presence of antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (20%) and 68 (34%) moose and roe deer sera, respectively. In moose the seroprevalence was higher in south and central Sweden than in the north, whereas there was no difference between the regions for roe deer. Adult moose and roe deer had higher odds of being seropositive than young animals but there were no difference in seroprevalence between males and females. One roe deer was positive by immunoblotting and was regarded as N. caninum positive, whereas all moose sera were negative. The results show that T. gondii infection is widely spread in the Swedish moose and roe deer populations. Precautions should therefore be taken when handling internal organs and carcasses of harvested cervids. Proper handling and cooking of game meat also is important to prevent toxoplasmosis in humans.

  3. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R.; Baker, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  4. Evaluating the effect of predators on white-tailed deer: Movement and diet of coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, M.M.; Rockhill, A.P.; Deperno, C.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.; Jarding, A.R.; Grovenburg, T.W.; Pollock, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) may affect adult and neonate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) survival and have been implicated as a contributor to the decline of deer populations. Additionally, coyote diet composition is influenced by prey availability, season, and region. Because coyote movement and diet vary by region, local data are important to understand coyote population dynamics and their impact on prey species. In southeast Minnesota, we investigated the effect of coyotes on white-tailed deer populations by documenting movement rates, distances moved, and habitats searched by coyotes during fawning and non-fawning periods. Additionally, we determined survival, cause-specific mortality, and seasonal diet composition of coyotes. From 2001 to 2003, we captured and radiocollared 30 coyotes. Per-hour rate of movement averaged 0.87 km and was greater (P = 0.046) during the fawning (1.07 km) than the nonfawning period (0.80 km); areas searched were similar (P = 0.175) between seasons. Coyote habitat use differed during both seasons; habitats were not used in proportion to their availability (P < 0.001). Croplands were used more (P < 0.001) than their proportional availability during both seasons. Use of grasslands was greater during the fawning period (P = 0.030), whereas use of cropland was greater in the nonfawning period (P < 0.001). We collected 66 fecal samples during the nonfawning period; coyote diets were primarily composed of Microtus spp. (65.2%), and consumption of deer was 9.1%. During the study, 19 coyotes died; annual survival rate range was 0.33-0.41, which was low compared with other studies. Consumption of deer was low and coyotes searched open areas (i.e., cropland) more than fawning areas with dense cover. These factors in addition to high coyote mortality suggested that coyote predation was not likely limiting white-tailed deer populations in southeast Minnesota. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Epizootiology of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Bradley S.; Belser, Emily H.; Killmaster, Charlie H.; Bowers, John W.; Irwin, Brian J.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection byTrueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  6. EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF CRANIAL ABSCESS DISEASE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) OF GEORGIA, USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Killmaster, Charlie H; Bowers, John W; Irwin, Brian J; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  7. EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF CRANIAL ABSCESS DISEASE IN WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) OF GEORGIA, USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bradley S; Belser, Emily H; Killmaster, Charlie H; Bowers, John W; Irwin, Brian J; Yabsley, Michael J; Miller, Karl V

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection by Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted. PMID:25984774

  8. Estimating chronic wasting disease effects on mule deer recruitment and population growth.

    PubMed

    Dulberger, Jessie; Hobbs, N Thompson; Swanson, Heather M; Bishop, Chad J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), accelerates mortality and in so doing has the potential to influence population dynamics. Although effects on mule deer survival are clear, how CWD affects recruitment is less certain. We studied how prion infection influenced the number of offspring raised to weaning per adult (≥2 yr old) female mule deer and subsequently the estimated growth rate (λ) of an infected deer herd. Infected and presumably uninfected radio-collared female deer were observed with their fawns in late summer (August-September) during three consecutive years (2006-2008) in the Table Mesa area of Boulder, Colorado, USA. We counted the number of fawns accompanying each female, then used a fully Bayesian model to estimate recruitment by infected and uninfected females and the effect of the disease on λ. On average, infected females weaned 0.95 fawns (95% credible interval=0.56-1.43) whereas uninfected females weaned 1.34 fawns (95% credible interval=1.09-1.61); the probability that uninfected females weaned more fawns than infected females was 0.93). We used estimates of prevalence to weight recruitment and survival parameters in the transition matrix of a three-age, single-sex matrix model and then used the matrix to calculate effects of CWD on λ. When effects of CWD on both survival and recruitment were included, the modeled λ was 0.97 (95% credible interval = 0.82-1.09). Effects of disease on λ were mediated almost entirely by elevated mortality of infected animals. We conclude that although CWD may affect mule deer recruitment, these effects seem to be sufficiently small that they can be omitted in estimating the influences of CWD on population growth rate.

  9. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  10. Getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the Scottish Highlands by managing red deer

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Zou, James; Coomes, David A

    2013-01-01

    High deer populations threaten the conservation value of woodlands and grasslands, but predicting the success of deer culling, in terms of allowing vegetation to recover, is difficult. Numerical simulation modeling is one approach to gain insight into the outcomes of management scenarios. We develop a spatially explicit model to predict the responses of Betula spp. to red deer (Cervus elaphus) and land management in the Scottish Highlands. Our model integrates a Bayesian stochastic stage-based matrix model within the framework of a widely used individual-based forest simulation model, using data collected along spatial and temporal gradients in deer browsing. By initializing our model with the historical spatial locations of trees, we find that densities of juvenile trees (<3 m tall) predicted after 9–13 years closely match counts observed in the field. This is among the first tests of the accuracy of a dynamical simulation model for predicting the responses of tree regeneration to herbivores. We then test the relative importance of deer browsing, ground cover vegetation, and seed availability in facilitating landscape-level birch regeneration using simulations in which we varied these three variables. We find that deer primarily control transitions of birch to taller (>3 m) height tiers over 30 years, but regeneration also requires suitable ground cover for seedling establishment. Densities of adult seed sources did not influence regeneration, nor did an active management scenario where we altered the spatial configuration of adults by creating “woodland islets”. Our results show that managers interested in maximizing tree regeneration cannot simply reduce deer densities but must also improve ground cover for seedling establishment, and the model we develop now enables managers to quantify explicitly how much both these factors need to be altered. More broadly, our findings emphasize the need for land managers to consider the impacts of large herbivores

  11. Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; Loftis, Amanda D; Little, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA. The infected goat exhibited pyrexia and mild clinical pathologic abnormalities consistent with ehrlichiosis. At least two other Ehrlichia species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii) are maintained in nature by a cycle involving LSTs as the primary vector and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) as a known or suspected reservoir. To investigate the possibility that white-tailed deer are potential hosts of the PM Ehrlichia sp., whole blood samples collected from 87 wild deer from 2000 to 2002 were screened with a species-specific nested PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene. In addition, two laboratory-raised white-tailed deer fawns were each infested with 120 wild-caught LST adults from Missouri, USA, and blood samples were periodically collected and tested for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Of 87 deer tested from 20 locations in the southeastern United States, three (3%) deer from Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia were positive for the PM Ehrlichia sp. Wild-caught ticks transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to one of two deer fawns, and colony-reared nymphal LSTs acquired the organism from the deer, maintained it transstadially as they molted to adults, and transmitted the PM Ehrlichia sp. to two naïve fawns. These findings indicate that white-tailed deer are naturally and experimentally susceptible to infection with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to E. ruminantium and are able to serve as a source of infection to LSTs. PMID:18436670

  12. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  13. Aggressive defensive behavior by free-ranging white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Swanson, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal investment plays a critical role in neonate survival, and adults can improve survival of offspring by defending them against predators. However, limited information exists documenting ungulate aggression toward humans in defense of neonates. During captures of neonates in spring 2007 and 2008 in north-central South Dakota, we documented 24 aggressive encounters by adult female and yearling male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) defending neonates. Eleven (45.8%) aggressive encounters included yearlings accompanying adult females. Mean ages and weights of neonates that were aggressively defended were greater (P < 0.0001) than ages and weights of those that were not; adults began protecting neonates at approximately 4 days of age. Male fawns were more likely (P = 0.013) to be defended than female fawns. Examination of our data suggests that sex- and age-biased maternal defensive behavior exists in white-tailed deer, and that deer biased maternal investment toward older, male neonates. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. DETAILS FOR SCREENING MACHINERY, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, DECEMBER 1909. Aperture card 6611-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. OUTLET (FOREGROUND) AND WEIR (BACKGROUND) OF DEER FLAT CALDWELL CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  17. 29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING IDAHO-SHAPED ROCKS FLANKING ENTRANCE TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  18. 16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF OUTLET OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON DOWNSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT (NOTE TWO FILLED-IN PORTALS). VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  19. 32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLANT AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, JULY 1898 SHEET NO. 1. Aperture card 4966-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%).

  1. Authenticity control of game meat products--a single method to detect and quantify adulteration of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Druml, Barbara; Grandits, Stephanie; Mayer, Walter; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-03-01

    This contribution presents a single real-time PCR assay allowing the determination of the deer content (the sum of fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon)) in meat products to detect food adulteration. The PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with 20 animal species and 43 botanical species potentially contained in game meat products. The limit of quantification is 0.5% for fallow deer and red deer and 0.1% for sika deer. The deer content in meat products is determined by relating the concentration obtained with the deer PCR assay to that obtained with a reference system which amplifies mammals and poultry DNA. The analysis of binary meat mixtures with pork, a meat mixture containing equal amounts of fallow deer, red deer and sika deer in pork and a model game sausage showed that the quantification approach is very accurate (systematic error generally <25%). PMID:25306377

  2. Compensatory mortality in mule deer populations. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.

    1985-08-31

    In the fall of 1984 sixty fawns were radio collared on both the C-b Tract and Little Hills study areas, bringing the total instrumented population in Piceance Basin to 160 at the onset of winter. Deer show strong fidelity to both their individual summer and winter ranges and appear to use the same migratory route to travel between the two. Adult doe winter survival was 85% for the instrumented C-b Tract population and 100% for Little Hills animals. Fawn survival was 9% for the C-b Tract animals and 31% for Little Hills animals. The high fawn mortality for C-b Tract animals is attributed to an increase in predation rates from an average of 44% of the instrumented population during winters 1980 to 1981 through 1983 to 1984 to 77% this past winter. Both coyotes and bobcats were responsible for the increased predation. For the third consecutive year at least 40 to 50% of the instrumented fawns in the Little Hills area succumbed to starvation. These relatively high losses even during ''normal'' winters (1982 to 1983 and 1984 to 1985) suggest that adequate forage may not be available for the number of deer wintering on the Little Hills range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  4. Anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract in free-living axis deer (Axis axis).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Erdogan, S; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-02-01

    The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach and intestines of adult axis deer (Axis axis), a cervid species considered intermediate/mixed feeder, was observed and recorded. Nine adult wild axis deers of both sexes were used and studied by simple dissection. The ruminal papillae were distributed unevenly in the overall area of the inner surface of rumen and primarily were more large and abundant within the atrium. The ruminal pillars had no papillae. There was an additional ruminal pillar located between the right longitudinal and right coronary ventral pillars connected to the caudal pillar. No dorsal coronary pillars were found, and the ventral coronary pillars are connected. The reticulum was the third compartment in size, and the maximum height of the reticular crests was 1.0 mm. The Cellulae reticuli were not divided and rarely contained secondary crests. There were no Papillae unguiculiformes. The omasum was the smallest gastric compartment. The abomasum had about twelve spiral plicae, and a small pyloric torus was present. The intraruminal papillation was similar to those species that are characterized by a higher proportion of grass in their natural diet. The finding of the small reticular crests is typical for browser ruminants and was coincident with data reported for other deer. The comparative ratio of the small intestine to the large intestine was 1.69, in terms of length measurements in axis deer and appears below of the 'browser range'. We concluded that the gastrointestinal system of axis deer reflected similar morphological characteristics of the both types of ruminants: browser and grazer, and we consider it as an intermediate feeder.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Alpine Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Its Spread and Effects on Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Pedrotti, Luca; Gaffuri, Alessandra; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferrari, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the depth of knowledge on the pathological effects of parasitism in domestic animals, the impact of the vast majority of parasites on wildlife hosts is poorly understood and, besides, information from domestics is rarely usable to disclose the parasites’ impact on free-ranging populations’ dynamics. Here we use Toxoplasmosis as a study model since, until now, the infection process and the protozoan’s effects in natural conditions has received little attention. We analysed 81 sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) sampled in Italian Alps and through generalized linear models we evaluated (1) the epidemiological factors influencing T. gondii infection dynamics; (2) its impact on female fertility. High seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was recorded in yearling (1 year-old; prevalence = 52.4%) and adult (>2 year-old; prevalence = 51.3%) red deer, while calves (<1 year-old) did not contract the infection suggesting horizontal transmission as the main route of infection. The stable prevalence between yearlings and adults and the higher serological titres of younger individuals lead to two alternative infection processes suggesting a difference between age classes or in acquiring the infection or in responding to the pathogen. No associations between T. gondii serological titres and pregnancy status was observed indicating no direct effect on the probability of being pregnant; nevertheless a relation between females’ higher serological titres and lower foetal development emerged, suggesting potential effects of the parasite infection on deer reproduction. The results demonstrate high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in free-ranging red deer and, furthermore, the effect on foetal development suggests the potential impact of the parasite on red deer fertility and thus on its population dynamics. PMID:26405785

  6. Rumen microbial ecology in mule deer.

    PubMed

    Pearson, H A

    1969-06-01

    Mule deer rumen microbial populations from animals in the natural habitat in Utah and from captive deer fed various rations were studied. The microorganisms were characterized on the basis of morphology and Gram reaction. Rumen samples contained 13 identifiable types of bacteria and one genus of ciliate protozoa (Entodinium). Highest rumen bacterial populations were produced on rations containing barley. No differences in proportions of ruminal bacteria in the various morphological groups could be detected when animals were fed either natural browse plants or alfalfa hay. The total numbers of bacteria were similar for animals feeding on controlled diets of browse or hay and those in the natural habitat. Numbers of some bacterial types were directly related to ciliate protozoal numbers, whereas others were inversely related. Highest rumen ciliate protozoal populations were observed on rations containing barley. No differences in protozoal populations were noted between diets containing only browse or hay. Seasonal variations were noted in ciliate protozoal numbers from deer feeding in the natural habitat. The total number of ciliate protozoa decreased in the fall and winter and remained low until spring. There were indications that salt in the deer diet favorably affected rumen ciliate protozoa. Rather than revealing direct deer management applications, this study serves to stimulate and illuminate new approaches to research in range and wildlife nutrition.

  7. Persistent pruritic papules from deer ked bites.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, T; Reunala, T; Vuojolahti, P; Hackman, W

    1982-01-01

    Deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), a haematophagous louse fly of deer, also attacks man and can cause persistent pruritic papules. Nineteen patients with this conditions were examined. They suffered attacks while carrying out their work, or merely walking, in forested areas. The bite papules appeared mostly on the head and back. They were very itchy and resistant to treatment and persisted from 2 weeks up to 12 months. Histologically, a typical insect bite reaction was found without any signs of retained deer ked mouth parts. Direct immunofluorescence showed deposits of C3 in dermal vessel walls in 7 of the 11 papules examined. Skin tests with a deer ked whole body extract were positive in all patients tested, showing both immediate and delayed reactions. Moreover, 57% of the patients tested had elevated serum IgE levels. All these findings suggest that IgE, complement and cell-mediated immune mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of deer ked bite reactions. PMID:6183862

  8. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of hybridization between sympatric white-tailed deer and mule deer in west Texas.

    PubMed

    Carr, S M; Ballinger, S W; Derr, J N; Blankenship, L H; Bickham, J W

    1986-12-01

    Sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus virginianus and Odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west Texas ranch share a common mitochondrial DNA restriction map genotype. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of O. virginianus than of O. hemionus. The genotype of west Texas deer differs from that of O. virginianus from South Carolina by five mutational events (1.3% sequence divergence), whereas it differs from that of O. hemionus from California by 17 events (5.5% divergence). We suggest that interspecies hybridization has occurred, primarily between mule deer bucks and white-tailed deer does, with preferential absorption of hybrid offspring into the mule deer gene pool. Introgressive hybridization may be involved in ongoing displacement of mule deer by white-tailed deer in west Texas.

  9. 27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1895 Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station) - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Supplier Education--Deere & Company Partners with Black Hawk College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Describes the partnership between Deere & Company and Black Hawk College that provided a training program for John Deere suppliers, resulting in a cost-effective approach to upgrading supplier skills and improving Deere product quality. Lists benefits of supplier development and training. (YKH)

  11. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited.

  12. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in endangered Florida Key deer and Key deer habitat.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heidi L; Yabsley, Michael J; Keel, M Kevin; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Wilmers, Thomas J; Corn, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited. PMID:24506424

  13. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (<2-year-old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin, USA. We evaluated how frequency-dependent, density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  14. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kjelland, Vivian; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Stuen, Snorre; Skarpaas, Tone; Slettan, Audun

    2011-06-01

    As part of a larger survey, ears from 18 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 52 moose (Alces alces) shot in the 2 southernmost counties in Norway were collected and examined for Ixodes ricinus ticks. Seventy-two adult ticks, 595 nymphs, and 267 larvae from the roe deer, and 182 adult ticks, 433 nymphs, and 70 larvae from the moose were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). The results showed the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA in 2.9% of the nymphs collected from roe deer and in 4.4% of the nymphs and 6.0% of the adults collected from moose. The spirochetes were not detected in adult ticks from roe deer, or in larvae feeding on roe deer or moose. In comparison, the mean infection prevalences in questing I. ricinus collected from the same geographical area were 0.5% infection in larvae, 24.5% in nymphs, and 26.9% in adults. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in ticks collected from roe deer was B. afzelii (76.5%), followed by B. garinii (17.6%), and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (5.9%). Only B. afzelii (76.7%) and B. garinii (23.3%) were detected in ticks collected from moose. The present study indicates a lower prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in I. ricinus ticks feeding on roe deer and moose compared to questing ticks. This is the first study to report B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in ticks removed from cervids in Norway.

  15. Gene Expression of Axon Growth Promoting Factors in the Deer Antler

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Fernández-Martos, Carmen; Yunta, Mónica; Maza, Rodrigo M.; Navarro-Ruiz, Rosa; Lopez-Rodríguez, Marcos Javier; Reigada, David; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Nieto-Diaz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla) antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus). Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin. PMID:21187928

  16. Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila.

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. P.; Walker, A. R.; Urquhart, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of blood, spleen and legs from 112 culled roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were collected from nine sites widespread in the United Kingdom. The prevalence of infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction. Means of 58% of 102 plasma or serum samples were seroreactive by IFA, 38% of 84 blood samples and 29% of 82 spleen samples were positive by PCR. Ticks on legs of 71 roe deer were Ixodes ricinus larvae, nymphs and adults and 83% of legs were infested. Numbers of ticks corresponded positively to the percentage of samples positive for E. phagocytophila by serology and PCR for different sampling sites. Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from the vegetation at one site with infected deer were analysed for infection with E. phagocytophila by examination of Feulgen stained salivary glands. Of 135 nymphs 5% were infected. These results confirm that roe deer are commonly parasitized by both E. phagocytophila and its vector tick in such a way that it is likely to be an important natural mammalian reservoir of E. phagocytophila. PMID:10813158

  17. Bot fly larvae (Cephenemyia spp., Oestridae) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Utah.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D C; Bunch, T D

    1989-10-01

    Ninety-nine mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from four Utah counties (Cache, Utah, Sanpete and Sevier) were examined for larvae of Cephenemyia spp. in 1985 and 1986. Numbers of first, second and third stage bot fly instars were related to age, sex, year and geographic location of the mule deer. Fawns and adult deer greater than or equal to 5.5 yr had a significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) higher intensity (means = 37 and means = 68, respectively) of infection than the 1.5- and 2.5-yr-old age groups (means = 19 and means = 26, respectively). Infection by larvae was not significantly different between sexes. Infection was 100% in both years, but the mean intensity was significantly lower in 1986 (P less than 0.05). The decline may be related to differences in soil moisture between the 2 years. In 1985, 82% of the deer examined were infected with all three instars. Seventy-seven percent of all first instar larvae were observed in the trachea, usually in the fold immediately posterior to the epiglottis and corniculate cartilages. This new site of attachment for first instar larvae has not previously been recognized. PMID:2810568

  18. Bot fly larvae (Cephenemyia spp., Oestridae) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Utah.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D C; Bunch, T D

    1989-10-01

    Ninety-nine mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from four Utah counties (Cache, Utah, Sanpete and Sevier) were examined for larvae of Cephenemyia spp. in 1985 and 1986. Numbers of first, second and third stage bot fly instars were related to age, sex, year and geographic location of the mule deer. Fawns and adult deer greater than or equal to 5.5 yr had a significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) higher intensity (means = 37 and means = 68, respectively) of infection than the 1.5- and 2.5-yr-old age groups (means = 19 and means = 26, respectively). Infection by larvae was not significantly different between sexes. Infection was 100% in both years, but the mean intensity was significantly lower in 1986 (P less than 0.05). The decline may be related to differences in soil moisture between the 2 years. In 1985, 82% of the deer examined were infected with all three instars. Seventy-seven percent of all first instar larvae were observed in the trachea, usually in the fold immediately posterior to the epiglottis and corniculate cartilages. This new site of attachment for first instar larvae has not previously been recognized.

  19. White-Tailed Deer Vigilance: The Influence of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lashley, Marcus A; Chitwood, M. Colter; Biggerstaff, Michael T.; Morina, Daniel L.; Moorman, Christopher E.; DePerno, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Vigilance behavior may directly affect fitness of prey animals, and understanding factors influencing vigilance may provide important insight into predator-prey interactions. We used 40,540 pictures taken withcamera traps in August 2011 and 2012to evaluate factors influencing individual vigilance behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) while foraging at baited sites. We used binary logistic regression to determine if individual vigilance was affected by age, sex, and group size. Additionally, we evaluated whether the time of the day,moon phase,and presence of other non-predatorwildlife species impacted individual vigilance. Juveniles were 11% less vigilant at baited sites than adults. Females were 46% more vigilant when fawns were present. Males and females spent more time feeding as group size increased, but with each addition of 1 individual to a group, males increased feeding time by nearly double that of females. Individual vigilance fluctuated with time of day andwith moon phase but generally was least during diurnal and moonlit nocturnal hours, indicating deer have the ability to adjust vigilance behavior to changing predation risk associated with varyinglight intensity.White-tailed deer increased individual vigilance when other non-predator wildlife were present. Our data indicate that differential effects of environmental and social constraints on vigilance behavior between sexes may encourage sexual segregation in white-tailed deer. PMID:24599090

  20. Response of urinary hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary hydroxyproline of nine captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from 23 February to 3 May 1984 in northern Minnesota. In the fasted group, mean hydroxyproline:creatinine (OHP:C) was greater (P less than 0.05) at week 4 compared to baseline at week 0. Between fasted deer and deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) and low protein-high energy (LPHE) diets, no difference in OHP:C ratios was detected during the initial 4 wk of the study. Urinary OHP:C ratios were significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the fasted group during refeeding, concomitant with greater feed consumption and weight gain. There was also a significant (P less than 0.02) time effect in the fasted-refed group; OHP:C ratios increased during these two phases of the study. There was no difference between the HPHE and LPHE fed deer in renal OHP excretion. However, mean OHP:C ratios in yearlings (16.8 +/- 2.2) were greater (P less than 0.001) than in the adults (7.5 +/- 1.2) of those groups, indicating a higher collagen turnover rate. Urinary OHP:C shows potential as an indicator of growth and starvation, and the data presented may serve as reference values.

  1. Associating seasonal range characteristics with survival of female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.; Deperno, C.S.; Griffin, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Delineating populations is critical for understanding population dynamics and managing habitats. Our objective was to delineate subpopulations of migratory female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, USA, on summer and winter ranges. We used fuzzy classification to assign radiocollared deer to subpopulations based on spatial location, characterized subpopulations by trapping sites, and explored relationships among survival of subpopulations and habitat variables. In winter, Kaplan-Meier estimates for subpopulations indicated 2 groups: high (S = 0.991 ?? 0.005 [x- ?? SE]) and low (S = 0.968 ?? 0.007) weekly survivorship. Survivorship increased with basal area per hectare of trees, average diameter at breast height of trees, percent cover of slash, and total point-center quarter distance of trees. Cover of grass and forbs were less for the high survivorship than the lower survivorship group. In summer, deer were spaced apart with mixed associations among subpopulations. Habitat manipulations that promote or maintain large trees (i.e., basal area = 14.8 m2/ha and average dbh of trees = 8.3 cm) would seem to improve adult survival of deer in winter.

  2. Elaeophorosis in Barbary sheep and mule deer from the Texas Panhandle.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Gray, G G

    1981-01-01

    Adult Elaeophora schneideri were recovered from the common carotid artery and its branches in 14 of 14 mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, and 3 of 9 Barbary sheep or aoudads, Ammotragus lervia, from Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Gross cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis in the Barbary sheep varied from small circumscribed scars up to 10 cm in diameter usually on the poll or orbital region to extensive proliferative irregular encrustations on the frontal, temporal and orbital regions, sometimes extending to the ears and muzzle. Individual lesions varied from slate-gray scarred areas to brown proliferative edematous and hyperemic encrustations, sometimes with depigmented pustules a few millimeters in diameter. Microscopic lesions ranged from granulation tissue to severe pyogranulomatous reactions with neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells as the primary infiltration. Foreign body giant cells and/or microfilariae were not observed. Microscopic changes in the carotid arteries and their branches were limited to small villous projections on the intimal surface apparently resulting from medial hyperplasia. Cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis were not observed in mule deer. Histopathologic lesions in the carotid arteries of mule deer were similar to those observed in Barbary sheep. The comparative pathology of elaeophorosis in various hosts is reviewed and discussed in terms of its pathology in Barbary sheep. The potential ramifications of this infection on the expanding aoudad population in the southwestern United States require that elaeophorosis be considered in the management of this species, particularly in areas with sympatric mule deer populations.

  3. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture.

  4. Sex and age differences in meat composition of Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) reared for a short period after capture in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maki; Souma, Kousaku; Sugo, Kazuki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Ishizaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Masami; Kasai, Takamasa; Masuko, Takayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Yeso sika deer captured in winter around Lake Akan in Hokkaido were reared for 8-10 months at Tokyo University of Agriculture in Abashiri. Six 1-year-old females and males and six 2-year-old or older (adult) females and males were slaughtered and their carcasses were processed. The chemical composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the loin were measured. No marked influence of gender or age was noted in the chemical composition of loin. In the mineral contents, significant differences were noted. The potassium and sulfur contents were lower and the sodium content was higher in adult deer meat (P < 0.05, respectively) and the potassium content was higher in male deer meat (P < 0.05). Arsenic, cadmium or lead were not detected. In the unsaturated fatty acid, a significant interaction was detected (P < 0.05), and it was high in 1-year-old female deer meat and low in 1-year-old male deer meat. Significant gender or age differences were noted only in the mineral contents in the loin of deer reared for a short period after capture. PMID:25186458

  5. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa C; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running") bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  6. Potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) population irruptions holds public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa C; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running") bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food.

  7. Potential Role of Masting by Introduced Bamboos in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) Population Irruptions Holds Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Melissa C.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Mack, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant Asian bamboos in North America could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. More specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic (“running”) bamboo within Pacific Northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a hantavirus carrier. Single-choice and cafeteria-style feeding trials were conducted for deer mice with seeds of two bamboo species (Bambusa distegia and Yushania brevipaniculata), wheat, Pinus ponderosa, and native mixed diets compared to rodent laboratory feed. Adult deer mice consumed bamboo seeds as readily as they consumed native seeds. In the cafeteria-style feeding trials, Y. brevipaniculata seeds were consumed at the same rate as native seeds but more frequently than wheat seeds or rodent laboratory feed. Females produced a median litter of 4 pups on a bamboo diet. Given the ability of deer mice to reproduce frequently whenever food is abundant, we employed our feeding trial results in a modified Rosenzweig-MacArthur consumer-resource model to project the population-level response of deer mice to a suddenly available/rapidly depleted supply of bamboo seeds. The simulations predict rodent population irruptions and declines similar to reported cycles involving Asian and South American rodents but unprecedented in deer mice. Following depletion of a mast seed supply, the incidence of Sin Nombre Virus (SNV) transmission to humans could subsequently rise with dispersal of the peridomestic deer mice into nearby human settlements seeking food. PMID:25898267

  8. Modeled Impacts of Chronic Wasting Disease on White-Tailed Deer in a Semi-Arid Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, David G.; DeYoung, Charles A.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Schnupp, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    White-tailed deer are a culturally and economically important game species in North America, especially in South Texas. The recent discovery of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in captive deer facilities in Texas has increased concern about the potential emergence of CWD in free-ranging deer. The concern is exacerbated because much of the South Texas region is a semi-arid environment with variable rainfall, where precipitation is strongly correlated with fawn recruitment. Further, the marginally productive rangelands, in combination with erratic fawn recruitment, results in populations that are frequently density-independent, and thus sensitive to additive mortality. It is unknown how a deer population in semi-arid regions would respond to the presence of CWD. We used long-term empirical datasets from a lightly harvested (2% annual harvest) population in conjunction with 3 prevalence growth rates from CWD afflicted areas (0.26%, 0.83%, and 2.3% increases per year) via a multi-stage partially deterministic model to simulate a deer population for 25 years under four scenarios: 1) without CWD and without harvest, 2) with CWD and without harvest, 3) with CWD and male harvest only, and 4) with CWD and harvest of both sexes. The modeled populations without CWD and without harvest averaged a 1.43% annual increase over 25 years; incorporation of 2% annual harvest of both sexes resulted in a stable population. The model with slowest CWD prevalence rate growth (0.26% annually) without harvest resulted in stable populations but the addition of 1% harvest resulted in population declines. Further, the male age structure in CWD models became skewed to younger age classes. We incorporated fawn:doe ratios from three CWD afflicted areas in Wisconsin and Wyoming into the model with 0.26% annual increase in prevalence and populations did not begin to decline until ~10%, ~16%, and ~26% of deer were harvested annually. Deer populations in variable environments rely on high adult

  9. The phylogenetic position of the 'giant deer' Megaloceros giganteus.

    PubMed

    Lister, A M; Edwards, C J; Nock, D A W; Bunce, M; van Pijlen, I A; Bradley, D G; Thomas, M G; Barnes, I

    2005-12-01

    The giant deer, or 'Irish elk', has featured extensively in debates on adaptation, sexual selection, and extinction. Its huge antlers--the largest of any deer species, living or extinct--formed a focus of much past work. Yet the phylogenetic position of the giant deer has remained an enigma. On the basis of its flattened antlers, the species was previously regarded as closely related to the living fallow deer. Recent morphological studies, however, have challenged that view and placed the giant deer closer to the living red deer or wapiti. Here we present a new phylogenetic analysis encompassing morphological and DNA sequence evidence, and find that both sets of data independently support a sister-group relationship of giant and fallow deer. Our results include the successful extraction and sequencing of DNA from this extinct species, and highlight the value of a joint molecular and morphological approach.

  10. Density of Ixodes scapularis ticks on Monhegan Island after complete deer removal: a question of avian importation?

    PubMed

    Elias, Susan P; Smith, Robert P; Morris, Sara R; Rand, Peter W; Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H

    2011-06-01

    Questing adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) abundance declined markedly three years after the 1999 removal of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) from Monhegan Island, ME. Since 2000, subadult ticks have not been found on Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout); questing nymphs have not been found since 2002. This suggested I. scapularis was reintroduced annually via bird importation of subadult ticks, but unable to complete its two-year life cycle on the island due to lack of deer. To investigate this, we used uncertainty analysis to estimate 1) questing adult ticks/ha that would result from avian importation of nymphs, and 2) questing adult ticks/ha on Monhegan Island, using bird capture and tick burden data from Appledore Island, ME, flagged tick data from Monhegan Island, and ten uncertain parameters. During the deer-fed period (1990-2001), estimated tick density on Monhegan Island was 18 times greater than that of imported ticks. During the post-deer-fed period (2002-2008), Monhegan Island tick density was equivalent to imported tick density. This supported the premise that all I. scapularis ticks on Monhegan Island have been bird-derived since 2002. PMID:21635637

  11. AGE AND REPEATED BIOPSY INFLUENCE ANTEMORTEM PRP(CWD) TESTING IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS) IN COLORADO, USA.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Chris; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Wolfe, Lisa L; Galloway, Nathan L; Antolin, Michael F; Spraker, Terry R; Miller, Michael W; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-10-01

    Biopsy of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue provides a useful, but imperfect, live-animal test for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). It is difficult and expensive to complete these tests on free-ranging animals, and wildlife health managers will benefit from methods that can accommodate test results of varying quality. To this end, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the probability that an individual is infected based on test results. Our model was estimated with the use of data on 210 adult female mule deer repeatedly tested during 2010-14. The ability to identify infected individuals correctly declined with age and may have been influenced by repeated biopsy. Fewer isolated lymphoid follicles (where PrP(CWD) accumulates) were obtained in biopsies of older deer and the proportion of follicles showing PrP(CWD) was reduced. A deer's genotype in the prion gene (PRNP) also influenced detection. At least five follicles were needed in a biopsy to assure a 95% accurate test in PRNP genotype 225SS deer. PMID:26251986

  12. AGE AND REPEATED BIOPSY INFLUENCE ANTEMORTEM PRP(CWD) TESTING IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS) IN COLORADO, USA.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Chris; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Wolfe, Lisa L; Galloway, Nathan L; Antolin, Michael F; Spraker, Terry R; Miller, Michael W; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-10-01

    Biopsy of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue provides a useful, but imperfect, live-animal test for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). It is difficult and expensive to complete these tests on free-ranging animals, and wildlife health managers will benefit from methods that can accommodate test results of varying quality. To this end, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the probability that an individual is infected based on test results. Our model was estimated with the use of data on 210 adult female mule deer repeatedly tested during 2010-14. The ability to identify infected individuals correctly declined with age and may have been influenced by repeated biopsy. Fewer isolated lymphoid follicles (where PrP(CWD) accumulates) were obtained in biopsies of older deer and the proportion of follicles showing PrP(CWD) was reduced. A deer's genotype in the prion gene (PRNP) also influenced detection. At least five follicles were needed in a biopsy to assure a 95% accurate test in PRNP genotype 225SS deer.

  13. Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Gese, E.M.; Seal, U.S.

    1992-01-01

    Weights, hematology, and serum profIles of white-tailed does in the central Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota were examined year-around to determine seasonal patterns of nutritional condition and metabolism. Deer were initially captured by Clover trap or rocket net. Between 15 February 1989 and 23 January 1990, we recaptured 12 adult (> 1.5 years) female deer 1-9 times each (a total of 59 recaptures) using a radio-controlled capture collar. Monthly weights of deer exhibited a cyclic seasonal pattern. Mean weight declined 22 % from February to an annual minimum during May, then steadily increased 45 % to a maximum in October. Seasonal patterns were most evident for hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, packed cell volume, serum total protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the urea N to creatinine ratio, triiodothyronine, cortisol, and potassium. Wide seasonal variations of these characteristics were indicative of shifts in the deer's metabolic physiology. Although seasonal metabolic shifts are partially attributable to an endogenous rhythm, the intensity of, their expression was most likely affected by nutritional changes and concomitant alterations of body condition. Annual changes in seasonal trends of blood characteristics may be useful in investigating nutritional effects of specific environmental and demographic factors. We compare our findings with those reported for deer on ranges farther south.

  14. Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, R.E.; Rutberg, A.T.; Underwood, H.B.; Turner, J.W.; Liu, I.K.; Kirkpatrick, J.F.; Lasley, B.L.; Allen, W.R.; Doberska, C.

    2002-01-01

    Application of contraception for the control of suburban populations of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has been much debated, but few data are available on field applications and even fewer on population effects. Between 1993 and 1997, 74-164 individually known female deer living on Fire Island, New York, USA, were treated remotely with an initial shot of 65 microg porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in Freund's complete adjuvant followed by booster injections of 65 microg PZP in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Starting in 1996, progressively increasing numbers of deer were treated with vaccinating/marking darts. Estimates of population density and composition, using distance sampling methods, began in 1995 in selected portions of the study area. Between 1993 and 1997, fawning rates among individually known, treated adult females decreased by 78.9% from pretreatment rates. Population density in the most heavily treated area increased by 11% per year from 1995 to March 1998 and then decreased at 23% per year to October 2000. In 1999-2000 surveys, fawns comprised 13-14% of the total population in the most heavily treated area, versus 16-33% in nearby untreated areas. These results show that PZP can be delivered effectively to sufficient deer to affect population density and composition in some environments, but that technical and logistical improvements are needed before contraception can be used widely to manage suburban deer populations.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  16. The content of selected metals in muscles of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Poland.

    PubMed

    Skibniewski, Michał; Skibniewska, Ewa M; Kośla, Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba in the muscles of red deer that were hunted in two regions of Poland (south-western and north-eastern). The data obtained were evaluated with regards to benefits and potential risk to consumers' health. Samples for the investigations were collected in 2008 and 2009 from 50 female red deer, and the metal concentrations were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) method. The mean concentrations of Pb did not differ statistically between regions and were equal to that permitted for farm animals. The results of this study support the conclusion that the meat of the analysed animals does not pose a risk of lead intoxication. Statistically higher mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were found in the muscles of red deer from the south-western region (namely, 2.99 and 25.78 mg kg(-1)) than those in animals from north-eastern Poland (namely, 2.61 and 23.39 mg kg(-1) wet weight). In terms of human nutritional needs, the meat of red deer can be considered as a good source of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations did not differ statistically between regions. Their mean concentrations were 4.50, 0.09, 0.16 and 0.31 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Although high Cs, Sr and Ba concentrations were found, the meat of red deer does not pose a risk for adult consumers. Only high Ba content may potentially result in negative health effects for children.

  17. Movement behavior, dispersal, and the potential for localized management of deer in a suburban environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.; Woodard, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the potential for localized management of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to be successful by measuring movements, testing site fidelity, and modeling the effects of dispersal. Fifty-nine females were radiomarked and tracked during 1997 through 2000 in Irondequoit, New York, USA, a suburb of Rochester. We constructed home ranges for those deer with A greater than or equal to 18 reclocations/season. Fifty percent minimum convex polygons (MCP) averaged 3.9 (SE = 0.53) ha in the summer and 5.3 (SE = 0.80) ha in the winter. Deer showed strong fidelity to both summer and winter home ranges, and 30 of 31 females showed overlap of summer and winter home ranges. Annual survival was 64%; the major cause of mortality was deer-automobile collisions. Average annual dispersal rates were <15% for yearlings and adults. Using matrix population modeling, we explored the role of female dispersal in sustaining different management objectives in adjacent locales of approximately 1,000 ha. Modeling showed that if female dispersal was 8%, culling would have to reduce annual survival to 58% to maintain a population just under ecological carrying capacity and reduce survival to 42% to keel) the population at one-half carrying capacity. With the same dispersal, contraception Would need to be effective in 32% of females if the population is near carrying capacity and 68% if the population is at one-half of carrying capacity. Movement behavior data and modeling results lend support to the use of a localized approach to management of females that emphasizes neighborhood-scale manipulation of deer populations, but our research suggests that dispersal rates in females could be critical to long-term success.

  18. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    A psychological/ritual model of criticism is used to examine the movie "The Deer Hunter" as a rhetorical event in which males undergo psychological change through their war and postwar experiences. The critical model depends on understanding a Jungian interpretation of the human psyche, the form and function of initiation rituals, and the…

  19. Levels of infection, pathology and nodule size of Onchocerca flexuosa (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) from northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, M R; Martínez, A; Carreño, R A; González, S; Ferreras, M C; Díez, N

    2015-05-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, the presence of Onchocerca flexuosa (Wedl, 1856) was discovered and investigated in 110 red deer (Cervus elaphus) shot in the Riaño Regional Hunting Reserve, in the province of León (north-western Spain). Nodules containing O. flexuosa were located in the dorsal region and flanks of the deer. These were collected and measured, and some adult parasites were extracted from the nodules and identified by morphology and by obtaining mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequences, which were identical to those of previously published sequences for O. flexuosa. Some nodules were prepared for histology, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Histologically, the worms were found in several compartments separated by an infiltrated fibrous tissue. These compartments were inhabited by several females and males, surrounded by a fibrous capsule. A total of 85.45% (95% confidence interval (CI): 78.86-92.04%) of red deer were parasitized, with a mean intensity of 9.53 ± 12.27 nodules/host, ranging between 1 and 74 nodules/deer. Significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between young and adult red deer, and also between seasons. However, no significant differences between males and females were observed. Five hundred and ninety-seven nodules were measured (15.81 ± 3.94 mm) and classified by sizes into small ( < 10 mm), medium (10-20 mm) and large (>20 mm). No relation was found between the size of the nodules and the time of infection. The high values found in the studied parameters show that northern Spain is an area of high-intensity infection for deer.

  20. DNA barcoding revises a misidentification on musk deer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengzhong; Xiao, Zhen; Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yang, Bo; Hao, Yinghong; Moermond, Timothy; Yue, Bisong

    2015-08-01

    As an endangered animal group in China, musk deer (genus Moschus) have attracted the attention of deer biologists and wildlife conservationists. Clarifying the taxonomic status and distribution of musk deer species is important to determine the conservation status for each species and establish appropriate conservation strategies. There remains some uncertainty about the species determination of the musk deer in the Guandi Forest District of Shanxi Province, China. The musk deer in Shanxi would appear to represent an extension of the geographical distribution of either the Forest Musk Deer from the southwest or the Siberian Musk Deer from the northeast, or possibly both. The musk deer population in Shanxi Province provides an interesting and significant case to test the value of applying molecular methods to make a genetic species identification. In order to clarify the species status of the Shanxi musk deer, we sequenced 627 bp of the COI gene and ≈723 bp of the D-loop gene in 12 musk deer samples collected from the Guandi Forest District, and the two reference samples collected from Sichuan. Genetic analyses from the data suggest that all of the samples from the Guandi Forest District are M. berezovskii rather than M. moschiferus. It is most likely that the most previous studies had wrong species identification. And it is the first time we use DNA barcoding to prove that Shanxi is a new distribution of M. berezovskii.

  1. Experimental Fascioloides magna infections of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Foreyt, W J

    1992-04-01

    Six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), approximately 5-mo-old, each were inoculated orally with 500 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna. All mule deer died from liver fluke infection between 69 and 134 days (mean = 114, SE = 9.9) after inoculation. Between 38 and 326 immature F. magna (mean = 102, SE = 45.5) were recovered from each deer at necropsy. Flukes were present in livers, lungs, and free in pleural and peritoneal spaces. Infection was characterized by necrotizing hepatitis, fibrosing peritonitis and pleuritis, and hematin pigment accumulation in liver, lung, and many other internal organs. Eggs of F. magna first were detected in feces of the white-tailed deer 28 wk after inoculation, and weekly thereafter until the healthy deer was euthanized at 31 wk. At necropsy, 205 F. magna, including 12 encapsulated mature and 193 nonencapsulated immature flukes were recovered from liver, lungs, and free in abdominal and thoracic spaces of the white-tailed deer. Based on these results, F. magna may be fatal to mule deer within 5 mo of infection. Like domestic sheep and goats, mule deer may be highly susceptible to infection, and it is unlikely mule deer can survive infection with large numbers of F. magna.

  2. Country, cover or protection: what shapes the distribution of red deer and roe deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T G; Kaandorp, Manon Y; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas.

  3. Country, Cover or Protection: What Shapes the Distribution of Red Deer and Roe Deer in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem?

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Brand, Tom T. G.; Kaandorp, Manon Y.; Šustr, Pavel; Müller, Jörg; Reineking, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we aimed at unravelling the influence of management-related and environmental factors on the distribution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in this ecosystem. We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every 100 m along 218 randomly distributed transects. Our analysis, which accounted for overdispersion as well as zero inflation and spatial autocorrelation, corroborated the view that both human management and the physical and biological environment drive ungulate distribution in mountainous areas in Central Europe. In contrast to our expectations, protection by national parks was the least important variable for red deer and the third important out of four variables for roe deer; protection negatively influenced roe deer distribution in both parks and positively influenced red deer distribution in Germany. Country was the most influential variable for both red and roe deer, with higher counts of pellet groups in the Czech Republic than in Germany. Elevation, which indicates increasing environmental harshness, was the second most important variable for both species. Forest cover was the least important variable for roe deer and the third important variable for red deer; the relationship for roe deer was positive and linear, and optimal forest cover for red deer was about 70% within a 500 m radius. Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas. PMID:25781942

  4. Coprophagy-related interspecific nocturnal interactions between Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) and sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae).

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Mochida, Koji

    2010-04-01

    The influence of sympatric large animals on the sleeping behavior of primates in the wild is still largely unknown. In this study, we observed behaviors of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) at their sleeping sites, using a highly sensitive video camera. We found evidence of nocturnal interspecific interactions, such as agonistic interactions, between Japanese macaques and sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae). Deer approached sleeping clusters of macaques, which slept on the ground, to eat their feces or unidentified materials near the sleeping clusters, and as a result, the macaques were often quickly displaced from their sleeping site. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of macaque-deer agonistic interactions between seasons. Our results suggested that the size of the sleeping cluster, the number of adult macaques in the cluster, and the existence of adult males in the cluster did not influence the occurrence of the agonistic interactions. Finally, we discuss the influence of this interaction on macaques and speculate on the influential factors leading to nocturnal coprophagy of macaques' feces by deer.

  5. Experimental infection of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) has no negative effects on the physiology of the captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Kiljander, Teemu; Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Laaksonen, Sauli; Solismaa, Milla; Aho, Jari; Kortet, Raine; Puukka, Katri; Saarela, Seppo; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Ylönen, Hannu; Nieminen, Petteri

    2011-06-30

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous parasitic fly of cervids that spread to Finland in the early 1960's. Presently its northern distribution limit lies at approximately 65°N and it is gradually spreading northwards. In Finland the principal host species has been the moose (Alces alces), but the deer ked is about to establish contact with another potential host, the semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) causing possible threats to reindeer health and management. The aim of this study was to investigate if the deer ked would have an influence on the welfare of the reindeer. Eighteen adult reindeer were divided into three experimental groups: the control group and two infected groups with 300 deer keds per reindeer introduced in August-September. One of the infected groups was treated with subcutaneous ivermectin in November. To gather comprehensive data on potential health hazards caused by the deer ked a wide array of physiological variables was measured during and at the end of the experiment in December. The keds caused no clear changes in the complete blood count, plasma clinical chemistry, amino acids, endocrinology, energy stores, enzyme activities or tissue fatty acid profiles of the host. The haematological, clinical chemical and endocrinological values displayed changes that could be related to the seasonal physiological adaptations of the species. In conclusion, at the duration and intensity of infection that were employed, the effects of the deer ked on the measured physiological variables of the reindeer were insignificant. PMID:21439734

  6. Experimental infection of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) has no negative effects on the physiology of the captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Kiljander, Teemu; Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Laaksonen, Sauli; Solismaa, Milla; Aho, Jari; Kortet, Raine; Puukka, Katri; Saarela, Seppo; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Ylönen, Hannu; Nieminen, Petteri

    2011-06-30

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous parasitic fly of cervids that spread to Finland in the early 1960's. Presently its northern distribution limit lies at approximately 65°N and it is gradually spreading northwards. In Finland the principal host species has been the moose (Alces alces), but the deer ked is about to establish contact with another potential host, the semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) causing possible threats to reindeer health and management. The aim of this study was to investigate if the deer ked would have an influence on the welfare of the reindeer. Eighteen adult reindeer were divided into three experimental groups: the control group and two infected groups with 300 deer keds per reindeer introduced in August-September. One of the infected groups was treated with subcutaneous ivermectin in November. To gather comprehensive data on potential health hazards caused by the deer ked a wide array of physiological variables was measured during and at the end of the experiment in December. The keds caused no clear changes in the complete blood count, plasma clinical chemistry, amino acids, endocrinology, energy stores, enzyme activities or tissue fatty acid profiles of the host. The haematological, clinical chemical and endocrinological values displayed changes that could be related to the seasonal physiological adaptations of the species. In conclusion, at the duration and intensity of infection that were employed, the effects of the deer ked on the measured physiological variables of the reindeer were insignificant.

  7. Evaluation of free-roaming mule deer as carriers of anaplasmosis in an area of Idaho where bovine anaplasmosis is enzootic.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, H W; Vaughn, H W; Magonigle, R A; Davis, W C; Stauber, E H; Frank, F W

    1977-02-01

    Samples of blood from 87 Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) were inoculated into 3 susceptible splenectomized calves to determine the anaplasmosis carrier status of the deer. The deer were trapped along the Idaho-Utah state boundary, near Stone, Id. Acute anaplasmosis was induced in 2 of the 3 inoculated calves, and blood from the 3 calves caused anaplasmosis when inoculated into adult non-splenectomized cattle. Serum rapid card agglutination testing revealed 13 (14.9%) positive reactions among the 87 mule deer. When these seropositive samples were evaluated with the complement-fixation test, positive reactions were not found and only 3 (3.5%) serums gave suspect reactions. A serologic survey for anaplasmosis in 1,852 cattle that cohabit spring and summer rangeland areas with mule deer revealed 14.5% reactors by the serum rapid card agglutination test. The study area consisted of an ecosystem that supports cattle, free-roaming mule deer, and Dermacentor andersoni, and thus contained the elements necessary to effect interspecies transmission of Anaplasma marginale. The significance of wildlife reservoirs and their bearing on anaplasmosis control and eradication programs needs further investigation.

  8. Physiological effects of hunting red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, P; Bradshaw, E L

    1997-01-01

    When red deer (Cervus elaphus) were hunted by humans with hounds the average distance travelled was at least 19 km. This study of 64 hunted red deer provides the first empirical evidence on their state at the time of death. Blood and muscle samples obtained from hunted deer after death were compared with samples from 50 non-hunted red deer that had been cleanly shot with rifles. The effects on deer of long hunts were (i) depletion of carbohydrate resources for powering muscles, (ii) disruption of muscle tissue, and (iii) elevated secretion of beta-endorphin. High concentrations of cortisol, typically associated with extreme physiological and psychological stress, were found. Damage to red blood cells occurred early in the hunts; possible mechanisms are discussed. Taken together, the evidence suggests that red deer are not well-adapted by their evolutionary or individual history to cope with the level of activity imposed on them when hunted with hounds. PMID:9447728

  9. [Research progress on molecular genetics of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Zheng, Cheng-li; Wang, Jian-ming; Feng, Xiao-lan; Zeng, De-jun; Zhao, Gui-jun

    2015-11-01

    Forest musk deer is one of the large-scale farming musk deer animals with the largest population at the same time. The male musk deer can secrete valuable medicines, which has high medicinal and economic value. Due to the loss of habitat and indiscriminate hunting, the numbers of wild population specie and the distribution have been drastically reduced. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the molecular genetics progress of forest musk deer will pave a way for musk deer protection and breeding. In this review, the progress associated with the molecular marker, genetic classification, artificial breeding, musk secretion and disease in past decades were reviewed, in order to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent molecular genetic researches in forest musk deer.

  10. Coxiella burnetii Shedding by Farmed Red Deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, D; Almería, S; Caro, M R; Salinas, J; Ortiz, J A; Gortázar, C; Ruiz-Fons, F

    2015-10-01

    Wildlife and notably deer species--due to the increasing relevance of deer farming worldwide--may contribute to the maintenance of Coxiella burnetii, the causal agent of Q fever. Currently, there are no precedents linking exposure to deer species with human Q fever cases. However, a human case of Q fever was recently diagnosed in a red deer (Cervus elaphus) farm, which led us to investigate whether deer could be a source for environmental contamination with C. burnetii and ascertain the implication of C. burnetii in reproductive failure in the farm. Blood serum and vaginal swabs were collected from hinds either experiencing or not reproductive failure and tested to detect the presence of antibodies and DNA, respectively, of C. burnetii, Chlamydia abortus, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Serology and PCR results suggest C. burnetii was the primary cause of the reproductive failure. We identified vaginal shedding of C. burnetii in hinds, confirming red deer as a source of Q fever zoonotic infection.

  11. [Research progress on molecular genetics of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Zheng, Cheng-li; Wang, Jian-ming; Feng, Xiao-lan; Zeng, De-jun; Zhao, Gui-jun

    2015-11-01

    Forest musk deer is one of the large-scale farming musk deer animals with the largest population at the same time. The male musk deer can secrete valuable medicines, which has high medicinal and economic value. Due to the loss of habitat and indiscriminate hunting, the numbers of wild population specie and the distribution have been drastically reduced. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the molecular genetics progress of forest musk deer will pave a way for musk deer protection and breeding. In this review, the progress associated with the molecular marker, genetic classification, artificial breeding, musk secretion and disease in past decades were reviewed, in order to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent molecular genetic researches in forest musk deer. PMID:27097400

  12. Comparative effects of GnRH and porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccines for controlling reproduction in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Curtis, P D; Pooler, R L; Richmond, M E; Miller, L A; Mattfeld, G F; Quimby, F W

    2002-01-01

    Fawning rates and mating behaviour were compared between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) treated with GnRH and porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraceptive vaccines from 1997 to 2000. Female deer from a herd of 102 deer at Seneca Army Depot, near Romulus, New York, were treated with prime and booster injections of PZP (n = 22) or GnRH vaccine (n = 32), or remained untreated as controls (n = 34). During the summers after booster treatment, observed fawning rates for adult female deer were similar for both PZP-treated (0.10-0.11 fawns per female) and GnRH-treated (0.13-0.22 fawns per female) female deer, and were significantly lower (t = -8.93 and t = -9.73; P < or = 0.0005, respectively) than those observed for control female deer (1.22-1.38 fawns per female). During the second (0.36 fawns per female) and third summers (0.61 fawns per female) after the last booster injection, GnRH-treated female deer still produced significantly fewer fawns than did the controls (1.38 and 1.31 fawns per female, respectively). In one breeding season after treatment, five of 18 (28%) females vaccinated with PZP produced fawns, similar to the rate for GnRH-treated females (29%). In addition, females treated with GnRH had fewer oestrous cycles per female (0.06, P < or = 0.05) than did either control (0.22 cycles per female) or PZP-treated deer (0.36 cycles per female). Initial PZP treatment followed by a booster dose 5-7 months later reduced fawn production and prolonged the breeding season as females repeatedly returned to oestrus, similar to results reported in other studies.

  13. 29. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1909. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: COAL WHARF, 1895 PUMPING STATION, 1909 ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, INTAKE AND DISCHARGE PIPES ON WOODEN TRESTLE, RESIDENCE, AND UNKNOWN STRUCTURE Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite.

  15. Fascioloides magna--epizootiology in a deer farm in Germany.

    PubMed

    Plötz, Cornelia; Rehbein, Steffen; Bamler, Helmut; Reindl, Hubert; Pfister, Kurt; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2015-01-01

    After initial observations of suspicious cases in 2009, the occurrence of Fascioloides (F.) magna in deer of a deer farm located in northeastern Bavaria, Germany, at the border to the Czech Republic was confirmed in autumn 2011. In March 2012, the deer were treated for fascioloidosis with triclabendazole. To monitor the epizootiology of fascioloidosis in the farm, 80-100 faecal samples were examined for Fascioloides eggs at monthly intervals from June 2012 to June 2013 inclusive. In addition, livers of 27 red deer and one sika deer collected during winter 2012/2013 were examined for gross lesions suspicious for F. magna infection and 21 of the 28 livers were dissected for F. magna recovery. Fascioloides eggs were recorded in 63 (4.9%) of 1280 faecal samples (range 0.4 to 355 eggs per gram). Both, number of Fascioloides-egg positive samples and egg counts were low during the first eight months of the study but increased notably since February 2013. While Fascioloides egg-positive faecal samples were obtained from red deer (46/948,4.9%) and fallow deer (17/166, 10.2%), no Fascioloides eggs were demonstrated in the 166 samples obtained from sika deer. Livers of five red deer and the sika deer showed gross lesions characteristic for fascioloidosis, and F. magna were recovered from three of the five affected red deer livers (range, five to seven flukes). Results of this study confirm that F. magna is endemic in the deer farm, and measures should be implemented to minimize the transmission of the parasite. PMID:26054221

  16. Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.

    PubMed

    Bueno-de la Fuente, M L; Moreno, V; Peréz, J M; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C

    1998-10-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species. PMID:9813856

  17. Oestrosis in red deer from Spain.

    PubMed

    Bueno-de la Fuente, M L; Moreno, V; Peréz, J M; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C

    1998-10-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal myiasis affecting red deer (Cervus elaphus) in southern Spain was conducted. The parasites involved were the larvae of Pharyngomyia picta and Cephenemyia auribarbis (Diptera:Oestridae), which coexist sympatrically within this host. Males and older animals had higher prevalences and intensities of fly larvae. Differences in behaviour and habitat use by male and female deer, and the increase of head size in older males are possibly responsible for this. There were low densities of C. auribarbis while P. picta was the species most frequently observed, although both oestrids were located in the same host cavities. The earlier larviposition by C. auribarbis, and its faster larval development may reflect asynchronous life-cycles of both oestrids; this may decrease inter-specific competition between these sympatric species.

  18. Dinitrotoluene in deer tissues. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1991-09-30

    Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), Baraboo, Wisconsin, has within a security-fenced area, a herd of whitetail deer. The US Army and the State of Wisconsin, Department of Health and Social Services have determined that approximately 20 of the deer be harvested and tissue samples thus collected be analyzed for 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4- and 2,6-DNT) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to a sensitivity of 0.1 part per million (ppm). The HPLC analyses will be done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) following protocol used previously for similar work for other government sites. ORNL shall instruct Olin relative to the quantity and type of tissue required, storage and shipment requirements, and other information to ensure that all protocol and chain of custody requirements are clear. A final report will be made to Olin Corporation upon completion of the HPLC analyses.

  19. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  20. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  1. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-10-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  2. Select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from North-central Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Conner, Mary M; Bedwell, Cathy L; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populations in north-central Colorado, United States, where CWD occurs naturally; we also measured copper concentrations in brain-stem (medulla oblongata at the obex) tissue from 181 of these deer. Analyses revealed a wide range of concentrations of all three minerals among sampled deer (copper: 5.6-331 ppm in liver, 1.5-31.9 ppm in obex; manganese: 0.1-21.4 ppm in liver; molybdenum: 0.5-4.0 ppm in liver). Bayesian multiple regression analysis revealed a negative association between obex copper (-0.097; 95% credible interval -0.192 to -0.006) and the probability of sampled deer also being infected with CWD, as well as a positive association between liver manganese (0.158; 95% credible interval 0.066 to 0.253) and probability of infection. We could not discern whether the tendencies toward lower brain-stem copper concentrations or higher systemic manganese concentrations in infected deer preceded prion infection or rather were the result of infection and its subsequent effects, although the distribution of trace mineral concentrations in infected deer seemed more suggestive of the latter.

  3. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing. Two fragments of the 18S rRNA gene were generated by two different PCR protocols and subsequent sequencing suggested that at least six of the deer were infected by a babesia that, in those loci, is indistinguishable from Babesia divergens, an important tick-borne pathogen of cattle and of zoonotic significance. Additionally, a B. odocoilei-like parasite was detected in three samples and a babesia that did not match any sequences in the GenBank database was found in five samples. Neither B. capreoli nor B. venatorum (EU1) were found. There have been several reports of B. divergens occurring in deer species, including red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). However, in view of recent re-sequencing of bovine-origin samples deposited previously in GenBank, it is unlikely that any of these sequences from deer are B. divergens. The present study describes the only deer piroplasm detected so far that shows complete identity with B. divergens, in just over half of the 18S rRNA gene. The entire gene of this deer parasite should be analysed and transmission experiments undertaken before the infectivity of B. divergens for red deer can be confirmed. PMID:21314977

  4. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID₅₀ U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID₅₀ units for sheep and 7.0 log ID₅₀ units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID₅₀ units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

  5. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  6. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  7. Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Rand, Peter W; Lubelczyk, Charles; Holman, Mary S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Robert P

    2004-07-01

    Monhegan is an isolated 237-ha island lying 16 km off the coast of Maine. Introduced to the island in 1955, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, reached a density of approximately 37/km2 by the mid-1990s. Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, first noticed in the late 1980s, flourished thereafter. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) on Monhegan are highly infected with Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner, the agent of Lyme disease. By 1996, 13% of year-round residents had contracted the disease. The community's subsequent decision to eliminate deer from the island provided a unique opportunity to monitor the abundance of vector ticks in response to the complete and permanent removal of the primary hosts of their reproductive stage. With the exception of humans and their dogs and cats, there are no other potential hosts for adult I. scapularis on Monhegan. From November 1996 to March 1999, all deer were removed from the island. Previous annual fall flagging of vegetation from 1990 to 1998 produced 6-17 adult ticks/h, of which 24-41% were infected with the Lyme disease spirochete. During this same period, up to 18 larvae and 4 nymphs were removed per Norway rat live-trapped on the island each July. With the absence of deer in the fall of 1999, both the density of host-seeking adult ticks and infection prevalence rose substantially to 28/h and 75.0%, respectively. By the summer of 2003, however, no sub-adult ticks were found on rats, and that fall, only 0.67 adult ticks/h were flagged. Of the 68 adults collected from 2002 to 2003, 20 (29.4%) were infected. Over this same period, adult tick abundance on a deer-populated, reference island continued to gradually increase.

  8. Efficacy of amitraz applied to white-tailed deer by the '4-poster' topical treatment device in controlling free-living lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Pound, J M; Miller, J A; George, J E

    2000-11-01

    White-tailed deer treated themselves with a commercial pour-on acaricide formulation containing 2% amitraz as they fed from an ARS-patented '4-poster' topical treatment device. Whole kernel corn attracted deer to a single device placed in each of two deer-fenced pastures. In the treatment pasture, the rollers of the treatment device were charged with the acaricide, whereas the rollers of the device in the other pasture remained untreated. Deer were allowed to use the '4-posters' during periods of tick activity beginning in early to midspring and lasting through late summer to early fall for three consecutive years. Pretreatment sampling of adults and nymphs with dry-ice traps and larval masses with flip cloths showed no significant differences in population indices between the two pastures; however, after the third year of treatment, control of nymphal and adult ticks in the treated pasture was 91.9 and 93.7%, respectively, when compared with the untreated pasture. Control of larval masses increased from 68.4% in year 1 to 96.4% in year 2, but declined to 88.0% in year 3, probably because of the presence of feral hogs. This study demonstrated that application of amitraz to white-tailed deer through free-choice interaction with a '4-poster' device significantly reduced the abundance of free-living lone star ticks in a deer-fenced experimental pasture. Moreover, the yearly pattern of incremental increases in control and the final percentage control values for all three parasitic life stages in this topical application study were similar in magnitude to that observed in a previously conducted study in which the systemic acaricide ivermectin was used to reduce populations of free-living ticks by controlling ticks on deer.

  9. Experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.

    PubMed

    Lance, W R; Hibler, C P; DeMartini, J

    1983-07-01

    Hand-reared mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (Antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. All four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with contagious ecthyma. The limited clinical responses to the virus indicated that contagious ecthyma would not seriously impact free-ranging individuals. PMID:6685778

  10. Predation by coyotes on white-tailed deer neonates in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John C.; Ray, H. Scott; Vukovich, Mark; Goode, Matthew J.; Ruth, Charles

    2012-05-07

    Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) are novel predators throughout the southeastern United States and their depredation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates may explain observed declines in some deer populations in the region, but direct evidence for such a relationship is lacking. Our objective was to quantify neonate survival rates and causes of mortality at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina to directly evaluate degree of predation in this deer population. From 2006 to 2009, we radio-monitored 91 neonates captured with the aid of vaginal implant transmitters in pregnant adult females and opportunistic searches. Overall Kaplan Meier survival rate to 16 weeks of age was 0.230 (95% CI = 0.155-0.328), and it varied little among years. Our best-fitting model estimated survival at 0.220 (95% CI = 0.144-0.320). This model included a quadratic time trend variable (lowest survival rate during the first week of life and increasing to near 1.000 around week 10), and Julian date of birth (survival probability declining as date of birth increased). Predation by coyotes was the most frequent cause of death among the 70 monitored neonates that died, definitively accounting for 37% of all mortalities and potentially accounting for as much as 80% when also including probable coyote predation. Predation by bobcats (Felis rufus) accounted for 7% (definitive) to 9% (including probable bobcat predation) of mortalities. The level of coyote-induced mortality we observed is consistent with the low recruitment rates exhibited in the SRS deer population since establishment of coyotes at the site. If representative of recruitment rates across South Carolina, current harvest levels appear unsustainable. This understanding is consistent with the recent declining trend in the statewide deer population. The effects of coyote predation on recruitment should be considered when setting harvest goals, regardless of whether local deer

  11. Effect of transatlantic transport on reproduction of agouti and nonagouti deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus.

    PubMed

    Hayssen, V

    1998-01-01

    In conjunction with establishing colonies of deer mice in the UK, effects of transportation on reproduction in agouti (A) and nonagouti (a) deer mice were assessed. Adults were shipped via ground courier and air freight from Northampton, Massachusetts, USA to Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire, England in February and June. Deer mice were paired upon arrival in Sutton Bonington, whereas matched controls were paired in the original colonies at shipping. To assess reproduction, the following variables were monitored for 110 days for all 96 pairs: number of pairs producing litters, time from pairing to birth, interlitter interval, litter size at birth, and litter size at weaning. Generally, shipping suppressed litter production and delayed its timing, but had less effect on litter size. Overall, 32 of 48 control pairs (67%) produced 69 litters compared with 37 litters from 21 of 48 pairs (44%) after shipping. Pairing-to-first-litter intervals were approximately two oestrous cycles shorter in control animals (39 vs 53 days). Averaged over all litters, litter size was higher in control pairs (4.4 vs 4.0). With respect to genotype, control agouti deer mice were less productive than nonagouti animals, but they reproduced better than nonagoutis after shipping. In control animals, colourmorphs did not differ with respect to litter production or timing, but agouti pairs had smaller litters (first litter: A: 3.1, a: 4.2) and this difference increased at successive litters (third litter A: 3.9, a: 6.0). After shipping, agouti animals produced more litters (A: 22, a: 15), and did so earlier (pairing to birth: A: 47 days, a: 60 days), as well as more frequently (interlitter interval: A: 32 days, a: 51 days). Litter size was also more similar between genotypes after shipping (A: 4.0, a: 4.1). Overall, control agouti animals produced 37% fewer offspring than nonagouti pairs. (A: 116 neonates, a: 185 neonates), but after shipping agouti deer mice produced 43% more offspring than

  12. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunglee; Takano, Ai; Taylor, Kyle; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Konnai, Satoru; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks. PMID:25108784

  13. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 y after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, wintering deer still have not recolonized the area. From 1976 to 2004, we aerially radio-tracked wolves there during 250 h and recorded 2 deer (in 1985 and 2000) killed or eaten by wolves during February and March. We observed no other deer or deer sign, but regularly observed deer, deer sign and wolf-killed deer in adjacent wolf-pack territories. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  14. Nutritional restriction and acid-base balance in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of progressive nutritional restriction on acid-base balance in seven captive, adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 February to 5 May 1988 in north central Minnesota (USA). Metabolic acidosis was indicated by low mean blood pH (7.25 to 7.33) in deer throughout the study. Mean urinary pH values declined (P = 0.020) from a mean (+SE) baseline of 8.3 +0.1 to 6.7 + 0.3 as restriction progressed. Acidemia and aciduria were associated with significant variations in mean blood CO2 (P = 0.006) and pO2 (P = 0.032), serum potassium (P = 0.004) concentrations, and with a significant (P = 0.104) handling date times group interaction in urinary potassium:creatinine values. Mean bicarbonate:carbonic acid ratios were consistently below 20:1 during nutritional restriction. Mean packed cell volume increased (P = 0.019) and serum total protein decreased (P = 0.001); thus there was evidence for progressive dehydration and net protein catabolism, respectively. Blood pCO2, serum sodium, and urinary sodium:creatinine were stable throughout the study. We propose that acidosis and aciduria are metabolic complications associated with nutritional restriction of white-tailed deer.

  15. Oral administration of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; González-Barrio, David; Lima-Barbero, José Francisco; Ortiz, José Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. As the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (TB) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). Immunized hinds were dosed orally with 2 ml of PBS containing 6 × 10(6) heat-inactivated M. bovis. The mean skin test response of immunized deer to both avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) and bovine PPD (bPPD) was consistently lower in immunized than in control hinds. One year after immunization, immunized hinds had a significant reduction in the skin test response to aPPD and in the ELISA antibody levels against both aPPD and bPPD (24-36% reduction; P<0.05). By contrast, no significant change was observed in the skin test response to phytohaemagglutinin, or in the ELISA antibody levels against the M. bovis specific antigen MPB70. The mRNA levels for C3, IFN-γ and IL-1β and serum protein levels for IFN-γ and IL-1β did not vary between immunized and control deer. However, serum C3 protein levels were significantly higher (P=0.001) in immunized than in control deer six months after immunization. These results confirm that oral heat-inactivated M. bovis does not sensitize farmed red deer and therefore does not cause false-positive responses in the tuberculin skin test. The absence of sensitization in orally immunized deer opens the possibility of testing the vaccine in deer and possibly other ruminants without the risk of causing false-positive reactions in TB-tests. This study also provided the first evidence that orally-delivered inactivated mycobacterial antigens elicit some kind of immune response in a ruminant.

  16. Oral administration of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis reduces the response of farmed red deer to avian and bovine tuberculin.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; González-Barrio, David; Lima-Barbero, José Francisco; Ortiz, José Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Garrido, Joseba M; Sevilla, Iker A; Alberdi, Pilar; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Orally delivered mycobacterial antigens may not sensitize the immunized animals causing a positive tuberculin skin test response. As the first step to address this critical issue, we characterized the response of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to orally delivered heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis. Thirty-two adult red deer hinds from a farm known to be free of tuberculosis (TB) were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, immunized (n=24) and control (n=8). Immunized hinds were dosed orally with 2 ml of PBS containing 6 × 10(6) heat-inactivated M. bovis. The mean skin test response of immunized deer to both avian purified protein derivative (aPPD) and bovine PPD (bPPD) was consistently lower in immunized than in control hinds. One year after immunization, immunized hinds had a significant reduction in the skin test response to aPPD and in the ELISA antibody levels against both aPPD and bPPD (24-36% reduction; P<0.05). By contrast, no significant change was observed in the skin test response to phytohaemagglutinin, or in the ELISA antibody levels against the M. bovis specific antigen MPB70. The mRNA levels for C3, IFN-γ and IL-1β and serum protein levels for IFN-γ and IL-1β did not vary between immunized and control deer. However, serum C3 protein levels were significantly higher (P=0.001) in immunized than in control deer six months after immunization. These results confirm that oral heat-inactivated M. bovis does not sensitize farmed red deer and therefore does not cause false-positive responses in the tuberculin skin test. The absence of sensitization in orally immunized deer opens the possibility of testing the vaccine in deer and possibly other ruminants without the risk of causing false-positive reactions in TB-tests. This study also provided the first evidence that orally-delivered inactivated mycobacterial antigens elicit some kind of immune response in a ruminant. PMID:27032499

  17. Identification of meats from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) using polymerase chain reaction targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, V; González, I; López-Calleja, I; Martín, I; Rojas, M; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, Rosario

    2007-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was applied to the specific identification of meats from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The use of a common reverse primer, together with forward specific primers for red deer, fallow deer, and roe deer, allowed the selective amplification of the desired cervid sequences. The specificity of each primer pair was verified by PCR analysis of DNA from various game and domestic meats. The assay can be useful for the accurate identification of meats from cervid species, avoiding mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution in meat products.

  18. The effect of terrain and female density on survival of neonatal white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Maegwin; Manseau, Micheline; Geisheimer, Justin; Bannatyne, Travis; Lingle, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Juvenile survival is a highly variable life-history trait that is critical to population growth. Antipredator tactics, including an animal's use of its physical and social environment, are critical to juvenile survival. Here, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and social characteristics influence coyote (Canis latrans) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in similar ways during the neonatal period. This would contrast to winter when the habitat and social characteristics that provide the most safety for each species differ. We monitored seven cohorts of white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns at a grassland study site in Alberta, Canada. We used logistic regression and a model selection procedure to determine how habitat characteristics, climatic conditions, and female density influenced fawn survival during the first 8 weeks of life. Fawn survival improved after springs with productive vegetation (high integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values). Fawns that used steeper terrain were more likely to survive. Fawns of both species had improved survival in years with higher densities of mule deer females, but not with higher densities of white-tailed deer females, as predicted if they benefit from protection by mule deer. Our results suggest that topographical variation is a critical resource for neonates of many ungulate species, even species like white-tailed deer that use more gentle terrain when older. Further, our results raise the possibility that neonatal white-tailed fawns may benefit from associating with mule deer females, which may contribute to the expansion of white-tailed deer into areas occupied by mule deer.

  19. The effect of terrain and female density on survival of neonatal white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Maegwin; Manseau, Micheline; Geisheimer, Justin; Bannatyne, Travis; Lingle, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Juvenile survival is a highly variable life-history trait that is critical to population growth. Antipredator tactics, including an animal's use of its physical and social environment, are critical to juvenile survival. Here, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and social characteristics influence coyote (Canis latrans) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in similar ways during the neonatal period. This would contrast to winter when the habitat and social characteristics that provide the most safety for each species differ. We monitored seven cohorts of white-tailed deer and mule deer fawns at a grassland study site in Alberta, Canada. We used logistic regression and a model selection procedure to determine how habitat characteristics, climatic conditions, and female density influenced fawn survival during the first 8 weeks of life. Fawn survival improved after springs with productive vegetation (high integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values). Fawns that used steeper terrain were more likely to survive. Fawns of both species had improved survival in years with higher densities of mule deer females, but not with higher densities of white-tailed deer females, as predicted if they benefit from protection by mule deer. Our results suggest that topographical variation is a critical resource for neonates of many ungulate species, even species like white-tailed deer that use more gentle terrain when older. Further, our results raise the possibility that neonatal white-tailed fawns may benefit from associating with mule deer females, which may contribute to the expansion of white-tailed deer into areas occupied by mule deer. PMID:27386083

  20. Influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on natal dispersal of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.; Rosenberry, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic landscape features, such as rivers, mountain ranges, and roads can alter animal dispersal paths and movement patterns. Consequently landscape, through its effects on dispersal, may influence many ecological processes, including disease transmission, invasion dynamics, and gene flow. To investigate influences of landscape features on dispersal patterns of a large mammal, we captured and radiomarked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), including 212 confirmed dispersers, in 2 topographically dissimilar study areas in Pennsylvania, USA. Dispersal azimuths were uniformly distributed in the western study area (WSA), where there was irregular, hilly topography. Mean dispersal azimuths paralleled ridge direction in the eastern study area, where long parallel ridges were aligned northeastsouthwest. Major roads in both areas and a large river in the WSA were semipermeable barriers to dispersal of juvenile males; dispersal paths were less likely to intersect these linear features. Dispersal movements were direct and brief, typically lasting <12 hours. For all dispersers, we found no evidence for preference or avoidance of establishing adult, postdispersal ranges in proximity to roads; however, deer that encountered roads near the terminus of their dispersal path were more likely to stop on the near side. Further, for deer that established postdispersal home ranges near major roads, these features influenced range placement such that locations were typically clustered on one side of the road. The influence of roads, rivers, and mountains on dispersal paths and postdispersal locations of white-tailed deer suggest that landscape-specific features should be considered in conservation and management of this and possibly other species of large mammals. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Martín, Marga; Vicente, Joaquín; Segalés, Joaquim; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans. PMID:21122241

  2. Red Deer College Fact Book, 1999/2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red Deer Coll. (Alberta).

    This report is a compilation of 1999-2000 student data at Red Deer College (Canada). It also includes data from 1997/98 through 1999/2000 for the purpose of three-year comparisons. Programs offered at Red Deer College include university transfer, career certificates, diploma, high school equivalency (academic upgrading), job readiness training,…

  3. Mule deer and pronghorn migration in western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, H.; Lindzey, F.; McWhirter, D.

    2005-01-01

    Migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations rely on seasonal ranges to meet their annual nutritional and energetic requirements. Because seasonal ranges often occur great distances apart and across a mix of vegetation types and land ownership, maintaining migration corridors to and from these ranges can be difficult, especially if managers do not have detailed information on mule deer and pronghorn seasonal movements. We captured, radiomarked, and monitored mule deer (n = 171) and pronghorn (n = 34) in western Wyoming to document seasonal distribution patterns and migration routes. Mule deer and pronghorn migrated 20-158 km and 116-258 km, respectively, between seasonal ranges. These distances represented the longest recorded migrations for either species. We identified a number of bottlenecks along the migration routes of mule deer and pronghorn, but the most critical appeared to be the 1.6-km-wide Trapper's Point bottleneck, which was used by both mule deer and pronghorn during their spring and autumn migrations. Housing developments and roadways apparently have reduced the effective width of this bottleneck to <0.8 km. We estimate 2,500-3,500 mule deer and 1,500-2,000 pronghorn move through the bottleneck twice a year during spring and autumn migrations. Identification and protection of migration corridors and bottlenecks will be necessary to maintain mule deer and pronghorn populations throughout their range.

  4. Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jason; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Campbell, Gregory A; Rezabek, Grant; Bradway, Daniel S; Pittman, Louis L; Little, Susan E; Panciera, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naïve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana.

  5. Hepatocellular adenocarcinoma in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Placke, M E; Roscoe, D E; Wyand, D S; Nielsen, S W

    1982-04-01

    A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), shot during the 1978-79 New Jersey hunting season, was presented with an enlarged, multinodular liver and numerous skin growths. The skin lesions were found to be fibromas and the liver tumor was identified as a hepatocellular adenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm, not only in deer but all wild animals. PMID:6284330

  6. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DEER LAKE AND UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DEER LAKE AND UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Deer Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 5.8 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. Record long-distance movement of a Deer Mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, in a New England montane boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Connor M.; McKinney, Shawn T.

    2015-01-01

    We report a single-season, non-homing movement of 4287 ± 10 m by an adult male Deer Mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, in western Maine, United States, in summer 2014. The movement was achieved in two stages: 927 ± 3 m in four days and an additional 3360 ± 10 m in 44 days. This is approximately 40% greater than the previously documented maximum linear movement for an individual of this species.

  8. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  9. Social organization in deer: Implications for localized management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William F.; Mathews, Nancy E.; Underwood, H. Brian; Sage, Richard W.; Behrend, Donald F.

    1991-11-01

    Populations of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) inhabiting many state and national parks and suburban areas have grown to the point that they conflict with human activities. Conflicts range from destruction of vegetation through browsing to public perception that diseases carried by deer pose threats to human health. Traditional modes of hunting to control populations are inappropriate in many of these areas because of intense human development and activity. This article explores an alternative approach for population reduction based on deer social organization. Female white-tailed deer are highly philopatric and female offspring remain near their dams for life. This suggests that a population expands slowly as a series of overlapping home ranges in a form analogous to the petals on a rose. Incorporating the rose petal concept into a model of population growth shows that removal of deer by family unit can potentially alleviate conflicts in localized areas for as many as 10 15 yr.

  10. Cohabitation of pregnant white-tailed deer and cattle persistently infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus results in persistently infected fawns.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Walz, Paul H; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Brock, Kenny V; Deyoung, Randy W; Foley, Aaron M; Daniel Givens, M

    2009-03-01

    Economic losses due to infection with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have prompted introduction of organized control programs. These programs primarily focus on the removal of persistently infected (PI) animals, the main source of BVDV transmission. Recently, persistent BVDV infection was demonstrated experimentally in white-tailed deer, the most abundant wild ruminant in North America. Contact of cattle and white-tailed deer may result in interspecific BVDV transmission and birth of persistently infected offspring that could be a threat to control programs. The objective of this study was to assess the potential for interspecific BVDV transmission from persistently infected cattle cohabitated with pregnant white-tailed deer. Seven female and one male white-tailed deer were captured and bred in captivity. At approximately 50 days of gestation, two cattle persistently infected with BVDV 1 were cohabitated with the deer. In a pen of approximately 0.8 ha, both species shared food and water sources for a period of 60 days. Transmission of BVDV as indicated by seroconversion was demonstrated in all exposed adult deer. Of the seven pregnancies, four resulted in offspring that were infected with BVDV. Persistent infection was demonstrated in three singlet fawns by immunohistochemistry and ELISA on skin samples, PCR, and virus isolation procedures. Furthermore, two stillborn fetuses were apparently persistently infected. This is the first report of BVDV transmission from cattle to white-tailed deer using a model of natural challenge. Under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may efficiently cross the species barrier to cause transplacental infection and persistently infected offspring in a wildlife species.

  11. Development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    I examined the development of migratory behavior in northern white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 1975 to 1996 by radio-tracking adult females and their fawns. Of 40 migratory fawns with radio-collared mothers, all returned from winter ranges to their mothers' summer ranges, as did 36 fawns with unknown mothers. Of 1.5- to 3.0-year-old daughters with radio-collared mothers, 67-80% continued migrating with mothers to their traditional summer ranges. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of yearling dispersers continued migratory behavior after replacing their natal summer ranges with their dispersal ranges, and 88% (14/16) of these continued migrating to their natal winter ranges, some through at least 6.5 years of age. Twenty percent (4/20) of nonmigratory fawns dispersed as yearlings, and two became migratory between their dispersal summer ranges and new winter ranges, one through 4.9 years of age and another through 6.5 years. Seven fawns changed their movement behavior from migratory to nonmigratory or vice versa as yearlings or when older, indicating that migratory behavior is not under rigid genetic control. Thus, the adaptiveness of migration must depend upon natural selection operating upon varying capacities and propensities to learn and mimic long-distance movements and not upon migratory behavior directly.

  12. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  13. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  14. A comparison of 2 techniques for estimating deer density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    We applied mark-resight and area-conversion methods to estimate deer abundance at a 2,862-ha area in and surrounding the Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site during 1987-1991. One observer in each of 11 compartments counted marked and unmarked deer during 65-75 minutes at dusk during 3 counts in each of April and November. Use of radio-collars and vinyl collars provided a complete inventory of marked deer in the population prior to the counts. We sighted 54% of the marked deer during April 1987 and 1988, and 43% of the marked deer during November 1987 and 1988. Mean number of deer counted increased from 427 in April 1987 to 582 in April 1991, and increased from 467 in November 1987 to 662 in November 1990. Herd size during April, based on the mark-resight method, increased from approximately 700-1,400 from 1987-1991, whereas the estimates for November indicated an increase from 983 for 1987 to 1,592 for 1990. Given the large proportion of open area and the extensive road system throughout the study area, we concluded that the sighting probability for marked and unmarked deer was fairly similar. We believe that the mark-resight method was better suited to our study than the area-conversion method because deer were not evenly distributed between areas suitable and unsuitable for sighting within open and forested areas. The assumption of equal distribution is required by the area-conversion method. Deer marked for the mark-resight method also helped reduce double counting during the dusk surveys.

  15. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype.

  16. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype. PMID:3611714

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of mitochondrial DNA and allozymes among populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M A; Nelson, M E; Pac, D F

    1991-01-01

    A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population in northeastern Minnesota and a mule deer (O. hemionus) population in the Bridger Mountains Montana, have previously been shown to be spatially subdivided into contiguous subpopulations. We assessed the degree of genetic differentiation among subpopulations and tested the hypothesis that differentiation will be greater for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than for nuclear-encoded allozymes. Differentiation of the white-tailed deer subpopulations was significant for two allozyme loci but not for mtDNA, and the overall degree of differentiation was low. Gene flow, recent founding of the subpopulations, and polygamous breeding structure may all have contributed to this pattern. Greater differentiation was evident among disjunct populations than between the contiguous subpopulations of white-tailed deer. The contiguous mule deer subpopulations were significantly differentiated for mtDNA and one allozyme locus. Differentiation was greater for mtDNA than for allozymes. These results are consistent with demographic data that indicate mule deer males disperse more than do females. Disjunct mule deer populations may be similar or dramatically different in mtDNA haplotype frequencies that do not necessarily vary with geographic distance. Current and historical gene flow and breeding structure will influence population genetic patterns.

  18. Simulation of potential habitat overlap between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding species distribution, especially areas of overlapping habitat between sympatric species, is essential for informing conservation through natural habitat protection. New protection strategies should simultaneously consider conservation efforts for multiple species that exist within the same landscape, which requires studies that include habitat overlap analysis. Methods. We estimated the potential habitat of cervids, which are typical ungulates in northern China, using the present locations of red deer (Cervus elaphus; N = 90) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; N = 106) in a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model. Our study area was a human-dominated landscape in the Tieli Forestry Bureau located at the southern slope of the Lesser Xing’an Mountains. We grouped 17 environmental predictor variables into five predictor classes (terrain, habitat accessibility, land cover, vegetation feature, and interference), which were used to build habitat suitability models. Results. Habitat accessibility and human interferences were found to have the strongest influence on habitat suitability among the five variable classes. Among the environmental factors, distance to farmland (26.8%), distance to bush-grass land (14.6%), elevation (13.5%), and distance to water source (12.2%) were most important for red deer, distance to farmland (22.9%), distance to settlement (21.4%), elevation (11.6%), and coverage of shrub-grass (8%) were most important for roe deer. Model accuracy was high for both species (mean area under the curve (AUC) = 0.936 for red deer and 0.924 for roe deer). The overlapping habitat comprised 89.93 km2 within the study area, which occupied 94% of potentially suitable habitat for red deer and 27% for roe deer. Conclusions. In terms of habitat suitability, roe deer showed greater selectivity than red deer. The overlapping habitat was mostly located in the eastern mountains. The southwestern plain was not a suitable habitat for deer because it was

  19. Simulation of potential habitat overlap between red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen; Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Understanding species distribution, especially areas of overlapping habitat between sympatric species, is essential for informing conservation through natural habitat protection. New protection strategies should simultaneously consider conservation efforts for multiple species that exist within the same landscape, which requires studies that include habitat overlap analysis. Methods. We estimated the potential habitat of cervids, which are typical ungulates in northern China, using the present locations of red deer (Cervus elaphus; N = 90) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; N = 106) in a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model. Our study area was a human-dominated landscape in the Tieli Forestry Bureau located at the southern slope of the Lesser Xing'an Mountains. We grouped 17 environmental predictor variables into five predictor classes (terrain, habitat accessibility, land cover, vegetation feature, and interference), which were used to build habitat suitability models. Results. Habitat accessibility and human interferences were found to have the strongest influence on habitat suitability among the five variable classes. Among the environmental factors, distance to farmland (26.8%), distance to bush-grass land (14.6%), elevation (13.5%), and distance to water source (12.2%) were most important for red deer, distance to farmland (22.9%), distance to settlement (21.4%), elevation (11.6%), and coverage of shrub-grass (8%) were most important for roe deer. Model accuracy was high for both species (mean area under the curve (AUC) = 0.936 for red deer and 0.924 for roe deer). The overlapping habitat comprised 89.93 km(2) within the study area, which occupied 94% of potentially suitable habitat for red deer and 27% for roe deer. Conclusions. In terms of habitat suitability, roe deer showed greater selectivity than red deer. The overlapping habitat was mostly located in the eastern mountains. The southwestern plain was not a suitable habitat for deer because it was

  20. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-01

    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  1. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a hybrid zone between white-tailed deer and mule deer (Odocoileus) in west Texas.

    PubMed

    Ballinger, S W; Blankenship, L H; Bickham, J W; Carr, S M

    1992-02-01

    Thirty allozyme loci and 35 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction sites were examined in 24 white-tailed deer and 46 mule deer from a hybrid zone in West Texas. A common mtDNA genotype is shared by all of the mule deer with 67% of the white-tailed deer. At the albumin locus, 13% of the white-tailed deer and 24% of the mule deer are heterozygous, sharing alleles that are otherwise species-specific in allopatric populations; 7% of the mule deer are homozygous for the allele that is characteristic of allopatric white-tailed deer. Gene flow appears to have been bidirectional, with greater genetic introgression into mule deer. The mtDNA data suggest that matings between white-tailed and mule deer have occurred in the past. Despite evidence of genetic introgression, analysis of multilocus genotypes indicates that none of the deer examined is an F1 hybrid. Production of such hybrids appears to be generally uncommon in North American deer; management plans that assume otherwise should be reconsidered.

  2. Failure of fallow deer (Dama dama) to develop chronic wasting disease when exposed to a contaminated environment and infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Rhyan, Jack C; Miller, Michael W; Spraker, Terry R; McCollum, Matt; Nol, Pauline; Wolfe, Lisa L; Davis, Tracy R; Creekmore, Lynn; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2011-07-01

    We monitored a herd of fallow deer (Dama dama) for evidence of prion infection for 7 yr by periodic postmortem examination of animals from the herd. The fallow deer were exposed to the chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent from mule deer by living in a paddock considered contaminated with infectivity from its history of housing CWD infected deer and, after the first year of the study, by comingling with infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). At least 8 of 12 mule deer serving as sentinels for prion transmission and 25 additional mule deer serving as sources of infectivity developed clinical CWD or were otherwise confirmed to be infected with CWD via lymphoid tissue immunohistochemistry (IHC). In contrast, none of the 41 exposed fallow deer showed clinical signs suggestive of CWD, IHC staining of disease-associated prion in lymphoid or brain tissues, or evidence of spongiform degeneration in sections of brain stem at the level of the obex when sampled 18 mo to 7 yr after entering the mule deer paddock. The absence of clinical disease and negative IHC results in fallow deer housed in the same contaminated paddock for up to 7 yr and almost continuously exposed to CWD-infected mule deer for up to 6 yr suggests a species barrier or other form of resistance preventing fallow deer infection by the CWD agent or delaying progression of the disease in this species.

  3. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  4. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application...

  5. 59. VIEW OF DEER VALLEY TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING SOUTH. SUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. VIEW OF DEER VALLEY TREATMENT PLANT, LOOKING SOUTH. SUMP PUMP DRAINING INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL IS IN THE FOREGROUND Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Ectoparasites on reintroduced roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe

    2008-07-01

    The ectoparasite fauna of reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was surveyed in a Mediterranean forest in Israel. Ectoparasites were collected from four female hand-reared deer during 2004 and 2005. Seasonality, predilection sites of infestation, and the apparent effect of the parasites are presented. This is the first study of roe deer parasites in the East Mediterranean. The ectoparasite fauna included three hippoboscid fly (Lipoptena capreoli, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis), four tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus kohlsi, and Hyalomma marginatum), and one unidentified trombiculid mite species. For most of these ectoparasites, this is the first record on roe deer. All ectoparasite species were documented in Israel prior to the reintroduction program; exotic ectoparasites were not detected. PMID:18689655

  7. Ectoparasites on reintroduced roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Israel.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe

    2008-07-01

    The ectoparasite fauna of reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was surveyed in a Mediterranean forest in Israel. Ectoparasites were collected from four female hand-reared deer during 2004 and 2005. Seasonality, predilection sites of infestation, and the apparent effect of the parasites are presented. This is the first study of roe deer parasites in the East Mediterranean. The ectoparasite fauna included three hippoboscid fly (Lipoptena capreoli, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis), four tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus kohlsi, and Hyalomma marginatum), and one unidentified trombiculid mite species. For most of these ectoparasites, this is the first record on roe deer. All ectoparasite species were documented in Israel prior to the reintroduction program; exotic ectoparasites were not detected.

  8. [Research progress on musk secretion mechanism of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Feng, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Gui-Jun; Zeng, De-Jun; Zhang, Cheng-Lu; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), a rare wild medicinal animal, is listed under the category of the state key protected wildlife list of China. Musk, secreted by the musk glands, is with high economic and medicinal value and used as precious traditional medicine in China. In order to meet the needs of musk in Chinese traditional medicine, forest musk deer farming was conducted in 1950s, but the research progress on musk secretion mechanism was slow. Therefore, by reviewing the histological and anatomical structure of forest musk deer musk gland, the relationship between sex hormones and the musk secretion process, and the molecular mechanism of the musk secretion, the existing problems in investigating the musk secretion mechanism were analyzed and the development trends in this field were also discussed, in order to provide a reference for further studies on the musk secretion mechanism and improve musk production of forest musk deer.

  9. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review

    PubMed Central

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; González-Pensado, Solana; Bielli, Alejandro; Villagrán, Matías; Olazabal, Daniel; Pérez, William

    2008-01-01

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed. PMID:18534014

  10. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.

  11. Ixodid ticks parasitizing Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: geographical and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortazár, Christian

    2006-08-31

    Commercial hunting of Spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. Wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. We studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize Iberian red deer and European wild boar from Spain. Ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 Iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of Spain. We found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing Iberian red deer, mainly Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (63.7%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (7.9%) and R. bursa (7.5%). R. (Boophilus) annulatus was only collected in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). We found 8 ixodid tick species on the wild boar, mainly Hy. m. marginatum (68.7%), R. bursa (14.6%) and Dermacentor marginatus (9.3%). We found one adult Hy. marginatum rufipes and one adult Hy. anatolicum excavatum parasitizing wild boar from south-central Spain. Mean prevalence of ixodid ticks was 41.3+/-0.08% (n=475) and 31+/-0.09% (n=284) and intensity of parasitization was 13.9+/-0.2 (n=283) and 13.6+/-0.3 (n=130) ticks/animal for Iberian red deer and wild boar, respectively. Only 5 of the 13 ixodid tick species found were shared by Iberian red deer and wild boar. This finding could indicate a host preference when Iberian red deer and wild boar share common habitats. In both Iberian red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain the monthly relative frequencies of Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa presented an inverse pattern. The highest Hy. m. marginatum relative frequencies coincided with the lowest R. bursa relative frequencies along the year. R. bursa and I. ricinus were present in areas from northern to southern Spain while Hyalomma sp. and D. marginatus were exclusively collected in the two southern thirds of Spain. Haemaphysalis sp. and D. reticulatus were collected in northern Spain. Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa were present during the whole year in red deer and wild

  12. Parasite load and seasonal migration in red deer.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Qviller, Lars; Meisingset, Erling L; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2016-02-01

    Northern deer populations are typically partially migratory, but the relationship between migratory movements and parasites has received little attention. Migration often involves movement from a low-elevation winter range towards a summer range at higher elevation. In Europe these movements may also involve a gradient in abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks, but whether tick loads on deer differ depending on migration tactic has not been quantified. Based on the examination of ears from 49 red deer (Cervus elaphus) marked with global positioning system collars, we provide the first evidence that the tick loads of deer covering longer distances between their winter and summer range, resulting in higher difference in elevation, are lower. Our study highlights that only the resident part of the red deer population will be available as year-round hosts to ticks, while a large part of the red deer population is unavailable to ticks for most of the tick questing season due to seasonal migration to higher elevation. Predicted changes in the migratory behaviour of ungulates could hence affect the proportion of the host population available to ticks in the future. PMID:26450650

  13. Parasite load and seasonal migration in red deer.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Qviller, Lars; Meisingset, Erling L; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2016-02-01

    Northern deer populations are typically partially migratory, but the relationship between migratory movements and parasites has received little attention. Migration often involves movement from a low-elevation winter range towards a summer range at higher elevation. In Europe these movements may also involve a gradient in abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks, but whether tick loads on deer differ depending on migration tactic has not been quantified. Based on the examination of ears from 49 red deer (Cervus elaphus) marked with global positioning system collars, we provide the first evidence that the tick loads of deer covering longer distances between their winter and summer range, resulting in higher difference in elevation, are lower. Our study highlights that only the resident part of the red deer population will be available as year-round hosts to ticks, while a large part of the red deer population is unavailable to ticks for most of the tick questing season due to seasonal migration to higher elevation. Predicted changes in the migratory behaviour of ungulates could hence affect the proportion of the host population available to ticks in the future.

  14. Will Culling White-Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

    PubMed

    Kugeler, K J; Jordan, R A; Schulze, T L; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2016-08-01

    White-tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white-tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not representative to the vast majority of areas with high human Lyme disease risk. Robust evidence linking deer control to reduced human Lyme disease risk is lacking. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend deer population reduction as a Lyme disease prevention measure, except in specific ecologic circumstances.

  15. Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05). The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p>0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed. PMID:25007067

  16. Will Culling White-Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

    PubMed

    Kugeler, K J; Jordan, R A; Schulze, T L; Griffith, K S; Mead, P S

    2016-08-01

    White-tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white-tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not representative to the vast majority of areas with high human Lyme disease risk. Robust evidence linking deer control to reduced human Lyme disease risk is lacking. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend deer population reduction as a Lyme disease prevention measure, except in specific ecologic circumstances. PMID:26684932

  17. Reduced efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin in young red deer (Cervus elaphus) after 20 years of moxidectin pour-on use on a New Zealand deer farm.

    PubMed

    Mackintosh, C G; Cowie, C; Fraser, K; Johnstone, P; Mason, P C

    2014-01-17

    A study was undertaken on weaned 4-5 month old farmed red deer to test the efficacy of moxidectin and abamectin anthelmintics, given by three different routes of administration, compared with an untreated control. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14 for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), blood samples were collected on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 for pharmacokinetics, and the deer were killed on days 14 or 15 for total nematode count. The control group averaged 1264 adult Ostertagia-type nematode parasite species and treatment efficacy was 77.4% for moxidectin injection, 26% for oral moxidectin and 27.6% for pour-on moxidectin, while the treatment efficacy was 72.4% for abamectin injection, 70.1% for oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and 34.1% for pour-on abamectin. Both moxidectin and abamectin injections were significantly more efficacious than their equivalent pour-ons. There was a significant difference in efficacy between oral abamectin (Hi-Mineral) and oral moxidectin (P<0.01). The control group averaged 2956 adult lungworm (Dictyocaulus eckerti) and 50 Oesophagostomum venulosum in the large intestine and treatment efficacy against these nematodes was 100% for all treatments. There were negligible numbers of other gastro-intestinal nematodes. At slaughter, there was a significant correlation (P=0.02) between FEC and Ostertagia-type nematodes in the untreated controls. Relatively few eggs were found in faeces from treated animals at 7 and 14 days post-treatment despite significant worm burdens in all six treatment groups, suggesting egg-laying suppression in resistant nematodes, and all three different FECRT calculations tended to overestimate the efficacy of the treatments compared with actual nematode counts. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for both actives were measured 12h after treatment for injection and oral and at 5 days for pour-on. Cmax (ng/ml) for moxidectin injection, oral and pour-on were 71.8, 8.3 and 0.4, respectively

  18. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Müller, Jörg; Held, Leonhard; Möst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation

  19. Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Sobrino, Raquel; Vicente, Joaquín; Fierro, Yolanda; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G.

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer—182 males and 124 females—were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 potential predictors. Three models were developed: one for red deer males, another for hinds, and one combining data for males and females and including “sex” as factor. Our rationale was that if tick burdens on males and hinds relate to the explanatory factors in a differential way, it is not possible to precisely and accurately predict the tick burden on one sex using the model fitted on the other sex, or with the model that combines data from both sexes. Our results showed that deer males were the primary target for ticks, the weight of each factor differed between sexes, and each sex specific model was not able to accurately predict burdens on the animals of the other sex. That is, results support for sex-biased differences. The higher weight of host individual and population factors in the model for males show that intrinsic deer factors more strongly explain tick burden than environmental host-seeking tick abundance. In contrast, environmental variables predominated in the models explaining tick burdens in hinds. PMID:23819112

  20. 78 FR 46603 - Notice of Availability of a Draft White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... add lethal deer management actions (sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia of... include the reduction of the deer herd through sharpshooting with firearms or capture and euthanasia...

  1. Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Margaret A; Spraker, Terry R; Sigurdson, Christina J; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Miller, Michael W

    2002-10-01

    The usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (CWD) was evaluated. Disease was tracked in a CWD-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). Tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of PrP(CWD), the protein marker for infection, using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. 26/34 (76%) mule deer and 4/5 (80%) white-tailed deer had PrP(CWD) accumulation in tonsillar biopsies; CWD was subsequently confirmed by post-mortem examination in all 30 of these tonsillar-positive deer. Six mule deer with IHC-negative tonsillar biopsies had positive brain and tonsillar IHC staining upon death 12 to 40 months following the last biopsy. PrP(CWD) accumulation in tonsillar biopsy was observed 2 to 20 months before CWD-related death and up to 14 months before onset of clinical signs of CWD. Tonsillar biopsies from 3-month-old mule deer (n=6) were IHC negative, but PrP(CWD) accumulation was detected in tonsillar biopsies from 7/10 mule deer by 19 months of age. Tonsillar biopsy evaluated with IHC staining is a useful technique for the preclinical diagnosis of CWD in live mule deer and white-tailed deer when intensive management approaches are possible.

  2. Serologic screening for 13 infectious agents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Flanders

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Paul; Sys, Stanislas U.; De Clercq, Kris; De Leeuw, Ilse; Caij, Anne Brigitte; De Baere, Miet; De Regge, Nick; Fretin, David; Roupie, Virginie; Govaerts, Marc; Heyman, Paul; Vanrompay, Daisy; Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle; Suin, Vanessa; Brochier, Bernard; Dobly, Alexandre; De Craeye, Stéphane; Roelandt, Sophie; Goossens, Els; Roels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. Materials and methods Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralisation, immunofluorescence, or microagglutination test, depending on the agent. Results and discussion High numbers of seropositives were found for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (45.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (43.2%) and Schmallenberg virus (27.9%), the latter with a distinct temporal distribution pattern following the outbreak in domestic ruminants. Lower antibody prevalence was found for Chlamydia abortus (6.7%), tick-borne encephalitis virus (5.1%), Neospora caninum (4.8%), and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (4.1%). The lowest prevalences were found for Leptospira (1.7%), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (1.3%), and Coxiella burnetii (1.2%). No antibodies were found against Brucella sp., bovine herpesvirus 1, and bluetongue virus. A significant difference in seroprevalence between ages (higher in adults >1 year) was found for N. caninum. Four doubtful reacting sera accounted for a significant difference in seroprevalence between sexes for C. abortus (higher in females). Conclusions Despite the more intensive landscape use in Flanders, the results are consistent with other European studies. Apart from maintaining C. abortus and MAP, roe deer do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the examined zoonotic and domestic animal pathogens. Nevertheless, their meaning as sentinels should not be neglected in the absence of other wild cervid species. PMID:26609692

  3. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeanne M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Scoles, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  4. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock.

  5. A Virulent Babesia bovis Strain Failed to Infect White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Ueti, Massaro W; Olafson, Pia U; Freeman, Jeanne M; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are an important component in the vector-host-pathogen triangle of livestock diseases, as they maintain biological vectors that transmit pathogens and can serve as reservoirs for such infectious pathogens. Babesia bovis is a tick-borne pathogen, vectored by cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus spp., that can cause up to 90% mortality in naive adult cattle. While cattle are the primary host for cattle fever ticks, wild and exotic ungulates, including white-tailed deer (WTD), are known to be viable alternative hosts. The presence of cattle fever tick populations resistant to acaricides raises concerns regarding the possibility of these alternative hosts introducing tick-borne babesial parasites into areas free of infection. Understanding the B. bovis reservoir competence of these alternative hosts is critical to mitigating the risk of introduction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that WTD are susceptible to infection with a B. bovis strain lethal to cattle. Two groups of deer were inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or a larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites from infected R. microplus larvae. The collective data demonstrated that WTD are neither a transient host nor reservoir of B. bovis. This conclusion is supported by the failure of B. bovis to establish an infection in deer regardless of inoculum. Although specific antibody was detected for a short period in the WTD, the PCR results were consistently negative at multiple time points throughout the experiment and blood from WTD that had been exposed to parasite, transferred into naïve recipient susceptible calves, failed to establish infection. In contrast, naïve steers inoculated intravenously with either B. bovis blood stabilate or the larval extract supernatant containing sporozoites rapidly succumbed to disease. These findings provide evidence that WTD are not an epidemiological component in the maintenance of B. bovis infectivity to livestock. PMID:26083429

  6. Spatio-temporal variation in male white-tailed deer harvest rates in Pennsylvania: Implications for estimating abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of 2 popular methods that use age-at-harvest data to estimate abundance of white-tailed deer is contingent on assumptions about variation in estimates of subadult (1.5 yr old) and adult (≥2.5 yr old) male harvest rates. Auxiliary data (e.g., estimates of survival or harvest rates from radiocollared animals) can be used to relax some assumptions, but unless these population parameters exhibit limited temporal or spatial variation, these auxiliary data may not improve accuracy. Unfortunately maintaining sufficient sample sizes of radiocollared deer for parameter estimation in every wildlife management unit (WMU) is not feasible for most state agencies. We monitored the fates of 397 subadult and 225 adult male white-tailed deer across 4 WMUs from 2002 to 2008 using radio telemetry. We investigated spatial and temporal variation in harvest rates and investigated covariates related to the patterns observed. We found that most variation in harvest rates was explained spatially and that adult harvest rates (0.36–0.69) were more variable among study areas than subadult harvest rates (0.26–0.42). We found that hunter effort during the archery and firearms season best explained variation in harvest rates of adult males among WMUs, whereas hunter effort during only the firearms season best explained harvest rates for subadult males. From a population estimation perspective, it is advantageous that most variation was spatial and explained by a readily obtained covariate (hunter effort). However, harvest rates may vary if hunting regulations or hunter behavior change, requiring additional field studies to obtain accurate estimates of harvest rates. 

  7. Control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Spanish goats and white-tailed deer with orally administered ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Garris, G I; George, J E; Oehler, D D

    1989-12-01

    Ivermectin administered orally to Spanish goats, Capra hircus (L.), or to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), was highly effective against lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). For Spanish goats, daily oral doses of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in greater than or equal to 2 ppb ivermectin in the blood. This level was sufficient to cause greater than 95% reduction of estimated larvae from feeding ticks. A bioassay with horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), was developed to estimate oral intake of ivermectin. Probit analysis of dose-mortality data indicated that a 50% reduction in adult horn fly emergence can be expected when the manure from goats treated orally with ivermectin at 10, 20, 35, and 50 micrograms/kg/d was mixed with untreated cow manure at a rate of 0.345, 0.110, 0.100, and 0.092%, respectively. In studies with white-tailed deer, daily oral doses of 35 and 50 micrograms/kg/d provided 100% control of adult and about 90% control of nymphs that were placed on treated fawns. A single oral dose of 50 micrograms/kg gave greater than 90% control of adult and nymphal ticks attached to treated fawns at the time of drug administration and 70% control of ticks placed on treated deer three days thereafter. When ticks were placed on fawns treated with a single dose of ivermectin (50 micrograms/kg) the engorgement period was longer, ticks were lighter in weight, and females laid fewer eggs than ticks detaching from control fawns. A single oral dose of ivermectin at 20 micrograms/kg prevented about 60% of the adult and nymphal ticks attached at the time of drug administration from engorging, but did not affect other ticks placed on the animals after treatment. PMID:2607030

  8. Control of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Spanish goats and white-tailed deer with orally administered ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Miller, J A; Garris, G I; George, J E; Oehler, D D

    1989-12-01

    Ivermectin administered orally to Spanish goats, Capra hircus (L.), or to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), was highly effective against lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.). For Spanish goats, daily oral doses of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in greater than or equal to 2 ppb ivermectin in the blood. This level was sufficient to cause greater than 95% reduction of estimated larvae from feeding ticks. A bioassay with horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), was developed to estimate oral intake of ivermectin. Probit analysis of dose-mortality data indicated that a 50% reduction in adult horn fly emergence can be expected when the manure from goats treated orally with ivermectin at 10, 20, 35, and 50 micrograms/kg/d was mixed with untreated cow manure at a rate of 0.345, 0.110, 0.100, and 0.092%, respectively. In studies with white-tailed deer, daily oral doses of 35 and 50 micrograms/kg/d provided 100% control of adult and about 90% control of nymphs that were placed on treated fawns. A single oral dose of 50 micrograms/kg gave greater than 90% control of adult and nymphal ticks attached to treated fawns at the time of drug administration and 70% control of ticks placed on treated deer three days thereafter. When ticks were placed on fawns treated with a single dose of ivermectin (50 micrograms/kg) the engorgement period was longer, ticks were lighter in weight, and females laid fewer eggs than ticks detaching from control fawns. A single oral dose of ivermectin at 20 micrograms/kg prevented about 60% of the adult and nymphal ticks attached at the time of drug administration from engorging, but did not affect other ticks placed on the animals after treatment.

  9. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits towhite-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  10. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater

  11. Observations on coyote-mule deer interactions at Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Alldredge, A.W.; Arthur, W.J. III

    1980-01-01

    Observations of interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in N-central Colorado indicated that, upon discovering a coyote close to a herd, mule deer would become alert, bunch together and either flee or pursue the coyote. Two observations of coyotes attacking deer indicated that the rump was the probable point of attack and in one case the deer began a defense using its front hooves.

  12. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  13. Experimental evidence of spatial memory and home range affinity in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The role of spatial memory in the movement of animals through landscapes remains elusive. To examine spatial memory and home range affinity of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1995–2007, I translocated 17 adult does with known home ranges to unfamiliar sites and radio-tracked them after their release. Twelve does wearing transmitting radio-collars returned to their home ranges. Death and collar expiration precluded determination of whether the remaining five does would have returned to home ranges. Three of five does wearing global positioning system collars traveled throughout hundreds of square kilometres, circling, backtracking, and returning to release sites, while two others exhibited directional movement for tens of kilometres. Four does that survived to parturition stopped traveling and moved at hourly rates similar to those of control does during the first three weeks of the typical fawn-rearing period, but continued traveling later. Their aberrant extensive travel before and after interruption by parturition suggests that they recognized they were in unfamiliar areas, demonstrating both their capacity and propensity to search for and occupy the familiar space of their individual home ranges. Their successful return to home ranges provided experimental evidence of spatial memory and further elucidated its pervasive role in White-tailed Deer spatial ecology.

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  15. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from a chronic wasting disease (CWD) endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008–2013), we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes) to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics. PMID:27007808

  16. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    PubMed

    Mejía Salazar, María Fernanda; Waldner, Cheryl; Stookey, Joseph; Bollinger, Trent K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from a chronic wasting disease (CWD) endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013), we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes) to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics. PMID:27007808

  17. Infectious Disease and Grouping Patterns in Mule Deer.

    PubMed

    Mejía Salazar, María Fernanda; Waldner, Cheryl; Stookey, Joseph; Bollinger, Trent K

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. We evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from a chronic wasting disease (CWD) endemic area in Saskatchewan, Canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. Using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013), we built a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to evaluate whether factors such as CWD status, season, habitat and time of day, predicted group occurrence. Then, we built another GLMM to determine factors associated with group size. Finally, we used 3 measures of group size (typical, mean and median group sizes) to quantify levels of sociality. We found that mule deer showing clinical signs of CWD were less likely to be reported in groups than clinically healthy deer after accounting for time of day, habitat, and month of observation. Mule deer groups were much more likely to occur in February and March than in July. Mixed-sex groups in early gestation were larger than any other group type in any season. Groups were largest and most likely to occur at dawn and dusk, and in open habitats, such as cropland. We discuss the implication of these results with respect to sociobiology and CWD transmission dynamics.

  18. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  19. 76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire...) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York. The purpose...

  20. 75 FR 71106 - Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Deer Creek Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for... October 14, 2010, Deer Creek Hydro, LLC (Deer Creek Hydro) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the...

  1. 75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington...), intend to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge....gov . Fax: Attn: Refuge Manager, (208) 467-1019. U.S. Mail: Refuge Manager, Deer Flat...

  2. Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-09-01

    Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity.

  3. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at...

  4. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at...

  5. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this part must have at least...

  6. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this part must have at least...

  7. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.2 Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at...

  8. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

    2013-04-01

    Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer.

  9. Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies in white-tailed deer, Iowa, 1994 and 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Anneling, L.; Gilchrist, M. J.; Thorne, P. S.

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of 2,277 white-tailed deer for antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Iowa showed seropositivity rates of 12.5% in 1994 and 13.9% in 1996. From 1994 to 1996, the estimated number of seropositive deer increased to 54,701 (28%). The increasing deer population and expanding tick distribution may increase risk for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. PMID:10905976

  10. 76 FR 41516 - Vegetation and Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Morristown National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... National Park Service Vegetation and Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Morristown...: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Vegetation and Deer Management Plan... Statement (EIS) for a Vegetation and Deer Management Plan at Morristown National Historical Park (NHP),...

  11. Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Michael J; Henry, Campa Iii; LeDoux, Kyle; Ryan, Patrick J; Fischer, Justin W; Pepin, Kim M; Blass, Chad R; Glow, Michael P; Hygnstrom, Scott E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-09-01

    Disease and damage from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) continually threaten the livelihood of agricultural producers and the economy in the United States, as well as challenge state and federal wildlife managers. Threats can be partially addressed by excluding free-ranging deer from livestock-related resources. Throughout the year, use of stored livestock feed by deer in northern Lower Michigan (MI), USA fluctuates, though their presence is relatively consistent. Since 2008, use of livestock areas and resources by deer has been reduced through intensive efforts by livestock producers in cooperation with state and federal agencies. These efforts focused on excluding deer from stored cattle feed in areas where deer were abundant. We monitored deer activity from Jan 2012 to June 2013 on 6 cattle farms in northern MI using GPS collars to evaluate behavioral effects of excluding deer from stored feed. We characterized areas deer occupied before and after installing 2361 m of fences and gates to exclude deer from stored cattle feed. Following fence installation, 9 deer previously accessing stored feed shifted to patterns of habitat use similar to 5 deer that did not use stored feed. However, continued attempts to regain access to stored feed were made at low frequencies, emphasizing the need to maintain the integrity of fences and keep gates closed for damage prevention and biosecurity. PMID:26130505

  12. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  13. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations

  14. A new gene mapping resource: Interspecies hybrids between Pere David`s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, M.L.; Mathias, H.C.; Penty, J.M.; Hill, D.F.; Fennessy, P.F.; Dodds, K.G.

    1995-03-01

    Three male F{sub 1} hybrids between Pere David`s deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. The pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. We examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (Type I) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved DNA probes. Two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loci in cattle or humans. Using six restriction enzymes, each DNA probe detected one or more restriction fragments specific to Pere David`s deer. Linkage analyses among the species-specific variants placed the loci into four linkage groups within which linkage between adjacent loci and gene order was supported by a LOD > 3. Southern and protein analysis of LDHA and ALB provided identical segregation data. These linkage groups were consistent with the cattle gene map and provide new information for comparing the gene maps of ruminants, humans and mice. The deer hybrids are an important new resource that can contribute to the comparative analysis of the mammalian genome. 68 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Improved Oocyte Isolation and Embryonic Development of Outbred Deer Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the protocol for isolating cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from the outbred deer mice by using only one hormone (instead of the widely used combination of two hormones) with reduced dose. Moreover, we identified that significantly more metaphase II (MII) oocytes could be obtained by supplementing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and leukemia inhibition factor (LIF) into the previously established medium for in vitro maturation (IVM) of the COCs. Furthermore, we overcame the major challenge of two-cell block during embryonic development of deer mice after either in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) of the MII oocytes, by culturing the two-cell stage embryos on the feeder layer of inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in the medium of mouse embryonic stem cells. Collectively, this work represents a major step forward in using deer mice as an outbred animal model for biomedical research on reproduction and early embryonic development. PMID:26184014

  16. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, C.L.; Dalton, L.B.

    1984-07-31

    Presently, information pertaining to migration and daily movement patterns of big game in relation to overland conveyors or large diameter pipelines is sparse. A literature review showed that moose, caribou, reindeer, and dall sheep will pass beneath or over large diameter pipeline systems. But no information was found relative to big game crossing coal conveyor systems. Mule deer passage beneath an overland coal conveyor in Carbon County, Utah, was studied during spring 1981. Deer avoided crossing at underpass opportunities where the clearance was less than 50 cm. Clearances between 50 and 90 cm were selected for crossing. Deer passed beneath the conveyor during day and nighttime conditions and while the conveyor was either operating or idle. Recommendations are discussed for designing conveyors and pipelines to facilitate big game passage. 13 references, 2 tables.

  17. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  18. Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open

  19. 9 CFR 81.5 - Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of deer, elk, or moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.5 Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State. Farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved through a State...

  20. 9 CFR 81.5 - Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of deer, elk, or moose... ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.5 Movement of deer, elk, or moose through a State to another State. Farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved through a State...

  1. Survival patterns in white-tailed and mule deer after oral inoculation with a standardized, conspecific prion dose.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Jewell, Jean E; Williams, Elizabeth S

    2012-04-01

    We orally inoculated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with a standardized, conspecific prion dose and collected biologic samples throughout the disease course. Mule deer (PRNP genotype 225SS) and PRNP genotype 96GG white-tailed deer succumbed along similar trajectories, but 96GS- and 96SS-genotype individuals tended to survive longer.

  2. The behavioral audiogram of whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Heffner, Henry; Heffner, Henry E

    2010-03-01

    The behavioral audiograms of two female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were determined using a conditioned-suppression avoidance procedure. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level, their hearing range extends from 115 Hz to 54 kHz with a best sensitivity of -3 dB at 8 kHz; increasing the intensity of the sound extends their hearing range from 32 Hz (at 96.5 dB) to 64 kHz (at 93 dB). Compared with humans, white-tailed deer have better high-frequency but poorer low-frequency hearing. PMID:20329810

  3. A 3-decade dearth of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a wolf (Canis lupus)-dominated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Some 30 years after wolves (Canis lupus) were implicated in decimating wintering white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a 3000-km2 area of northeastern Minnesota, winter deer still have not recolonized the area. Although habitat in the study area generally remains poor, some regeneration has taken place, and deer have increased adjacent to the area. However, wolf numbers have persisted by preying on moose (Alces alces). We could detect no reason other than wolf predation and deer migration traditions for why wintering deer have not recolonized the area.

  4. A white-tailed deer/lone star tick model for studying transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Deborah C; Bowen, C Jerry; Wasala, Nalinda B

    2013-03-01

    Animal models for Ehrlichia chaffeensis have been unsuccessful in recapitulating the natural disease cycle. We have developed an animal model for tick feeding and transmission using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus), the intracellular bacterium (Ehrlichia chaffeensis), and the lone star tick vector (Amblyomma americanum). Here, we report the acquisition and transmission of E. chaffeensis infections by refeeding male ticks in this experimental model. This finding is important because techniques for gene silencing are most successful for unfed adult ticks. Males are able to refeed several days after acquiring a tick-borne pathogen. Using refeeding male lone star ticks and RNA interference technology, we plan to decipher underlying molecular mechanisms involved in transmitting E. chaffeensis to a host via a lone star tick bite.

  5. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  6. Collections of adult Ixodes dammini in Indiana, 1987-1990, and the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Holycross, J; Ryder, J; Mummert, M

    1991-09-01

    The collection records for Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin in Indiana are summarized for the period 1987-1990. In 1990, 13 of 729 deer examined were found to harbor adult I. dammini ticks. Eleven of these ticks were collected from 10 deer at a site in Newton County in northwestern Indiana. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were isolated from a single female I. dammini tick collected from this site.

  7. Serologic and Molecular Survey of Hepatitis E Virus in German Deer Populations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stephan; Hackl, Sybille S; Piepenschneider, Meike; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Dremsek, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. The virus is endemic in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. In western Europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of HEV from domestic and wild animals. In Germany, animal reservoirs for HEV have been mainly assigned to domestic pigs and wild boars. To investigate the potential role of deer as a reservoir of HEV, we surveyed HEV-specific antibodies and RNA in deer samples from geographic regions in Germany. We sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during active surveillance in three forest districts in northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Additionally, archived samples of red, roe, and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in 2000-01 in German national parks, were included in the study. Antibody prevalence ranged from 2-3.3% in red deer to 5.4-6.8% in roe deer. Viral RNA was detected in red deer and fallow deer at prevalences of 2.0-6.6% and 4.3%, respectively. The investigation confirmed the presence of HEV infections in three deer species in Germany. Red, roe, and fallow deer should be further monitored to assess their role as hosts and potential reservoirs of HEV in Germany.

  8. [The resource conservation and utilization of wild Sika deer in China].

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Zhang, E

    2001-08-01

    There had once been six subspecies of Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China, but now only three subspecies in wild, i.e. Northeast China, Sichuan and South China subspecies, and all the three subspecies lie in the endangered status. Most of population are very small, and their distribution ranges have already been broken up into many isolated patches, furthermore, their habitats have been deteriorating. So it is very necessary to enhance the protecting of wild sika deer. Some endangered and small populations of wild deer can be saved by inflows of domestic health deer. Wild deer can help farm deer to acquire some good characters again by interbreeding between them. So we think that the purposes of protecting wild population and developing domestic population can be achieved by cooperating between reserves and deer farms. PMID:11715188

  9. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R. |; Baker, D.L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989--1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 and 10.6 years, respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer, dieldrin was found in fat, liver, and brain, and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal. Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin and mercury. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  10. Gross anatomy of the female genital organs of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2013-06-01

    To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the female pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from animals dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. A total of twenty females, 17 adults and 10 pre-puberal approximately 1 year old were studied by gross dissection. The ovaries of adult females without corpora lutea weighed 0.22±0.02 g on the right and 0.20±0.01 g on the left and accounted for 0.03±0.01% of body weight. All corpora lutea (n=6) were found in the right ovary, but in cases where there was no corpus luteum present, the right ovary tended to be heavier than the left (P=0.1). The absence of ovarian bursa, intercornual ligament and suburethral diverticle is peculiar to this deer species. Only 6 convex caruncles were found in the uterine horns, which differ from the more of 100 present in domestic ruminants. Four regular folds that were observed in the cervix of the uterus should not be an obstacle to the passage of a transcervical catheter, allowing intrauterine artificial insemination. The close relationship between the ovarian artery and vein stood up could be associated with the passage of the uterine luteolytic factor from the vein to the ovarian artery, avoiding its systemic way, as happens in domestic ruminants. While the plan of organization was similar, there are some differences with the descriptions of other ruminants. Our results may be very useful as it provides with information that may be considered for the development of female reproductive biotechnologies.

  11. Multiple proximate and ultimate causes of natal dispersal in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal in vertebrates vary, and relative importance of these causes is poorly understood. Among populations, inter- and intrasexual social cues for dispersal are thought to reduce inbreeding and local mate competition, respectively, and specific emigration cue may affect dispersal distance, such that inbreeding avoidance dispersal tends to be farther than dispersal to reduce local competition. To investigate potential occurrence of multiple proximate and ultimate causes of dispersal within populations, we radio-marked 363 juvenile male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. Natal dispersal probability and distance were monitored over a 3-year period when large-scale management changes reduced density of adult females and increased density of adult males. Most dispersal (95-97%) occurred during two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling males still closely associate with related females, and prior to fall breeding season, when yearling males closely associate with other breeding-age males. Following changes to sex and age structure that reduced potential for inbreeding and increased potential for mate competition, annual dispersal probability did not change; however, probability of spring dispersal decreased, whereas probability of fall dispersal increased. Spring dispersal distances were greater than fall dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal requires greater distance than mate competition dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed. Both inbreeding avoidance and mate competition are important ultimate causes of dispersal of white-tailed deer, but ultimate motivations for dispersal are proximately cued by different social mechanisms and elicit different responses in dispersers.

  12. The effects of population density on juvenile growth rate in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  13. The Effects of Population Density on Juvenile Growth Rate in White-Tailed Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Brannon; Wolverton, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Animal body size is driven by habitat quality, food availability, and nutrition. Adult size can relate to birth weight, to length of the ontogenetic growth period, and/or to the rate of growth. Data requirements are high for studying these growth mechanisms, but large datasets exist for some game species. In North America, large harvest datasets exist for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), but such data are collected under a variety of conditions and are generally dismissed for ecological research beyond local population and habitat management. We contend that such data are useful for studying the ecology of white-tailed deer growth and body size when analyzed at ordinal scale. In this paper, we test the response of growth rate to food availability by fitting a logarithmic equation that estimates growth rate only to harvest data from Fort Hood, Texas, and track changes in growth rate over time. Results of this ordinal scale model are compared to previously published models that include additional parameters, such as birth weight and adult weight. It is shown that body size responds to food availability by variation in growth rate. Models that estimate multiple parameters may not work with harvest data because they are prone to error, which renders estimates from complex models too variable to detect interannual changes in growth rate that this ordinal scale model captures. This model can be applied to harvest data, from which inferences about factors that influence animal growth and body size (e.g., habitat quality and nutritional availability) can be drawn.

  14. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km/sup 2/. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years.

  15. Evaluating immunocontraception for managing suburban white-tailed deer in Irondequoit, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudolph, B.A.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    2000-01-01

    Immunocontraception is frequently proposed as an alternative to lethal removal of females for deer management. However, little information is available for evaluating the potential of applying immunocontraceptives to free-ranging populations. Our objectives were to estimate effort required to apply porcine zona pellucida (PZP) to individual deer and assess the utility of using immunocontraception to control growth of deer populations. The study was conducted in a 43-km2 suburban community with about 400 deer. Effort per deer was measured as time required to capture and mark deer, and then to apply booster immunocontraceptive treatments by remote injection. Estimates of numbers of females to treat to control population growth were based on the generalized sustained-yield (SY) model adapted for contraception of females. The SY curve was calibrated using data on deer abundance acquired from aerial population surveys and nutritional condition of females removed by a concurrent culling program. Effort was influenced by 4 factors: deer population density, approachability of individual deer, access to private and public land, and efficacy of the contraceptive treatment. Effort and deer density were inversely related. Cumulative effort for treatment increased exponentially because some deer were more difficult to approach than others. Potential of using immunocontraception at low deer population densities (<25% ecological carrying capacity) is limited by the interaction of the proportion of breeding-age females in the population and treatment efficacy, as well as encounter rates. Immunocontraception has the best potential for holding suburban deer populations between 30 and 70% of ecological carrying capacity, but is likely to be useful only in localized populations when the number of females to be treated is small (e.g., <200 deer).

  16. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission. PMID:25869034

  17. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) and the Western Area Power Administration (Western) have issued... potential environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin...

  18. Pathogen specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective - To develop a noninvasive biomarker based Mycobacterium bovis specific detection system to track infection in domestic and wild animals. Design – Experimental longitudinal study for discovery and cross sectional design for validation Animals - Yearling white-tailed deer fawns (n=8) were ...

  19. Lead content in soft tissues of white-tailed deer

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.

    1995-12-31

    The white-tailed deer is one of the North America`s most abundant game animals and can be used to monitor the quality of the environment. During the 1994 and 1995 hunting seasons, twenty-nine white-tailed deer were harvested with the permission of the Game Biologist of the Alabama Cooperative Deer Management Assistance Program and their liver and kidney samples were analyzed for lead levels. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys, were 0.35 and 0.37 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys did not show any significant difference. The lead levels in the livers of males and females were 0.49 and 0.28 ppm and in the kidneys of males and females were 0.36 and 0.38 ppm, respectively. The lead levels in the livers and kidneys of males and females also did not show any significant difference. Likewise, the lead level neither in the livers nor in the kidneys of young and old deer showed any significant difference.

  20. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission.

  1. Ventilation planning at Energy West's Deer Creek mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tonc, L.; Prosser, B.; Gamble, G.

    2009-08-15

    In 2004 ventilation planning was initiated to exploit a remote area of Deer Creek mine's reserve (near Huntington, Utah), the Mill Fork Area, located under a mountain. A push-pull ventilation system was selected. This article details the design process of the ventilation system upgrade, the procurement process for the new fans, and the new fan startup testing. 5 figs., 1 photo.

  2. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  3. Exclusion of deer and yield of dry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields of crops can be reduced due to predation by herbivores. Field grown Navy Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is susceptible to damage by deer. Seed of the Navy Bean cv. Aspen were sown in a sandy loam soil in May 2006. When plants reached the first trifoliate leaf stage exclusion cages were set a...

  4. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in ...

  5. Oxygen isotope variations in phosphate of deer bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Boaz; Cormie, Allison B.; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    1990-06-01

    Variations of δ 18O of bone phosphate (δ p) of white tailed deer were studied in samples with wide geographic distribution in North America. Bones from the same locality have similar isotopic values, and the difference between specimens (0.4‰) is not large relative to the measurement error (0.3‰). The total range of δ p values is about 12‰. This indicates that deer use water from a relatively small area, and thus their δ p indicates local environmental conditions. Multiple regression analysis between oxygen isotope composition of deer bone phosphate and of local relative humidity and precipitation (δ w) yields a high correlation coefficient (0.95). This correlation is significantly better than the linear correlation (0.81) between δ p and δ w of precipitation alone. Thus δ p depends on both isotopic composition of precipitation and on relative humidity. This is because deer obtain most of their water from leaves, the isotopic composition of which is partly controlled by relative humidity through evaporation/transpiration.

  6. Hard fallow deer antler: a living bone till antler casting?

    PubMed

    Rolf, H J; Enderle, A

    1999-05-01

    Deer antlers are the only mammalian bone structures which regenerate completely every year. Once developed, antlers are cleaned of the velvet-like skin. Presently it is believed that due to velvet shedding the blood supply is interrupted in the solidifying antler bone. Histological examinations were made on different parts of fallow deer antlers investigated from the time of velvet shedding till the antler casting. The present study on hard (polished) antlers revealed living bone with regions presenting living osteocytes, active osteoblasts, osteoid seams and even early stages of trabecular microcallus formation, thus indicating to a continuous bone remodeling. A well developed vascular system was found despite the presence of hard antler bone. The pedicle bone exhibits a rich supply of capillaries and vessels connected to the spongy core of the main branch and the compact bone as well. There is evidence that hard fallow deer antlers possess a functioning vascular system that "keeps the antler moist" resulting in a high impact resistance when fights are most frequent. As late as 3 weeks prior to antler casting a large number of living cells were discovered within the antler core. As we have no doubt that parts of the polished fallow deer antler represent a living bone, we have concluded that a sufficient blood supply of the antler core is maintained almost till the time of antler casting by vessels passing through the antler base.

  7. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... will help meet Basin Electric's future energy requirements. On February 6, 2009, Western published in... 17 alternatives to meet the future energy requirements of the eastern portion of its service area... construct, own, operate, and maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility, a 300 MW...

  8. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare clinicopathological findings of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a natural host, three groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (WTD) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with WTD, mule deer or elk isolates of CWD. Three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. Approximately 10 months pos...

  9. Detection of atypical Chlamydiaceae in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Verheyden, Hélène; Picot, Denis; Bertin, Claire; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-12-31

    Investigations on fecal samples, vaginal swabs and sera from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in south-western France led to the detection of a non-classified Chlamydiaceae strain. A total of 85 vaginal swabs were sampled from roe deer that had been captured in 2012 (n=42) and 2013 (n=43). Using a Chlamydiaceae family-specific real-time PCR, only one vaginal swab out of the 42 samples done in 2012 tested positive and was subsequently identified as Chlamydia (C.) psittaci. In contrast, 6/43 vaginal swab samples were positive in 2013. Four of these positive samples came from a single group of roe deer, captured in the Fabas plain. Fecal samples from this group of 9 females were subsequently analyzed, with 6 of them testing positive with the Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. All positive samples collected in 2013 were negative when re-tested with C. abortus-, C. pecorum- and C. suis-specific real-time PCR assays. Sera from this group of 9 females were analyzed with two immunoassays (recomLine and ELISA). Whereas intense positive reactions with C. pneumoniae antigens were observed for all sera when tested with the recomLine test, none was positive with the C. abortus specific ELISA test. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S, 23S rRNA and ompA gene sequences from 3 animals, as well as the MLST analysis from 2 animals, showed that this roe deer group likely harbored the same bacterium related to members of the family Chlamydiaceae. Notably, the roe deer strain formed a separate entity different from the currently recognized chlamydial species, with C. trachomatis, C. suis and C. muridarum appearing as its closest relatives.

  10. Sarcocystosis in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Moré, Gastón; Massone, Adriana; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle, which produce cysts in the muscle of herbivorous animals. In these animal species, sarcocystosis is frequently asymptomatic, although it may occur with high prevalence. Seven Sarcocystis spp. have been described in red deer (Cervus elephus). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystosis, and to perform the morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. found in wild red deer of the Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP), Patagonia, Argentina. Full necropsies of 62 red deer killed by hunters in the NHNP and neighboring areas were performed. Samples of heart and skeletal muscle were examined histologically and selected samples were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), PCR and sequencing. Sarcocystis spp. thin walled cysts were detected in 62 % (38/62) of heart, and in 22 % (3/14) of skeletal muscle samples examined histologically. TEM revealed a smooth and thin cyst wall (≤1 μm), with scarce and separated ribbon-like protrusions. A total of three partial and one full 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences were obtained, and showed the highest identity (≥99 %) with Sarcocystis taeniata, a species described in moose (Alces alces). The morphological and molecular results indicate that red deer in Argentina are frequently infected with S. taeniata, a species for which the definitive host is unknown. The present results also confirm that Sarcocystis spp. using cervids as intermediate host are not host-specific. Further studies are needed to improve the epidemiological knowledge of Sarcocystosis in red deer. PMID:26779923

  11. Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

  12. Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on urinary characteristics of 9 captive, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were studied from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Urinary sodium (na) and potassium (K) were diminished in fasted deer after 2 and 4 weeks. Renal excretion of Na and K were lower, whereas urinary phosphorus (P) was higher in fasted deer compared to deer fed high protein-high energy (HPHE) diets. Urinary P excretion of the fasted deer was also greater than in a low protein-high energy (LPHE)-fed group. Urinary area excretion of fasted deer was similar to that of deer fed low and high protein diets. One fasted deer died during the study and exhibited notably high excretion of urea, Na, K, and calcium (Ca). No effects of the 2 levels of dietary protein on urinary characteristics were detected. Urinary Na:C and K:C ratios wer significantly correlated with Na and K intake. Urinalysis has potential as a sensitive means of monitoring the nutritional status of white-tailed deer. Data are presented as reference values for interpretation of data from deer under less controlled circumstances.

  13. Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (Odocoileius hemionus).

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, B L; James, L F; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Ralphs, M H; Pfister, J A; Spraker, T R

    2005-09-01

    Locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (Odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. In areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are available. The purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of CWD. Two groups of four mule deer were fed either a complete pelleted ration or a similar ration containing 15% locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). Poisoned deer lost weight and developed a scruffy, dull coat. They developed reluctance to move, and movement produced subtle intention tremors. Poisoned deer had extensive vacuolation of visceral tissues, which was most severe in the exocrine pancreas. Thyroid follicular epithelium, renal tubular epithelium, and macrophages in many tissues were mildly vacuolated. The exposed deer also had mild neuronal swelling and cytoplasmic vacuolation that was most obvious in Purkinje cells. Axonal swelling and dystrophy was found in many white tracts, but it was most severe in the cerebellar peduncles and the gracilis and cuneate fasciculi. These findings indicate that deer are susceptible to locoweed poisoning, but the lesions differ in severity and distribution from those of other species. The histologic changes of locoweed poisoning are distinct from those of CWD in deer; however, the clinical presentation of locoweed poisoning in deer is similar. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies are required for a definitive diagnosis.

  14. Evaluating a strategy to deliver vaccine to white-tailed deer at a landscape level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Justin W.; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, William D.; Anderson, Charles W.; Lavelle, Michael J.; Hall, Wayne H.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Effective delivery of vaccines and other pharmaceuticals to wildlife populations is needed when zoonotic diseases pose a risk to public health and natural resources or have considerable economic consequences. The objective of our study was to develop a bait-distribution strategy for potential delivery of oral bovine tuberculosis (bTB) vaccine to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) where deer are reservoirs for the disease. During 17 February and 2 March 2011, we created a grid of experimental bait stations (n = 64) on Sandhill Wildlife Management Area, Wisconsin, USA, to assess station densities needed to attract and deliver placebo baits to free-ranging white-tailed deer and look for associations among deer density, number of bait stations per deer, and bait consumption. We placed 1 L of commercially available alfalfa cubes at bait stations 652 m apart, and monitored stations with motion-activated cameras for 5 days to document visitation and consumption by deer and nontarget species. Deer discovered 38% of all bait stations within 37 hr, on average (SE = 3.91 hr), and consumed variable amounts of bait at each station. Deer were documented in 94% of all photographs of wildlife at bait stations. We found no correlation between bait consumption and deer density or the number of bait stations per deer. We provide the first information on use of baits by free-ranging deer and nontarget wildlife to eventually vaccinate deer against bTB at a landscape level. The results of this study can further the development of strategies in delivery of pharmaceuticals to free-ranging white-tailed deer.

  15. Weak Population Structure in European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Evidence of Introgressive Hybridization with Siberian Roe Deer (C. pygargus) in Northeastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past. PMID:25271423

  16. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) in northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  17. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Yojiro; Matsuura, Yukiko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Saga, Shin-Ichi; Okuyama, Hideto; Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation. PMID:25482110

  18. Effects of season and physical condition on the gastrointestinal helminth community of white-tailed deer from the Texas Edwards Plateau.

    PubMed

    Waid, D D; Pence, D B; Warren, R J

    1985-07-01

    Eighty-six adult female white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), collected over a 12-mo period in the Texas Edwards Plateau, harbored six species of nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Gongylonema pulchrum, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia sp., and Apteragia odocoilei), and two cestodes (Moniezia sp. and Taenia hydatigena). The patterns of distribution of the three common species of gastrointestinal helminths (H. contortus, O. venulosum, and G. pulchrum) were overdispersed. When analyzed for the main and interactive effects of the extrinsic and intrinsic variables of season and physical condition, respectively, aggregated abundances in H. contortus and O. venulosum appeared to result from the main effect of seasonal changes operating over the collective populations of these two species rather than from the intrinsic factor of physical condition operating within selected subpopulations. Abomasal parasite counts do not appear to be a useful index for monitoring herd condition of white-tailed deer from this geographic region.

  19. Accessory corpora lutea formation in pregnant Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) investigated by examination of ovarian dynamics and steroid hormone concentrations

    PubMed Central

    YANAGAWA, Yojiro; MATSUURA, Yukiko; SUZUKI, Masatsugu; SAGA, Shin-ichi; OKUYAMA, Hideto; FUKUI, Daisuke; BANDO, Gen; NAGANO, Masashi; KATAGIRI, Seiji; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Generally, sika deer conceive a single fetus, but approximately 80% of pregnant females have two corpora lutea (CLs). The function of the accessory CL (ACL) is unknown; moreover, the process of ACL formation is unclear, and understanding this is necessary to know its role. To elucidate the process of ACL formation, the ovarian dynamics of six adult Hokkaido sika deer females were examined ultrasonographically together with peripheral estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations. ACLs formed in three females that conceived at the first estrus of the breeding season, but not in those females that conceived at the second estrus. After copulation, postconception ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first wave is induced by an increase in estradiol-17β, which leads to formation of an ACL. A relatively low concentration of progesterone after the first estrus of the breeding season is considered to be responsible for the increase in estradiol-17β after copulation. PMID:25482110

  20. Preliminary data used to assess the accuracy of estimating female white-tailed deer diel birthing-season home ranges using only daytime locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    Because many white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) home-range and habitat-use studies rely only on daytime radio-tracking data, we were interested in whether diurnal data sufficiently represented diel home ranges. We analyzed home-range and core-use size and overlap of 8 adult-female Global-Positioning-System-collared deer during May and June 2001 and 2002 in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, USA. We used 2 traditional means of analysis: minimum-convex polygons (MCP) and fixed kernels (95% FK, home range and 50% FK, core use) and two methods to partition day and night location data: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 h versus nighttime = 2000-0800 h and (2) sunup versus sundown. We found no statistical difference in size of home-range and core-use areas across day and night comparisons; however, in terms of spatial overlap, approximately 30% of night-range areas on average were not accounted for using daytime locations, with even greater differences between core-use areas (on average approximately 50%). We conclude that diurnal data do not adequately describe diel adult-female-deer, May-June home-ranges due to differences in spatial overlap (location). We suggest research to determine (1) if our findings hold in other circumstances (e.g., exclusive of the parturition period, other age classes, etc.), (2) if our conclusions generalize under other conditions (e.g., across deer range, varying seasons, etc.), (3) if habitat-use conclusions are affected by the incomplete overlap between diurnal and diel data, (4) how many nocturnal locations must be included to generate sufficient overlap, and (5) the influence of using other kernel sizes (e.g., 75%, 90%).

  1. Pathophysiology of white-tailed deer vaccinated with porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, P.D.; Richmond, M.E.; Miller, L.A.; Quimby, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    White-tailed deer (n = 14 treated, n = 7 control) were examined postmortem to identify any possible pathophysiology resulting from PZP immunocontraception vaccination. Deer were treated twice in 1997; given a booster in 1998, with six being revaccinated in September 2000. Granulomas were found at injection sites of most deer, even 2 years post-treatment. Eosinophilic oophoritis occurred in 6 of 8 (75%) deer vaccinated in 1998, and 3 of 6 (50%) revaccinated in 2000. The 2000 revaccinates without oophoritis, had significantly fewer normal secondary follicles than control females (P = 0.03), and deer in the1998 treatment group (P = 0.04). PZP immunocontraceptive vaccine elicited ovarian pathologies in deer similar to those observed in other species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W. )

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  3. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident. PMID:8491625

  4. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; Karns, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary protein, fasting, and refeeding on blood characteristics of 9 nonpregnant, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in captivity from 23 February to 3 May 1984. Percent weight loss was greater in fasted deer than in deer fed diets of 2 crude protein levels. Fasting effects were also observed for hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), cholesterol, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), potassium (K), glucose, phosphorus (P), insulin, thyroxine (T4), and total protein (TP). Refeeding influenced cholesterol, sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca). Hemoglobin, PCV, Ca, P, and albumin varied with time in fasted deer. Changes over time in the fed deer occurred for several hematological and serum characteristics. Data are presented to serve as reference values for better understanding of data collected from free-ranging deer under less known conditions.

  5. 137Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R W

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread 137Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher 137Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue 137Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than 137Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the U.S. sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of 137Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  6. Herbivore Body Condition Response in Altered Environments: Mule Deer and Habitat Management

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Eric J.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bishop, Chad J.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Banulis, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF), assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3), and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥1.5 years old) female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas — a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis) - Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area than in the reference study area , although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change. PMID:25184410

  7. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric J; Doherty, Paul F; Bishop, Chad J; Wolfe, Lisa L; Banulis, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF), assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3), and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old) female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis)--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  8. Genetic differentiation between red deer from different sample sites on the Tianshan Mountains (Cervus elaphus), China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Can-Lin; Turdy, Risalat; Halik, Mahmut

    2015-02-01

    About 273 individuals were identified from 471 fecal samples from six different red deer populations in China. The genetic structure showed that the red deer from the western and eastern Tianshan Mountains was different. A total number of 12 haplotypes were defined by 97 variable sites by the control region (CR), and 10 haplotypes were defined by 34 variable sites by cytochrome b. There was no haplotype sharing between red deer populations from western and eastern Tianshan Mountains by the CR and the cytochrome b. The red deer populations from west were clade with wapiti from North American and red deer from Siberia, while red deer populations from east were clade with red deer from Crimea in Pleistocene rather than west at present. The result of NETWORK also showed that red deer populations from western and eastern Tianshan Mountains were different. The haplotype and the Fst value between western and eastern Tianshan red deer were significantly different. The AMOVA analysis showed that 97.34% and 1.14% of the total genetic variability were found within populations and among populations within groups, respectively, by microsatellite. AMOVA for mitochondria showed that most of the variance was explained among-group. The Fst, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic relationship result showed that red deer between western and eastern Tianshan were more different than some of the red deer from North-Asia, South-Asia, East-Asia, and wapiti. All data from this study do support that the genetic characteristics of red deer between western and eastern Tianshan Mountains by microsatellite, control region, and cytochrome b were different.

  9. Gastro-intestinal helminths in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Illinois.

    PubMed

    Cook, T W; Ridgeway, B T; Andrews, R; Hodge, J

    1979-07-01

    Two deer populations, one in northern Illinois the other in southern Illinois, were examined by necropsy (n = 44 and 40 respectively) for helminth parasites of the gastro-intestinal tract and abdominal cavity. Both herds were parasitized by Apteragia odocoilei, Haemonchus contortus, Gongylonema pulchrum, Setaria yehi, Trichuris ovis, and Moniezia benedeni. Nematodirus sp. was found only in deer of northern Illinois. Ostertagia mossi, Capillaria sp., Cooperia sp., and Oesophagostomum sp. were found only in deer of southern Illinois.

  10. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  11. Lead in mule deer forage in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, P.D.; Dyer, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) forage collected from roadsides in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, contained lead (Pb) concentrations ranging from 0.8 to >50 ..mu..g/g. Concentrations were inversely correlated with distance from the roadway. Equations developed to estimate deer absorption of Pb from contaminated roadside vegetation indicate that deer in some age-classes need only to consume 1.4% of their daily intake of forage from roadsides before consuming excessive amounts of Pb.

  12. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers. PMID:16623730

  13. Atmospheric flash injuries in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Zele, Diana; Bidovec, A; Vengust, G

    2006-03-01

    The pathological and histopathological examination of two female roe deer found dead after a severe thunderstorm is described. One of the two roe deer was killed by a direct hit of atmospheric flash, while the other animal, lying 1.5 m from the first one, died as a consequence of ground current strike. The major part of the coat and skin of the animal that was killed by a direct hit was covered with scorched streaks. The trachea and bronchi of both animals contained a considerable amount of aspirated light-red foam. Necropsy revealed diffuse haemorrhages over the epicardium of the right atrium with a diameter of 1 millimetre. The liver and the kidney exhibited severe congestion. PMID:16613025

  14. Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) poisoning in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Pedro M O; Von Hohendorf, Raquel; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Schmitz, Milene; da Cruz, Cláudio E F; Driemeier, David

    2009-09-01

    A captive fallow deer (Dama dama) in a zoo was spontaneously poisoned after consumption of Sida carpinifolia. The paddock where cervids were kept was severely infested by S. carpinifolia. The deer developed a neurological syndrome characterized by muscular weakness, intention tremors, visual and standing-up deficits, falls, and abnormal behavior and posture. Because a severe mandibular fracture and the consequent deteriorating condition, it was euthanized. Main microscopic findings were swelling and multifocal cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells. The cytoplasm of multiple cells of the cerebellum, especially the Purkinje cells, stained with the lectins Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris, and succinylated Triticum vulgaris. Diagnostic possibilities such as bovine diarrhea virus, rabies, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy were excluded. The report focuses on the risk of maintaining S. carpinifolia populations in zoo enclosures of wild herbivores.

  15. White-tailed deer are a biotic filter during community assembly, reducing species and phylogenetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Begley-Miller, Danielle R.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Brown, Bethany H.; Hahn, Marlene; Rooney, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Community assembly entails a filtering process, where species found in a local community are those that can pass through environmental (abiotic) and biotic filters and successfully compete. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce species diversity and favour browse-tolerant plant communities. In this study, we expand on our previous work by investigating deer as a possible biotic filter altering local plant community assembly. We used replicated 23-year-old deer exclosures to experimentally assess the effects of deer on species diversity (H′), richness (SR), phylogenetic community structure and phylogenetic diversity in paired browsed (control) and unbrowsed (exclosed) plots. Additionally, we developed a deer-browsing susceptibility index (DBSI) to assess the vulnerability of local species to deer. Deer browsing caused a 12 % reduction in H′ and 17 % reduction in SR, consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, browsing reduced phylogenetic diversity by 63 %, causing significant phylogenetic clustering. Overall, graminoids were the least vulnerable to deer browsing based on DBSI calculations. These findings demonstrate that deer are a significant driver of plant community assembly due to their role as a selective browser, or more generally, as a biotic filter. This study highlights the importance of knowledge about the plant tree of life in assessing the effects of biotic filters on plant communities. Application of such knowledge has considerable potential to advance our understanding of plant community assembly. PMID:24916059

  16. Behavioural responses of red deer to fences of five different designs.

    PubMed

    Goddard, P J.; Summers, R W.; Macdonald, A J.; Murray, C; Fawcett, A R.

    2001-08-27

    Capercaillie, a large species of grouse, are sometimes killed when they fly into high-tensile deer fences. A fence design which is lower or has a less rigid top section than conventional designs would reduce bird deaths, but such fences would still have to be deer-proof. The short-term behavioural responses of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to fences of five designs, including four that were designed to be less damaging to capercaillie, were measured. Five deer were located on one side of a fence with a larger group (20 animals), from which they had been recently separated, on the other. The efficacy of fences in preventing deer from the small group from rejoining the larger group was also recorded. In addition to a conventional deer fence (C) the four new designs were, an inverted "L" shape (L), a fence with offset electric wire (E), a double fence (D) and a fence with four webbing tapes above (W). Four replicate groups of deer were each tested for 3 days with each fence design. Deer paced the test fence line relatively frequently (a proportion of 0.09 scan observations overall) but significantly less when deer were separated by fences E or C compared to L, W or D (overall difference between fence types, P<0.001). Deer separated by fence E spent significantly more time pacing perimeter fences than deer separated by fences of other types (overall difference between fence types, P<0.01) but deer separated by fence C maintained a low level of fence pacing overall. Analysis of behaviour patterns across the first day and the 3 days of exposure suggested that the novelty of the test fences, rather than the designs per se, influenced the behaviour of the deer. Over the course of the study, no deer crossed either C or L. Three deer crossed E and two deer crossed both W and D. On this basis, field testing, particularly of fence L, would be a useful next step. PMID:11434963

  17. Behavioural responses of red deer to fences of five different designs.

    PubMed

    Goddard, P J.; Summers, R W.; Macdonald, A J.; Murray, C; Fawcett, A R.

    2001-08-27

    Capercaillie, a large species of grouse, are sometimes killed when they fly into high-tensile deer fences. A fence design which is lower or has a less rigid top section than conventional designs would reduce bird deaths, but such fences would still have to be deer-proof. The short-term behavioural responses of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) to fences of five designs, including four that were designed to be less damaging to capercaillie, were measured. Five deer were located on one side of a fence with a larger group (20 animals), from which they had been recently separated, on the other. The efficacy of fences in preventing deer from the small group from rejoining the larger group was also recorded. In addition to a conventional deer fence (C) the four new designs were, an inverted "L" shape (L), a fence with offset electric wire (E), a double fence (D) and a fence with four webbing tapes above (W). Four replicate groups of deer were each tested for 3 days with each fence design. Deer paced the test fence line relatively frequently (a proportion of 0.09 scan observations overall) but significantly less when deer were separated by fences E or C compared to L, W or D (overall difference between fence types, P<0.001). Deer separated by fence E spent significantly more time pacing perimeter fences than deer separated by fences of other types (overall difference between fence types, P<0.01) but deer separated by fence C maintained a low level of fence pacing overall. Analysis of behaviour patterns across the first day and the 3 days of exposure suggested that the novelty of the test fences, rather than the designs per se, influenced the behaviour of the deer. Over the course of the study, no deer crossed either C or L. Three deer crossed E and two deer crossed both W and D. On this basis, field testing, particularly of fence L, would be a useful next step.

  18. Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

  19. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

  20. Parasitism among white-tailed deer and domestic sheep on common range.

    PubMed

    Prestwood, A K; Pursglove, S R; Hayes, F A

    1976-07-01

    Parasitism was studied in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) which shared a common range in eastern West Virginia. Of 30 species of internal parasites, 11 were found in deer and 22 in sheep. Five parasites, Sarcocystis sp., Cysticercus tenuicollis, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Cooperia punctata, and Gongylonema pulchrum, occurred in both deer and sheep. An index of similarity of 17.2 suggests that the parasite faunas of these hosts are distinct, and that it is unlikely that white-tailed deer are reservoirs of common parasites of domestic sheep in the southern Appalachian region.

  1. Merogony and gametogony of Eimeria mccordocki (Protozoa-Eimeriidae) in the mule deer, Odocoileus h. hemionus.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Post, G; Marquardt, W C

    1987-04-01

    Eimeria mccordocki and E. madisonensis oocysts were isolated from feces of 21 of 40 captive mule deer in Fort Collins, Colorado. The two species were separated from each other by infecting one mule deer fawn, and the life cycle of E. mccordocki was studied for the first time. Four to six-weeks-old mule deer fawns were inoculated orally with E. mccordocki and killed 9, 13 and 15 days after infection. Asexual and sexual stages of life cycle developed in the ileum of mule deer, only in the surface epithelial cells of the villi. The asexual stages consisted of two generations of meronts.

  2. Isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a free-ranging mule deer in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, H; Ridpath, J; Williams, E; Cavender, J; Edwards, J; Smith, S; Sawyer, H

    2001-04-01

    A noncytopathic type 1a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was isolated from a free-ranging yearling female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from northwestern Wyoming (USA). The mule deer was emaciated, weak, and salivating, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes was cultured from lung abscesses. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from lung, however, BVDV antigen was not detected by immunohistochemistry. The BVDV genotype was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and the RNA sequences from the 5'UTR and E2 genes compared with sequences of a type 1a BVDV isolated from cattle from the same area as the deer. The sequences from the deer BVDV were distinct from those of the bovine type 1a BVDV, but similar to other bovine type 1a BVDVs. Seventy-four (60%) of 124 sera collected from mule deer in this area had serum neutralizing antibody titers to type 1a BVDV of > or = 1:32. The high prevalence of seropositive mule deer and isolation of BVDV suggests that this virus circulates in the mule deer population. The isolate described in this report is the second reported BVDV isolate from free-ranging deer in North America and the first from a mule deer.

  3. First detection of adiaspiromycosis in the lungs of a deer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kazuya; Niki, Hinako; Yukawa, Airo; Yanagi, Mitsuhiro; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Adiaspiromycosis is a pulmonary infection caused by the soil fungi, Emmonsia crescens and E. parva. It primarily affects small mammals and can range from an asymptomatic condition to fatal disseminated disease. We detected a granuloma containing fungal spherules, which were morphologically consistent with the adiaspores of E. crescens in the lungs of a female Hokkaido sika deer. This is the first reported case of adiaspiromycosis involving a cervid in the world. PMID:25787928

  4. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  5. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in Iberian roe deer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The roe deer is the most abundant and widespread wild Eurasian cervid. Its populations are expanding and increasingly in contact with livestock. This may affect the distribution of infectious diseases shared with other wild and domestic ungulates. Methods We investigated the antibody seroprevalence against Pestivirus, Herpesvirus, Bluetongue (BT) virus, M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP), and Brucella sp. in 519 roe deer from different regions in Spain, south-western Europe. Results No antibodies were detected against BT and Brucella sp. However, antibodies were detected against Pestivirus (1.5%), Herpesvirus (0.2%) and MAP (9.2%). MAP antibodies were detected in seven of the eight populations (range 5-16.4%). Conclusions The detection of MAP antibodies in samples from most roe deer populations suggests that contact with MAP is widespread in this wildlife species. The highest prevalence was detected in sites with abundant dairy cattle and frequent use of liquid manure on pastures. Considering the results obtained regarding exposure to different pathogens, we suggest that antibody prevalences in this non-gregarious browser are largely determined by environmental factors, potentially modulating vector populations or pathogen survival in the environment. PMID:21078207

  6. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  7. Predator evasion by white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance for understanding predator–prey interactions, factors that affect predator evasion behaviours of offspring of large ungulates are poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the influence of selection and availability of escape cover and maternal presence on predator evasion by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fawns in the northern Great Plains, U.S.A. We observed 45 coyote, Canis latrans, chases of fawns, and we participated in 83 human chases of fawns during 2007–2009, of which, 19 and 42 chases, respectively, ended with capture of the fawn. Evasive techniques used by fawns were similar for human and coyote chases. Likelihood of a white-tailed deer fawn escaping capture, however, was influenced by deer group size and a number of antipredator behaviours, including aggressive defence by females, initial habitat and selection of escape cover, all of which were modified by the presence of parturient females. At the initiation of a chase, fawns in grasslands were more likely to escape, whereas fawns in forested cover, cultivated land or wheat were more likely to be captured by a coyote or human. Fawns fleeing to wetlands and grasslands also were less likely to be captured compared with those choosing forested cover, wheat and cultivated land. Increased probability of capture was associated with greater distance to wetland and grassland habitats and decreased distance to wheat. Use of wetland habitat as a successful antipredator strategy highlights the need for a greater understanding of the importance of habitat complexity in predator avoidance.

  8. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. Babesia capreoli infections in alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. Rupicapra), roe deer (Capreolus c. Capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hoby, Stefan; Mathis, Alexander; Doherr, Marcus G; Robert, Nadia; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Five cases of fatal babesiosis in free-ranging chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) attributed to infections with Babesia capreoli were recently recorded in two regions of the Swiss Alps. To investigate the ecologic factors that possibly lead to those fatal B. capreoli infections in chamois, blood, ticks, and demographic data of 46 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 48 chamois, and nine red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected in 2006 and 2007 in both affected regions. Whereas no parasitic inclusions were found by microscopical examination of blood smears, B. capreoli was identified by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing in blood of 12 roe deer (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.3-41.1), one chamois (2%, CI: 0-6.1), and one red deer (11%, CI: 0.3-48.2). Prevalence of B. capreoli was significantly higher in roe deer compared with chamois (P<0.001). All 214 ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus, and significantly more roe deer (63%, CI: 47.5-76.8) were infested compared with chamois (21%, CI: 10.5-35.0, P<0.001). Overall, prevalences of both tick infestation and Babesia infection increased significantly (P<0.001) with decreasing altitude, and Babesia-positive samples were detected significantly more often from animals with tick infestation compared with animals without ticks (P = 0.040). Our results indicate that roe deer may play an important reservoir role for B. capreoli. It is hypothesized that the expansion of the presumed vector I. ricinus to higher elevations and its increased abundance in overlapping habitats of roe deer and chamois may favor the spillover of B. capreoli from roe deer to chamois. PMID:19617485

  10. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  11. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) larger for the 25-ppm-dieldrin group. Pituitary glands were smaller and thyroids were larger in dieldrin-fed deer. Weight gains of fawns were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced 2 of 3 years in dieldrin-treated groups. Placental transfer of dieldrin occurred. Whole milk from does fed 25 ppm dieldrin contained residues of 17 ppm. Residue levels in brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27

  12. 77 FR 1720 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the White-Tailed Deer Management Plan, Rock Creek Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... capture and euthanasia of individual deer. Capture and euthanasia of individual deer would be an approach... numbers. The lethal actions would include both sharpshooting and capture/euthanasia and would be...

  13. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  14. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Bochsler, P.N.; Hall, S.M.; Gidlewski, T.; O'Rourke, K. I.; Spraker, T.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrPCWD) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrPCWD in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of rectoanal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010–2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  16. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm.

    PubMed

    Keane, Delwyn P; Barr, Daniel J; Bochsler, Philip N; Hall, S Mark; Gidlewski, Thomas; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Spraker, Terry R; Samuel, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    In September 2002, chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in Wisconsin. The facility was subsequently quarantined, and in January 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. Sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (PrP(CWD)) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young deer. Although none of the deer displayed clinical signs suggestive of CWD at depopulation, 49 deer had considerable accumulation of the abnormal prion in the medulla at the level of the obex. Extraneural accumulation of the abnormal protein was observed in 59 deer, with accumulation in the retropharyngeal lymph node in 58 of 59 (98%), in the tonsil in 56 of 59 (95%), and in the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissue in 48 of 58 (83%). The retina was positive in 4 deer, all with marked accumulation of prion in the obex. One deer was considered positive for PrP(CWD) in the brain but not in the extraneural tissue, a novel observation in white-tailed deer. The infection rate in captive deer was 20-fold higher than in wild deer. Although weakly related to infection rates in extraneural tissues, prion genotype was strongly linked to progression of prion accumulation in the obex. Antemortem testing by biopsy of recto-anal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (or other peripheral lymphoid tissue) may be a useful adjunct to tonsil biopsy for surveillance in captive herds at risk for CWD infection.

  17. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  18. Relative vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected mule deer to vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Miller, Michael W

    2005-07-01

    We estimated chronic wasting disease (CWD) prevalence among vehicle-killed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in select data analysis units (DAUs) in northern Colorado, USA, and compared these with estimated CWD prevalence among mule deer of the same sex sampled in the vicinity of collision sites to assess relative vulnerability of CWD-infected individuals to vehicle collisions. Twenty-five of 171 vehicle-killed mule deer tested positive for CWD (overall prevalence=0.146, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.097-0.208); 173 of 2,317 deer sampled in the vicinity of these vehicle-killed deer tested positive (overall prevalence=0.075, 95% CI=0.064-0.085). In nine of ten DAU x sex comparisons, relative risk of CWD infection tended to be higher among vehicle-killed deer (range of estimated relative risks=1.6-15.9). Spongiform encephalopathy was detected in 12 of 20 (60%; 95% CI=39-81%) CWD-positive deer killed by vehicles and in 79 of 180 (44%; 95% CI=37-52%) CWD-positive deer detected via random sampling (relative risk=1.37; 95% CI=0.92-2.03), suggesting that infected deer killed by vehicles tended to be in later stages of disease than those killed by hunters. Our data offer evidence that CWD-infected mule deer may be relatively vulnerable to vehicle collisions. It follows that sampling of vehicle-killed mule deer may be exploited to increase efficiency of surveillance programs designed to detect new foci of CWD infection; moreover, evidence of increased susceptibility to vehicle collisions may aid in understanding vulnerability of CWD-infected individuals to other forms of death, particularly predation.

  19. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented. PMID:22735848

  20. Comparison of histological lesions and immunohistochemical staining of proteinase-resistant prion protein in a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy of free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with those of chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer.

    PubMed

    Spraker, T R; Zink, R R; Cummings, B A; Wild, M A; Miller, M W; O'Rourke, K I

    2002-01-01

    In this investigation, the nature and distribution of histologic lesions and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of a proteinase-resistant prion protein were compared in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) dying of a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy (SE) and captive mule deer dying of chronic wasting disease (CWD). Sixteen free-ranging deer with SE, 12 free-ranging deer without SE, and 10 captive deer with CWD were examined at necropsy. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and duplicate sections were stained with a monoclonal antibody (F89/160.1.5). Histological lesions in the free-ranging deer with SE and captive deer with CWD were found throughout the brain and spinal cord but were especially prominent in the myelencephalon, diencephalon, and rhinencephalon. The lesions were characterized by spongiform degeneration of gray matter neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation and degeneration of neurons, and astrocytosis. IHC was found throughout the brain and retina of deer with SE and CWD. Positive IHC was found in lymphoid tissue of deer with SE and CWD. Histologic lesions and IHC were not found in multiple sections of integument, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and urogenital systems of deer with SE or CWD. Comparison of histologic lesions and IHC in tissues of free-ranging deer with those of captive deer provides strong evidence that these two diseases are indistinguishable morphologically.