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Sample records for adult blood lead

  1. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  2. Tracking Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin Levels in Andean Adults Working in a Lead Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4 and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007 and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Pb exposure of the workers need to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  3. Adult blood lead epidemiology and surveillance--United States, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    2006-08-18

    Since 1994, CDC's state-based Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program has been tracking laboratory-reported blood lead levels (BLLs) in U.S. adults. A national public health objective for 2010 (objective 20-7) is to reduce the prevalence of BLLs > or =25 microg/dL among employed adults to zero. A second key ABLES measurement level is a BLL > or =40 microg/dL, the level at which the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires workers to have an annual medical evaluation of health effects related to lead exposure. A previously published ABLES report provided data collected from 35 states during 2002. This report summarizes ABLES data collected from 37 states during 2003-2004 and compares them with annual data collected since 1994. The findings indicated that the national rate of adults with elevated BLLs (i.e., > or =25 microg/dL) declined from 2002 to 2003 and declined further in 2004. Projections using 1994-2004 ABLES data trends indicate that the national prevalence rate of adults with BLLs > or =25 microg/dL will be approximately 5.7 per 100,000 employed adults in 2010. Increased prevention measures, particularly in work environments, will be necessary to achieve the 2010 objective of reducing this rate to zero.

  4. A Biomonitoring Study of Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Blood of New York City Adults

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Wendy; Gwynn, R. Charon; Jeffery, Nancy; Kass, Daniel; Thorpe, Lorna E.; Garg, Renu K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the extent of exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in the New York City (NYC) adult population. Methods We measured blood metal concentrations in a representative sample of 1,811 NYC residents as part of the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004. Results The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 2.73 μg/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.58–2.89]; blood lead concentration was 1.79 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.73–1.86); and blood cadmium concentration was 0.77 μg/L (95% CI, 0.75–0.80). Mercury levels were more than three times that of national levels. An estimated 24.8% (95% CI, 22.2–27.7%) of the NYC adult population had blood mercury concentration at or above the 5 μg/L New York State reportable level. Across racial/ethnic groups, the NYC Asian population, and the foreign-born Chinese in particular, had the highest concentrations of all three metals. Mercury levels were elevated 39% in the highest relative to the lowest income group (95% CI, 21–58%). Blood mercury concentrations in adults who reported consuming fish or shellfish 20 times or more in the last 30 days were 3.7 times the levels in those who reported no consumption (95% CI, 3.0–4.6); frequency of consumption explained some of the elevation in Asians and other subgroups. Conclusions Higher than national blood mercury exposure in NYC adults indicates a need to educate New Yorkers about how to choose fish and seafood to maximize health benefits while minimizing potential risks from exposure to mercury. Local biomonitoring can provide valuable information about environmental exposures. PMID:17938732

  5. Elevated blood lead levels among adults in Massachusetts, 1991-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Tumpowsky, C M; Davis, L K; Rabin, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning, the oldest recognized occupational disease, remains a danger for children and adults. Data collected for 664 cases reported to the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry in 1991-1995 were summarized in a 1998 state report. Here, the authors present some of the key findings from that report for a wider audience. METHODS: The authors summarize key findings of the 1998 state report. FINDINGS: Construction workers, in particular licensed deleaders and house painters, accounted for almost 70% of occupational cases involving blood lead levels > or = 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (mcg/dl) of blood. Among 100 workers with the highest blood lead levels (> or = 60 mcg/dl), 29% were house painters. Hispanic workers were over-represented in the Registry. A small proportion of cases were non-occupational, typically associated with recreational use of firing ranges or do-it-yourself home renovations. CONCLUSION: Lead poisoning is a preventable disease, yet these data indicate that additional prevention efforts are warranted. PMID:11059431

  6. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  7. Blood lead levels and major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in US young adults.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Bellinger, David C; Weuve, Jennifer; Matthews-Bellinger, Julia; Gilman, Stephen E; Wright, Robert O; Schwartz, Joel; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2009-12-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous neurotoxicant, and adverse cognitive and behavioral effects are well-documented in children and occupationally exposed adults but not in adults with low environmental exposure. To investigate the association of current blood lead levels with 3 common psychiatric disorders-major depression, panic, and generalized anxiety-in young adults. Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Nationally representative sample of US adults. A total of 1987 adults aged 20 to 39 years who responded to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004). Twelve-month DSM-IV criteria-based diagnoses of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The mean (SD) blood lead level was 1.61 (1.72) microg/dL (range, 0.3-37.3 microg/dL) (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.0483). Increasing blood lead levels were associated with higher odds of major depression (P = .05 for trend) and panic disorder (P = .02 for trend) but not generalized anxiety disorder (P = .78 for trend) after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education status, and poverty to income ratio. Persons with blood lead levels in the highest quintile had 2.3 times the odds of major depressive disorder (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.75) and 4.9 times the odds of panic disorder (1.32-18.48) as those in the lowest quintile. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher blood lead levels and outcome, but models that excluded current smokers also resulted in significantly increased odds of major depression (P = .03 for trend) and panic disorder (P = .01 for trend) with higher blood lead quintiles. In these young adults with low levels of lead exposure, higher blood lead levels were associated with increased odds of major depression and panic disorders. Exposure to lead at levels generally considered safe could result in adverse mental health outcomes.

  8. Environmental lead exposure is associated with visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability in the US adults.

    PubMed

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Delongchamp, Robert; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Youcheng; Abouelenien, Saly; Fischbach, Lori; Jadhav, Supriya

    2015-04-01

    The association between environmental lead exposure and blood pressure variability, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unexplored and unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lead exposure is associated with blood pressure variability. American participants 17 years of age or older from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were included in the analysis. Participants' blood lead concentrations expressed as micrograms per deciliter were determined. The standard deviations of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure were calculated to determine blood pressure variability. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking and socioeconomic status were employed. The participants' mean age and mean blood lead concentration were 42.72 years and 3.44 mcg/dl, respectively. Systolic blood pressure variability was significantly associated with environmental lead exposure after adjusting for the effect of the confounders. The unadjusted and adjusted means of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability and the β coefficient of lead exposure were 3.44, 3.33 mcg/dl, β coefficient = 0.07, P < 0.01. This study documents a positive linear relationship between environmental lead exposure and systolic blood pressure variability. Screening adults with fluctuating blood pressure for lead exposure could be warranted.

  9. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were amore » significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.« less

  10. Light-scattering spectroscopy differentiates fetal from adult nucleated red blood cells: may lead to noninvasive prenatal diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kee-Hak; Salahuddin, Saira; Qiu, Le; Fang, Hui; Vitkin, Edward; Ghiran, Ionita C.; Modell, Mark D.; Takoudes, Tamara; Itzkan, Irving; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Sachs, Benjamin P.; Perelman, Lev T.

    2015-01-01

    Present techniques for prenatal diagnosis are invasive and present significant risks of fetal loss. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis utilizing fetal nucleated red blood cells (fNRBC) circulating in maternal peripheral blood has received attention, since it poses no risk to the fetus. However, because of the failure to find broadly applicable identifiers that can differentiate fetal from adult NRBC, reliable detection of viable fNRBC in amounts sufficient for clinical use remains a challenge. In this Letter we show that fNRBC light-scattering spectroscopic signatures may lead to a clinically useful method of minimally invasive prenatal genetic testing. PMID:19412313

  11. Allostatic load amplifies the effect of blood lead levels on elevated blood pressure among middle-aged U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Scientists and regulators have sought to understand whether and how physiologic dysregulation due to chronic stress exposure may enhance vulnerability to the adverse health effects of toxicant exposures. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether allostatic load (AL), a composite measure of physiologic response to chronic exposure to stress, amplifies the effect of lead exposure on blood pressure among middle-aged adults. Methods We analyzed associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample of 8,194 U.S. adults (aged 40-65 years) participating in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999--2008. Outcomes were elevated systolic (≥ 140 mm Hg) and diastolic (≥ 90 mm Hg) blood pressure. AL was defined as the aggregate score of seven components, reflecting dysregulation of the cardiovascular, inflammatory, and endocrine systems. Results Logistic regression models showed a linear dose-response relationship for quintiles of blood lead and elevated systolic blood pressure in the high AL group (p = 0.03) but not the low AL group (p = 0.24). Similarly, the relationship between lead exposure and elevated diastolic blood pressure was stronger among the high AL group than the low AL group. Within the high AL group, the fourth and fifth quintiles had significantly elevated odds of elevated blood pressure compared to lowest quintile [OR = 1.92, (95% CI, 1.07, 3.47) and OR =2.28 (95% CI, 1.33, 3.91), respectively]. In the low AL group, none of the quintile effects were significantly different than the referent group although there was evidence of a linear trend (p =0.03). The lead by AL interaction term was not statistically significant for either systolic or diastolic blood pressure models. Conclusions Results suggest that higher AL may amplify the adverse effects of lead on blood pressure. Future research should assess the implications of cumulative exposures to

  12. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Lead What's ... español Análisis de sangre: plomo What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  13. Trends in tobacco smoke exposure and blood lead levels among youths and adults in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Richter, Patricia A; Bishop, Ellen E; Wang, Jiantong; Kaufmann, Rachel

    2013-12-19

    Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation. Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking. Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general.

  14. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead poisoning and the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for lead exposure. ... MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. ...

  15. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  16. Lead reduction of petrol and blood lead concentrations of athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Maresky, L.S.; Kotze, T.J.V.W.; Grobler, S.R.

    In 1984, it was determined that the blood of long-distance runners in South Africa contained unacceptably high concentrations of lead. Subsequently, the petrol lead level in South Africa was reduced from 0.8 g/l to 0.4 g/l. In view of this reduction, a follow-up investigation of its effect on the blood lead concentration of South African runners was undertaken. Blood lead samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean values of blood lead concentrations dropped from 52 to 13 {mu}g/dl and from 20 to 8.5 {mu}g/dl for the urban and rural trainers, respectively. A highly significant decrease inmore » blood lead levels was found and was mainly attributable to the reduction in the petrol lead levels. The blood lead results for rural trainers indicated that there still exists a certain degree of lead pollution in athletes from nonremote areas.« less

  17. Relation of pediatric blood lead levels to lead in gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of a large data set of pediatric blood lead levels collected in New York City (1970-1976) shows a highly significant association between geometric mean blood lead levels and the amount of lead present in gasoline sold during the same period. This association was observed for all age and ethnic groups studied, and it suggests that possible exposure pathways other than ambient air should be considered. Even without detailed knowledge of the exact exposure pathways, sufficient information now exists for policy analysis and decisions relevant to controls and standards related to lead in gasoline and its effect on subsets of the population. PMID:7389685

  18. Two Welsh surveys of blood lead and blood pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Elwood, P.C.; Davey-Smith, G.; Oldham, P.D.

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between blood pressure and blood lead was examined in two population samples. One of these consisted of 1137 men aged 49 to 65 years, the other of 865 men and 856 women aged 18 to 64 years. Neither population had any known important exposure to lead, and the 95% ranges of blood lead levels were 6 to 26 ..mu..g/100 mL and 6 to 23 ..mu..g/mL in the men and 5 to 18 ..mu..g/mL in the women. No significant relationship between blood pressure and blood lead was detected in either of the population samples, and the regression coefficients suggestmore » that if there were a real effect, then the mean difference in blood pressure per 10 ..mu..g difference in blood lead is likely to be 0.7 mm Hg in both systolic and diastolic pressures. In the survey of 1137 men, the rise in blood pressure was measured during the cold pressor test. This test is likely to be affected if lead were to affect neurogenic mediators of blood pressure. The mean change in systolic pressure was 24 mm Hg and the 95% range was -6 to 60 mm Hg, but there was no evidence of any association with blood lead level.« less

  19. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (<10 µg/dL) have indicated associations of blood lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  20. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S.

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  1. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values.

  2. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified.

  3. Predicting blood lead concentrations from lead in environmental media.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, K R

    1998-12-01

    Policy statements providing health and environmental criteria for blood lead (PbB) often give recommendations on an acceptable distribution of PbB concentrations. Such statements may recommend distributions of PbB concentrations including an upper range (e.g., maximum and/or 90th percentile values) and central tendency (e.g., mean and/or 50th percentile) of the PbB distribution. Two major, and fundamentally dissimilar, methods to predict the distribution of PbB are currently in use: statistical analyses of epidemiologic data, and application of biokinetic models to environmental lead measurements to predict PbB. Although biokinetic models may include a parameter to predict contribution of lead from bone (PbBone), contemporary data based on chemical analyses of pediatric bone samples are rare. Dramatic decreases in environmental lead exposures over the past 15 years make questionable use of earlier data on PbBone concentrations to estimate a contribution of lead from bone; often used by physiologic modelers to predict PbB. X-ray fluorescent techniques estimating PbBone typically have an instrument-based quantitation limit that is too high for use with many young children. While these quantitation limits have improved during the late 1990s, PbBone estimates using an epidemiologic approach to describing these limits for general populations of children may generate values lower than the instrument's quantitation limit. Additional problems that occur if predicting PbB from environmental lead by biokinetic modeling include a) uncertainty regarding the fractional lead absorption by young children; b) questions of bioavailability of specific environmental sources of lead; and c) variability in fractional absorption values over a range of exposures. Additional sources of variability in lead exposures that affect predictions of PbB from models include differences in the prevalence of such child behaviors as intensity of hand-to-mouth activity and pica. In contrast with these

  4. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    PubMed

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  5. High-Precision (MC-ICPMS) Isotope Ratio Analysis Reveals Contrasting Sources of Elevated Blood Lead Levels of an Adult with Retained Bullet Fragments, and of His Child, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kate E; Shafer, Martin M; Weiss, Debora; Anderson, Henry A; Gorski, Patrick R

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to the neurotoxic element lead (Pb) continues to be a major human health concern, particularly for children in US urban settings, and the need for robust tools for assessment of exposure sources has never been greater. The latest generation of multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) instrumentation offers the capability of using Pb isotopic signatures as a tool for environmental source tracking in public health. We present a case where MC-ICPMS was applied to isotopically resolve Pb sources in human clinical samples. An adult male and his child residing in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, presented to care in August 2015 with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) (>200 μg/dL for the adult and 10 μg/dL for the child). The adult subject is a gunshot victim who had multiple bullet fragments embedded in soft tissue of his thigh for approximately 10 years. This study compared the high-precision isotopic fingerprints (<1 ‰ 2σ external precision) of Pb in the adult's and child's whole blood (WB) to the following possible Pb sources: a surgically extracted bullet fragment, household paint samples and tap water, and a Pb water-distribution pipe removed from servicing a house in the same neighborhood. Pb in the bullet and adult WB were nearly isotopically indistinguishable (matching within 0.05-0.56 ‰), indicating that bullet fragments embedded in soft tissue could be the cause of both acute and chronic elevated blood Pb levels. Among other sources investigated, no single source dominated the child's exposure profile as reflected in the elevated BLL.

  6. Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-01-01

    Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL. The two remaining bears, although above the MDL, contained very low concentrations of lead of 3.9 and 4.5 µg/dL. All 15 giant pandas in this analysis had Pb-B concentrations that were within normal background concentrations for mammals in uncontaminated environments. For a threatened species, whose native country is plagued by reports of extremely high air pollution, our findings suggest that giant pandas at the CCRCGP are not absorbing lead at concentrations that would adversely affect their health.

  7. Association between Prenatal Lead Exposure and Blood Pressure in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aimin; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Park, Sung Kyun; Cantonwine, David; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Robert O.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead exposure in adults is associated with hypertension. Altered prenatal nutrition is associated with subsequent risks of adult hypertension, but little is known about whether prenatal exposure to toxicants, such as lead, may also confer such risks. Objectives: We investigated the relationship of prenatal lead exposure and blood pressure (BP) in 7- to 15-year-old boys and girls. Methods: We evaluated 457 mother–child pairs, originally recruited for an environmental birth cohort study between 1994 and 2003 in Mexico City, at a follow-up visit in 2008–2010. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed by measurement of maternal tibia and patella lead using in vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence and cord blood lead using atomic absorption spectrometry. BP was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer with appropriate-size cuffs. Results: Adjusting for relevant covariates, maternal tibia lead was significantly associated with increases in systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in girls but not in boys (p-interaction with sex = 0.025 and 0.007 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Among girls, an interquartile range increase in tibia lead (13 μg/g) was associated with 2.11-mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 3.52] and 1.60-mmHg (95% CI: 0.28, 2.91) increases in SBP and DBP, respectively. Neither patella nor cord lead was associated with child BP. Conclusions: Maternal tibia lead, which reflects cumulative environmental lead exposure and a source of exposure to the fetus, is a predisposing factor to higher BP in girls but not boys. Sex-specific adaptive responses to lead toxicity during early-life development may explain these differences. PMID:21947582

  8. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Petersen, Margaret R.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Flint, Paul L.; Smith, Milton R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993–1995. Lead concentrations of ≥0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (≥0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of ≥0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  9. Blood lead levels in children, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shunqin; Zhang Jinliang

    2006-07-15

    To evaluate Chinese children's blood lead levels (BLLs) and identify its distribution features, we collected articles on children's BLLs published from 1994 to March 2004 using the Chinese Biomedical Disc and reviewed 32 articles eligible for the following criteria: (1) BLLs measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; (2) strict quality control; (3) no lead pollution sources in the areas where the screened subjects live; and (4) sample size bigger than 100. We found that mean BLLs of Chinese children was 92.9 {mu}g/L (37.2-254.2 {mu}g/L), and 33.8% (9.6-80.5%) of the subjects had BLLs higher thanmore » 100 {mu}g/L. Nine of the 27 provinces or cities reported had average BLLs {>=}100 {mu}g/L. Boys' BLL was 96.4 {mu}g/L, significantly higher than girls' 89.4 {mu}g/L (P<0.001). BLLs of children {<=}6 years increased with age. The mean BLLs of children living in industrial and urban areas were significantly higher than those of children in suburbs and rural areas. Our results suggested that children's BLLs in China are higher than those of their counterparts in other countries due to its heavy lead pollution. Therefore, this is of great public health importance.« less

  10. The underdefined nature of the blood lead-air lead relationship from biological and statistical grounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, A.

    Existing information on the metabolism of lead in the human body is taken as a basis for deriving a steady-state relationship between the concentrations of blood lead and air lead for healthy adults. Through the clearly defined physical meaning of its parameters, the interpretative power of the model equation can be assessed. Unavailability of thorough biological information, the complexity of the human body and consequent modelling of lead metabolism by unavoidably simplified mathematical expressions make the relationship underdefined from a quantitative standpoint. Best-fitting to existing literature data is used as a validity check for the equation. Through comparison with results of other published relationships it is shown that a linear equation, which leads to well-defined biological implications and is a special case of the more general model developed here, can be used to fit the existing data adequately, and may be preferred on the grounds of simplicity.

  11. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb) is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not), demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium). B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL) was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02). Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children. PMID:21457535

  12. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  13. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead-Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes calculation of blood lead-air lead slope factor within an analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and air lead levels among participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The slope factors are compared wi...

  14. Lead intervention and pediatric blood lead levels at hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana, Roseanne M; Troast, Richard; Mastriano, Maria; Follansbee, Mark H; Diamond, Gary L

    2003-05-23

    Lead intervention at Superfund sites typically seeks to reduce pediatric blood lead levels by disrupting the surface-to-hand-to-mouth pathway. This article presents the results of a survey of the publicly available literature on the effectiveness of lead intervention on pediatric blood lead levels at hazardous waste sites. The survey includes six hazardous waste sites located in Canada, Australia, and the United States at which intervention activities were conducted and pediatric blood lead levels were sampled both pre- and postintervention. Evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention on pediatric blood lead levels is often complicated due to confounding variables and statistical limitations. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the intervention studies reviewed in this report suggest that various approaches to the intervention of the dust ingestion pathway, alone or in combination, contributed to declines in blood lead levels in children living in areas heavily contaminated with lead.

  15. Distribution of thallium and lead in children's blood.

    PubMed

    Singh, N P; Bogden, J D; Joselow, M M

    1975-11-01

    Mean whole blood concentrations for lead and thallium were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis for children residing in Newkark, NJ. Frequency distributions for the various concentration ranges for both metals were recorded. There is no noticeable correlation between the lead and thallium content of whole blood, which suggests that exposure to and/or absorption of these substances are different.

  16. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au; CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113; Anderson, Phil

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floormore » wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group

  17. Association of Prenatal and Childhood Blood Lead Concentrations with Criminal Arrests in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John Paul; Dietrich, Kim N; Ris, M. Douglas; Hornung, Richard W; Wessel, Stephanie D; Lanphear, Bruce P; Ho, Mona; Rae, Mary N

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. Methods and Findings Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR) for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 μg/dl (0.24 μmol/l) increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 μg/dl (0.24 μmol/l) increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.85) for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88–1.29) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03–1.57) for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 μg/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88–2.03) for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03–1.64) for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1.15–1.89) for 6-year blood

  18. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Both physiology and epidemiology support zero tolerable blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Shefa, Syeda T; Héroux, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Inorganic lead is one of the most common causes of environmental metal poisonings, and its adverse effects on multiple body systems are of great concern. The brain, along with the kidneys, are critically susceptible to lead toxicity for their hosting of high affinity lead binding proteins, and very sensitive physiology. Prolonged low-lead exposure frequently remains unrecognized, causes subtle changes in these organ systems, and manifests later at an irreversible stage. With the repeated documentation of "no safe blood lead level", the pernicious effects of lead at any measurable concentration need to be emphasized. In this review, we surveyed articles on chronic low-level lead exposures with a blood lead concentrations <10μg/dL and the development of neurobehavioral or renal disorders. The negative impacts of lead on both nervous and renal systems were obvious at a blood lead concentration of 2μg/dL, with the absence of any detectable threshold. The deleterious effect of lead on two different organ systems at such low concentrations drew our attention to the various extracellular and intracellular events that might be affected by minimal concentration of body lead, especially blood lead. Is there a true common ground between low-level lead toxicity in both the nervous system and the kidney? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-03-25

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River.

  1. Blood lead and cadmium levels in children: A study conducted in Changchun, Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianling; Sheng, Lianxi; Yan, Zhenghong; Hong, Lianjin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to lead and cadmium in developing countries is considered to be a public health emergency. The present study was designed to investigate children’s exposure to lead and cadmium in Changchun, China. METHODS: A total of 1619 blood samples were collected at random from 1426 children between one and 14 years of age, and 204 adults from Changchun, China. Blood lead and cadmium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The average blood lead level in children was 60.29 μg/L, with boys exhibiting higher blood lead levels than girls. The average blood cadmium level in children was 1.26 μg/L, and differences were not observed between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Children from Changchun exhibited relatively low blood lead and cadmium levels compared with children from other cities, and higher lead and lower cadmium levels than adults. This may be related to leaded gasoline environmental pollution and children’s hand-to-mouth activities. PMID:24596479

  2. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  4. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of thesemore » deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.« less

  5. Blood Lead Levels in Young Children: US, 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    McClure, Leland F; Niles, Justin K; Kaufman, Harvey W

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate trends in blood lead levels in children <6 years of age, this Quest Diagnostics Health Trends report builds on previously reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data with a much larger national group and adds more detail and novel assessments. This report describes the results from a 6-year retrospective study (May 2009-April 2015) based on >5 million blood lead level results (including >3.8 million venous results) from children <6 years old living in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We evaluated yearly changes and examined demographic categories including sex, pre-1950s housing construction, poverty income ratios (PIRs), Medicaid enrollment status, and geographic regions. Among children <6 years old, 3.0% exhibited blood lead levels ≥5.0 μg/dL (high). There were significant differences in high blood lead levels based on sex, pre-1950s housing construction quintiles, and PIR <1.25 and PIR >5 (all P < .01). Health and Human Services regions, states, and 3-digit ZIP code areas exhibited drastically different frequencies of high blood lead levels and blood lead levels ≥10.0 μg/dL (very high). Generally, levels declined over time for all groups. Examination of more than 5 million venous blood lead level results in children younger than 6 years old allowed for a robust, detailed analysis of blood lead level group results by geography and other criteria that are prohibited with the narrower National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Progress in reducing the burden of lead toxicity is a public health success story that is incomplete with some identified factors posing larger, ongoing challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood lead levels in children living in three communities, at different risks of lead pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Abbritti, G.; Cicioni, C.; Gambelunghe, M.

    1988-12-01

    We carried out a survey on blood lead levels in children living in three different communities in Umbria, Italy: Corciano, a small community (12,500 inhabitants), free of lead-using factories and with light traffic; Perugia, a medium-sized city (146,500 inhabitants); Deruta, a small community (7500 inhabitants) whose economy is based mainly on the production of artistic pottery, mostly in small home-operated factories. The study sample was made up of 539 children (275 boys and 264 girls); 156 of them attended nursery school (aged 3-6) and 383 primary school (aged 6-11). The mean blood lead level was significantly higher in Deruta thanmore » in Corciano (9.7 vs 8.3 micrograms/dl); Deruta children whose parents were occupationally exposed to lead had significantly higher blood lead levels than children of lead-unexposed parents (10.7 vs 9.0 micrograms/dl). The mean blood lead level was higher in Perugia than in Corciano children. On the average boys had higher blood lead levels than girls in all of the groups. We conclude that blood lead levels were low in the groups of children studied. Nevertheless children of ceramic workers and children living in a medium-sized city had greater lead absorption than children living in the control area.« less

  7. [Correlations of blood lead levels in infant, in maternal blood and in breast milk].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-xia; Zeng, Guo-zhang; Li, Jian

    2006-05-01

    To understand the correlation of blood lead levels in infant, in maternal blood and in breast milk as to providing evidence for prevention of potential infant hazard from lead. Lead levels were measured by using graphite stove atom absorption spectrographic methods in maternal breast milk, maternal blood and infant blood in infants aged 0 to 11 months and their mothers between November and December 2002 in Xiamen City. Blood samples were collected from both mother and infant's fingertips. Questionnaires were also used to collect information about childbirth, mothers, families and other related environmental factors. All 177 infants and their mothers were enrolled in the study. Infant blood lead levels reached a range from 0.12 micromol/L to 1.36 micromol/L, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.37 micromol/L. There were 46 infants (21.64%) having blood lead levels over 0.48 micromol/L. And the maternal blood lead levels ranged from 0.21 micromol/L to 2.38 micromol/L (GM = 0.50 micromol/L). Among the 177 infants, 160 (93.8%) were breastfed; breast milk was collected from 105 (63.3%) of these mothers. Infant blood lead level was significantly correlated with the levels of maternal blood lead and breast milk lead, which indicated that maternal blood lead level might influence the infant blood lead levels through the breast milk. Blood lead levels in infants living in old business district and the breast milk lead levels of their mothers were higher than those in any other areas (P < 0.01); partial correlation analysis showed that infant blood lead levels were positively associated with the maternal blood lead level, infant's age and mother's work, and negatively associated with mother's height. The infant blood lead levels should not only relate to the maternal blood lead and the breast milk lead levels, so regards should be had to the other environmental factors, when selecting the feeding pattern and family rearing behaviors.

  8. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    SciTech Connect

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a riskmore » factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure.« less

  9. Evaluation of blood lead level in methamphetamine users in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mostafazadeh, Babak; Shadnia, Shahin; Tavakkoli, Mohammad Ali; Khoddami Vishteh, Hamid Reza

    2017-02-22

    Given the increasing number of lead poisoning in opioids users and since no study has been conducted so far to review lead poisoning in methamphetamine (crystal) users, this study aimed to investigate blood lead level in methamphetamine addicts. This study was conducted on 20 patients with methamphetamine poisoning and their blood lead level was measured. The subjects were selected from among patients with a history of continuous use of methamphetamine, without a history of using opiates in the past 6 months confirmed by a negative urine tests, and without a history of heavy metal poisoning. Of all, 18 patients were male and the mean age was 32 ± 10 years; 17 patients were abusing the drug via inhalation and three persons via oral administration. The mean blood lead level was 2.3 ± 1.1 μg/dL and poisoning was not observed in any of the cases. Blood lead level was not associated with age, sex, dosage, and route of administration. Although blood lead level was not at poisoning level in people who only used methamphetamine in Iran, due to the simultaneous use of other substances and because of non-specific symptoms, lead poisoning must be suspected in all cases of substances poisoning.

  10. Effect of interventions on children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Hilts, S R; Bock, S E; Oke, T L; Yates, C L; Copes, R A

    1998-02-01

    Trail, Canada, has been the site of an active lead/zinc smelter for nearly a century. Since 1991, the Trail Community Lead Task Force has carried out blood lead screening, case management, education programs targeted at early childhood groups and the general community, community dust abatement, exposure pathways studies, and remedial trials. From 1989 through 1996, average blood lead levels of children tested for the first time declined at an average rate of 0.6 microg/dl/year, while blood lead levels in Canadian children not living near point sources appeared to be leveling off following the phase-out of leaded gasoline. Since there was no concurrent improvement in local environmental conditions during this time, it is possible that the continuing decline in Trail blood lead levels has been at least partly due to community-wide intervention programs. One year follow-up of children whose families received in-home educational visits, as well as assistance with home-based dust control measures, found that these specific interventions produced average blood lead changes of +0.5- -4.0 microg/dl, with statistically significant declines in 3 years out of 5. Education and dust control, particularly actions targeted toward higher risk children, appear to have served as effective and appropriate interim remedial measures while major source control measures have been implemented at the smelter site.

  11. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... stroke This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  12. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure.

  13. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. PMID:8605853

  14. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Nicole M; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M; Whitfield, John B

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993-1996 and 2002-2005 and from UK in 1991-1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10(-14) for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Determination of Lead in Blood by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Stig; Cramér, Kim

    1968-01-01

    Lead in blood was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a wet ashing procedure and a procedure in which the proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid. In both methods the lead was extracted into isobutylmethylketone before measurement, using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as chelator. The simpler precipitation procedure was shown to give results identical with those obtained with the ashing technique. In addition, blood specimens were examined by the precipitation method and by spectral analysis, which method includes wet ashing of the samples, with good agreement. All analyses were done on blood samples from `normal' persons or from lead-exposed workers, and no additions of inorganic lead were made. The relatively simple protein precipitation technique gave accurate results and is suitable for the large-scale control of lead-exposed workers. PMID:5663425

  16. Blood lead levels, ALAD gene polymorphisms, and mortality.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, Dana M; Li, Yan; McLean, Jody; Chang, Man-Huei; Dowling, Nicole F; Graubard, Barry; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-03-01

    Previous analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) have found that elevated blood lead levels may be associated with cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. The 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) G177C genetic polymorphism (rs 1800435) affects lead toxicokinetics and may alter the adverse effects of lead exposure. We examined whether the ALAD G177C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the relationship between lead and mortality. We analyzed a subset of 3349 genotyped NHANES III participants at least 40 years of age. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality by ALAD genotype, and by blood lead levels (<5 μg/dL vs. ≥5 μg/dL). We also tested whether the ALAD genotype modified the relationship between blood lead level and mortality. The adjusted overall relative risk for participants with the variant ALAD genotype was decreased for all-cause mortality (hazards ratio = 0.68; [95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.93]) compared with persons having the common GG genotype. There was some suggestion that higher lead levels were associated with cancer mortality (1.48 [0.92-2.38]). We observed no convincing interaction effect between ALAD genotype and blood lead level on mortality risk. The ALAD genotype may be associated with decreased mortality from all causes and from cancer. This association does not seem to be affected by lead exposure.

  17. Blood lead levels in NASCAR Nextel Cup teams.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory; McNair, C Scott; Matusiak, Matthew M; Madlem, Jyl

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study determines whether NASCAR racing teams demonstrate exposure to lead from exhaust by evaluation of blood lead levels (BLL). Participants were stratified by proximity to fuel exhaust or whether they worked on an engine. Each participant completed a self-reported survey recording demographics, lead exposure (occupational or in-home environment), and any physical symptoms of lead toxicity. Blood lead levels were then measured. BLL of 47 individuals ranged from 1-22 microg/dL with a median of 9.4 microg/dL. Nineteen of 47 (40.4%) had BLL > or = 10 microg/dL. Participants exposed to exhaust gas had the highest relative risks (RR) for elevated lead, followed by working on brakes and radiator repair. The RR of having an elevated BLL and self-reported adverse health outcomes or symptoms was increased. This study of NASCAR racing teams demonstrates lead exposure.

  18. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-10-01

    As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios (208Pb/206pb, 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19-0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI -0.05-0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09-0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35-0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20-0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=-0.003, 95% CI -0.37-0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  20. BLOOD LEAD CONCENTRATION AND DELAYED PUBERTY IN GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background
    Environmental lead exposure has been linked to alterations in growth and endocrine function. It is not known whether such exposure affects pubertal development.

    Methods
    We analyzed the relations between blood lead concentration and pubertal...

  1. Environmental lead and childhood blood lead levels in US children: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Benson, Stacey M; Talbott, Evelyn O; Brink, LuAnn L; Wu, Candace; Sharma, Ravi K; Marsh, Gary M

    2017-03-04

    Although blood lead levels in the United States have fallen dramatically since 1980, there remain subgroups of children with high blood lead levels. We assessed the relationship between environmental lead sources and blood lead levels in children ages 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006. Modeled ambient air lead levels and industrial lead releases at the census-tract level were assigned to each child's residence with adjustment for confounding factors. Of 3,223 children, 272 (8.4%) had blood lead levels ≥ 5 ug/dL. Industrial releases (2,252 vs 1,696 lbs/mi 2 ) and ambient air lead levels (2.28 vs 1.75 ng/m 3 ) were greater in exposed versus unexposed children. For every 10,000 lb/mi 2 increase in inverse distance squared weighted exposure, there was a 1.13% increase (95% CI: 0.45%, 1.81%) in blood lead (p = .001).

  2. Elevated blood lead levels among construction workers in the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry.

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, R; Brooks, D R; Davis, L K

    1994-01-01

    Although the construction industry until recently was exempt from the Occupational Health and Safety Administration General Industry Lead Standard, including its medical monitoring provisions, periodic blood lead tests have been required for residential "deleaders" and structural painters in Massachusetts. Sixty-three percent of the 381 registrants in the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry with blood lead levels of 1.93 mumol/L or higher are construction workers. This proportion is much higher than that reported by registries of several states selected for comparison. These data highlight the need for better protection from lead exposure and the effectiveness of mandatory medical surveillance in identifying elevated blood lead levels among construction workers. PMID:8092376

  3. Blood lead levels of pregnant women from the Klang Valley.

    PubMed

    Hisham, H J; Chuah, S Y; Syarif, H L; Nik Nasri, I; Fairulnizam, M N

    1998-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the blood lead levels of 97 pregnant women warded at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital, according to their ethnicity, residence and place of work. The lead content of venous blood samples was determined with a graphic furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Blood lead levels of Klang Valley women seem to have decreased from 17.3 micrograms/dl in 1982 to 7.71 micrograms/dl in the present study most probably attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. This level is below the 10 micrograms/dl recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the public, even though 27.8% of them still have blood lead levels that are equal to or in excess of 10 micrograms/dl. The study shows that certain segments of the population such as Indians (geometric mean = 9.35 micrograms/dl) and housewives (geometric mean = 9.55 micrograms/dl) may still experience blood lead levels that are slightly elevated than the rest of the population.

  4. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J; Barbour, A G; Cox, D H; Folland, D S; Ligo, R N; Throckmorton, J

    1979-01-01

    Dose-response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects have been evaluated in 160 lead workers in two smelters and a chemicals plant. Blood lead levels ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 mumol/litre (16-280 microgram/dl). Clinical evidence of toxic exposure was found in 70 workers (44%), including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anaemia (Hgb less than 8.69 mumol/litre (Hb/4) or 14.0 gm/dl) in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (greater than or equal to 7.14 mmol/litre or 20 mg/dl) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. No toxicity was detected at blood lead levels below 1.93 mumol/litre (40 microgram/dl). However, 13% of workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 mumol/litre (40-79 microgram/dl) had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. Anaemia was found in 5% of workers with lead levels of 1.93-2.85 mumol/litre (40-59 microgram/dl), in 14% with levels of 2.90 to 3.81 mumol/litre (60-79 microgram/dl), and in 36% with levels greater than or equal to 3.86 mumol/litre (80 microgram/dl). Elevated blood urea nitrogen occurred in long-term lead workers. All but three workers with increased blood urea nitrogen had at least four years occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation; eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance, and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability. These data support the establishment of a permissible biological limit for blood lead at a level between 1.93 and 2.90 mumol/litre (40-60 microgram/dl). PMID:508643

  5. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05).

  6. Blood lead levels of Jamaican children island-wide.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Gerald; Vutchkov, Mitko; Bryan, Sean

    2007-03-15

    An island-wide survey of 1081 basic school children, mainly in the age group 2-6 years, is reported. The range of blood lead levels (BLLs) was 1.4 to 202 microg/dL with arithmetic and geometric means of 7.3 microg/dL (standard deviation, 13 microg/dL) and 4.35 microg/dL respectively. Two hundred and thirty children were identified with blood lead levels above 10 microg/dL and among these, 80 were provided with medical attention and of eleven who received chelation, six children were desperately ill from acute lead poisoning necessitating repeated sessions of chelation therapy. The higher blood lead values were found mainly in poor areas of the urban Kingston and St. Andrew Corporate Area, and in St. Catherine where there remain observable though reduced effects from a lead-contaminated area. Environmental interventions, including building an increased national awareness, have also been carried out to reduce the immediate and future dangers of lead poisoning. The most important source of the lead exposure is the recovery of lead from old automobile batteries and even a quite small smelter can contaminate a significant area. Further work is in progress to identify and examine historical and active smelter sites, their possible effects on childhood health, and their remediation.

  7. Blood lead levels in children and pregnant women living near a lead-reclamation plant.

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, P; Lavoie, M; Goulet, L; Nantel, A J; Gingras, S

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of lead contamination around a lead-reclamation plant on the blood lead levels of children and pregnant women living in the area. DESIGN: Prevalence study. SETTING: Residents living 150 m or less (high-exposure area), 151 to 400 m (intermediate-exposure area) or 401 to 800 m (low-exposure area) southeast from the plant. PARTICIPANTS: All children aged 10 years or less and all pregnant women living in the designated area. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of venous blood lead levels with soil lead concentrations in the areas in which the subjects lived and with sociodemographic and behavioural factors. MAIN RESULTS: Of the estimated 57 pregnant women 38 (67%) participated: 20 were in the high-exposure area and 18 in the other two areas; their geometric mean blood lead levels were low (0.15 and 0.13 mumol/L respectively). Of the 625 eligible children 510 (82%) participated: 169 were in the high-exposure area, 179 in the intermediate-exposure area and 162 in the low-exposure area; their geometric mean lead levels were 0.43, 0.30 and 0.26 mumol/L respectively. Within each age group children in the high-exposure area had the highest levels. The mean levels for children aged 6 months to 5 years were 0.49, 0.35 and 0.28 mumol/L in the three areas respectively. Within each exposure group children aged 1 to 2 years had the highest levels. No potential confounding variables could explain the relation between blood lead level and soil lead concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant women's blood lead levels did not seem to be affected by exposure level, but the children's levels were primarily related to the soil lead concentration. PMID:2007239

  8. Effect measure modification of blood lead-air lead slope factors.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Cohen, Jonathan; Davis, J Allen; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant literature finding that susceptibility factors, including race and ethnicity, age, and housing, directly influence blood lead levels. No study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the blood lead-air lead relationship nationally. The objective is to evaluate whether susceptibility factors act as effect measure modifiers on the blood lead-air lead relationship. Participant level blood lead data from the 1999 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with air lead data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models were run with and without an air lead interaction term for age group, sex, housing age, or race/ethnicity to determine whether these factors are effect measure modifiers for all ages combined and for five age brackets. Age group and race/ethnicity were determined to be effect measure modifiers in the all-age model and for some age groups. Being a child (1-5, 6-11, and 12-19 years) or of Mexican-American ethnicity increased the effect estimate. Living in older housing (built before 1950) decreased the effect estimate for all models except for the 1-5-year group, where older housing was an effect measure modifier. These results are consistent with the peer-reviewed literature of time-activity patterns, ventilation, and toxicokinetics.

  9. Effect Measure Modification of Blood Lead-Air Lead Slope Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is abundant literature finding that blood lead (PbB) levels are directly influenced by susceptibility factors including race and ethnicity, age, and housing. However, no study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the PbB-air lead (PbA) relationship...

  10. Blood Lead Levels, ALAD Gene Polymorphisms, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    van Bemmel, Dana M.; Li, Yan; McLean, Jody; Chang, Man-huei; Dowling, Nicole F.; Graubard, Barry; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) have found that elevated blood lead levels may be associated with cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. The 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) G177C genetic polymorphism (rs 1800435) affects lead toxicokinetics and may alter the adverse effects of lead exposure. We examined whether the ALAD G177C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the relationship between lead and mortality. Methods We analyzed a subset of 3349 genotyped NHANES III participants at least 40 years of age. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality by ALAD genotype, and by blood lead levels (<5 μg/dL vs. ≥5 μg/dL). We also tested whether the ALAD genotype modified the relationship between blood lead level and mortality. Results The adjusted overall relative risk for participants with the variant ALADCG/CC genotype was decreased for all-cause mortality (hazards ratio = 0.68; [95% confidence interval = 0.50–0.93]) compared with persons having the common GG genotype. There was some suggestion that higher lead levels were associated with cancer mortality (1.48 [0.92–2.38]). We observed no convincing interaction effect between ALAD genotype and blood lead level on mortality risk. Conclusion The ALADCG/CC genotype may be associated with decreased mortality from all causes and from cancer. This association does not seem to be affected by lead exposure. PMID:21293208

  11. Lead intake and blood lead in two-year-old U.K. urban children.

    PubMed

    Davies, D J; Thornton, I; Watt, J M; Culbard, E B; Harvey, P G; Delves, H T; Sherlock, J C; Smart, G A; Thomas, J F; Quinn, M J

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive study of a group of 2-year-old urban children (n = 97), designed to provide quantitative information simultaneously for lead intakes via all identified pathways, has been carried out in Birmingham (U.K.). Results showed that for children whose blood levels and exposure to environmental lead were within the normal range for the U.K., blood lead concentration was significantly related to a combination of house dust lead loading and an overall rate of touching objects, to water lead concentration and to the parents' smoking habits. On the basis of assumptions used by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP), the estimated average total uptake of lead was 36 micrograms day-1; of this, 97% was from ingestion from dust, food and water and only 3% from inhalation.

  12. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, amore » negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.« less

  13. Blood Lead, Bone Turnover, and Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Peters, Tracy L; Beard, John D; Umbach, David M; Keller, Jean; Mariosa, Daniela; Allen, Kelli D; Ye, Weimin; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead and bone turnover may be associated with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to assess whether these factors were also associated with time from ALS diagnosis to death through a survival analysis of 145 ALS patients enrolled during 2007 in the National Registry of Veterans with ALS. Associations of survival time with blood lead and plasma biomarkers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX)) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, diagnostic delay, site of onset, and score on the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale. Hazard ratios were calculated for each doubling of biomarker concentration. Blood lead, plasma CTX, and plasma PINP were mutually adjusted for one another. Increased lead (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.84) and CTX (HR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.89) were both associated with shorter survival, whereas higher PINP was associated with longer survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83), after ALS diagnosis. No interactions were observed between lead or bone turnover and other prognostic indicators. Lead toxicity and bone metabolism may be involved in ALS pathophysiology. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: Prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  15. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log 2 -transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log 2 -transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  16. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with bothmore » parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.« less

  17. Lead, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.

    1991-02-01

    Lead has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in males in the NHANES 2 survey and in numerous other studies. This study confirms the association in males ages 20 to 74 and documents a singificant, although weaker, association in females as well. Prospective cardiovascular disease studies such as the Framingham study indicate that increases in blood pressure should be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using electrocardiogram data from NHANES 2, this study confirms the expected association oflead with left ventricular hypertrophy. The logistic risk coefficients from the Framingham study can be combined with the study'smore » association between lead and blood pressure to examine its implication for more serious outcomes. The results suggest that a halving of the population mean blood lead level would reduce myocardial infarctions by approximately 24,000 events per year and incidence of all cardiovascular disease by over 100,000. These numbers suggest a small attributable risk compared ot the vast incidence of cardiovascular disease in the US, but a large attributable risk compared to most environmental toxins. Several biological mechanisms have been identified, with different implications for the use of bone lead as an exposure measure.« less

  18. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.; Esterman, A.; Lewis, M.

    1986-07-01

    This survey included 1239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's ''level of concern.'' There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members whomore » worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.« less

  19. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    RAHBAR, MOHAMMAD H.; SAMMS-VAUGHAN, MAUREEN; DICKERSON, AISHA S.; LOVELAND, KATHERINE A.; ARDJOMAND-HESSABI, MANOUCHEHR; BRESSLER, JAN; SHAKESPEARE-PELLINGTON, SYDONNIE; GROVE, MEGAN L.; BOERWINKLE, ERIC

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2–8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009 – 2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg/dL. In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg/dL vs. 2.31 μg/dL; P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg/dL vs. 2.52 μg/dL; P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg/dL vs. 1.65 μg/dL; P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg/dL vs. 2.19 μg/dL; P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead

  20. Prevalence of elevated blood leads and exposure to lead in construction trades in Iowa and Illinois.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S J; Seem, R; Fourtes, L J; Sprince, N L; Johnson, J; Walkner, L; Clarke, W; Whitten, P

    1999-08-01

    Despite lowering of the permissible exposure level for lead in construction from 200 to 50 microg/m3 in 1993, excessive lead exposure continues to be a problem. Relatively little data are available from the Midwestern U.S. on the environmental lead concentrations generated during various construction activities and the potential for worker exposure. This study characterized the prevalence of blood lead concentrations in high-risk construction trades in Iowa/Illinois, and identified risk factors for occupational exposure to lead in these construction workers. A sample of 459 workers was selected from the total population of all union members from trade groups of painters, plumbers/pipefitters, ironworkers, laborers, and electricians. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire obtaining information on demographics, symptoms, occupational history, work practices, personal protective equipment, and training. Venous blood samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for blood lead (using atomic absorption spectroscopy) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of construction workers ranged from 0.1 to 50 microg/dL. Geometric mean blood lead concentrations by trade group were: laborers (7.6 microg/dL, n = 80); painters (5.9 microg/dL, n = 83); ironworkers (5.2 microg/dL, n = 87); plumbers (4.4 microg/dL, n = 82); electricians (2.4 microg/dL, n = 91). Blood lead levels for painters and laborers were significantly higher than other trade groups, and levels for electricians were significantly lower (p < 0. 01). Participants reported working primarily on commercial and industrial projects including new construction, renovation, and demolition. There were significant differences between the types of projects performed by different trade groups with laborers performing more highway/bridge renovation (p < 0.01), and plumbers reporting more residential remodeling (p = 0.05), repair of water lines containing lead (p

  1. Lead in candy consumed and blood lead levels of children living in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Tamayo y Ortiz, Marcela; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Wright, Robert; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Pantic, Ivan; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead exposure continues to pose a health risk in Mexico. Children are a vulnerable population for lead effects and Mexican candy has been found to be a source of exposure in children. There are no previous studies that estimates lead concentrations in candy that children living in Mexico City consume and its association with their blood lead level. To evaluate whether there is an association between reported recent consumption of candies identified to have lead, and blood lead levels among children in Mexico City. A subsample of 171 children ages 2-6 years old, from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort study was assessed between June 2006 and July 2007. The candy reported most frequently were analyzed for lead using ICP-MS. The total weekly intake of lead through the consumption of candy in the previous week was calculated. Capillary blood lead levels (BLL) were measured using LeadCare (anodic stripping voltammetry). Lead concentrations ≥0.1ppm, the FDA permitted level (range: 0.13-0.7ppm) were found in 6 samples out of 138 samples from 44 different brands of candy. Median BLL in children was 4.5µg/dl. After adjusting for child's sex, age, BMI, maternal education & occupation, milk consumption, sucking the candy wrapper, use of lead-glazed pottery, child exposure behavior, living near a lead exposure site and use of folk remedies, an increase of 1µg of lead ingested through candy per week was associated with 3% change (95% CI: 0.1%, 5.2%) in BLL. Although lead concentrations in candy were mostly below the FDA permitted level, high lead concentrations were detected in 4% of the candy samples and 12% of brands analyzed. Although candy intake was modestly associated with children's BLL, lead should not be found in consumer products, especially in candy that children can consume due to the well documented long-lasting effect of lead exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? How is ... from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an abnormally low ...

  3. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitablemore » sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.« less

  4. Cross-sectional analysis of blood lead level of entire Korean lead workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong-Ran; Lee, Sang-Won; Paik, Nam-Won

    2006-04-01

    We analyzed blood lead (PbB) level from the 2003 health surveillance results of 13,043 lead workers from 1,217 total lead industries to evaluate lead intoxication at low level in Korea. Geometric mean of PbB was 6.08 microg/dl and 56.6% and 7.9% of total lead workers had PbB level over than 5 microg/dl and 25 microg/dl, respectively. Male showed relatively higher PbB level compared to women, but "Manufacture of Other Electronic Valves, Tubes and Electronic Components n.e.c." had more women than male in risk of low level lead exposure. While conventional high-risk industry such as "Manufacture of Accumulators" and "Other Basic Non-ferrous Metal Industries" were remained in high-risk group in lead exposure, there were high risks in other industries such as plastic, chemical and part manufacturing. Non-production tasks such as fork lift truck driving, maintenance, lab testing, and supporting function showed high blood lead level in addition to routine manufacturing processes such as smelting and soldering.

  5. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  6. The development of registries for surveillance of adult lead exposure, 1981 to 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Baser, M E

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Since 1981, 15 states have established registries for surveillance of adult lead absorption, primarily based on reports of elevated blood lead levels from clinical laboratories. I review the status of the registries and recommend steps for further development. METHODS. Companies reported to the New York registry are compared with those cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). I present data on US workers and plants with potential lead exposures and blood tests, as well as review registries' reporting requirements. RESULTS. Registries identify many companies not cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, but underreporting occurs because (1) reporting is usually not required from laboratories outside the state, (2) most registries use a blood lead reporting level of 1.21 mumol/L, which excludes many exposed workers, and (3) many companies with potential exposures do not have routine monitoring programs. CONCLUSIONS. Registries' reporting requirements and procedures should be standardized, including a blood lead reporting level of 0.72 mumol/L. Elevated blood lead levels should be a reportable condition nationwide, and a comprehensive national surveillance system should be established: clinical laboratories should be required to report cases to those states with lead registries or directly to the national adult lead registry. PMID:1636831

  7. Increased blood lead concentration during menstruation in teen female students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wu, Chin-Ching; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2007-09-01

    Among many studies on the health effects associated with lead burden in human, none has addressed for menstrual cycle. Studies have reported that blood lead levels (BLLs) may increase as estrogen levels decrease. We conducted a study to test whether the BLLs vary during the menstrual cycle. The subjects were 138 teen girls recruited at a junior nursing college. Blood specimens were collected in non-menses days in September 2003 (baseline BLLs) and during days of the menses in December 2003 (between 72nd and 96th hours of the period for follow-up measures). The paired test for differences of BLLs was used to compare between these two measures. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between students who had participated in both the baseline and follow-up studies and students who had participated only in baseline study. The average BLLs measured during the menses was 0.20 microg/dL higher than that measured at the baseline study (p<0.01). This finding suggests that the average BLL was 7.6% increased at the menses among these teen girl students. In the future, the time to collect blood samples for measuring lead for women should be standardized.

  8. Mercury, lead, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    King, Ewa; Shih, Grace; Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Quilliam, Daniela N; Morton, John; Magee, Susanna R

    2013-01-01

    The study described in this article aimed to determine if measurable levels of mercury, lead, and cadmium are detected in the umbilical cord blood specimens collected in a community hospital in Rhode Island and if prenatal exposure correlates with prematurity or fetal growth indicators. Total mercury, lead, and cadmium concentrations were measured in 538 specimens of cord blood and correlated with demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes for each mother-infant pair. Lead concentrations determined in the cord blood of Rhode Island women (geometric mean 0.99 microg/dL) were similar to those reported in U.S. biomonitoring studies. The overall geometric mean for mercury concentration (0.52 microg/L) was slightly lower than in other comparable studies. Cadmium concentrations were generally below the limit of detection. A statistically significant correlation was detected between elevated mercury concentrations and racial and ethnic characteristics of the study participants. Non-Hispanic African-American mothers were 9.6 times more likely to have a mercury concentration > or = 5.8 microg/L compared to women of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. No association was detected between elevated mercury levels and adverse birth outcomes.

  9. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Namihira, D; Saldivar, L; Pustilnik, N; Carreón, G J; Salinas, M E

    1993-03-01

    Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 micrograms/dl (SD 19.88 microgram/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 micrograms/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 micrograms/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 micrograms/kg/d.

  10. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized bymore » weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.« less

  11. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos.

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamic transformations of soil lead and children's blood lead ten years after Hurricane Katrina: New grounds for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T; Mielke, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    The contribution of lead contaminated soil to blood lead, especially as it is a large reservoir of lead dust, has been underestimated relative to lead-based paint. On 29 August 2005 Hurricane Katrina flooded and disrupted habitation in New Orleans. Soil and blood lead were mapped prior to Katrina. This unique study addresses soil and blood lead conditions pre- and ten years post-Katrina and considers the effectiveness of low lead soil for lead exposure intervention. Comparison of soil and blood lead levels pre- and ten years post-Katrina to evaluate and assess the impact of flooding on soil and blood lead at the scale of the city of New Orleans. Post-Katrina soil and blood lead data were stratified by the same census tracts (n=176) as pre-Katrina data. This unique city scale data-set includes soil lead (n=3314 and 3320, pre- vs. post-Katrina), blood lead (n=39,620 and 17,739, pre- vs. post-Katrina), distance, and changes in percent pre-1940 housing. Statistical analysis entailed permutation procedures and Fisher's Exact Tests. Pre- vs. ten years post-Katrina soil lead median decreased from 280 mg/kg to 132 mg/kg, median blood lead decreased from 5μg/dL to 1.8μg/dL, respectively. Percent pre-1940 housing did not change significantly (P-value=0.674). Soil and blood lead decrease with distance from the center of New Orleans. Except for age-of-housing results, P-values were extremely small (<10(-12)). Ten years after Katrina, profound changes in soil lead and children's blood lead occurred in New Orleans. Decreasing the lead on soil surfaces reduces children's interaction with lead dust, thus underscoring soil as a major of source of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean.

  14. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C. Barrett; Sim, John J.; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  15. Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liubo; Wang, Zhou; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Jiang, Jie; Pathiraja, Nimal; Xiao, Ying; Jiao, Rui; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥ 20 years old) in various age-gender subgroups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the local food consumption data of Shenzhen adults. The mean and 95th percentile lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 0.59-0.73 and 0.75-0.94 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. In all food groups, the highest lead exposure was from 'Eggs and their products' (42.4-51.6% of the total exposure); preserved eggs being the main contributor. The other major contributors to lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 'Fish and seafood, and their products' (14.3-16.7% of the total exposure) and 'Vegetables and their products' (15.5-16.2% of the total exposure). The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for the risk assessment of lead, and the results showed that the risk was considered to be low in all age-gender groups for Shenzhen adults. However, having considered a number of toxic effects of lead, it is suggested that more efforts should be made to reduce the lead levels in foodstuff for Shenzhen adults.

  16. Soil Lead and Children’s Blood Lead Disparities in Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Howard W.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Powell, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children’s lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction: Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective. An essential responsibility of health practitioners is to develop an effective primary intervention. Methods: Pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children’s blood lead data were matched by census tract communities. Soil lead and blood lead data were described, mapped, blood lead graphed as a function of soil lead, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures statistics established disparities. Results: Simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead accompanied by an especially large decline in children’s blood lead 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. Exposure disparities still exist between children living in the interior and outer areas of the city. Conclusions: At the scale of a city, this study demonstrates that decreasing soil lead effectively reduces children’s blood lead. Primary prevention of lead exposure can be accomplished by reducing soil lead in the urban environment. PMID:28417939

  17. Soil Lead and Children's Blood Lead Disparities in Pre- and Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans (USA).

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Gonzales, Christopher R; Powell, Eric T

    2017-04-12

    This study appraises New Orleans soil lead and children's lead exposure before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina flooded the city. Introduction : Early childhood exposure to lead is associated with lifelong and multiple health, learning, and behavioral disorders. Lead exposure is an important factor hindering the long-term resilience and sustainability of communities. Lead exposure disproportionately affects low socioeconomic status of communities. No safe lead exposure is known and the common intervention is not effective. An essential responsibility of health practitioners is to develop an effective primary intervention. Methods : Pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children's blood lead data were matched by census tract communities. Soil lead and blood lead data were described, mapped, blood lead graphed as a function of soil lead, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures statistics established disparities. Results : Simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead accompanied by an especially large decline in children's blood lead 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. Exposure disparities still exist between children living in the interior and outer areas of the city. Conclusions : At the scale of a city, this study demonstrates that decreasing soil lead effectively reduces children's blood lead. Primary prevention of lead exposure can be accomplished by reducing soil lead in the urban environment.

  18. Blood lead levels of residents living around 350 abandoned metal mines in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Sakong, Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub; Moon, Jai-Dong; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, as part of the control and prevention of environmental contamination threatening public health, the Korean Ministry of Environment planned to implement a national biomonitoring survey of three metals: lead, cadmium, and mercury in the blood of residents living near 350 abandoned metal mines known to be contaminated and as possible threats to the health of inhabitants. Thus, we investigated demographic and lifestyle variables and blood lead levels in residents living around the mines and compared them against those of control subjects. We measured the blood lead concentrations in 14,849 subjects (14,132 from nearby the 350 abandoned metal mines and 717 subjects from eight control areas). A questionnaire was provided to all subjects to determine gender, age, mining experience, period of time living in the vicinity of mines, smoking status, and personal perception of abandoned mines as a health risk. The geometric means (95% confidence intervals) of the blood lead levels of residents living around the abandoned metal mines and control areas were 3.017 (2.996-3.037 μg/dL) [female, 2.797 μg/dL (2.771-2.822 μg/dL); male, 3.330 μg/dL (3.298-3.363 μg/dL)] and 2.757 (2.677-2.837 μg/dL) [female, 2.604 μg/dL (2.506-2.700 μg/dL); male, 2.993 μg/dL (2.859-3.126 μg/dL)], respectively. Among residents of the mining areas, nonsmokers and residents who had no mining experience showed significantly lower mean blood lead levels than did smokers, past smokers, and those with mining experience. The mean blood lead concentrations of residents who expressed some concern about the abandoned mines were significantly higher than those of residents without concerns. The mean blood lead concentration of residents living around the abandoned mines was significantly higher than that of residents living in control areas as well as that of the general adult Korean population. We also confirmed that smoking is an important variable to consider, as it increases blood lead

  19. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  20. Changes in premature infant mercury and lead blood levels after blood transfusions.

    PubMed

    Elabiad, Mohamad T; Christensen, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To describe the blood level changes of mercury and lead after packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions in ≤ 750 g birth weight infants. Heavy metal blood levels were measured in infants in PRBC units on 1st, 4th, 5th, and 7th days (D1, D4, D5, and D7) of life and in urine on D1, D4, and D7. A total of 10 infants were enrolled with a mean birth weight of 632 ± 72 g. Out of which nine infants received one or more PRBC transfusions, with an average of 2.9 ± 2.5 transfusions per infant. Heavy metals were detected in all the transfusions. The average mercury level was 1.33 µg/L on D1 and 1.66 µg/L on D7, p > 0.05. The average lead level was 0.32 µg/dL on D1 and 0.56 µg/dL on D7, p > 0.05. Urinary mercury excretion increased in infants with no bowel movements. Urinary excretion of lead decreased over time as blood levels increased. After receiving blood transfusions, the blood levels of mercury and lead were maintained at the end of the 1st week of life. As there is no evidence of a proportionate increase in excretory amounts of these heavy metals, there is a concern that they are retained and potentially exert toxic effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Namihira, D.; Saldivar, L.; Pustilnik, N.

    1993-01-01

    The lead content in gasoline in Mexico City is the highest in the world (1g/L). The use of gasoline containing lead as an antiknock agent has been considered the major anthropogenic lead source in the area. Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 [mu]g/dl (SD 19.88 [mu]g/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 [mu]g/100 ml. The correlation coefficientmore » of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 [mu]g/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 [mu]g/kg/d. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  2. Distribution of blood lead levels in schoolchildren in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs subsequent to reductions in petrol lead.

    PubMed

    von Schirnding, Y; Mathee, A; Robertson, P; Strauss, N; Kibel, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine blood lead levels among children attending schools in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs, and to assess the impact of a reduction in the lead content of petrol. A cross-sectional analytical study of children's blood lead levels and associated risk factors. Selected inner city, suburban, and peri-urban schools in the Cape Peninsula, expected to have differing levels of environmental exposure to lead. Grade 1 schoolchildren for whom prior written parental consent had been obtained, and who were present at school on the day of the study. Blood lead levels (microgram/dl), associated with a wide range of potential risk factors. Median blood lead levels in suburbs varied from 14 to 16 micrograms/dl, the lowest levels occurring in the peri-urban suburb and the highest in the inner city suburb. Within the inner city suburb of Woodstock, variations in mean blood lead concentrations among schools were substantial, varying from 13 to 19 micrograms/dl. Overall, no change occurred in blood lead levels in this suburb subsequent to the lowering of the lead content of petrol. Every effort should be made in South Africa to control sources of lead in the urban environment. The study will serve as a useful baseline against which to measure the impact on blood lead levels of further actions which have been taken to promote the use of lead-free petrol in South Africa.

  3. Environmental lead exposure among children in Chengdu, China: blood lead levels and major sources.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Mei; Shi, Hua; Li, Jia-Yuan; Shen, Chuan; Liu, Jin-Hao; Yang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    A survey was performed to know blood lead level (BLL) of children under seven and the risk factors of high BLL in Chengdu, China in 2004. The mean BLL in children under seven in Chengdu was 63.88 microg/L. The detection rate of high BLL was 8.21%. Chengdu is a moderate popular region of lead poisoning. Substitute of breast milk, living at the base floor or in one-storey houses and houses near the streets are the risk factors of high BLL (p < 0.05). The risk of anorexia, spasm and impaired concentration is higher in children whose BLL is higher than those whose BLL is lower (p < 0.05). Living circumstances, feeding patterns, and eating habits affect BLL, which in turn influences children's health status.

  4. Children’s Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Sadler, Richard C.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Ball, Andrew S.; Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children’s average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children’s blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  5. Primary Prevention of Lead Exposure—Blood Lead Results at Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Gracely, Edward; Tran, Mary; Starkey, Naomi; Kersten, Hans; Palermo, Peter; Rothman, Nancy; Line, Laura; Hansen-Turton, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Philadelphia Lead Safe Homes (LSH) Study was designed to evaluate whether educational and environmental interventions in the first year of life for families of newborns increased knowledge of lead exposure prevention and were associated with less elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) for these children, when compared to children receiving standard care. Methods: The current study performed descriptive statistics on the second-year BLL data for both groups and compared these using chi-square tests for proportions and unpaired t-tests for means. Results: A BLL result was found for 159 (50.6%) of the 314 LSH cohort children and 331 (52.7%) of the 628 control children (p = 0.1). Mean and standard deviation for age at draw was 23.8 (3.4) months versus 23.6 (3.1) months (P = 0.6). Geometric mean BLLs were 3.7 versus 3.5 µg/dL (P = 0.4). The percentages of the cohort group with a BLL of ≥20, ≥10 and ≥5 μg/dL, respectively, were 0.6%, 5% and 30%; for the controls 1.2%, 6.6%, and 25%. These percentages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion: A comparison of geometric mean BLLs and percentages above several BLL cut points drawn at age two years in a group of urban newborns benefitting from study interventions versus a group of similar urban children did not yield statistically significant differences. Both groups had relatively lower lead levels when compared to historical cohort groups, which may reflect a continuing downward trend in BLLs in U.S. children. The interventions did result in benefits to the families such as an increase in parental knowledge about lead exposure prevention and in-home wet cleaning activity, and a decrease in lead dust levels in study homes. PMID:22690192

  6. Blood-brain Barrier Disruption Leads to Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Siyuan; Cao, Xipeng; Dou, Xinghui; Li, Jingzhu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Mingshan; Bi, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) has received considerable attention as one of the main postoperative complications. The underlying mechanism of POCD in elderly subjects has not been fully elucidated to date. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is isolated from the bloodstream by the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) that consists of endothelial cells, capillary blood vessels and tight junctions. The tight junctions carry out significant biological functions that are associated with the CNS and blood circulation. In this review, I present a hypothesis that blood-brain barrier disruption leads to postoperative cognitive dysfunction. A total of 81 healthy male Wistar rats were used for the present study. All the experimental animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group, isoflurane group and splenectomy group. The control group was not subjected to any form of treatment. The rats in isoflurane group were given 1.5-2% isoflurane under intubation and mechanical ventilation. The rats in splenectomy group underwent splenectomy under the same anesthesia as the isoflurane group. The Morris water maze was used to examine the learning and memory ability of the animals. The expression of the Tight Junctions Proteins (TJPs) in the hippocampus was analyzed using Western blotting. The concentration of Evans Blue (EB) in the supernatant was analyzed using UV spectroscopy. Ultrastructure changes in the basal laminas, the Tight Junctions (TJs), mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the capillaries were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Following splenectomy, the rats displayed concomitant significant cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test. Taken together, the results indicate that the expression levels of occludin (65KD) following splenectomy were reduced on days one and three in aged rats. No significant difference was noted in the expression levels of claudin-5, except for a reduction after surgery on day one. The

  7. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyan; Cao, Jia; Yan, Jin; Wang, Ju; Cai, Shizhong; Yan, Chonghuai

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China) and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods . A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results . A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls) were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4  μ g/L, 48.9  μ g/L, and 46  μ g/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100  μ g/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50  μ g/L. Mother's education level, father's occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp.), while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88). Conclusions . The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required.

  8. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  9. Altered Myelination and axonal integrity in Adults with Childhood Lead Exposure: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Christopher J.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Haynes, Erin N.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Egelhoff, John C.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Cecil, Kim M.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood lead exposure is associated with adverse cognitive, neurobehavioral and motor outcomes, suggesting altered brain structure and function. The purpose of this work was to assess the long-term impact of childhood lead exposure on white matter integrity in young adults. We hypothesized that childhood lead exposure would alter adult white matter architecture via deficits in axonal integrity and myelin organization. Adults (22.9 ± 1.5 years, range 20.0 to 26.1 years) from the Cincinnati Lead Study were recruited to undergo a study employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The anatomic regions of association between water diffusion characteristics in white matter and mean childhood blood lead level were determined for ninety-one participants (52 female). Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were measured on an exploratory voxel-wise basis. In adjusted analyses, mean childhood blood lead levels were associated with decreased FA throughout white matter. Regions of the corona radiata demonstrated highly significant lead-associated decreases in FA and AD and increases in MD and RD. The genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum demonstrated highly significant lead-associated decreases in RD, smaller and less significant decreases in MD, and small areas with increases in AD. The results of this analysis suggest multiple insults appear as distinct patterns of white matter diffusion abnormalities in the adult brain. Neurotoxic insults from the significant lead burden the participants experienced throughout childhood affect neural elements differently and may be related to the developmental stage of myelination at periods of exposure. This study indicates that childhood lead exposure is associated with a significant and persistent impact on white matter microstructure as quantified with diffusivity changes suggestive of altered myelination and axonal integrity. PMID:19619581

  10. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Corrine S.; Luebbert, Joanne; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Schamber, Jason L.; Rosenberg, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations.

  11. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  12. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993.
    ...

  13. A simple lead dust fall method predicts children's blood lead level: New evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan

    2017-11-01

    We have measured dust fall accumulation in petri dishes (PDD) collected 6 monthly from inside residences in Sydney urban area, New South Wales, Australia as part of a 5-year longitudinal study to determine environmental associations, including soil. with blood lead (PbB) levels. The Pb loading in the dishes (n = 706) had geometric means (GM) of 24µg/m 2 /30d, a median value of 22µg/m 2 /30d with a range from 0.2 to 11,390µg/m 2 /30d. Observed geometric mean PbB was 2.4µg/dL at ages 2-3 years. Regression analyses showed a statistically significant relationship between predicted PbB and PDD. The predicted PbB values from dust in our study are consistent with similar analyses from the US in which floor dust was collected by wipes. Predicted PbB values from PDD indicate that an increase in PDD of about 100µg/m 2 /30d would increase PbB by about 1.5µg/dL or a doubling PbB at the low levels currently observed in many countries. Predicted PbB values from soil indicate that a change from 0 to 1000mg Pb/kg results in an increase of 1.7µg/dL in PbB, consistent with earlier investigations. Blood Pb levels can be predicted from dust fall accumulation (and soil) in cases where blood sampling is not always possible, especially in young children. Petri dish loading data could provide an alternative or complementary "action level" at about 100µg Pb/m 2 /30 days, similar to the suggested level of about 110µg Pb/m 2 for surface wipes, for use in monitoring activities such as housing rehabilitation, demolition or soil resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chinese herbal medicine, sibship, and blood lead in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, T. J.; Wong, R. H.; Lin, Y. P.; Hwang, Y. H.; Horng, J. J.; Wang, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for increased blood lead concentration (BPb) has been investigated. However, the effect of sibship and Chinese herbal medicine on BPb has not been systematically studied. In this study BPb data from voluntary testing was used to determine if Chinese herbal medicine and sibship were associated with BPb. METHODS: 319 children aged 1-7 were tested for BPb. Meanwhile, parents were interviewed to obtain information including consumption of Chinese herbal medicine, living environment, lifestyle, and sibship of the children tested. RESULTS: The mean (SD) BPb of 319 preschool children was 4.4 (2.4) micrograms/dl. The consumption of Ba-baw-san (a Chinese herbal medicine) was significantly associated with increased BPb in children (p = 0.038). Further multivariate regression analysis of BPb in 50 pairs of siblings showed the factors of being brothers explained 75% of variation for BPb, and being sisters and brother-sister explained 51% and 41% of variation respectively. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine and children's play patterns within the family expressed in different types of sibship are the main determinants of low concentrations of BPb in preschool children of Taiwan.   PMID:9849547

  15. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to accountmore » for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  16. Relationship Between Total and Bioaccessible Lead on Children's Blood Lead Levels in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils.

    PubMed

    Bradham, Karen D; Nelson, Clay M; Kelly, Jack; Pomales, Ana; Scruton, Karen; Dignam, Tim; Misenheimer, John C; Li, Kevin; Obenour, Daniel R; Thomas, David J

    2017-09-05

    Relationships between total soil or bioaccessible lead (Pb), measured using an in vitro bioaccessibility assay, and children's blood lead levels (BLL) were investigated in an urban neighborhood in Philadelphia, PA, with a history of soil Pb contamination. Soil samples from 38 homes were analyzed to determine whether accounting for the bioaccessible Pb fraction improves statistical relationships with children's BLLs. Total soil Pb concentration ranged from 58 to 2821 mg/kg; the bioaccessible Pb concentration ranged from 47 to 2567 mg/kg. Children's BLLs ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 μg/dL. Hierarchical models were used to compare relationships between total or bioaccessible Pb in soil and children's BLLs. Total soil Pb concentration as the predictor accounted for 23% of the variability in child BLL; bioaccessible soil Pb concentration as the predictor accounted for 26% of BLL variability. A bootstrapping analysis confirmed a significant increase in R 2 for the model using bioaccessible soil Pb concentration as the predictor with 99.0% of bootstraps showing a positive increase. Estimated increases of 1.3 μg/dL and 1.5 μg/dL in BLL per 1000 mg/kg Pb in soil were observed for this study area using total and bioaccessible Pb concentrations, respectively. Children's age did not contribute significantly to the prediction of BLLs.

  17. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the

  18. The influence of declining air lead levels on blood lead-air lead slope factors in children.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Davis, Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Lu, Shou-En; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin P; Ross, Mary

    2014-07-01

    It is difficult to discern the proportion of blood lead (PbB) attributable to ambient air lead (PbA), given the multitude of lead (Pb) sources and pathways of exposure. The PbB-PbA relationship has previously been evaluated across populations. This relationship was a central consideration in the 2008 review of the Pb national ambient air quality standards. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between PbB and PbA concentrations among children nationwide for recent years and to compare the relationship with those obtained from other studies in the literature. We merged participant-level data for PbB from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES 9908 (1999-2008) with PbA data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We applied mixed-effects models, and we computed slope factor, d[PbB]/d[PbA] or the change in PbB per unit change in PbA, from the model results to assess the relationship between PbB and PbA. Comparing the NHANES regression results with those from the literature shows that slope factor increased with decreasing PbA among children 0-11 years of age. These findings suggest that a larger relative public health benefit may be derived among children from decreases in PbA at low PbA exposures. Simultaneous declines in Pb from other sources, changes in PbA sampling uncertainties over time largely related to changes in the size distribution of Pb-bearing particulate matter, and limitations regarding sampling size and exposure error may contribute to the variability in slope factor observed across peer-reviewed studies.

  19. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    SciTech Connect

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com; CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with amore » slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  20. Lead in umbilical blood, indoor air, tap water, and gasoline in Boston.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, M; Needleman, H; Burley, M; Finch, H; Rees, J

    1984-01-01

    A strong statistical correlation was found among the monthly averages of lead concentrations in umbilical cord blood (about 500 births/month), indoor air (12 sites/month), and gasoline lead sales between March, 1980 and April, 1981 in Boston. Tap water lead (24/month) variations did not correlate with blood lead in this population.

  1. Blood lead levels among rural Thai children exposed to lead-acid batteries from solar energy conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Sanreun, Cherd

    2013-11-01

    We evaluate blood lead levels among Thai children to determine if exposure to lead-acid batteries is associated with elevated blood lead levels (EBLL). We screened 254 children aged 1-14 years old from 2 rural Thai villages for blood lead levels. We also screened 18 of 92 houses in these 2 villages for the presence of environmental lead. The overall prevalence of EBLL (> or = 10 microg/dl) was 43.3% and the mean lead level among study subjects was 9.8 +/- 5.1 microg/dl. The blood lead levels significantly decreased with increasing age. Fifty point eight percent of children who lived in a house with vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL while 23.3% of children who lived in a house without vented lead-acid batteries had EBLL. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between the presence of vented lead-acid batteries and EBLL, after adjusting for other variables. Forty-two point nine percent of house floor dust samples collected near the batteries had elevated lead levels, 7.1% of house floor dust samples collected from other areas in the house had elevated lead levels and 0% of the house floor dust samples collected in houses without vented lead-acid batteries had elevated lead levels. In the sampled houses with vented lead-acid batteries, lead contamination was found in the drinking-water kept in household containers, but not in the tap water or other village sources of water. Improper care and placement of vented lead-acid batteries can result in lead contamination in the home environment causing EBLL in exposed children.

  2. Association of Blood Lead (Pb) and Plasma Homocysteine: A Cross Sectional Survey in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yakub, Mohsin; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2010-01-01

    Background High blood lead (Pb) and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18–60 years) were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6) and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR) blood Pb of 10.82 µg/dL (8.29–13.60). Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels >10 µg/dL) was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value = 0.05). Mean ± SD/median (IQR) value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13±11.2 µmol/L vs 13.28±9.7µmol/L/13.15 (10.33–17.81) µmol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31) µmol/L (p value<0.001). Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85) for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. Conclusions/Significance This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:20657730

  3. A multi-level model of blood lead as a function of air lead.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Davis, J Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2013-09-01

    National and local declines in lead (Pb) in blood (PbB) over the past several years coincide with the decline in ambient air Pb (PbA) concentrations. The objective of this work is to evaluate how the relationship between PbB levels and PbA levels has changed following the phase out of leaded gasoline and tightened controls on industrial Pb emissions over the past 30 years among a national population sample. Participant-level data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were employed for two time periods (1988-1994 and 1999-2008), and the model was corrected for housing, demographic, socioeconomic, and other covariates present in NHANES. NHANES data for PbB and covariates were merged with PbA data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models (LMEs) were run to assess the relationship of PbB with PbA; sample weights were omitted, given biases encountered with the use of sample weights in LMEs. The 1988-1994 age-stratified results found that ln(PbB) was statistically significantly associated with ln(PbA) for all age groups. The consistent influence of PbA on PbB across age groups for the years 1988-1994 suggests a ubiquitous exposure unrelated to age of the sample population. The comparison of effect estimates for ln(PbA) shows a statistically significant effect estimate and ANOVA results for ln(PbB) for the 6- to 11-year and 12- to 19-year age groups during 1999-2008. The more recent finding suggests that PbA has less consistent influence on PbB compared with other factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-level exposure to lead, blood pressure, and hypertension in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Angela; Sallsten, Gerd; Borné, Yan; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Fagerberg, Björn; Engström, Gunnar; Barregard, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Environmental lead exposure is a possible causative factor for increased blood pressure and hypertension, but large studies at low-level exposure are scarce, and results inconsistent. We aimed to examine the effects of environmental exposure to lead in a large population-based sample. We assessed associations between blood lead and systolic/diastolic blood pressure and hypertension in 4452 individuals (46-67 years) living in Malmö, Sweden, in 1991-1994. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer after 10min supine rest. Hypertension was defined as high systolic (≥140mmHg) or diastolic (≥90mmHg) blood pressure and/or current use of antihypertensive medication. Blood lead was calculated from lead in erythrocytes and haematocrit. Multivariable associations between blood lead and blood pressure or hypertension were assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two-thirds of the cohort was re-examined 16 years later. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 141/87mmHg, 16% used antihypertensive medication, 63% had hypertension, and mean blood lead was 28µg/L. Blood lead in the fourth quartile was associated with significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (point estimates: 1-2mmHg) and increased prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.5) versus the other quartiles after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, waist circumference, and education. Associations were also significant with blood lead as a continuous variable. Blood lead at baseline, having a half-life of about one month, was not associated with antihypertensive treatment at the 16-year follow-up. Low-level lead exposure increases blood pressure and may increase the risk of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  6. Black–White Blood Pressure Disparities: Depressive Symptoms and Differential Vulnerability to Blood Lead

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Connell, Cathleen; Snow, Rachel C.; Morenoff, Jeffrey; Hu, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blacks have higher hypertension rates than whites, but the reasons for these disparities are unknown. Differential vulnerability, through which stress alters vulnerability to the effects of environmental hazards, is an emergent notion in environmental health that may contribute to these disparities. Objectives: We examined whether blacks and whites exhibit different associations between blood lead (BPb) and blood pressure (BP) and whether depressive symptoms may play a role. Methods: Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008, we regressed BP on the three-way interaction among race/ethnicity, BPb, and depressive symptoms in blacks and whites ≥ 20 years of age. Results: Blacks but not whites showed a positive association between BPb and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The disparity in this association between blacks and whites appeared to be specific to the high depressive symptoms group. In the low depressive symptoms group, there was no significant black–white disparity (βinteraction = 0.9 mmHg; 95% CI: –0.9, 2.7). However, of those with high depressive symptoms, blacks and whites had 5.6 mmHg (95% CI: 2.0, 9.2) and 1.2 mmHg (95% CI: –0.5, 2.9) increases in SBP, respectively, in association with each doubling of BPb (βinteraction = 4.4 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.5, 8.3). The pattern of results was similar for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that depressive symptoms may contribute to the black–white disparity in the association between BPb and BP. Depressive symptoms may result, in part, from psychosocial stress. Our results support the notion that stress increases vulnerability to the health effects of environmental hazards and suggest that stress-related vulnerability may be an important determinant of racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:23127977

  7. The effect of lead-based paint hazard remediation on blood lead levels of lead poisoned children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Jessica; Klitzman, Susan; Sedlar, Slavenka; Matte, Thomas; Cohen, Neal L

    2003-07-01

    Despite the widespread use of lead paint hazard control for children with lead poisoning, few controlled studies that estimate the effect of such control on children's blood lead levels have been published. This retrospective follow-up study examined the effects of lead hazard remediation and its timing on the blood lead levels of lead-poisoned children. From the New York City child blood lead registry, 221 children were selected who had an initial blood lead level of 20-44 micro g/dL between 1 July 1994 and 31 December 1996; were 6 months to 6 years of age; had a report of a follow-up blood lead test between 10 and 14 months after the initial test; had a lead-based paint hazard identified in the primary dwelling unit prior to the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test; had resided or spent time at only one address with an identified lead-based paint hazard; and were not chelated. The decline in geometric mean blood lead levels from baseline to 10-14 months later was compared for children whose homes were remediated and whose homes were not remediated during the follow-up period. Regardless of remediation, geometric mean blood lead levels declined significantly from 24.3 micro g/dL at the initial diagnosis to 12.3 micro g/dL at the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test (P<0.01). Among the 146 children whose homes were remediated the geometric mean blood lead levels declined 53% compared to 41% among the 75 children whose homes were not remediated by the follow-up blood lead test, a remediation effect of approximately 20% (P<0.01). After adjusting for potential confounders, the remediation effect was 11%, although it was no longer significant. Race was the only factor that appeared to confound the relationship: Black children had higher follow-up blood lead levels even after controlling for other factors, including the natural logarithm of the initial blood lead level. The effect of remediation appeared to be stronger for younger (10 to <36 months old) than

  8. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end-stage renal disease: A pilot study of African-Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Muntner, Paul; Menke, Andy; Batuman, Vecihi

    2007-07-15

    The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via {sup 109}Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 {mu}g/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 {mu}g/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead {>=}25 {mu}g/dL), seven cases but nomore » controls had blood lead levels above 10 {mu}g/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral ({mu}g/g) and 13 {mu}g/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 {mu}g/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 {mu}g/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead {>=}20 {mu}g/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 {mu}g/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression.« less

  9. Analysis of pediatric blood lead levels in New York City for 1970-1976

    SciTech Connect

    Billick, I.H.; Curran, A.S.; Shier, D.R.

    1979-08-01

    Blood samples taken from New York City children between 1970-76 were sampled for lead. The geometric mean (GM) blood lead level varied cyclically with time, and generally decreased with time for all ages and ethnic groups studied. The GM blood lead levels in blacks were significantly higher than those for either Hispanics or whites. Regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between GM blood lead levels and ambient air lead levels, after data were adjusted for age and ethnic group variations. 19 references, 4 tables.

  10. Occupational blood lead testing: Practical concerns in analysis and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    Lead has attracted more attention from toxicologists and public health officials than any of the other industrially and biologically significant trace elements. Lead is widely distributed in the human environment and is used in numerous industrial applications. It may be present, sometimes in significant quantities, as a contaminant in the air we breathe, food, water and beverages, paints, folk medications, soil, dust, and other objects. As a consequence, all humans have some lead in their bodies. Excessive lead exposure is a serious health concern because of the numerous well-known toxic effects associated with this metal. Furthermore, unlike some other elements,more » lead has no established therapeutic or nutritional benefit. The toxic effects of lead have been described often in medical literature. This paper discusses the occupational health hazards of lead exposure and monitoring needs.« less

  11. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  12. Improved Participation for Blood Lead Screening with In-Home Phlebotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kathryn C.; Miranda, Veronica; Galaviz, Vanessa E.

    2008-01-01

    Both nationally and within the State of California, it is unlikely that those children most susceptible to lead exposure are adequately screened for blood lead levels. New and creative approaches are necessary to reach these individuals. In-home phlebotomy was employed to test blood lead levels of 128 San Diego households containing Latino…

  13. Relationship Between Total and Bioaccessible Lead on Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relationships between total soil or bioaccessible lead (Pb), measured using an in vitro bioaccessibility assay, and children’s blood lead levels (BLL) were investigated in an urban neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, with a history of soil Pb contamination....

  14. Increased Mortality in Adult Trauma Patients Transfused with Blood Components Compared with Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Allison R.; Frazier, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a preventable cause of death among trauma patients, and management often includes transfusion, either whole blood or a combination of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank to evaluate the relationship between transfusion type and mortality in adult major trauma patients (n = 1745). Logistic regression analysis identified three independent predictors of mortality: Injury Severity Score, emergency transfer time, and type of blood transfusion, whole blood or components. Transfusion of whole blood was associated with reduced mortality; thus, may provide superior survival outcomes in this population. PMID:24399315

  15. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-04

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.

  16. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  17. Evaluation of lead hazard control treatments in four Massachusetts communities through analysis of blood-lead surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Warren; Pivetz, Tim; Ashley, Peter; Menkedick, John; Slone, Elizabeth; Cameron, Sharon

    2005-10-01

    This study utilized existing blood-lead surveillance data and records of housing properties treated for lead hazard control (LHC) in order to investigate the effectiveness of LHC treatments performed in four Massachusetts communities (Boston, Cambridge, Malden, and Springfield). This research is part of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) overall program evaluation strategy for assessing the effectiveness of their LHC Grant Program. Childhood blood-lead levels (BLLs) in housing units that were treated through HUD's LHC Grant Program were compared to BLLs in untreated matched control housing units. Data from multiple sources-local housing departments, local tax assessor departments, and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health-were linked to identify similar sets of treated and untreated dwellings. Geometric mean BLLs from before and after treatment were compared for the two sets of housing. Ten years of blood-lead surveillance data for children living in the selected dwellings were analyzed using log-linear mixed models and logistic regression models. Results indicate a 50% decline in BLLs in treated homes, a significantly larger decline than in untreated homes after adjusting for the general downward trend in BLLs observed in the general population for the last several years. Data show that homes that received HUD LHC treatments had children with blood-lead levels that declined twice as fast as in similar untreated homes. These findings show that LHC efforts are successful in reducing children's blood-lead levels.

  18. The Epidemiology of Lead Toxicity in Adults: Measuring Dose and Consideration of Other Methodologic Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Howard; Shih, Regina; Rothenberg, Stephen; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    We review several issues of broad relevance to the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence concerning the toxicity of lead in adults, particularly regarding cognitive function and the cardiovascular system, which are the subjects of two systematic reviews that are also part of this mini-monograph. Chief among the recent developments in methodologic advances has been the refinement of concepts and methods for measuring individual lead dose in terms of appreciating distinctions between recent versus cumulative doses and the use of biological markers to measure these parameters in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease. Attention is focused particularly on bone lead levels measured by K-shell X-ray fluorescence as a relatively new biological marker of cumulative dose that has been used in many recent epidemiologic studies to generate insights into lead’s impact on cognition and risk of hypertension, as well as the alternative method of estimating cumulative dose using available repeated measures of blood lead to calculate an individual’s cumulative blood lead index. We review the relevance and interpretation of these lead biomarkers in the context of the toxico-kinetics of lead. In addition, we also discuss methodologic challenges that arise in studies of occupationally and environmentally exposed subjects and those concerning race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and other important covariates. PMID:17431499

  19. Daily rhythms in blood and milk lead toxicokinetics following intravenous administration of lead acetate to dairy cows in summer.

    PubMed

    Valtorta, S E; Scaglione, M C; Acosta, P; Coronel, J E; Beldomenico, H R; Boggio, J C

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate circadian variations of blood and milk lead toxicokinetics in dairy cows in summer. Twenty lactating Holstein animals were randomly assigned to four treatments corresponding to different hours after onset of light (HALO): 2, 8, 14, and 20. Cows received a single intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg lead as lead acetate. Blood and milk samples were taken and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each toxicokinetic parameter, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to outline the existence of daily variations. Significant blood differences as a function of HALO were found for the hybrid constant of distribution (alpha), hybrid constant of elimination (beta), elimination half-life (t(1/2)beta), area under the curve (AUC), volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) and clearance (Cl(B)) (p<0.05). Half-life of elimination presented two peaks at 2 and 14 HALO. Milk data showed significant differences for maximum concentration and AUC (p<0.05). The ratio AUC(milk)/AUC(blood) was utilized to estimate penetration of lead in milk. It differed significantly throughout the day (p<0.05). Milk data for the significant parameters could be fitted to circadian rhythms. No circadian rhythms were detected in blood parameters or in the ratio AUC(milk)/AUC(blood).

  20. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults.

    PubMed

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥ 60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥ 3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9-4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41-0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96-2.04) and 1.75 (1.33-2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68-1.39) and 1.55 (1.03-2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43-1.14) and 1.09 (0.56-2.11), respectively. In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose-response relationship with frailty. These findings support that lead exposure

  1. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in donkeys and mules near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Gunter, E.W.; Matte, T.D.

    1990-02-01

    During the course of an investigation into community lead poisoning near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels were measured in 8 exposed and 6 (3 Jamaican, 3 US) unexposed donkeys and mules. The blood lead levels of 6 animals in the contaminated area ranged from 7.5 to 33 micrograms/dl (mean = 17.6 micrograms/dl), compared to 1.8 and 2.4 in unexposed Jamaican animals. More striking was the difference in zinc protoporphyrin levels; all 8 exposed donkeys and mules had values between 900 and 1890 micrograms/dl, compared with a range of 34-46 micrograms/dl for 3 Jamaicanmore » control donkeys. These findings suggest that zinc protoporphyrin may be a useful method of screening for subclinical lead toxicity in equines.« less

  3. Determination of lead and zinc concentrations in the blood and liver of the captive common green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Burns, Russell P; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2009-09-01

    Heavy metal toxicosis is a well-known phenomenon in wild, captive-animal, and domestic animal medicine. However, the occurrence among reptiles is not well documented. One reason for this is the lack of information regarding reference blood and tissue levels of heavy metals in reptiles. To determine normal blood lead, plasma zinc, and liver lead and zinc concentrations, blood and liver samples were collected from 4 adult and 16 juvenile, healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Lead and zinc levels were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the mean +/- two SD as the normal reference range, the present study suggests the following for captive common green iguana: 1) whole blood lead level: 0.06 +/- 0.06 microg/ml; 2) plasma zinc level: 2.68 +/- 1.66 microg/ml; 3) liver lead level (wet-weight basis): <1.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 4) liver lead level (dry-weight basis): <3.0 +/- 0.0 microg/g; 5) liver zinc level (wet-weight basis): 24.9 +/- 11.6 microg/g; and 6) liver zinc level (dry-weight basis): 83.4 +/- 44.6 microg/g. These values are fairly consistent with published reference levels in other mammalian and avian species.

  4. A new filter paper method to measure capillary blood lead level in children.

    PubMed

    Srivuthana, K; Yee, H Y; Bhambhani, K; Elton, R M; Simpson, P M; Kauffman, R E

    1996-05-01

    To develop and evaluate a new filter paper method to determine capillary blood lead levels accurately in children. Paired comparison of lead levels determined in capillary whole blood dried on filter paper with lead levels in venous whole blood samples determined by a reference method. Children's Hospital of Michigan clinics, Detroit. One hundred children aged 9 months to 6 years. Lead concentrations determined in capillary whole blood samples dried on filter paper were compared with concentrations measured in paired venous whole blood samples by a reference method. Comparability of the two lead assay methods was assessed with the concordance coefficient. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictivity of the capillary filter paper method relative to the reference method were determined at three intervention decision concentrations of blood lead defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. There was high agreement between the two assay methods, with a concordance coefficient of O.96. The capillary filter paper assay had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 90% for differentiating blood lead levels of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL) or more. Blood lead levels of 0.72 mumol/L (15 micrograms/dL) or more and 0.96 mumol/L (20 micrograms/dL) or more were identified with 98% and 94% sensitivity and 98% and 99% specificity, respectively. Positive predictivity was 93%, 98%, and 97%, respectively, at the three blood lead concentration decision points. The capillary filter paper method for blood lead analysis described herein provides a convenient, sensitive, accurate, and inexpensive method to examine children for elevated blood lead levels.

  5. Environmental Exposures to Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium and Hearing Loss in Adults and Adolescents: KNHANES 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of hearing loss increases rapidly with aging. Hearing loss is common in all age groups, even in young adults and adolescents. A growing body of evidence has suggested that heavy metals have ototoxic effects, yet few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between heavy metals and hearing loss in a general population that includes adults and adolescents. Objectives: We examined the association between environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium and the risk of hearing loss in adults and adolescents while controlling for potential confounding factors, including noise exposures and clinical factors. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 5,187 adults and 853 adolescents in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at high frequency (3, 4, and 6kHz) were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA>25 dB in adults and PTA>15 dB in adolescents. Results: In adults, the highest (vs. lowest) quartiles of blood lead and cadmium were associated with 1.70 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.31) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.05) odds ratios for high-frequency hearing loss (p-trend<0.001 and=0.007), respectively. In adolescents, the highest quartile (vs. lowest) of blood cadmium had an odds ratio of 3.03 (95% CI: 1.44, 6.40) for high-frequency hearing loss (p-trend=0.003), but blood lead was not associated with hearing loss. No significant association between blood mercury and hearing loss was suggested in either adults or adolescents. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that exposure to environmental lead and cadmium in adults and exposure to environmental cadmium in adolescents may play a role in the risk of hearing loss. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP565 PMID:28599263

  6. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling... dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with § 35.1320(b) and is considered...

  7. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling... dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with § 35.1320(b) and is considered...

  8. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling... dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with § 35.1320(b) and is considered...

  9. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling... dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with § 35.1320(b) and is considered...

  10. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling... dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in accordance with § 35.1320(b) and is considered...

  11. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  12. Analysis of pediatric blood lead levels in New York City for 1970-1976.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1979-01-01

    A study was completed of more than 170,000 records of pediatric venous blood levels and supporting demographic information collected in New York City during 1970-1976. The geometric mean (GM) blood lead level shows a consistent cyclical variation superimposed on an overall decreasing trend with time for all ages and ethnic groups studied. The GM blood lead levels for blacks are significantly greater than those for either Hispanics or whites. Regression analysis indicates a significant statistical association between GM blood lead level and ambient air lead level, after appropriate adjustments are made for age and ethnic group. These highly significant statistical relationships provide extremely strong incentives and directions for research into casual factors related to blood lead levels in children. PMID:499123

  13. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low ( < 0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  14. [Blood lead status and influencing factors among preschool children in urban areas of China].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zang-Wen; Dai, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Shuai-Ming; Fan, Zhao-Yang; Jia, Ni

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the blood lead status and influencing factors among preschool children in the sampling city. Stratified-clustered-random sampling was used. Standardized questionnaire and peripheral blood samples were obtained from 69 968 children aged 0-6 years in fixed kindergartens and communities of Yinchuan, Xi'an, Chengdu, Wuhan, Hefei, Beijing, Harbin, Zhengzhou, Huhhot, Shijiazhuang, Haikou, Dalian, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Nanning and Changsha from 2004 to 2008, respectively. Tungsten atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry was employed to determine the blood lead level of children. The proportion of children with blood lead level ≥ 100 µg/L was 7.57% (among which the proportion of high blood lead level, mild lead poisoning, moderate lead poisoning, severe lead poisoning were 91.0%, 2.76%, 3.32%, 2.93%, respectively) and the blood lead level was lower than those of the past studies. The proportion of high blood lead level has steadily declined from 2004 to 2008 [the proportions were 10.03%, 7.85%, 7.40%, 6.91% and 4.78%, respectively (χ(2) = 297.36, P < 0.0001)]. The proportion of children with blood lead level ≥ 100 µg/L in Haikou, Zhengzhou, Guangzhou, Shijiazhuang, Changsha, Xi'an, Wuhan, Hefei, Chengdu, Yinchuan, Harbin, Beijing, Dalian, Huhhot, Nanning and Qingdao were 12.15%, 10.49%, 10.37%, 9.69%, 9.53%, 9.46%, 9.40%, 8.50%, 7.99%, 7.98%, 7.51%, 6.10%, 3.25%, 2.89%, 2.46% and 2.39%, respectively (χ(2) = 768.21, P < 0.0001). By multiple regression method, the risk factors which influenced blood lead status of children were education status of mother, older children, behavior and dietary habit of children, boy, stay for long time in traffic busy areas, the type of housing, taking traditional Chinese and herbal medicine. The protective factors against lead poisoning in children mainly included scattered living, the nutritional status of calcium, iron, zinc, frequent intake of milk, and older mother. The blood lead level of children has decreased, but is

  15. Over four million California adults age 45 and older have high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Yu, Hongjian; Meng, Ying-Ying; Jhawar, Mona; Wallace, Steven P

    2004-11-01

    Nearly 40% of California adults age 45 and older reported being diagnosed with high blood pressure, according to the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2001). High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is known as "the silent killer" because it often has no symptoms. If left unchecked and untreated, uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to heart failure, kidney failure, heart attack and stroke. This policy brief provides data of diagnosed high blood pressure rates for California legislative districts and counties for adults age 45 and older. The first of its kind subcounty data in this policy brief are estimates created by a small-area methodology, based on rates from CHIS 2001 that are applied to population data from the 2000 Census and 2002 California Department of Finance.

  16. Daily rhythms in blood and milk lead toxicokinetics following intravenous administration of lead acetate to dairy cows in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, S. E.; Scaglione, M. C.; Acosta, P.; Coronel, J. E.; Beldomenico, H. R.; Boggio, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate circadian variations of blood and milk lead toxicokinetics in dairy cows in summer. Twenty lactating Holstein animals were randomly assigned to four treatments corresponding to different hours after onset of light (HALO): 2, 8, 14, and 20. Cows received a single intravenous administration of 2.5 mg/kg lead as lead acetate. Blood and milk samples were taken and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each toxicokinetic parameter, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to outline the existence of daily variations. Significant blood differences as a function of HALO were found for the hybrid constant of distribution (α), hybrid constant of elimination (β), elimination half-life ({text{t}}_{{{text{1/2 β }}}} ), area under the curve (AUC), volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) and clearance (ClB) ( p<0.05). Half-life of elimination presented two peaks at 2 and 14 HALO. Milk data showed significant differences for maximum concentration and AUC ( p<0.05). The ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood was utilized to estimate penetration of lead in milk. It differed significantly throughout the day ( p<0.05). Milk data for the significant parameters could be fitted to circadian rhythms. No circadian rhythms were detected in blood parameters or in the ratio AUCmilk/AUCblood.

  17. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters.

    PubMed

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-08-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environment at the shooting range. This was an environmental case study of 58 male and female shooters from two indoor shooting ranges with assumed different ventilation and cleaning conditions. Information was obtained on general conditions including age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, and shooting conditions: weapon type, number of shots fired, frequency of stays at the shooting range and hygiene habits. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine blood lead concentrations; 14 non-shooters were included as controls. Almost 60% of the shooters, hereof five out of 14 women, had a blood lead concentration above 0.48 micromol/l, a level causing long-term health concern. All controls had blood lead values below 0.17 micromol/l. Independent significant associations with blood lead concentrations above 0.48 micromol/l were found for shooting at a poorly ventilated range, use of heavy calibre weapons, number of shots and frequency of stays at the shooting range. A large proportion of Danish recreational indoor shooters had potentially harmful blood lead concentrations. Ventilation, amounts of shooting, use of heavy calibre weapons and stays at the shooting ranges were independently associated with increased blood lead. The technical check at the two ranges was performed by the Danish Technological Institute and costs were defrayed by the Danish Rifle Association. To pay for the analyses of blood lead, the study was supported by the The Else & Mogens Wedell-Wedellsborg Foundation. The Danish Regional Capital Scientific Ethics Committee approved the study, protocol number H-4-2010-130.

  18. APOL1 and blood pressure changes in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G

    2017-10-01

    APOL1 risk variants have been shown to be associated with kidney disease and hypertension. In this study, Chen and colleagues assess the association of these risk variants with longitudinal blood pressure in young adults. We review the current literature on association of these alleles with blood pressure and propose future directions to resolve the existing controversies. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Kwee, Lydia C; Allen, Kelli D; Umbach, David M; Ye, Weimin; Watson, Mary; Keller, Jean; Oddone, Eugene Z; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2010-05-15

    The authors conducted a 2003-2007 case-control study including 184 cases and 194 controls to examine the association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among US veterans and to explore the influence on this association of bone turnover and genetic factors related to lead toxicokinetics. Blood lead, plasma biomarkers of bone formation (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) and resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX)), and the K59N polymorphism in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene, ALAD, were measured. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of blood lead with ALS were estimated with unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for age and bone turnover. Blood lead levels were higher among cases compared with controls (P < 0.0001, age adjusted). A doubling of blood lead was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of ALS (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.7) after adjustment for age and CTX. Additional adjustment for PINP did not alter the results. Significant lead-ALS associations were observed in substrata of PINP and CTX levels. The K59N polymorphism in the ALAD gene did not modify the lead-ALS association (P = 0.32). These results extend earlier findings by accounting for bone turnover in confirming the association between elevated blood lead level and higher risk of ALS.

  20. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M.; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X.; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Eloísa; Vázquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas-Rangel, Jorge L.; Salas-Pacheco, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13–43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002). To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = −0.113; p < 0.01). Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = −0.413; p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL. PMID:28420209

  1. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Eloísa; Vázquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas-Rangel, Jorge L; Salas-Pacheco, José M

    2017-04-18

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13-43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL ( p = 0.002). To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = -0.113; p < 0.01). Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = -0.413; p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  2. Association Between Blood Lead and the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Kwee, Lydia C.; Allen, Kelli D.; Umbach, David M.; Ye, Weimin; Watson, Mary; Keller, Jean; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Sandler, Dale P.; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a 2003–2007 case-control study including 184 cases and 194 controls to examine the association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among US veterans and to explore the influence on this association of bone turnover and genetic factors related to lead toxicokinetics. Blood lead, plasma biomarkers of bone formation (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) and resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX)), and the K59N polymorphism in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene, ALAD, were measured. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of blood lead with ALS were estimated with unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for age and bone turnover. Blood lead levels were higher among cases compared with controls (P < 0.0001, age adjusted). A doubling of blood lead was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of ALS (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.7) after adjustment for age and CTX. Additional adjustment for PINP did not alter the results. Significant lead-ALS associations were observed in substrata of PINP and CTX levels. The K59N polymorphism in the ALAD gene did not modify the lead-ALS association (P = 0.32). These results extend earlier findings by accounting for bone turnover in confirming the association between elevated blood lead level and higher risk of ALS. PMID:20406759

  3. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  4. Blood lead levels in a group of children: the potential risk factors and health problems.

    PubMed

    AbuShady, Mones M; Fathy, Hanan A; Fathy, Gihan A; Fatah, Samer Abd El; Ali, Alaa; Abbas, Mohamed A

    To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. This was a cross-sectional study in children (n=400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45±3.90μg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37±7.94μg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (p<0.05). In Dokki, 20% of the studied group had blood lead levels≥10μg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level≥10μg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead level<10μg/dL (p<0.05). Those living in Helwan area, those with bad health habits, and those living in housing with increased exposure were at a statistically significantly higher risk of having blood lead level≥10μg/dL. Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifestyle incongruity and adult blood pressure in Western Samoa.

    PubMed

    Chin-Hong, P V; McGarvey, S T

    1996-01-01

    The effects of lifestyle incongruity on blood pressure were tested in a cross-sectional study of 711 modernizing adult men and women, ages 25 to 64 years, residing in nine villages throughout Western Samoa. Lifestyle incongruity (LI) was conceptualized as the mismatch between a 21-item material possessions and lifestyle scale and an eight-part occupational rank score. LI was measured by the arithmetic difference between the standardized distributions of lifestyle and occupation. Blood pressure (BP) was measured three times in the seated position, averaged and adjusted for body mass. Sex-stratified analyses were performed and adjusted BP was regressed on LI, age, and socioeconomic rank. In men systolic BP was associated (p < .01) with incongruity between material way of life and occupation. Men with higher occupation scores than lifestyle scores had significantly higher systolic BP. This association was stronger and significant for both systolic and diastolic BP among young (<40 years) men and all men from the more economically developed island. On the other hand, among older women diastolic BP was significantly (p < .01) higher among those whose material lifestyles exceeded their occupational class. The results in men, especially the young group, suggest two explanations: 1) financial demands from the extended family on young men with better paying jobs may reduce material consumption and produce psychosocial stress; 2) upward socioeconomic mobility marked by good jobs but a lag in material lifestyle may represent work stress. The results in older women support the suggestion of earlier studies that excess material consumption for enhancement of social prestige (living beyond ones' means) leads to stress and elevations in BP.

  6. A Noninvasive Isotopic Approach to Estimate the Bone Lead Contribution to Blood in Children: Implications for Assessing the Efficacy of Lead Abatement

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazda, Roberto; Campbell, Carla; Smith, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Lead hazard control measures to reduce children’s exposure to household lead sources often result in only limited reductions in blood lead levels. This may be due to incomplete remediation of lead sources and/or to the remobilization of lead stores from bone, which may act as an endogenous lead source that buffers reductions in blood lead levels. Here we present a noninvasive isotopic approach to estimate the magnitude of the bone lead contribution to blood in children following household lead remediation. In this approach, lead isotopic ratios of a child’s blood and 5-day fecal samples are determined before and after a household intervention aimed at reducing the child’s lead intake. The bone lead contribution to blood is estimated from a system of mass balance equations of lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in blood at the different times of sample collection. The utility of this method is illustrated with three cases of children with blood lead levels in the range of 18–29 μg/dL. In all three cases, the release of lead from bone supported a substantial fraction of the measured blood lead level postintervention, up to 96% in one case. In general, the lead isotopic compositions of feces matched or were within the range of the lead isotopic compositions of the household dusts with lead loadings exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action levels. This isotopic agreement underscores the utility of lead isotopic measurements of feces to identify household sources of lead exposure. Results from this limited number of cases support the hypothesis that the release of bone lead into blood may substantially buffer the decrease in blood lead levels expected from the reduction in lead intake. PMID:15626656

  7. A noninvasive isotopic approach to estimate the bone lead contribution to blood in children: implications for assessing the efficacy of lead abatement.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, Roberto; Campbell, Carla; Smith, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Lead hazard control measures to reduce children's exposure to household lead sources often result in only limited reductions in blood lead levels. This may be due to incomplete remediation of lead sources and/or to the remobilization of lead stores from bone, which may act as an endogenous lead source that buffers reductions in blood lead levels. Here we present a noninvasive isotopic approach to estimate the magnitude of the bone lead contribution to blood in children following household lead remediation. In this approach, lead isotopic ratios of a child's blood and 5-day fecal samples are determined before and after a household intervention aimed at reducing the child's lead intake. The bone lead contribution to blood is estimated from a system of mass balance equations of lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in blood at the different times of sample collection. The utility of this method is illustrated with three cases of children with blood lead levels in the range of 18-29 microg/dL. In all three cases, the release of lead from bone supported a substantial fraction of the measured blood lead level postintervention, up to 96% in one case. In general, the lead isotopic compositions of feces matched or were within the range of the lead isotopic compositions of the household dusts with lead loadings exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action levels. This isotopic agreement underscores the utility of lead isotopic measurements of feces to identify household sources of lead exposure. Results from this limited number of cases support the hypothesis that the release of bone lead into blood may substantially buffer the decrease in blood lead levels expected from the reduction in lead intake.

  8. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  9. A Geospatial Analysis of the Effects of Aviation Gasoline on Childhood Blood Lead Levels

    PubMed Central

    Anthopolos, Rebecca; Hastings, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aviation gasoline, commonly referred to as avgas, is a leaded fuel used in small aircraft. Recent concern about the effects of lead emissions from planes has motivated the U.S. Environmental Protection to consider regulating leaded avgas. Objective: In this study we investigated the relationship between lead from avgas and blood lead levels in children living in six counties in North Carolina. Methods: We used geographic information systems to approximate areas surrounding airports in which lead from avgas may be present in elevated concentrations in air and may also be deposited to soil. We then used regression analysis to examine the relationship between residential proximity to airports and North Carolina blood lead surveillance data in children 9 months to 7 years of age while controlling for factors including age of housing, socioeconomic characteristics, and seasonality. Results: Our results suggest that children living within 500 m of an airport at which planes use leaded avgas have higher blood lead levels than other children. This apparent effect of avgas on blood lead levels was evident also among children living within 1,000 m of airports. The estimated effect on blood lead levels exhibited a monotonically decreasing dose–response pattern, with the largest impact on children living within 500 m. Conclusions: We estimated a significant association between potential exposure to lead emissions from avgas and blood lead levels in children. Although the estimated increase was not especially large, the results of this study are nonetheless directly relevant to the policy debate surrounding the regulation of leaded avgas. PMID:21749964

  10. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens

    SciTech Connect

    Kapaki, E.N.; Varelas, P.N.; Syrigou, A.I.

    1998-07-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levelsmore » than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.« less

  11. Association between δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase G177C polymorphism and blood lead levels in brain tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mahmoud Mostafa; Gaber, Osama Abd El Aziz; Sabbah, Norhan Abdalla; Abd Elazem, Abd Allah S

    2015-09-01

    As the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ( ALAD ) G177C polymorphism affects the toxicokinetics of lead in the body, and the corresponding exposure to lead may increase the risk of adult brain tumors, we hypothesize that there is a possible association of the ALAD G177C genotype and the risk of brain tumors in human. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the role of the ALAD enzyme gene polymorphism at position G177C in the pathogenesis of brain tumors and its correlation to lead exposure. The ALAD gene polymorphism at position G177C was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism method and measured the blood lead level by atomic absorption in 81 brain tumor patients and compared the results with 81 controls. The frequency of the GC genotype ( ALAD1-2 ) was significantly increased in primary brain tumor patients compared to the control group. The genotype frequency of ALAD2 (ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2 ) was significantly higher in the meningioma patients but was not significant in glioma patients. There was no significant difference in the number of patients and blood lead level when compared with the control. There was a significant increase when compared to ALAD1 regarding a mean value of the lead level. The genotyping of the ALAD G177C polymorphism in the present study revealed a significant association between ALAD2 and brain tumors. The ALAD G177C polymorphism may modify the lead kinetics in the blood, is associated with higher blood lead burden and may provide a biomarker of neurotoxic risk.

  12. Blood lead levels in children aged 24 to 36 months in Vancouver.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, A; Hertzman, C; Peck, S H; Lockitch, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the blood lead levels in children and to identify risk factors for elevated levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of children aged 24 to 36 months, born and still resident in Vancouver. The sample was stratified proportionally by the median annual family income in the census tract where each family resided. OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood lead levels and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels, determined from a questionnaire administered to parents. RESULTS: Of the children in the sample, 42% (178/422) were ineligible or could not be located. Of the remaining children, 73% (177/244) participated and adequate blood specimens were obtained from 172. The mean blood lead level was 0.29 mumol/L (standard deviation 0.13 mumol/L). (A blood lead level of 1 mumol/L is equivalent to 20.7 micrograms/dL.) The lowest level was 0.06 mumol/L, and the highest was 0.85 mumol/L. Of children with adequate samples, 8.1% (14/172) had blood lead levels of 0.48 mumol/L or higher, and 0.6% (1/172) had a level higher than 0.72 mumol/L. The logarithms of the levels were normally distributed, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.26 mumol/L (geometric standard deviation 1.56). Of approximately 70 possible predictors of blood lead levels analysed, those that showed a statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with increased blood lead levels were soldering performed in the home as part of an electronics hobby (GM blood lead level 0.34 mumol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27 to 0.39 mumol/L), aboriginal heritage (GM blood lead level 0.33 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.39 mumol/L), dwelling built before 1921 (GM blood lead level 0.32 mumol/L, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37 mumol/L), age of water service connection to dwelling (predicted blood lead level 0.00087 mumol/L [95% CI 0.00005 to 0.00169 mumol/L] higher per year since service connection) and decreased stature (predicted blood lead level 0.018 mumol/L [95% CI 0.0353 to 0

  13. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. We explored the dose-response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose-response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Maternal lead levels (mean±SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7±4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1±0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8±0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6-39.8) with 97% of the ratios being >1. The dose-response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function=6.5, p=0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4±2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p<0.0001, R2=0.3). The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants.

  14. Protecting Adults and Children from Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…

  15. A Pilot Study of Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Mount Isa, Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Green, Donna; Sullivan, Marianne; Cooper, Nathan; Dean, Annika; Marquez, Cielo

    2017-01-01

    Mount Isa, Queensland, is one of three Australian cities with significant lead emissions due to nonferrous mining and smelting. Unlike the two other cities with lead mines or smelters, Mount Isa currently has no system of annual, systematic, community-wide blood lead level testing; and testing rates among Indigenous children are low. In previous screenings, this group of children has been shown to have higher average blood lead levels than non-Indigenous children. The first aim of this study was to assess whether parents and children would participate in less invasive, rapid point-of-care capillary testing. The second aim was to measure blood lead levels among a range of children that roughly reflected the percentage of the Indigenous/non-Indigenous population. This pilot study is based on a convenience sample of children between the ages of 12 and 83 months who were recruited to participate by staff at a Children and Family Centre. Over three half-days, 30 children were tested using capillary blood samples and the LeadCare II Point-of-Care testing system. Rapid point-of-care capillary testing was well tolerated by the children. Of 30 children tested, 40% (n = 12) had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL and 10% had levels ≥10 µg/dL. The highest blood lead level measured was 17.3 µg/dL. The percentage of children with blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL was higher among Indigenous children compared to non-Indigenous (64.2% compared to 18.8%) as was the geometric mean level (6.5 (95% CI, 4.7, 9.2) versus 2.4 (95% CI, 1.8, 3.1)), a statistically significant difference. Though based on a small convenience sample, this study identified 12 children (40%) of the sample with blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Due to historical and ongoing heavy metal emissions from mining and smelting in Mount Isa, we recommend a multi-component program of universal blood lead level testing, culturally appropriate follow-up and intervention for children who are identified with blood lead levels ≥5

  16. Relationships among blood lead levels, iron deficiency, and cognitive development in two-year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, H A; Markowitz, M E; Bijur, P E; Rosen, J F

    1996-01-01

    The goals of this study were to explore the relationship of declining blood lead levels and cognitive development in 42 moderately lead poisoned children around 2 years of age and to investigate the potential interaction between iron and lead levels in the course of development. The cognitive functioning of children was assessed upon enrollment into a comprehensive intervention and 6 months later. The intervention consisted of chelation treatment, if appropriate, iron supplementation, if needed, and steps to eliminate the source of lead in the home environment. The children were referred because of blood lead levels between 25 and 55 mu g/dl; they were also selected on the basis of age between 18 and 30 months. The outcome measures were the global score on a standardized test of cognitive development and subscale scores for perceptual-motor and language functioning. Cognitive change over 6 months was related to an interaction between change in blood lead and initial iron status. Specifically, the change in standardized score (particularly change in perceptual-motor performance) was strongly related to change in blood lead in children who were iron sufficient at the outset: there was an increase of 1.2 points for every 1 mu g/dl decrease in blood lead. There was no such relationship in iron-deficient children. Secondary analyses suggested that 1) the change in cognitive functioning of iron-deficient children was related to change in hemoglobin, and 2) the decline in blood lead was less in iron-deficient than in iron-sufficient children. Thus, when iron is sufficient, changes in blood lead and changes in cognition are inversely related. When iron is deficient, other processes affect the outcome. PMID:8820586

  17. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Li, Linda; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Liu, Xianchen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language]) when children were age 8–10 years. Results Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64). For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105) had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185) had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051) had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2–3 points lower in IQ and 5–6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8–10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3–5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8–10 years (Chinese, β = −3.54, 95%CI = −6.46, −0.63; Math, β = −4.63, 95%CI = −7.86, −1.40; English, β = −4.66, 95%CI = −8.09, −1.23). IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance. Conclusions Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8–10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from

  18. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Li, Linda; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Liu, Xianchen

    2013-01-01

    Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language]) when children were age 8-10 years. Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64). For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105) had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185) had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051) had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23). IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance. Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  19. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  20. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  2. Blood lead level and types of aviation fuel in aircraft maintenance crew.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Gu, Hye-Min; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2013-10-01

    This study inquired into any significant difference in blood lead levels (BLLs) among aircraft maintenance crews at the air-bases, each with a different aviation fuel in use, and confirmed an environmental impact of leaded aviation gasoline (AVGAS). This study included a total of 256 male aircraft maintenance personnel, among whom 105 used only AVGAS as their aviation fuel, while 151 used only jet propellant 8 (JP-8), a kerosene variety. BLLs were measured and the data on related factors were obtained. The arithmetic and geometric means of BLLs of the personnel at the airbases that used only AVGAS were 4.20 microg x dl(-1) and 4.01 microg x dl(-1) and that used only JP-8 were 3.79 microg x dl(-1) and 3.57 microg x dl(-1), respectively. The BLLs of the maintenance crew of the main workspace that was located within a 200-m distance from the runway were higher than those of the main workspace that was located 200 m or farther from the runway. The longer the work hours in the runway or the longer the work duration, the higher the BLLs of the maintenance crew. This investigation exposed the fact that a body's BLL could be increased by AVGAS emissions through the examination of aircraft maintenance crew. This result is in agreement with results of previous studies that suggest proximity to an airport may be associated with elevated BLLs for adults and children. Collectively, the results of the current study and previous research suggest that long-duration inhabitation and/or activities in close proximity to an air facility should be limited given that lead poses known health risks.

  3. Ethical Issues in Using Children's Blood Lead Levels as a Remedial Action Objective

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  4. High blood lead levels are associated with lead concentrations in households and day care centers attended by Brazilian preschool children.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Silva, Júlia Prestes; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Leroux, Isabelle Nogueira; da Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone; da Silva, Agnes Soares; Assunção, Nilson Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Sayuri Sato, Ana Paula; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2018-04-28

    A previous study observed high blood lead levels (BLL) in preschool children attending 50 day care centers (DCC) in São Paulo, Brazil. To identify whether lead levels found in both homes and DCC environments are associated with high blood lead levels. Children attending 4 DCCs, quoted here as NR, VA, PS and PF, were divided into two groups according to BLL: high exposure (HE: ≥13.9 μg/dL; 97.5 percentile of the 2013 year sample) and low exposure (LE: <5 μg/dL). For in situ lead measurements (lead paint mode: mg/cm 2 and ROHS mode: μg/g) in the children's households and in the DCC environments, a field portable X-ray-fluorescence analyzer was used. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to control for confounding factors. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, sex, day care center's measured lead, and tobacco. In an NR DCC building, 33.8% of the measurements had lead levels >600 μg/g, whereas such levels were observed in 77.1% of NR playground measurements. In VA DCC, 22% and 23% of the measurements in the building and in the playgrounds had levels higher than 600 μg/g, respectively. The percentage of high lead levels in the children's houses of the LE group was 5.9% (95% CI: 4.3-7.6%) and 13.2 (95% CI: 8.3-18.0%) in the HE group. Moreover, a significant association was found between high BLLs and lead levels found both in households and DCCs (p < 0.001). Most of the high lead measurements were found in tiles and playground equipment. Lead exposure estimated from the DCCs, where children spend about 10 h/day, can be as relevant as their household exposure. Therefore, public authorities should render efforts to provide a rigorous surveillance for lead-free painting supplies and for all objects offered to children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Doyle, Lex W; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M; Evensen, Kari Anne I; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-10-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To identify possible risk or protective factors, we combined individual-level data from 9 cohorts that measured blood pressure in young adults born at VLBW or with a more stringent birth weight criterion. In the absence of major heterogeneity, we performed linear regression analysis in our pooled sample of 1571 adults born at VLBW and 777 controls. Adults born at VLBW had 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.6) higher systolic and 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) higher diastolic pressure, with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort. The difference in systolic pressure was present in men (1.8 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-3.5) but was stronger in women (4.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-6.3). Among the VLBW group, blood pressure was unrelated to gestational age, maternal smoking, multiple pregnancy, retinopathy of prematurity, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Blood pressure was higher than that of controls among VLBW adults unexposed to maternal preeclampsia. Among those exposed, it was even higher, especially if born appropriate for gestational age. In conclusion, although female sex and maternal preeclampsia are additional risk factors, the risk of higher blood pressure is not limited to any etiologic subgroup of VLBW adults, arguing for vigilance in early detection of high blood pressure in all these individuals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Association between dietary lead intake and 10-year mortality among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Orsini, Nicola; Zhou, Yonglin; Zhou, Yijing; Liu, Jianghong; Taylor, Anne W

    2017-05-01

    Blood lead level is associated with increased risk of mortality, but dietary lead exposure and mortality, particularly with cancer, has not been studied in the general population. The objective of the study was to assess the association between lead intake and 10-year mortality among 2832 Chinese adults. Food intake was measured by 3-day weighed food record in 2002. We documented 184 deaths (63 cancer deaths and 70 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths) during 27,742 person-years of follow-up. Dietary lead intake was positively associated with cancer and all-cause mortality. Across quartiles of lead intake, hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer mortality were 1.00, 0.80 (0.33-1.92), 1.52 (0.65-3.56), and 3.00 (1.06-8.44) (p for trend 0.028). HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.00, 1.28 (0.83-1.98), 1.24 (0.78-1.97), and 2.24 (1.28-3.94) (p for trend 0.011). Each 30 μg/day increase of lead intake was associated with 25% (95% CI 3-52%) increase of all-cause mortality. There was an interaction between lead intake and hypertension in relation to CVD mortality (p for interaction 0.003): HRs conferred by every 30 μg/day of lead intake were 1.57 (0.98-2.52) and 1.06 (0.81-1.39) among those with or without hypertension. Dietary lead intake was positively related to cancer and all-cause mortality.

  7. [Blood lead levels and exposure factors in children of Morelos state, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Meneses-González, Fernando; Richardson, Vesta; Lino-González, Montserrat; Vidal, María Teresa

    2003-01-01

    To assess blood lead levels and lead exposure factors in children living in Morelos State, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and October 1996, in 232 children aged 1-12 years, at Hospital del Niño Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Blood lead levels were measured by anodic voltameter, and exposure factors were collected by questionnaire. The lead concentration value was log transformed for statistical analysis. Odds ratios were obtained for some risk factors. The statistical significative risk factors were later analyzed with ANOVA. A total of 232 children were recruited (50% female); 73% resided in Cuernavaca City. The geometric mean blood lead level was 6.7 micrograms/dl; 29.7% of the children had levels over 10 micrograms/dl; 66% reported use of lead glazed pottery for cooking, 36% for storing food, and 19% for drinking. Blood lead levels were similar to those reported in other Mexican children studies, after the reduction of lead in gasoline. The main risk factors were use of lead glazed pottery and vehicle traffic intensity near the household. These results will be useful for future prevention and control interventions. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  8. Elevated blood lead in young children due to lead-contaminated drinking water: Washington, DC, 2001-2004.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marc; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Best, Dana

    2009-03-01

    Incidence of EBL (blood lead > or =10 microg/dL) for children aged < or = 1.3 years in Washington, DC increased more than 4 times comparing 2001-2003 when lead in water was high versus 2000 when lead in water was low. The incidence of EBL was highly correlated (R2 = 0.81) to 90th percentile lead in water lead levels (WLLs) from 2000 to 2007 for children aged < or = 1.3 years. The risk of exposure to high water lead levels varied markedly in different neighborhoods of the city. For children aged < or =30 months there were not strong correlations between WLLs and EBL, when analyzed for the city as a whole. However, the incidence of EBL increased 2.4 times in high-risk neighborhoods, increased 1.12 times in moderate-risk neighborhoods, and decreased in low-risk neighborhoods comparing 2003 to 2000. The incidence of EBL for children aged < or =30 months also deviated from national trends in a manner that was highly correlated with 90th percentile lead in water levels from 2000 to 2007 (R2 = 0.83) in the high-risk neighborhoods. These effects are consistent with predictions based on biokinetic models and prior research.

  9. High blood lead level among garage workers in Bangkok, public concern is necessary.

    PubMed

    Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Teerasart, Nutchanida; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Chaiyaset, Tianchai

    2002-12-01

    Lead is an important toxic metal agent found in many industrial processes in the present day. Lead exposure must be of particular concern because of ongoing exposure to thousands of workers in the industrial plants and recent research indicating that asymptomatic lead exposure can result in chronic toxicity manifestations. Therefore, determination and control lead exposure among the risk workers is very necessary. Like other developing countries, lead pollution becomes an important public health problem of Thailand, especially for the big cities as Bangkok but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. We set this pilot study to determine the blood lead levels by anodic stripping volammetry (ASV) method as a marker for lead exposure among the occupational exposed and control subjects. Totally 89 subjects, 20 control subjects and 69 garage workers (52 mechanics and 17 dye sprayers), as the representatives of occupational exposed subjects, were included into this preliminary study. The mean blood lead level in the control group was 0.32 +/- 0.07 micromol/l. The mean blood lead level in the mechanics group was 0.42 +/- 0.13 micromol/l. The mean blood lead level in the dye sprayers was 0.58 +/- 0.07 micromol/l. Significant higher blood lead levels among the mechanics and dye sprayer groups were observed (P < 0.05). Based on this study, the considerations for prevention of possibly exposure to lead among the high-risk workers as public health policies was recommended.

  10. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (P<0.01), and a weaker but significant correlation between plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood PCB concentrations (P<0.05). It was apparent that delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood provided a sensitive and precise estimate of lead contamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  11. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando; Ramires, Irene; Rodrigues, Maria Heloisa C.

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L, with a mean of 76 {mu}g/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L in men (mean, 98.3 {mu}g/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0more » {mu}g/L (mean, 62.8 {mu}g/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.66 {mu}g/L) and 0.02-1.5 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.42 {mu}g/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P<0.001 Spearman's correlation). The two quantities are related by the line y=0.0006x {sup 1492} (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x {sup 0.702}) and women (y=0.0534x {sup 0.5209}) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity.« less

  12. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Body Mass Index Relates to Blood Pressure Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Suman; Bhuker, Monika; Sharma, Pankhuri; Dhall, Meenal; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management. PMID:24696830

  14. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... achieved in accordance with § 35.1340. The Federal agency shall establish a timetable for completing risk assessments and hazard reduction when an environmental intervention blood lead level child is identified. ...

  15. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... achieved in accordance with § 35.1340. The Federal agency shall establish a timetable for completing risk assessments and hazard reduction when an environmental intervention blood lead level child is identified. ...

  16. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... achieved in accordance with § 35.1340. The Federal agency shall establish a timetable for completing risk assessments and hazard reduction when an environmental intervention blood lead level child is identified. ...

  17. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... achieved in accordance with § 35.1340. The Federal agency shall establish a timetable for completing risk assessments and hazard reduction when an environmental intervention blood lead level child is identified. ...

  18. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based paint... achieved in accordance with § 35.1340. The Federal agency shall establish a timetable for completing risk assessments and hazard reduction when an environmental intervention blood lead level child is identified. ...

  19. Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Kelsey M; Valeri, Linda; Shankar, A H; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rodrigues, Ema G; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-11-04

    Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored. The association between lead exposure and stunting has been previously established, yet limited data are available on susceptibility windows. Whole blood lead samples were collected from rural Bangladeshi children at delivery (umbilical cord blood) and at age 20-40 months (fingerstick blood). Stunting was determined using the Child Growth Standards developed from the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Children with height for age < -2 z-scores below the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards were classified as stunted in all analyses. Median (IQR) umbilical cord and fingerstick blood lead levels were 3.1 (1.6-6.3) μg/dl and 4.2 (1.7-7.6) μg/dl, respectively. In adjusted multivariable regression models, the odds of stunting at 20-40 months increased by 1.12 per μg/dl increase in blood lead level (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.22). No association was found between cord blood lead level and risk of stunting (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.94-1.00). There is a significant association between stunting and concurrent lead exposure at age 20-40 months. This association is slightly attenuated after controlling for study clinic site. Additional research including more precise timing of lead exposure during these critical 20-40 months is needed.

  20. Isotopic ratio based source apportionment of children's blood lead around coking plant area.

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-12-01

    Lead exposure in the environment is a major hazard affecting human health, particularly for children. The blood lead levels in the local children living around the largest coking area in China were measured, and the source of blood lead and the main pathways of lead exposure were investigated based on lead isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) in blood and in a variety of media, including food, airborne particulate matter, soil, dust and drinking water. The children's blood lead level was 5.25 (1.59 to 34.36 as range) μg dL(-1), lower than the threshold in the current criteria of China defined by the US Centers for Disease Control (10 μg dL(-1)). The isotopic ratios in the blood were 2.111±0.018 for (208)Pb/(206)Pb and 0.864±0.005 for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, similar to those of vegetables, wheat, drinking water, airborne particulate matter, but different from those of vehicle emission and soil/dust, suggesting that the formers were the main pathway of lead exposure among the children. The exposure pathway analysis based on the isotopic ratios and the human health risk assessment showed that dietary intake of food and drinking water contributed 93.67% of total exposed lead. The study further indicated that the coal used in the coking plant is the dominant pollution source of lead in children's blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of blood lead in Griffon vultures from a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Spain.

    PubMed

    González, Fernando; López, Irene; Suarez, Laura; Moraleda, Virginia; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2017-09-01

    Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings. Also, the influence of age, gender, body condition, season and primary cause of admission were evaluated. This study was realized in all Griffon vultures admitted during a period of one year in the Rehabilitation Center GREFA. Blood lead levels are measured by using anodic stripping voltammetry. In Griffon vultures, we observed that 26% of the analyzed birds presented lead levels above 20µg/dL with 74% below 20µg/dL ([Pb] <20 =9.34±5.60µg/dL). In our study, statistically significant differences were found for lead according to sex, season of admission to the center and body condition. A negative correlation was found between levels of metal and hematocrit. No association was found between clinical signs and blood lead levels in Griffon vultures, except for digestive signs as stasis and weight loss. On numerous occasions, the intoxication in this specie is related to ingestion of lead ammunition; however, we have not detected radiographic lead in our vultures. Compared with other studies, we generally found low levels of lead in blood of Griffon vultures but the blood of all birds admitted to WRC presented detectable lead concentrations. This species apparently presents a higher sensibility to the toxic effects of this metal than that described by other authors. It have been observed that there is some evidence that suggests that subclinical levels of lead could be related with a

  2. Prevalence of children with blood pressure measurements exceeding adult cutoffs for optimal blood pressure in Germany.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Hannelore K; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2009-04-01

    Despite a growing interest in the epidemiology of paediatric hypertension, data on how often blood pressure in children and adolescents already exceeds adult thresholds for optimal blood pressure are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of higher-than-optimal and hypertensive blood pressure values according to adult cutoffs in an unselected representative sample of children and adolescents living in Germany. Standardized oscillometric blood pressure measurements were performed in 14 730 children aged 3-17 years (7203 girls and 7527 boys) participating in a nationally representative examination survey of children and adolescents living in Germany (The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents, KiGGS, response rate 67%). The mean of two measurements was used for this analysis. The prevalences of higher-than-optimal blood pressure values by adult criteria (>or=120/80 mmHg) increased with age and was 52.2% in boys aged 14-17 years and 26.2% in girls aged 14-17 years (including 6.0% of boys and 1.4% of girls with hypertensive values >or=140/90 mmHg). More than half of these adolescents with nonoptimal blood pressure values had additional cardiovascular risk factors (overweight defined as body mass index >or=90th percentile for sex and age, dyslipidaemia defined as total cholesterol >5.0 mmol/l or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 1.0 mmol/l or smoking). These results suggest the need for routine blood pressure measurements in children and adolescents as required by clinical guidelines, for more attention to coexisting other cardiovascular risk factors and for a sustained focus on healthy lifestyles that can be learned best at a young age.

  3. Pediatric Patient Blood Management Programs: Not Just Transfusing Little Adults.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Cushing, Melissa M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell transfusions are a common life-saving intervention for neonates and children with anemia, but transfusion decisions, indications, and doses in neonates and children are different from those of adults. Patient blood management (PBM) programs are designed to assist clinicians with appropriately transfusing patients. Although PBM programs are well recognized and appreciated in the adult setting, they are quite far from standard of care in the pediatric patient population. Adult PBM standards cannot be uniformly applied to children, and there currently is significant variation in transfusion practices. Because transfusing unnecessarily can expose children to increased risk without benefit, it is important to design PBM programs to standardize transfusion decisions. This article assesses the key elements necessary for a successful pediatric PBM program, systematically explores various possible pediatric specific blood conservation strategies and the current available literature supporting them, and outlines the gaps in the evidence suggesting need for further/improved research. Pediatric PBM programs are critically important initiatives that not only involve a cooperative effort between pediatric surgery, anesthesia, perfusion, critical care, and transfusion medicine services but also need operational support from administration, clinical leadership, finance, and the hospital information technology personnel. These programs also expand the scope for high-quality collaborative research. A key component of pediatric PBM programs is monitoring pediatric blood utilization and assessing adherence to transfusion guidelines. Data suggest that restrictive transfusion strategies should be used for neonates and children similar to adults, but further research is needed to assess the best oxygenation requirements, hemoglobin threshold, and transfusion strategy for patients with active bleeding, hemodynamic instability, unstable cardiac disease, and cyanotic cardiac

  4. Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Prevents Adverse Effects of Lead on Blood Constituents

    PubMed Central

    SALAWU, Emmanuel O

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lead is known for its adverse effects on various organs and systems. In this study, the ability of lead to adversely affect blood parameters was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato (a source of antioxidants), was administered orally in the form of tomato paste (TP) to reduce the adverse effects of lead. Methods: The study involved 56 Wistar rats divided equally into 4 groups of 14 rats each: Control, LAG, TPG, and LA+TPG. Control and TPG rats were given distilled water ad libitum, while LAG and LA+TPG rats were given 1% lead (II) acetate (LA) per day. TPG and LA+TPG rats were additionally treated with 1.5 ml of TP per day. All treatments lasted for 10 weeks, after which the rats were weighed and sacrificed, and haematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The independent samples t test was used to analyse the results. Results: Lead caused significant reductions in the following parameters: weight; packed cell volume; red blood cell and white blood cell counts; the percentages of lymphocytes and monocytes; total serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels; and plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, lead caused a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils and the plasma malondialdehyde concentration. TP, however, significantly prevented the adverse effects of LA. Conclusion: The oral administration of TP prevents the adverse effects of lead on blood constituents. PMID:22135544

  5. Infant locomotive development and its association with adult blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pillas, Demetris; Kaakinen, Marika; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Rodriguez, Alina; Fung, Erik; Tammelin, Tuija H; Blane, David; Millwood, Iona Y; Hardy, Rebecca; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Vaara, Sarianna; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Chong, Raymond; Elliott, Paul; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2014-10-01

    Evidence from animal models suggests that locomotion and blood pressure share common neurophysiological regulatory systems. As a result of this common regulation, we hypothesized that the development of locomotion in human infants would be associated with blood pressure levels in adulthood. The study sample comprised 4,347 individuals with measures of locomotive and non-locomotive neuromotor development in infancy and adult blood pressure levels within a longitudinal birth cohort study, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Later development in all three stages of locomotive development during infancy was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at age 31. For age of walking without support, 0.34 (95 % CI 0.07 to 0.60)-mm Hg higher SBP and 0.38 (95 % CI 0.15 to 0.62)-mm Hg higher DBP were estimated for each month of later achievement (P = 0.012 for SBP; P = 0.001 for DBP). No association was identified for non-locomotive neuromotor development. These results highlight the positive sequelae of advanced locomotive development during infancy, suggesting that the common regulatory systems between locomotion and blood pressure may influence the development of raised blood pressure over time.

  6. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  7. Age of transfused blood in critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Jacques; Hébert, Paul C; Fergusson, Dean A; Tinmouth, Alan; Cook, Deborah J; Marshall, John C; Clayton, Lucy; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Callum, Jeannie; Turgeon, Alexis F; Blajchman, Morris A; Walsh, Timothy S; Stanworth, Simon J; Campbell, Helen; Capellier, Gilles; Tiberghien, Pierre; Bardiaux, Laurent; van de Watering, Leo; van der Meer, Nardo J; Sabri, Elham; Vo, Dong

    2015-04-09

    Fresh red cells may improve outcomes in critically ill patients by enhancing oxygen delivery while minimizing the risks of toxic effects from cellular changes and the accumulation of bioactive materials in blood components during prolonged storage. In this multicenter, randomized, blinded trial, we assigned critically ill adults to receive either red cells that had been stored for less than 8 days or standard-issue red cells (the oldest compatible units available in the blood bank). The primary outcome measure was 90-day mortality. Between March 2009 and May 2014, at 64 centers in Canada and Europe, 1211 patients were assigned to receive fresh red cells (fresh-blood group) and 1219 patients were assigned to receive standard-issue red cells (standard-blood group). Red cells were stored a mean (±SD) of 6.1±4.9 days in the fresh-blood group as compared with 22.0±8.4 days in the standard-blood group (P<0.001). At 90 days, 448 patients (37.0%) in the fresh-blood group and 430 patients (35.3%) in the standard-blood group had died (absolute risk difference, 1.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.1 to 5.5). In the survival analysis, the hazard ratio for death in the fresh-blood group, as compared with the standard-blood group, was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2; P=0.38). There were no significant between-group differences in any of the secondary outcomes (major illnesses; duration of respiratory, hemodynamic, or renal support; length of stay in the hospital; and transfusion reactions) or in the subgroup analyses. Transfusion of fresh red cells, as compared with standard-issue red cells, did not decrease the 90-day mortality among critically ill adults. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN44878718.).

  8. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu,more » Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.« less

  9. Transition of cord blood lead level, 1985-2002, in the Taipei area and its determinants after the cease of leaded gasoline use.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Ko, Yi; Chiang, Chien-Dai; Hsu, Shih-Penn; Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Chiou, Chuen-Hua; Wang, Jung-Der; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2004-11-01

    Lead has long been of concern for its toxicity, impairment of neurobehavioral and cognitive development, and electrophysiological deficits in children, even at levels less than 10 microg/dL. The present study was conducted to elucidate the extent of cord blood lead level decline in the Taipei area from 1985 to 2002 and to explore the factors affecting the cord blood lead level after the cease of leaded gasoline use. In the current study period of 2001-2002, 184 of 1310 newborns delivered in the Taipei Municipal Women and Children Hospital between September 2001 and August 2002 were eligible and randomly selected to participate in this study. Neither of their parents had an occupational lead exposure history. At each delivery, a sample of 5-10 mL umbilical cord blood was collected for lead determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The cord blood lead level of the newborns in the current study period averaged 2.35 +/- 1.12 microg/dL. Together with the cord blood lead averages of 7.48 +/- 2.25 and 3.28 +/- 1.52 microg/dL obtained from two previous surveys conducted in 1985-1987 and 1990-1992, respectively, the cord blood lead level was significantly decreased (P < 0.005). It is estimated that such a reduction in cord blood lead from 7.48 to 2.35 microg/dL for each year's cohort of 260,000 newborns in Taiwan might benefit the economics, ranging from US$8.9 billion to US$12.1 billion by improving the worker productivity. For the time period from 1985 to 2002, there were consistent transition patterns among the yearly fluctuations of air lead level, leaded gasoline consumption, lead content in gasoline, estimated lead amount emitted from the consumed leaded gasoline, and average cord blood lead levels of the three respective study periods. Additionally, every 0.1-g/L reduction in lead content in gasoline might lead to a lowering of cord blood lead level by 1.78 microg/dL. Furthermore, at low level of around 2 microg/dL, a multiple regression

  10. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  11. Relationships of blood lead to calcium, iron, and vitamin C intakes in Brazilian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Zentner, Luz E A; Rondó, Patricia H C; Duran, Maria C; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2008-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between blood lead concentrations and calcium, iron and vitamin C dietary intakes of pregnant women. Included in the study were 55 women admitted to a hospital, for delivery, from June to August 2002. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to determine calcium, iron and vitamin C intakes, and a general questionnaire to obtain data on demographic-socioeconomic condition, obstetric history, smoking habit, and alcohol intake. Blood lead and haemoglobin were determined, respectively, by atomic absorption spectrometry and by the haemoglobinometer HemoCue. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between blood lead and calcium, iron and vitamin C intakes, and haemoglobin levels, controlling for confounders. The final model of the regression analysis detected an inverse relationship between blood lead and age of the women (p=0.011), haemoglobin (p=0.001), vitamin C (p=0.012), and calcium intake (p<0.001) (R(2)=0.952). One hundred percent, 98.2% and 43.6% of the women were below the adequate intake (AI) for calcium, and below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for iron, and vitamin C, respectively. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study suggest that maternal age, haemoglobin, vitamin C intake, and calcium intake may interfere with blood concentrations of lead.

  12. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P < 0.001). The BMI of male and female students were 23.4 ± 3.3 and 20.2 ± 2.3, respectively. Most male students were in the range of being overweight. The dietary habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P < 0.01).The blood cadmium level of male and female students were 0.54 ± 0.23 and 0.52 ± 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students. The blood lead level of male and female students were 1.09 ± 0.49 and 0.59 ± 0.45, respectively. The blood lead level of male students was significantly higher than that of female students (P < 0.001). The blood cadmium level of smokers and nonsmokers were 0.69 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.29 respectively (P < 0.05). The blood cadmium level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The blood lead level of smokers and nonsmokers were 1.09 ± 0.43 and 0.80 ± 0.54, respectively. The blood lead level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Therefore, proper nutritional education programs are required for college students in order to improve their dietary and health related living habits. PMID:22977689

  13. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students.

    PubMed

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P < 0.001). The BMI of male and female students were 23.4 ± 3.3 and 20.2 ± 2.3, respectively. Most male students were in the range of being overweight. The dietary habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P < 0.01).The blood cadmium level of male and female students were 0.54 ± 0.23 and 0.52 ± 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students. The blood lead level of male and female students were 1.09 ± 0.49 and 0.59 ± 0.45, respectively. The blood lead level of male students was significantly higher than that of female students (P < 0.001). The blood cadmium level of smokers and nonsmokers were 0.69 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.29 respectively (P < 0.05). The blood cadmium level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The blood lead level of smokers and nonsmokers were 1.09 ± 0.43 and 0.80 ± 0.54, respectively. The blood lead level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Therefore, proper nutritional education programs are required for college students in order to improve their dietary and health related living habits.

  14. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood levels in children of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Carreon, T.; Lopez, L.

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants` households, as well as bloodmore » samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 {mu}g/dl with a mean of 9.9 {mu}g/dl (SD 5.8 {mu}/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 {mu}g/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used or prepare children`s food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children`s hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. 18 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  15. Changes in blood lead levels associated with use of chloramines in water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P; Paul, Christopher J; Galeano, M Alicia Overstreet

    2007-02-01

    More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents.

  16. Ultratrace determination of lead in whole blood using electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E P; Smith, B W; Winefordner, J D

    1996-09-15

    Laser-excited atomic fluorescence has been used to detect lead that was electrothermally atomized from whole blood in a graphite furnace. A 9 kHz repetition rate copper vapor laser pumped dye laser was used to excite the lead at 283.3 nm, and the resulting atomic fluorescence was detected at 405.8 nm. No matrix modification was used other than a 1:21 dilution of the whole blood with high-purity water. Using the atomic fluorescence peak area as the analytical measure and a background correction technique based upon a simultaneous measurement of the transmitted laser intensity, excellent agreement for NIST and CDC certified whole blood reference samples was obtained with aqueous standards. A limit of detection in blood of 10 fg/mL (100 ag absolute) was achieved.

  17. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    SciTech Connect

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra; Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized intomore » four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.« less

  18. [Effects of lead exposure on 18 elements in blood and excretions in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Duo-jian; Wu, Jing; Liu, Ya-qiong; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Jing-yu

    2014-04-18

    To investigate the effects of lead exposure on lead and other metal elements contents in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into control group and several experiment groups of different doses. The rats were exposed to lead acetate through intragastric administration every other day for 5 times. The whole blood, urine and feces of all the rats were collected. The concentrations of lead and 18 metal elements in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). No significant difference among the groups was found for body weight and organ-body ratios of the rats after lead exposure (P>0.05). With the increase of exposure dose, lead content in blood, total lead in urine and feces tended to increase, while the total lead in urine no longer increased in the high dose group. Significant differences among the groups (P<0.05) were observed for the sodium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, antimony, thallium and bismuth contents in the whole blood, the potassium, iron and antimony contents in the urine, and the calcium, iron, zinc, copper, thallium, bismuth and rare earth elements contents in the feces. The effect of lead on the metabolism of divalent metal ions, namely calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and strontium ion, may be due to the competition of lead with the ions for common delivery carrier. Lead exposure induces the excretion of light rare earth elements and toxic elements (thallium and bismuth), and changes the antimony, sodium and potassium contents in rats. But there is no effect of lead on molybdenum and cadmium in rats.

  19. [Blood lead levels in children from the city of La Plata, Argentina. Relationship with iron deficiency and lead exposure risk factors].

    PubMed

    Disalvo, Liliana; Aab, Claudia; Pereyras, Silvia; Pattín, Jorgelina; Apezteguía, María; Iannicelli, Juan Carlos; Girardelli, Ana; Varea, Ana

    2009-08-01

    Environmental exposure to lead and the subsequent poisoning are a main public health concern worldwide. Children have a higher vulnerability to lead toxic effects, and many reports have shown the association between iron deficiency and lead poisoning. In Argentina, reports about lead levels in children are scarce. Our aims were to assess blood lead levels in children and determining their relationship with iron deficiency and known lead exposure risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample of 93 children (age range, 6 months to 5 years) receiving care at La Plata Children s Hospital. A social and environmental survey was done, and blood lead, hemoglobin and ferritin levels were assessed. Geometric mean blood lead level was 4.26 microg/dl (95% CI, 3.60-5.03); prevalence of blood lead levels >or=10 microg/dl was 10.8%. Higher blood lead levels were found in children living in households with lead-handling contaminating activities (6.74 vs. 3.78 microg/dl; p= 0.005) and in very low-income households (5.68 vs. 3.71 microg/ dl; p= 0.020). The presence of blood lead levels >or=10 microg/dl was strongly associated with iron deficiency (OR 5.7; 95% CI: 1.34-23.41) and with lead-handling activities at home (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 1.12-20.16). The prevalence of blood lead levels >or=10 microg/dl is a matter of concern in the population studied. Iron deficiency and development of lead-handling activities at home were the risk factors associated with high blood lead levels.

  20. Lead, genetic susceptibility, and risk of adult brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Stewart, Patricia A; Samet, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Brian S; Linet, Martha S; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yeager, Meredith; Fine, Howard A; Black, Peter M; Loeffler, Jay; Shapiro, William R; Selker, Robert G; Inskip, Peter D

    2006-12-01

    Although few etiologic factors for brain tumors have been identified, limited data suggest that lead may increase the risk of brain tumors, particularly meningioma. The ALAD G177C polymorphism affects the toxicokinetics of lead and may confer genetic susceptibility to adverse effects of lead exposure. We examined occupational exposure to lead and risk of brain tumors in a multisite, hospital-based, case-control study of 489 patients with glioma, 197 with meningioma, and 799 non-cancer controls frequency matched on hospital, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and residential proximity to hospital. ALAD genotype was assessed by a Taqman assay for 355 glioma patients, 151 meningioma patients, and 505 controls. Exposure to lead was estimated using a rigorous questionnaire-based exposure assessment strategy incorporating lead measurement and other occupational data abstracted from published articles and reports. Increased risk of meningioma with occupational lead exposure (estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) was most apparent in individuals with the ALAD2 variant allele, for whom risk increased from 1.1 (0.3-4.5) to 5.6 (0.7-45.5) and 12.8 (1.4-120.8) for estimated cumulative lead exposures of 1 to 49 microg/m3-y, 50 to 99 microg/m3-y, and >or=100 microg/m3-y, respectively, compared with unexposed individuals (two-sided P trend = 0.06). This relationship became stronger after excluding occupational lead exposures characterized by a low confidence level or occurring in the 10 years before meningioma diagnosis. Occupational lead exposure was not associated with glioma risk. Although our results indicate that lead may be implicated in meningioma risk in genetically susceptible individuals, these results need to be interpreted with caution given the small numbers of exposed cases with a variant genotype.

  1. Blood lead levels of South African long-distance road-runners

    SciTech Connect

    Grobler, S.R.; Maresky, L.S.; Rossouw, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Road runners are exposed to vehicular exhaust aerosols which are a major source of atmospheric lead pollution in those countries where lead additives are incorporated in petrol. The purpose of this study was twofold: the authors wished to determine the blood lead levels of South African road runners, and they wished to investigate the influence of various environments on such levels. Blood samples were obtained by the finger-prick technique and analyzed for lead by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results were analyzed statistically and compared with control samples from a selected urban nonrunning population and a remote rural population,more » respectively. The mean blood lead levels obtained were 20.1 micrograms/dl, 51.9 micrograms/dl, 45.8 micrograms/dl, and 53.00 micrograms/dl for the rural trainers, urban trainers, Two Oceans pre-race, and Two Oceans post-race samples, respectively. The mean level for the selected urban control was 9.7 micrograms/dl. The results suggest that road runners are exposed to increased lead inhalation and that atmospheric lead levels differ in urban and rural areas of South Africa.« less

  2. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  3. Sonoclot evaluation of whole blood coagulation in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Babski, Danielle M; Brainard, Benjamin M; Krimer, Paula M; Ralph, Alan G; Pittman, Jennifer R; Koenig, Amie

    2012-12-01

    To establish a standard protocol for analysis of canine whole blood and generate reference intervals for healthy dogs using the Sonoclot analyzer, and to compare Sonoclot values to standard and viscoelastic coagulation tests. Prospective study. Veterinary University research facility and teaching hospital. Twelve healthy random source dogs and 52 healthy dogs from the general veterinary school population. Blood sampling for viscoelastic coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 12 healthy adult dogs by jugular venipuncture. After a rest period at room temperature of 30, 60, or 120 minutes, 340 μL of citrated blood was added to 20 μL of 0.2 M CaCl(2) in 1 of 2 cuvette types warmed to 37° C. Cuvettes contained a magnetic stir-bar with glass beads (gbACT+) or only a magnetic stir-bar (nonACT). Reference interval samples were collected from 52 healthy adult dogs and analyzed in duplicate. The ACT, CR, and PF were not affected by duration of rest period for either cuvette type. ACT variability was decreased when using gbACT+ cuvettes (P < 0.05). In normal dogs reference intervals (mean ± 2 SD) using gbACT+ cuvettes were: ACT 56.0-154.0 seconds, CR 14.85-46.0, and PF 2.1-4.05. ACT correlated to TEG R-time, K-time, and angle, while CR correlated with all TEG parameters. Fibrinogen correlated with ACT, CR, and PF. Sonoclot did not correlate with other common coagulation tests. Sonoclot provides viscoelastic evaluation of canine whole blood coagulation and correlated to several TEG parameters and fibrinogen. A standard protocol and reference intervals were established. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  4. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Rocío; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Narciso, Juan; Castañaga, Carmen; Moscoso, Shirley; Ortiz, Georgina; Carbajal, Luz; Wegner, Steve; Noonan, Gary

    2003-01-01

    To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n = 2,510) and women (n = 874) in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 micrograms/dl ranging from 1 microgram/dl to 64 micrograms/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 micrograms/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 micrograms/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 micrograms/dl (SD = 2.4 micrograms/dl), and 2.4% (n = 21) displayed levels greater than 10 micrograms/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 micrograms/dl (SD = 4.6 micrograms/dl), while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 micrograms/dl (SD = 5.1 micrograms/dl). The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 micrograms/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 micrograms/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. In metropolitan Lima, we

  5. Determination of lead in paired samples of human blood and synovial fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Villegas-Navarro, A.; Rosales, D.; Bustos, E.

    1992-09-01

    In spite of the numerous papers published on the toxicity of lead in mammals, little is known about its effects in synovial fluid and bone joints. Our literature search showed a lack of quantitative studies regarding the concentration of lead in human synovial fluid; in addition, normal values regarding the threshold for poisoning by lead in that fluid are unknown. The available literature published corresponds to samples of human wounds by lead bullets localized close to or in a joint. Some of those papers dealing with lead-induced arthritis include symptoms of plumbism. They clearly demonstrate the ability of synovial fluidmore » to dissolve lead and thereby make it available for systemic absorption. The molecular mechanism whereby this process is performed is still unknown, although it would be of interest because of its possible relationship with joint pain, a common problem in patients with lead poisoning that so far has not been fully explained. In a series of experiments with cattle, we found an average ratio of lead between synovial fluid and blood for paired observations of 4.2, although we have not found similar reports, and there is not sufficient information to make a total interpretation of these data. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of lead in synovial fluid and blood of corpses and to establish a possible numerical relationship between those two variables. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  6. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  7. Decreased lung function with mediation of blood parameters linked to e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Boezen, H Marike; Vonk, Judith M; Wu, Weidong; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels have been associated with lower lung function in adults and smokers, but whether this also holds for children from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling areas is still unknown. To investigate the contribution of blood heavy metals and lung function levels, and the relationship among living area, the blood parameter levels, and the lung function levels, a total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (exposed area), and Haojiang and Xiashan (reference areas) were recruited and required to undergo blood tests and lung function tests during the study period. Preschool children living in e-waste exposed areas were found to have a 1.37 μg/dL increase in blood Pb, 1.18 μg/L increase in blood Cd, and a 41.00 × 10 9 /L increase in platelet counts, while having a 2.82 g/L decrease in hemoglobin, 92 mL decrease in FVC and 86 mL decrease in FEV 1 . Each unit of hemoglobin (1 g/L) decline was associated with 5 mL decrease in FVC and 4 mL decrease in FEV 1 . We conclude that children living in e-waste exposed area have higher levels of blood Pb, Cd and platelets, and lower levels of hemoglobin and lung function. Hemoglobin can be a good predictor for lung function levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  9. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (p<0.0083). Seven SNPs in the MTHFR gene were associated with homocysteine levels at an α-level of 0.05, but the associations did not persist after Bonferroni correction. These SNPs did not show interactions with lead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Evaluation of blood lead level among population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    el-Habashi, A A; Jado, A; Sowilem, A; Kamal, H; al-Fahd, Z

    1991-12-01

    Air pollution is a national problem, that recognizes no geographical or political boundaries. Most of the atmospheric lead is emitted from two main sources, motor vehicles and industrial sources, such as metal melting, coal and oil combustion, iron and steel production. The aim of the present work is to measure the blood lead level among residents near and far from the high ways, to evaluate the effect of motor vehicle emission on the environmental pollution along the high ways in Riyadh City.

  11. Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyu; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Davis, J Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Sacks, Jason D; Kirrane, Ellen; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in particulate matter measured at different size cuts by use of PbB concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PbA concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 1999-2008. Three size fractions of particle-bound PbA (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) data with different averaging times (current and past 90-day average) were utilized. A multilevel linear mixed effect model was used to characterize the PbB-PbA relationship. At 0.15 μg/m(3), a unit decrease in PbA in PM10 was significantly associated with a decrease in PbB of 0.3-2.2 μg/dL across age groups and averaging times. For PbA in PM2.5 and TSP, slopes were generally positive but not significant. PbB levels were more sensitive to the change in PbA concentrations for children (1-5 and 6-11 years) and older adults (≥ 60 years) than teenagers (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years). For the years following the phase-out of Pb in gasoline and a resulting upward shift in the PbA particle size distribution, PbA in PM10 was a statistically significant predictor of PbB. The results also suggest that age could affect the PbB-PbA association, with children having higher sensitivity than adults.

  12. Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels in association with smoking and personal hygienic behaviour among lead exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Karita, K; Nakao, M; Ohwaki, K; Yamanouchi, Y; Nishikitani, M; Nomura, K; Sato, M; Yano, E

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers. Methods: Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 2000–03. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment of smoking and four measures of personal hygienic behaviour (glove and mask use, hand and face washing before meals during working hours). Results: Statistically significant decreases in mean BPb and FEP occurred during the three years. The proportion of BPb reduction in the non-smoking workers was significantly higher (mean 24.3%) than in the smoking workers (15.3%). When the workers were classified into three groups (excellent, good, and poor) based on the four personal hygienic behavioural indicators, the greatest decreases of BPb and FEP were observed in the non-smoking workers of the excellent group. Conclusions: The consistent use of protection devices and cleanliness at work appeared to contribute to the lowering of BPb and FEP. Cessation of smoking in the workplace was also of importance. PMID:15837850

  13. Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels in association with smoking and personal hygienic behaviour among lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Karita, K; Nakao, M; Ohwaki, K; Yamanouchi, Y; Nishikitani, M; Nomura, K; Sato, M; Yano, E

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers. Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 2000-03. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment of smoking and four measures of personal hygienic behaviour (glove and mask use, hand and face washing before meals during working hours). Statistically significant decreases in mean BPb and FEP occurred during the three years. The proportion of BPb reduction in the non-smoking workers was significantly higher (mean 24.3%) than in the smoking workers (15.3%). When the workers were classified into three groups (excellent, good, and poor) based on the four personal hygienic behavioural indicators, the greatest decreases of BPb and FEP were observed in the non-smoking workers of the excellent group. The consistent use of protection devices and cleanliness at work appeared to contribute to the lowering of BPb and FEP. Cessation of smoking in the workplace was also of importance.

  14. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... enforcement actions against renovation contractors, landlords and property managers who failed to protect people from harmful lead ... firms: Apply for lead safe certification/recertification Property managers: Know your responsibilities Lead What is lead? Where ...

  15. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Garner, Rochelle E; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25-1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74mmHg, 95% CI=0.30-1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44-0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32-0.85, p=0.01). This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure and hypertension. However, the significance and

  16. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors,more » blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.« less

  17. Lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) from the coast of Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Miriam; Castillo-Guerrero, José Alfredo; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Fernández, Guillermo

    2016-09-15

    We used blood samples of the Blue-footed Booby, considering sex (female and male) and age-class (adult and chick) of individuals at different breeding stages during two breeding seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) in Isla El Rancho, Sinaloa, to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were below our detection limit (0.05 and 0.36ppm, respectively). A higher concentration of mercury was found in early stages of breeding, likely related to changes in mercury environmental availability. Mercury concentrations in adults did not relate with their breeding output. Males and adults had higher mercury concentration than females and chicks. We provide information of temporal, sex and age-related variations in the concentrations of mercury in blood of the Blue-footed Booby. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone, blood and semen lead in men with environmental and moderate occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Farias, Paulina; Echavarria, Mirna; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Villanueva, Carlos; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Hernandez, Leticia; Aro, Antonio; Hu, Howard

    2005-02-01

    Lead (Pb) in blood, bone, and semen was measured in 162 to 186 environmentally exposed men from Mexico City, aged 19- 48. Semen Pb was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, blood Pb by atomic absorption spectrometry and bone Pb by K X-ray fluorescence. Mean Pb levels in blood, semen, tibia (cortical) and patella (trabecular) bone were 12 microg/dl, 2.7 microg/l, 13 microg/g, and 20 microg/g, respectively. Semen Pb was determined by blood Pb and patella Pb. Determinants of higher tibia Pb were age, living near industry in which Pb is used, and a high occupational Pb exposure index. Higher patella Pb was predicted by age, higher traffic density near home, a high index of occupational exposure to Pb and a greater number of cigarettes smoked per day in the year prior to the study. Blood and bone Pb results are consistent with findings in other populations. Semen results provide new information on the semen-bone Pb relationship. Bone, especially trabecular one, proved to be a significant endogenous lead source for blood and semen burdens in reproductive aged men.

  19. Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Osterloh, J D; Kelly, T J

    1999-01-01

    Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high

  20. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children’s case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb2+ concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb2+ ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics. PMID:26906251

  1. Blood level of cadmium and lead in occupationally exposed persons in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the blood levels of cadmium and lead in some occupationally exposed individuals and compare the values with non-exposed individuals, with the aim of increasing the awareness of health risk caused by these heavy metals. A total of 120 subjects (64 occupationally exposed and 56 non-exposed subjects) with the age range of 15–40 years were studied in cross-sectional study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013 in Gwagwalada area of Abuja, Nigeria. Blood cadmium and lead were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The respective mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were 11.63±1.73 μg/dl and 45.43±6.93 μg/dl in occupationally-exposed subjects, while in non-exposed subjects 2.03±0.55 μg/dl and 12.08±2.87 μg/dl. The results show that occupational exposure increases the blood level of cadmium and lead, which consequently increases the health risk of the exposed individuals. PMID:27486374

  2. Full blood count normal reference values for adults in France.

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Vol, Sylviane; Cornet, Edouard; Bardet, Valérie; Couaillac, Jean-Paul; Fossat, Chantal; Luce, Jean-Charles; Maldonado, Eric; Siguret, Virginie; Tichet, Jean; Lantieri, Olivier; Corberand, Joël

    2014-04-01

    To determine full blood count (FBC) normal reference values for adults. FBC normal values for healthy adults were defined, after establishing preanalytical conditions, in a population of 33 258 subjects, 19 612 men and 13 646 women. The values were established after excluding from this population all people having conditions liable to modify, directly or indirectly, FBC parameters. Results for values of standard parameters are provided in detail for each parameter, by sex and by age group from 16 to 69 years of age. In addition, we present FBC values from a population of 339 subjects aged over 69 years with no comorbidities. These normal values are proposed for use in everyday practice. They make it possible to distinguish, without ambiguity, a normal situation from a pathological situation. Moreover, they might be used over all mainland France.

  3. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  4. Blood lead and preeclampsia: A meta-analysis and review of implications.

    PubMed

    Poropat, Arthur E; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Lanphear, Bruce; Ball, Andrew; Mielke, Howard W

    2018-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest that there is an association between blood lead and preeclampsia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information on the association between preeclampsia and lead poisoning. Searches of Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct and ProQuest (dissertations and theses) identified 2089 reports, 46 of which were downloaded after reviewing the abstracts, and 11 studies were evaluated as meeting the selection criteria. Evaluation using the ROBINS-I template (Sterne, et al., 2016), indicated moderate risk of bias in all studies. We found that blood lead concentrations were significantly and substantially associated with preeclampsia (k = 12; N = 6069; Cohen's d = 1.26; odds ratio = 9.81; odds ratio LCL = 8.01; odds ratio UCL = 12.02; p = 0.005). Eliminating one study produced a homogeneous meta-analysis and stronger estimates, despite the remaining studies coming from eight separate countries and having countervailing risks of bias. Blood lead concentrations in pregnant women are a major risk factor for preeclampsia, with an increase of 1μg/dL associated with a 1.6% increase in likelihood of preeclampsia, which appears to be the strongest risk factor for preeclampsia yet reported. Pregnant women with historical lead exposure should routinely have blood lead concentrations tested, especially after mid-term. Women with concentrations higher than 5μg/dL should be actively monitored for preeclampsia and be advised to take prophylactic calcium supplementation. All pregnant women should be advised to actively avoid lead exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1985-02-01

    Increased cadmium and lead tissue concentrations have been associated with deaths resulting from heart disease. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead levels have been reported to be higher in deaths resulting from heart related disease compared to non-heart related disease. Essential trace elements such as copper and zinc have also been postulated as playing a role in coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of hair lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in Mississippi adolescents and to determine if these hair elements were associated with blood pressure.

  6. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iavicoli, I.; Carelli, G.; Stanek, E.J.

    2006-01-15

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-{gamma}) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum weremore » measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-{gamma} and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 {mu}g/dL), which is below background (2-3 {mu}g/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-{gamma} and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations.« less

  7. Relationships of diet-related blood parameters and blood lead levels with psychopathology and aggression in forensic psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Zaalberg, Ap; Wielders, Jos; Bulten, Erik; van der Staak, Cees; Wouters, Anouk; Nijman, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have suggested associations between diet-related blood parameters and both aggression and psychopathological symptoms, but little is known about this in forensic psychiatric inpatients. This article aims to explore the levels of diet-related blood parameters and their relationship to aggressive behaviour and/or psychopathology among Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients. Minerals, vitamins, lead and fatty acid levels were measured in blood samples from 51 inpatients, well enough to consent and participate in the study, from a possible total of 99. Levels of aggression and psychopathology were assessed using questionnaires, observation instruments and clinical data. Associations between blood parameters and behavioural measures were calculated. Low average levels of vitamin D3 and omega (ω)-3 fatty acids were found, with nearly two-thirds of the patients having below recommended levels of D3 , while vitamin B6 levels were high. Magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and lead were overall within reference values, but copper/zinc ratios were high. Several significant associations between levels of fatty acid measures and both aggression and psychopathology were observed. In our sample of forensic psychiatric inpatients, fatty acids - but not mineral or vitamin levels - were associated with aggression and psychopathology. A potentially causal link between fatty acids and aggression could be tested in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil supplements. General health of such patients might be improved by better vitamin D status (increased sun exposure and/or supplement use) and better ω-3 fatty acid status (oily fish or fish oil consumption), but discouraging unnecessary self-prescription of B vitamins where necessary. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  9. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  10. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  11. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males.

    PubMed

    Kresovich, Jacob K; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood-injection-injury phobia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Miloyan, Beyon; Eaton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to (i) estimate the prevalence of blood-injection-injury phobia (BIIP) diagnosed as present at any time during the life prior to the interview, with or without another Specific Phobia diagnosed as present during the 12 months prior to the interview, (ii) characterize types and frequencies of co-occurring fears, (iii) evaluate the association with chronic medical conditions and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, and (iv) explore medical service use associations in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Methods A sample of 8,205 older adults, aged 65 years or older, was derived from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Results The weighted lifetime prevalence of BIIP with and without 12-month Specific Phobia was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4–0.8) and 4.2% (95% CI: 3.7–4.8), respectively, and these two groups ranked similarly in terms of sociodemographic, health, and psychiatric characteristics. BIIP most frequently co-occurred with other lifetime fears, and was positively associated with hypertension and lifetime history of anxiety and personality disorders after controlling for sociodemographic and psychiatric confounders. Conclusions Our findings suggest that lifetime BIIP may bear mental and physical health significance in older adults. PMID:26754035

  13. Blood-injection-injury phobia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Miloyan, Beyon; Eaton, William W

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (i) estimate the prevalence of blood-injection-injury phobia (BIIP) diagnosed as present at any time during the life prior to the interview, with or without another Specific Phobia diagnosed as present during the 12 months prior to the interview, (ii) characterize types and frequencies of co-occurring fears, (iii) evaluate the association with chronic medical conditions and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, and (iv) explore medical service use associations in a nationally representative sample of older adults. A sample of 8,205 older adults, aged 65 years or older, was derived from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The weighted lifetime prevalence of BIIP with and without 12-month Specific Phobia was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4-0.8) and 4.2% (95% CI: 3.7-4.8), respectively, and these two groups ranked similarly in terms of sociodemographic, health, and psychiatric characteristics. BIIP most frequently co-occurred with other lifetime fears, and was positively associated with hypertension and lifetime history of anxiety and personality disorders after controlling for sociodemographic and psychiatric confounders. Our findings suggest that lifetime BIIP may bear mental and physical health significance in older adults.

  14. Blood Cadmium and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults (20-39 years)

    PubMed Central

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of depression and several studies have noted an association between tobacco smoke and depression. Cadmium is a neurotoxicant, and the main source of non-occupational exposure is tobacco smoke. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 2892 young adult (20-39 years) participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Multivariate logistic regressions – adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty-income ratio, obesity, alcohol intake, blood lead, and smoking status – were used to analyze the association between blood cadmium and depressive symptoms, as determined by score on the PHQ-9. Results Individuals in the highest quartile of blood cadmium had higher odds of having depressive symptoms (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 1.84, 4.25) compared to those in the lowest blood cadmium quartile. Smoking status was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms while blood lead was not. Stratification by smoking status found that blood cadmium was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both non-smokers (OR=2.91; 95% CI, 1.12, 7.58) and current smokers (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.13, 6.42). Conclusions This is the first study reporting an association of blood cadmium levels with depressive symptoms using a nationally representative sample. The association of cadmium with depressive symptoms was independent of smoking status. If this association is further confirmed, the continued efforts at reducing cadmium exposures, mainly through tobacco smoking cessation programs, may decrease the incidence of depression. PMID:25115444

  15. Environmental pollution of lead in traffic air and blood of traffic policemen in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Rahama, Salah M; Khider, Hiba E; Mohamed, Sitt Nour H; Abuelmaali, Sara A; Elaagip, Arwa H

    2011-06-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in Khartoum State. A total of 45 males' traffic policemen were divided into two groups according to exposure to car exhaust; n=30 taken as exposed group, n=15 taken as controls, who were not exposed to car exhaust. The study was conducted to determine lead concentrations in traffic ambient air, to determine lead levels in blood of traffic policemen, and to evaluate the effect of exposure to car exhaust on traffic policemen during January 2009. The level of lead in ambient air was determined in 14 locations which were taken randomly at the intersections and entrances to the bridges using personal sampler "Cassella, U.K". The blood samples of all policemen were analyzed by atomic absorption Spectrophotometer to determine lead levels. A questionnaire was designed to assess the adverse health effects on the traffic policemen. The degree of environmental lead pollution in traffic ambient air was found to be 0.1937 +/- 0.1768 mg/m3 with range between 0.000-0.5166 mg/m3. In seven locations out of fourteen locations lead concentrations were 0.1940 and 0.5166 above the permissible level of 0.15 mg/m3 permitted internationally. Blood lead levels on traffic policemen (exposed and control groups) were found to be 2.4691 +/- 1.4065 microg/100 ml and 0.3944 +/- 1.2471 microg/100 ml respectively and there is no significant differences between the two groups where using SPSS program. A questionnaire findings were: average age mean of 35.9 +/- 7.7 years, 47.48% worked for periods of more than 20 years, 74.19% did not work before joining the traffic police, 51.6% of them recognized traffic air pollution as a problem of high level, 45.2% of them estimated it as medium, and 3.2% as low. As habits 38.71% were smokers, and for health complaints, 61.29% have various complaints of headache, fatigue, abdominal, hypertension and anemia. All these symptoms have a close relationship with lead poisoning. When we compared the results of age groups and work

  16. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population

    SciTech Connect

    Hogervorst, Janneke; Plusquin, Michelle; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2007-01-15

    Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L;more » 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24{mu}mol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm{sup 2}/92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks.« less

  17. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P < 0.006) and diastolic (P < 0.006) BP, overall and in each microenvironment, but no statistically significant relationships with other lipid measures. These results suggest lipids and BP do not act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Blood lead concentrations in waterfowl utilizing Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Spears, Brian L; Hansen, James A; Audet, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Lake Coeur d'Alene, and the Spokane River contain elevated heavy metal concentrations in sediment and water from historical mining and ore processing operations in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. Lead poisoning has been identified as the cause of death in hundreds of waterfowl utilizing wetlands in the floodplain of the Coeur d'Alene River, but little was known about hazards to waterfowl from heavy metal contamination in shallow bays and wetlands of Lake Coeur d'Alene. We examined lake sediment and blood lead concentrations in waterfowl utilizing Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, to evaluate potential lead contamination of waterfowl utilizing the lake. We collected 56 palustrine and 102 lacustrine sediment samples and 61 mallard and 8 wood duck blood samples. Mean lead concentrations from palustrine and lacustrine sediment samples ranged from 14 to 3508 mg/kg dry weight (dw) and from 19 to 5009 mg/kg (dw), respectively. Lead concentrations in palustrine and lacustrine sediment from several Lake Coeur d'Alene bays were higher than those in lake reference areas and were higher than Bunker Hill Superfund Site target cleanup levels and suggested site-specific toxicity thresholds for swans. Mean blood lead from mallard and wood ducks sampled from Lake Coeur d'Alene bays were within lead toxicity ranges for waterfowl associated with clinical and severe clinical lead poisoning. We also collected 19 Canada goose and 3 mallard fecal samples to evaluate exposure through sediment ingestion. Waterfowl using Lake Coeur d'Alene appear to be exposed to lead by ingesting contaminated lake sediment. Our model predicts a sediment lead effects range of 147-944 mg/kg (dw) and mortality effects level of 1652 mg/kg (dw) for mallards utilizing Lake Coeur d'Alene. The locations of Harrison Slough, Powderhorn Bay, and Cottonwood Bay at the mouth of the Coeur d'Alene River and Blackwell Island and Cougar Bay near the Spokane River outflow of Lake Coeur d'Alene were the

  19. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-01-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC–HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin (125I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC–HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using 125I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having ‘optimal’ body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC–HES; 74.5 mL/kg by 125I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R2 = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  20. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu; Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX; Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1,more » {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  2. Over-vibration induced blood perfusion and vascular permeability changes may lead to vocal edema.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Devine, Erin; Fang, Rui; Jiang, Jack J

    2017-01-01

    To observe blood perfusion and vascular permeability changes under varying vibration frequency exposures. Animal model. Blood perfusion was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry in eight rabbit auricular vessels (four rabbits) under nonvibration, and 62.5-Hz/1-mm, 125-Hz/1-mm, and 250-Hz/0.5-mm vibration frequency/amplitude exposures. Another 12 rabbits were randomly divided into vibration only and vibration with histamine groups. After 3 hours of continuous 125-Hz, 1-mm amplitude vibration of the auricle, vascular permeability was analyzed by absorbance of Evans blue-albumin complex. Significantly lower blood perfusion was observed in the vibration group, compared with no vibration exposure controls. Blood perfusion decreased 29 ± 16% as the vibration frequency was increased from 62.5 Hz to 125 Hz with the vibration amplitude constant at 1 mm. When the frequency was increased from 125 Hz to 250 Hz, while the amplitude was decreased from 1 mm to 0.5 mm, blood flow perfusion further decreased 29 ± 29%, and the decline tendency in blood perfusion showed no significant difference (P = .992). Meanwhile, in the vibration with histamine group, vascular permeability of the vibrated ears increased significantly compared to the nonvibrated ears (P = .005). Overvibration of the vocal folds due to voice overuse or abuse may significantly reduce blood perfusion, and increase vascular permeability in the vocal fold in inflammatory situations, which may lead to the formation of vocal edema. NA Laryngoscope, 127:148-152, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. A case-control study to determine risk factors for elevated blood lead levels in children, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Maisonet, M; Bove, F J; Kaye, W E

    1997-01-01

    A pair-matched, case-control study was conducted to identify if risk factors or behaviors suspected to affect childhood blood lead levels, were more prevalent among children with elevated blood lead levels living in the vicinity of a defunct mining and smelting facility. Study individuals were recruited from the 1992 Silver Valley blood lead screening participants. The cases were children with a blood lead level > 10 micrograms per deciliter (microgram/dL). The controls were children with a blood lead level < 10 micrograms/dL, who were matched to cases by age and sex. Data on risk factors were obtained through personal interviews. Of the variables examined, yard soil remediation showed the strongest association with changes in blood lead levels. This variable was found to be a protective factor for elevated blood lead levels in children (odds ratio, 0.28; confidence interval, 0.08-0.92). The results suggest that removal of lead contaminated soil from residential yards was effective in reducing blood lead levels in children.

  5. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS < 10μg/dL

    PubMed Central

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Zhang, Annie; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Daniel, David B.; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Clear adverse effects of blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dL have been documented in children. Given that the majority of US children have levels below 10 μg/dL, clarification of adverse effects below this cutoff value is needed. Our study evaluated the associations between blood lead levels < 10 μg/dL and a broad spectrum of children’s cognitive abilities. Data were analyzed from 534 children aged 6-10, enrolled in the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial (NECAT) from the urban area of Boston, Massachusetts and rural Farmington, Maine. Adjusting for covariates (age, race, socioeconomic status, and primary caregiver IQ), children with 5-10 μg/dL had 5.0 (s.d. 2.3) points lower IQ scores compared to children with blood lead levels of 1-2 μg/dL (p=0.03). Verbal IQ was more negatively affected than performance IQ, with the most prominent decrement occurring in children’s vocabulary. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test scores were strongly negatively associated with blood lead levels of 5-10 μg/dL. In adjusted analyses, children with levels of 5-10 μg/dL scored 7.8 (s.d. 2.4) and 6.9 (s.d 2.2) points lower on reading and math composite scores respectively, compared to children with levels of 1-2 μg/dL (p<0.01). Finally, levels of 5-10 μg/dL were associated with decreased attention and working memory. Other than associations of lead exposure with achievement, which even persisted after adjustment for child IQ, the most pronounced deficits were in the areas of spatial attention and executive function. Overall, our analyses support prior research that children’s blood levels < 10 μg/dL are related to compromised cognition and highlight that these may especially be related to academic achievement. PMID:17868887

  6. Is there a relationship between blood lipids and lumbar disc herniation in young Turkish adults?

    PubMed Central

    Celikoglu, Erhan; İs, Merih; İlgezdi, Zeynep Demet; Sunar, Bendigar; Aydin, Yusuf Sinan; Kevenk, Ahmet Ugur; Gurer, Bora; Ramazanoglu, Ali Fatih; Keser, Nurgul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis might diminish the nutrient supply to intervertebral discs (IVD), leading to disc herniation. Therefore, there is interest in determining the possible association between the blood lipid profile and lumbar disc herniation (LDH). We aimed to evaluate the association between blood lipids and LDH in a homogeneous group of patients, controlling for age- and sex-specific effects. Material and methods This is a case-control study which consisted of 100 individuals (mean age: 41.25 ±9.09; 50 men and 50 women), classified into two groups, as follows. Group I (G-I) consisted of 50 patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic LDH, while group II (G-II) consisted of 50 patients with nonspecific complaints of a headache, but with no previous history of back and/or leg pain, recruited among patients admitted to the outpatient clinic at the time of the study, and whose age and sex were matched to the study group. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c levels were measured. The TC/HDL-C ratio was calculated. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, and the history of smoking were included in the analysis. Results The mean values of the TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C levels and TC/HDL-C ratio were 198.38, 132.76, 131.9, 40.38 mg/dl and 5.09, respectively. No statistically significant relationship between the blood lipid profile and LDH was identified in this population. Conclusions Blood lipid levels in this young adult Turkish population did not predict LDH, and may not be a leading cause of IVD ischemia and IVD degeneration. PMID:28905044

  7. Is there a relationship between blood lipids and lumbar disc herniation in young Turkish adults?

    PubMed

    Keser, Nese; Celikoglu, Erhan; İs, Merih; İlgezdi, Zeynep Demet; Sunar, Bendigar; Aydin, Yusuf Sinan; Kevenk, Ahmet Ugur; Gurer, Bora; Ramazanoglu, Ali Fatih; Keser, Nurgul

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis might diminish the nutrient supply to intervertebral discs (IVD), leading to disc herniation. Therefore, there is interest in determining the possible association between the blood lipid profile and lumbar disc herniation (LDH). We aimed to evaluate the association between blood lipids and LDH in a homogeneous group of patients, controlling for age- and sex-specific effects. This is a case-control study which consisted of 100 individuals (mean age: 41.25 ±9.09; 50 men and 50 women), classified into two groups, as follows. Group I (G-I) consisted of 50 patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic LDH, while group II (G-II) consisted of 50 patients with nonspecific complaints of a headache, but with no previous history of back and/or leg pain, recruited among patients admitted to the outpatient clinic at the time of the study, and whose age and sex were matched to the study group. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A 1c levels were measured. The TC/HDL-C ratio was calculated. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, and the history of smoking were included in the analysis. The mean values of the TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C levels and TC/HDL-C ratio were 198.38, 132.76, 131.9, 40.38 mg/dl and 5.09, respectively. No statistically significant relationship between the blood lipid profile and LDH was identified in this population. Blood lipid levels in this young adult Turkish population did not predict LDH, and may not be a leading cause of IVD ischemia and IVD degeneration.

  8. Improved participation for blood lead screening with in-home phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Kathryn C; Miranda, Veronica; Galaviz, Vanessa E

    2008-07-01

    Both nationally and within the State of California, it is unlikely that those children most susceptible to lead exposure are adequately screened for blood lead levels. New and creative approaches are necessary to reach these individuals. In-home phlebotomy was employed to test blood lead levels of 128 San Diego households containing Latino children aged 12-71 months. As part of a lead exposure study, these households were randomly selected from 12 census tracts in the downtown area during February-July, 2006. By employing a bicultural/bilingual phlebotomist, the participation rate for in-home phlebotomy was 89% among enrolled study participants. This rate is substantially higher than estimates for customary testing of similar underserved groups through physicians, has the advantage of reaching individuals without medical insurance, and contrasts favorably ($45 per individual test) with typical office visit costs. Culturally appropriate in-home phlebotomy may be a useful method for medical screening to meet the needs of underserved communities. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide an excellent example of the importance of bringing prevention services to clients, literally in terms of the home visitation format but also with respect to the comfort level that may come from interacting with a bicultural and bilingual professional.

  9. Trend of childhood blood lead levels in cities of China in recent 10 years.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Shuaiming; Tan, Zangwen; Dai, Yaohua

    2017-02-01

    The adverse effects of lead on human especially childhood have been well established. Largely due to the phase out of lead in gasoline, blood lead levels (BLLs) had declined substantially all over the world including China. In 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013, we conducted a continuous project including 47,346 children aged 0-6 years old from 11 cities all over China to show how the decline happened and to explore what to do next to improve the BLLs of children of China. Our data shown the BLLs of Chinese children decreased from 46.38, 43.58, 38.95 to 37.17 μg/L, but the decline was not enough. These decline was mainly because of the number decrease of children with high BLLs. Integrated strategy should be used to promote the BLLs of Chinese children, like striving to improve the environment, setting new cutoff for high BLLs, and establishing routine blood lead screening.

  10. Blood Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aliomrani, Mehdi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Since industrial revolution heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been extensively dispersed in environment which, unknown biological effects and prolong biological half-life make them as a major hazard to human health. In addition, the sharp increase in Multiple sclerosis incidence rateshas been recorded in Iran. The propose of this study was to measuring blood lead and cadmium concentration and their correlation with smoking habit in a group of 69 RRMS patients and 74 age/gender-matched healthy individuals resident in Tehran as most polluted city in Iran. All subjects were interviewed regarding age, medical history, possible chemical exposure, acute or chronic diseases, smoking and dietary habits. Blood Pb and Cd levels were measured by double beam GBC plus 932 atomic absorption spectrometer. Our result indicated a significant difference in Cd level (p = 0.006) in which, MS patients had higher blood concentration (1.82 ± 0.13 μg/L) in comparison with healthy individuals (1.47 ± 0.11 μg/L). A comparable blood Cd level to similar recent study (1.78 µg/L vs.1.82 µg/L) was observed. With respect to Pb there was no significant difference between cases and controls, however the geometric means of blood Pb concentration were considerably higher in males than in females in MS patients (57.1 ± 33.7 μg/L vs. 36.7 ± 21.9 μg/L. P = 0.02). Taking into consideration tobacco smoking, an elevated contents of each metal were observed in smoker subjects (p<0.0001). A significant correlation between cigarette smoking and risk of multiple sclerosis was shown before. Thus, high level of Cd in smokers might affect the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and could increase the risk of disease development. PMID:28243279

  11. Blood Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Iran.

    PubMed

    Aliomrani, Mehdi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Since industrial revolution heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been extensively dispersed in environment which, unknown biological effects and prolong biological half-life make them as a major hazard to human health. In addition, the sharp increase in Multiple sclerosis incidence rateshas been recorded in Iran. The propose of this study was to measuring blood lead and cadmium concentration and their correlation with smoking habit in a group of 69 RRMS patients and 74 age/gender-matched healthy individuals resident in Tehran as most polluted city in Iran. All subjects were interviewed regarding age, medical history, possible chemical exposure, acute or chronic diseases, smoking and dietary habits. Blood Pb and Cd levels were measured by double beam GBC plus 932 atomic absorption spectrometer. Our result indicated a significant difference in Cd level (p = 0.006) in which, MS patients had higher blood concentration (1.82 ± 0.13 μg/L) in comparison with healthy individuals (1.47 ± 0.11 μg/L). A comparable blood Cd level to similar recent study (1.78 µg/L vs.1.82 µg/L) was observed. With respect to Pb there was no significant difference between cases and controls, however the geometric means of blood Pb concentration were considerably higher in males than in females in MS patients (57.1 ± 33.7 μg/L vs . 36.7 ± 21.9 μg/L. P = 0.02). Taking into consideration tobacco smoking, an elevated contents of each metal were observed in smoker subjects (p<0.0001). A significant correlation between cigarette smoking and risk of multiple sclerosis was shown before. Thus, high level of Cd in smokers might affect the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and could increase the risk of disease development.

  12. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  13. Implications of the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention blood lead reference value.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mackenzie S; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535,000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels.

  14. An unexplained case of elevated blood lead in a Hispanic child.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Larry K; Cherry, Debra C; Brady, Charles F; Huggins, Barbara; D'Sa, Anita M; Levin, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    A 6-month-old child presented to a local pediatrician with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) of 41 microg/dL. The child was treated as an outpatient for chelation therapy by a toxicologist. Subsequent BLLs obtained at 8 and 13 months of age were 40 microg/dL and 42 microg/dL, respectively. Siblings and family members had BLLs < 5 microg/dL except for the mother, who had a BLL of 14 microg/dL when the child was 6 months of age. Home inspections and phone calls to the family revealed no sources of lead from paint, dust, toys, mini-blinds, keys, food, water, or any take-home exposure. The family denied use of folk remedies such as Greta and Azarcon. The child was breast-fed, but the mother's BLL was not sufficiently high to explain the elevated BLL in the child. Housekeeping was excellent. The mother did admit to cooking beans in Mexican pottery (pieces found outside were positive for lead), but she discontinued use after the initial lead check at 6 months. The bean pot was not a likely source, as none of the family had elevated BLLs including a 5-year-old sister. Follow-up testing of blood lead when the child was 15 months of age revealed values of 28 microg/dL for the child and 9 microg/dL for the mother. Subsequent testing of the child shows a slow decline. The slow release of lead suggests depletion of bone stores acquired during pregnancy, possibly due to pica behavior of the mother during pregnancy. PMID:14754577

  15. An unexplained case of elevated blood lead in a Hispanic child.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Larry K; Cherry, Debra C; Brady, Charles F; Huggins, Barbara; D'Sa, Anita M; Levin, Jeffrey L

    2004-02-01

    A 6-month-old child presented to a local pediatrician with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) of 41 microg/dL. The child was treated as an outpatient for chelation therapy by a toxicologist. Subsequent BLLs obtained at 8 and 13 months of age were 40 microg/dL and 42 microg/dL, respectively. Siblings and family members had BLLs < 5 microg/dL except for the mother, who had a BLL of 14 microg/dL when the child was 6 months of age. Home inspections and phone calls to the family revealed no sources of lead from paint, dust, toys, mini-blinds, keys, food, water, or any take-home exposure. The family denied use of folk remedies such as Greta and Azarcon. The child was breast-fed, but the mother's BLL was not sufficiently high to explain the elevated BLL in the child. Housekeeping was excellent. The mother did admit to cooking beans in Mexican pottery (pieces found outside were positive for lead), but she discontinued use after the initial lead check at 6 months. The bean pot was not a likely source, as none of the family had elevated BLLs including a 5-year-old sister. Follow-up testing of blood lead when the child was 15 months of age revealed values of 28 microg/dL for the child and 9 microg/dL for the mother. Subsequent testing of the child shows a slow decline. The slow release of lead suggests depletion of bone stores acquired during pregnancy, possibly due to pica behavior of the mother during pregnancy.

  16. Blood Lead Levels and Decreased Kidney Function in a Population-Based Cohort.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Sallsten, Gerd; Christensson, Anders; Petkovic, Marinka; Hedblad, Bo; Forsgard, Niklas; Melander, Olle; Nilsson, Peter M; Borné, Yan; Engström, Gunnar; Barregard, Lars

    2018-04-23

    Environmental lead exposure has been associated with decreased kidney function, but evidence from large prospective cohort studies examining low exposure levels is scarce. We assessed the association of low levels of lead exposure with kidney function and kidney disease. Prospective population-based cohort. 4,341 individuals aged 46 to 67 years enrolled into the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study-Cardiovascular Cohort (1991-1994) and 2,567 individuals subsequently followed up (2007-2012). Blood lead concentrations in quartiles (Q1-Q4) at baseline. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the baseline and follow-up visit based on serum creatinine level alone or in combination with cystatin C level. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence (185 cases) through 2013 detected using a national registry. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to assess associations between lead levels and eGFRs at baseline and follow-up and change in eGFRs over time. Cox regression was used to examine associations between lead levels and CKD incidence. Validation of 100 randomly selected CKD cases showed very good agreement between registry data and medical records and laboratory data. At baseline, 60% of study participants were women, mean age was 57 years, and median lead level was 25 (range, 1.5-258) μg/L. After a mean of 16 years of follow-up, eGFR decreased on average by 6mL/min/1.73m 2 (based on creatinine) and 24mL/min/1.73m 2 (based on a combined creatinine and cystatin C equation). eGFR change was higher in Q3 and Q4 of blood lead levels compared with Q1 (P for trend = 0.001). The HR for incident CKD in Q4 was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.07-2.08) compared with Q1 to Q3 combined. Lead level measured only at baseline, moderate number of CKD cases, potential unmeasured confounding. Low-level lead exposure was associated with decreased kidney function and incident CKD. Our findings suggest lead nephrotoxicity even at low levels of exposure. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  17. The risks of blood transfusions and the shortage of supply leads to the quest for blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nouwairi, Nicole-Soraya

    2004-10-01

    A number of factors have combined to drive the interest in developing blood substitutes. These include the time-dependent decrement in stored blood biochemistry, the general shortage of the blood supply, and public awareness of the risks associated with allogeneic transfusions. Current literature on different blood substitutes was reviewed. The aim of this article is to help the reader understand the necessity of blood substitutes and to briefly describe blood substitutes that are in clinical trials. The need for oxygen-carrying blood substitutes is the driving force in multiple clinical trials. More research is needed to develop alteratives to allogeneic blood transfusion that are free of complications.

  18. Blood lead levels and δ-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 μg/dl, range 0.49-25.61 μg/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the rest of the population (GM = 1.66 μg/dl, range = Non detected-18.37 μg/dl). Because δ-ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited δ-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 μg/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and δ-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  20. Comparative assessment of blood lead levels of automobile technicians in organised and roadside garages in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment.

  1. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the impact of blood lead level on humoral immunity in humans.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Mohammad

    2002-02-01

    The objective was to study the impact of blood lead level (BLL) on serum immunoglobulin levels (SIL; IgG, IgM, IgA) in people with high-risk professions. It has been characterized that BLL > or = 25 microg/dL can cause dysfunctions in different organ systems of the body, such as the immune system. A cross-sectional study was carried out in relation to this, by using a pretested questionnaire to collect data on demographic factors and socioeconomic status, which was completed by subjects studied, such as car battery shop workers, car painters and welders of car radiators and exhausts, printing office workers (typesetters and nontypesetters) who were aged between 15 and 70 years. Venous blood was sampled to measure the BLL (by atomic absorption spectroscopy) and SIL (by SRID). The results, when analysed, suggested a reduction in SIL with emphasis on IgG in comparison with standard levels.

  3. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  4. Comparison of two methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare(R) II system.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Gaskill, Cynthia; Erb, Hollis N; Ebel, Joseph G; Hillebrandt, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The current study compared the LeadCare(R) II test kit system with graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for blood lead (Pb) analysis in 56 cattle accidentally exposed to Pb in the field. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by LeadCare II within 4 hr of collection and after 72 hr of refrigeration. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and samples that were coagulated (n = 12) were homogenized before analysis. There was strong rank correlation (R(2) = 0.96) between atomic absorption and LeadCare II (within 4 hr of collection), and a conversion formula was determined for values within the observed range (3-91 mcg/dl, although few had values >40 mcg/dl). Median and mean blood pb concentrations for atomic absorption were 7.7 and 15.9 mcg/dl, respectively; for LeadCare II, medians were 5.2 mcg/dl at 4 hr and 4.9 mcg/dl at 72 hr, and means were 12.4 and 11.7, respectively. LeadCare II results at 4 hr strongly correlated with 72 hr results (R(2) = 0.96), but results at 72 hr were lower (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between coagulated and uncoagulated samples run by atomic absorption. Although there have been several articles that compared LeadCare with other analytical techniques, all were for the original system, not LeadCare II. The present study indicated that LeadCare II results correlated well with atomic absorption over a wide range of blood Pb concentrations and that refrigerating samples for up to 72 hr before LeadCare II analysis was acceptable for clinical purposes.

  5. Blood lead levels in children aged between 1 and 6 years old in La Plata, Argentina. Identification of risk factors for lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Hernández, Karina; Sala, Marisa; Girardelli, Ana; Fasano, Victoria; Disalvo, Liliana

    2016-12-01

    Lead has neurotoxic effects in children, even at a very low level in blood. The risk factors (RFs) for lead exposure have not been adequately identified in La Plata. The objectives of this study were to determine mean blood lead levels and identify RFs in children aged 1 to 6 years old living in La Plata and the outskirts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children who attended primary health care centers for a health check-up. Blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and a socioenvironmental survey was administered to outline RFs. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare measurements. A multivariate statistical analysis was done to establish the most relevant RFs. A total of 319 children participated (51% were boys); the median (interquartile range) blood lead level was 2.2 pg/dL (1.1-3.6 pg/dL). Significant mean differences in blood lead levels were observed for age≤ 3years old, anemia, pica behavior, overcrowding, dirt floors, and maternal education < 7 years. Age≤ 3years old and pica behavior were both RFs with significant odds ratios (ORs). The OR as adjusted by logistic regression was significant only for age≤ 3years old. The median blood lead level in the studied population was 2.2 pg/dL. The main RFs identified for lead exposure were age≤ 3years old and pica behavior. Other less relevant RFs included anemia, maternal education < 7 years, overcrowding, and dirt floors. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  6. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATSDR Board of Scientific Counselors Lead in the environment: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Federal partner agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data, ...

  7. Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Sug; Gu, Qiuping; Nwankwo, Tatiana; Wright, Jacqueline D; Hong, Yuling; Burt, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension; mean blood pressure; and the classification of blood pressure among US adults 2003 to 2012. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012, a total of 9255 adult participants aged ≥18 years were identified as having hypertension, defined as measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or taking prescription medication for hypertension. Awareness and treatment among hypertensive adults were ascertained via an interviewer administered questionnaire. Controlled hypertension among hypertensive adults was defined as systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Blood pressure was categorized as optimal blood pressure, prehypertension, and stage I and stage II hypertension. Between 2003 and 2012, the percentage of adults with controlled hypertension increased (P-trend <0.01). Hypertensive adults with optimal blood pressure and with prehypertension increased from 13% to 19% and 27% to 33%, respectively (P-trend <0.01 for both groups). Among hypertensive adults who were taking antihypertensive medication, uncontrolled hypertension decreased from 38% to 30% (P-trend <0.01). Similarly, a decrease in mean systolic blood pressure was observed (P-trend <0.01); however, mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged. The trend in the control of blood pressure has improved among hypertensive adults resulting in a higher percentage with blood pressure at the optimal or prehypertension level and a lower percentage in stage I and stage II hypertension. Overall, mean systolic blood pressure decreased as did the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among the treated hypertensive population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Interrupted time series analysis of children’s blood lead levels: A case study of lead hazard control program in Syracuse, New York

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Liyang; Zhang, Lianjun; Zhen, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Children’s blood lead concentrations have been closely monitored over the last two decades in the United States. The bio-monitoring surveillance data collected in local agencies reflected the local temporal trends of children’s blood lead levels (BLLs). However, the analysis and modeling of the long-term time series of BLLs have rarely been reported. We attempted to quantify the long-term trends of children’s BLLs in the city of Syracuse, New York and evaluate the impacts of local lead poisoning prevention programs and Lead Hazard Control Program on reducing the children’s BLLs. We applied interrupted time series analysis on the monthly time series of BLLs surveillance data and used ARMA (autoregressive and moving average) models to measure the average children’s blood lead level shift and detect the seasonal pattern change. Our results showed that there were three intervention stages over the past 20 years to reduce children’s BLLs in the city of Syracuse, NY. The average of children’s BLLs was significantly decreased after the interventions, declining from 8.77μg/dL to 3.94μg/dL during1992 to 2011. The seasonal variation diminished over the past decade, but more short term influences were in the variation. The lead hazard control treatment intervention proved effective in reducing the children’s blood lead levels in Syracuse, NY. Also, the reduction of the seasonal variation of children’s BLLs reflected the impacts of the local lead-based paint mitigation program. The replacement of window and door was the major cost of lead house abatement. However, soil lead was not considered a major source of lead hazard in our analysis. PMID:28182688

  9. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-10-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status.

  10. Four phases of the Flint Water Crisis: Evidence from blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; McElmurry, Shawn P; Sadler, Richard C

    2017-08-01

    The Flint Water Crisis (FWC) is divisible into four phases of child water-lead exposure risk: Phase A) before the switch in water source to the Flint River (our baseline); Phase B) after the switch in water source, but before boil water advisories; Phase C) after boil water advisories, but before the switch back to the baseline water source of the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD); and Phase D) after the switch back to DWSD. The objective of this work is to estimate water-lead attributable movements in child blood lead levels (BLLs) that correspond with the four phases in the FWC. With over 21,000 geo-referenced and time-stamped blood lead samples from children in Genesee County drawn from January 01, 2013 to July 19, 2016, we develop a series of quasi-experimental models to identify the causal effect of water-lead exposure on child BLLs in Flint. We find that the switch in water source (transitioning from phase A to B) caused mean BLLs to increase by about 0.5μg/dL, and increased the likelihood of a child presenting with a BLL ≥ 5μg/dL by a factor of 1.91-3.50, implying an additional 561 children exceeding 5μg/dL. We conservatively estimate cohort social costs (through lost earnings alone) of this increase in water-lead exposed children at $65 million, contrasted with expected annual savings of $2 million from switching water source. On the switch from Phase B to C, we find BLLs decreased about 50% from their initial rise following boil water advisories and subsequent water avoidance behaviors by households. Finally, the return to the baseline source water (Phase D) returned child BLLs to pre-FWC levels further implicating water-lead exposure as a causal source of child BLLs throughout the FWC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  12. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  13. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-03

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  14. What are the blood lead levels of children living in Latin America and the Caribbean?

    PubMed

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Gonçalves, Cláudia Gaudência; Salles, Fernanda Junqueira; Ferreira, Ana Paula Sacone da Silva; Soares, Agnes Silva; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques

    2017-04-01

    Information on the prevalence of lead exposure is essential to formulate efficient public health policies. Developed countries have implemented successful public policies for the prevention and control of lead poisoning. In the United States, Canada, Japan and the European Union, for instance, periodically repeated prevalence studies show that blood lead levels (BLLs) in children have decreased overall. Although BLL of Latino children in the U.S. have also dropped in recent years, the geometric mean remains higher than that of white children. Little is known about lead exposure in children in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this review, we responded to two questions: What is currently known about lead sources and levels in children in LAC? Are there public policies to prevent children's exposure to lead in LAC? We conducted a literature review covering the period from January 2000 to March 2014 in the PubMed and Lilacs databases to obtain English, Portuguese and Spanish language studies reporting the prevalence of BLLs in children aged 0-18years living in LAC countries. No specific analytical method was selected, and given the scarcity of data, the study was highly inclusive. Fifty-six papers were selected from 16 different LAC countries. The children's BLLs found in this review are high (≥10μg/dL) compared to BLLs for the same age group in the U. S. However, most studies reported an association with some type of "lead hot spot", in which children can be exposed to lead levels similar to those of occupational settings. Only Peru and Mexico reported BLLs in children from population-based studies. Most BLLs prevalence studies carried out in LAC were in areas with known emission sources. The percentage of children at risk of lead poisoning in LAC is unknown, and probably underestimated. Thus, there is an urgent need to establish public health policies to quantify and prevent lead poisoning, specifically by prioritizing the identification and control of

  15. Anger expression, age, and blood pressure in modernizing Samoan adults.

    PubMed

    Steele, M S; McGarvey, S T

    1997-01-01

    Relationships among anger expression, age, and blood pressure (BP) were studied in a cross-sectional sample of 593 American and Western Samoan adult men and women, 25 to 55 years of age. Prior studies indicated that anger coping is an important psychosocial domain in modernizing Samoans. Anger expression was assessed using a modified 24-item version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory composed of anger-in, anger-out, and anger-control, along with 4 Samoan culture-specific anger items. Age and sex stratified analyses were performed. Body-mass adjusted BP was regressed on the anger expression subscales and age. In women < or = 40 years of age, anger-out was significantly (p < 0.01) and negatively related to adjusted diastolic BP. Young women from American and Western Samoa who outwardly expressed anger least frequently had higher adjusted diastolic BP. The significant influence of anger expression on BP in young modernizing Samoan women may be because: a) increased stress from the interaction of traditional gender role-related domestic demands and more opportunities for individual socioeconomic activities; and b) the culturally normative pattern of suppressed emotional expression.

  16. Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yoon-Hwan; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Chul Gab; Kang, Dongmug; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children’s brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. Methods A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. Results The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. Conclusions The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out. PMID:23555766

  17. Associations of Bone Mineral Density and Lead Levels in Blood, Tibia, and Patella in Urban-Dwelling Women

    PubMed Central

    Theppeang, Keson; Glass, Thomas A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Todd, Andrew C.; Rohde, Charles A.; Links, Jonathan M.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between bone mineral density (BMD) and lead in blood, tibia, and patella and to investigate how BMD modifies these lead biomarkers in older women. Design In this study, we used cross-sectional analysis. Participants We studied 112 women, 50–70 years of age, including both whites and African Americans, residing in Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements We measured lumbar spine BMD, blood and bone lead by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, anodic stripping voltammetry, and 109Cd-induced K-shell X-ray fluorescence, respectively. We measured vitamin D receptor and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes using standard methods. Results Mean (± SD) BMD and lead levels in blood, tibia, and patella were 1.02 ± 0.16 g/cm2, 3.3 ± 2.2 μg/dL, 19.7 ± 13.2 μg/g, and 5.7 ± 15.3 μg/g, respectively. In adjusted analysis, higher BMD was associated with higher tibia lead levels (p = 0.03). BMD was not associated with lead levels in blood or patella. There was evidence of significant effect modification by BMD on relations of physical activity with blood lead levels and by APOE genotype on relations of BMD with tibia lead levels. There was no evidence that BMD modified relations between tibia lead or patella lead and blood lead levels. Conclusions We believe that BMD represents the capacity of bone that can store lead, by substitution for calcium, and thus the findings may have relevance for effect-size estimates in persons with higher BMD. Relevance to clinical practice The results have implications for changes in lead kinetics with aging, and thus the related risk of health effects associated with substantial early- and midlife lead exposure in older persons. PMID:18560535

  18. Blood and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children, adults, and pregnant women from china: partitioning between blood and urine and maternal and fetal cord blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-07

    Limited information exists on exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) by children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In the present study, we determined BPA concentrations in whole blood collected from 10 children (1-5 years), 40 women (30 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant), and 30 fetuses (i.e., cord blood). Further, to evaluate the relationship between urinary and blood BPA concentrations, paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 50 pairs) were collected from an adult population. BPA was found in 46% of all blood samples analyzed, with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 0.19 ng/mL. BPA was found in 84% of urine samples from adults, with a GM concentration of 1.01 ng/mL [0.48 μg/g creatinine (Cr)]. Gender and age were not good predictors of blood BPA concentrations. However, we did find that the creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentrations in females were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentrations found in males and that the blood BPA concentrations in children were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentrations found in adults. Among all adults, unadjusted urinary BPA concentrations (i.e., volume-based) were inversely (r = -0.312, p < 0.05) correlated with age when an outlier value (8.70 ng/mL) was excluded from analysis. Concentrations of BPA in urine (creatinine-adjusted) and blood were significantly correlated (r = 0.571, p < 0.01), with concentrations measured in urine approximately an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations found in blood. The mean and GM values for ratios of concentration of BPA between blood and urine were 0.109 and 0.057, respectively. The ratio of mean concentrations of BPA between cord blood and maternal blood was 0.108. On the basis of urinary BPA levels, we estimated the total daily intake (EDI) of BPA by Chinese adults. The mean (range) EDIs of BPA by adult males and females in China were 0.041 (<0.005-0.224) and 0.048 (<0.005-0.151) ug/kg bw/day, respectively. The pregnant women who underwent intravenous

  19. Late effects of low blood lead concentrations in children on school performance and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Skerfving, Staffan; Löfmark, Lina; Lundh, Thomas; Mikoczy, Zoli; Strömberg, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    Although it is known that lead is a neurotoxin that negatively impacts cognitive functions at low blood concentrations (B-Pb), little is known about the impact of early exposure on later cognitive functions. This study assesses the effects of very low lead exposure in early childhood on teenage cognitive performance. Using data collected between 1978 and 2007, we analyzed B-Pb (median 30 μg/L; six-fold decrease over time) in 3176 Swedish children (age 7-12). School performance in grade 9 (age 16; boys and girls) and over-all IQs measured during conscription examinations (age 18-19; mainly boys) were obtained from registers. In multivariate models, potential confounders (age at blood sampling, sex, parents' education, family economy, and country of birth of child and parents) and effect modifiers (socioeconomic; father's IQ at conscription examination) were included. There were statistically significant adjusted negative associations between school performance (Grades up to 1991: P<0.0001; Merits 1992-2007:P<0.0001) and IQ (P=0.03) and B-Pb. The dose-response relationships were non-linear. Effects were more pronounced for B-Pb≤50 μg/L than for higher levels. In the B-Pb range 5-50 μg/L, the average IQ loss corresponded to about 5 IU. There was no significant effect modification associated with socioeconomic factors. Lead causes neurotoxic effects at very low exposures (B-Pb<50 μg/L) in childhood and these effects remain for many years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Risk of Cataract Surgery in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiye; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a major cause of visual dysfunction and the leading cause of blindness. Elevated levels of cadmium and lead have been found in the lenses of cataract patients, suggesting these metals may play a role in cataract risk. This study aimed to examine the associations of blood lead, blood cadmium and urinary cadmium with cataract risk. We identified 9,763 individuals aged 50 years and older with blood lead and cadmium levels, and a randomly selected subgroup of 3,175 individuals with available urinary cadmium levels, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008 (mean age=63 years). Participants were considered to have cataract if they self-reported prior cataract surgery in NHANES’s vision examination. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using survey logistic regression models. We identified 1737 cataract surgery cases (the weighted prevalence=14.1%). With adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, cigarette smoking (serum cotinine and pack-years) and urine hydration, every 2-fold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 23% higher risk of cataract surgery (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.46, p =0.021). We found no associations of cataract surgery with blood cadmium (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.07) and blood lead (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.06). Mediation analysis showed that for the smoking-cadmium-cataract pathway, the ratio of smoking’s indirect effect to the total effect through cadmium was more than 50%. These results suggest that cumulative cadmium exposure may be an important under-recognized risk factor for cataract. However, these findings should be interpreted with a caution because of inconsistent results between urinary cadmium and blood cadmium. PMID:27460785

  1. Cadmium and lead exposure and risk of cataract surgery in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiye; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-11-01

    Cataract is a major cause of visual dysfunction and the leading cause of blindness. Elevated levels of cadmium and lead have been found in the lenses of cataract patients, suggesting these metals may play a role in cataract risk. This study aimed to examine the associations of blood lead, blood cadmium and urinary cadmium with cataract risk. We identified 9763 individuals aged 50 years and older with blood lead and cadmium levels, and a randomly selected subgroup of 3175 individuals with available urinary cadmium levels, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008 (mean age=63years). Participants were considered to have cataract if they self-reported prior cataract surgery in NHANES's vision examination. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using survey logistic regression models. We identified 1737 cataract surgery cases (the weighted prevalence=14.1%). With adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, cigarette smoking (serum cotinine and pack-years) and urine hydration, every 2-fold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 23% higher risk of cataract surgery (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.46, p=0.021). We found no associations of cataract surgery with blood cadmium (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.07) and blood lead (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.06). Mediation analysis showed that for the smoking-cadmium-cataract pathway, the ratio of smoking's indirect effect to the total effect through cadmium was more than 50%. These results suggest that cumulative cadmium exposure may be an important under-recognized risk factor for cataract. However, these findings should be interpreted with a caution because of inconsistent results between urinary cadmium and blood cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  3. Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-03-28

    Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in

  4. Maternal caffeine administration leads to adverse effects on adult mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Serapiao-Moraes, Diana F; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Faria, Tatiane S

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of caffeine chronic administration during gestation of C57BL/6 mice on cardiac remodeling and the expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in male offspring as adults. Pregnant C57BL/6 female mice were divided into two groups (n = 10): Control group (C), dams were injected with the vehicle only (saline 0.9% NaCl); Caffeine group (CF), dams received daily a subcutaneous injection of 20 mg/kg of caffeine/day (1 mg/mL saline). Pups had free access to standard chow since weaning to 3 months of age, when they were killed. CF group showed increased energy expenditure (+7%) with consequent reduction in body mass (BM) gain (-18%), increased blood pressure (+48%), and higher heart rate (+10%) than C group. The ratio between LV mass/BM was greater (+10%), with bigger cardiomyocytes (+40%), and reduced vascularization (-25%) in CF group than in C group. In the LV, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (+30%), Angiotensin II (AngII) (+60%), AngII receptor (ATR)-1 (+77%) were higher, and the expression of ATR-2 was lower (-46%; P < 0.05) in CF group than in C group. In the kidney, the expressions of renin (+128%) and ATR-1 (+88%) were higher in CF group than in C group. Chronic administration of caffeine to pregnant dams led to persistent activation of local RAS in the kidney and heart of the offspring, which, in turn, leads to high BP and adverse cardiac remodeling. These findings highlight the urge to encourage pregnant women to avoid food or medicines containing caffeine.

  5. Blood lead in pregnant women in the urban slums of Lucknow, India.

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, S; Awasthi, R; Pande, V K; Srivastav, R C; Frumkin, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentrations of blood lead (PbB) in pregnant women in the slums of Lucknow, north India. METHODS: Of the 203 designated municipal slums in Lucknow, 70 were randomly selected for study and a cohort of 500 pregnant women was enrolled. Each participant was interviewed with questions on possible sources of exposure to lead, surrogates of nutritional status were measured, and PbB was measured. RESULTS: The mean PbB was 14.3 micrograms/dl and 19.2% of women had PbB > or = 20 micrograms/dl. PbB was not associated with age, height, weight, gestation, or history of abortions, although higher PbB was associated with higher parity. Women living inner city neighbourhoods near heavy vehicular traffic had PbB 2.2 micrograms/dl higher (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.8 to 3.6) than those living in other neighbourhoods. The PbB was not associated with reported use of piped water or the presence of paint in homes, and increasing PbB was unexpectedly associated with decreasing use of eye cosmetic "surma" and the duration of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: The high PbB found in this population raises concern about fetal development and points to the urgent need to reduce exposure to lead. PMID:9004930

  6. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6-13 years of age. We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children's ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-sectional study of Mexican children. Environ Health Perspect 124

  7. Evaluation of lead and essential elements in whole blood during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Mao, X; Shi, J; Lu, Y; Liu, C

    2016-08-01

    Physiological concentrations of some elements fluctuate during pregnancy due to the increased requirements of growing fetus and changes in the maternal physiology. The aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution at different stages of pregnancy in healthy Chinese women and to show the association between trace elements and gestational age-specific reference intervals. A cross-sectional study was performed in 1089 pregnant women and 677 nonpregnant control women. Five element concentrations, including Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb in the blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to assess the relationship between weeks of gestation and blood element concentrations. The mean levels of Cu and Mg were 23.64 ± 4.69 μmol/L and 1.36 ± 0.12 mmol/L, respectively, in the control women. While 0.68 % of all pregnant women showed Cu levels below the normal ranges, the levels of Mg were comparable in different groups. Though the overall mean blood zinc and Ca concentrations (83.84 ± 17.50 μmol/L and 1.60 ± 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) increased gradually with the progress of gestation, the Zn and Ca deficiency levels (16.6 and 3.6 %, respectively) decreased with the advance of gestation. Compared with nonpregnant group, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb during the different stages of pregnancy, as a whole, were significantly different. Positive correlations were observed between weeks of gestation and blood Cu, Ca, Pb concentrations (r = 0.301, 0.221, 0.223; P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation blood Mg concentrations and weeks of gestation (r = -0.321; P < 0.05). A weak positive correlation was noted between Zn concentrations and weeks of gestation (r = 0.125; P < 0.05). The importance of Cu and Mg deficiency and supplementation is well realized, but, Zn/Ca deficiency and Pb exposure is still exist; the overall deficiency of pregnant women was not so optimistic. During pregnancy, the

  8. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Influence of Electromagnetic Fields on Lead Toxicity: A Study of Conformational Changes in Human Blood Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ansarihadipour, Hadi; Bayatiani, Mohamadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are associated with oxidative stress, which is in turn associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), anemia, and hypoxia. Objectives This study focused on the synergistic effects of lead ions and EMF on oxidative modifications in hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma proteins. Patients and Methods In this experimental study, the blood samples were obtained from age- and sex-matched healthy subjects at Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. The collected bloods were prepared as 55 samples and then divided into different groups for incubating with 0 to 100 uM of lead ions in 2 mT and 50 Hz of EMF for 120 minutes. The carbonyl group was determined to be an oxidative biomarker in plasma proteins. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was considered to be an antioxidant power of human plasma. The conformational changes in hemoglobin, met-Hb, and hemichrome were considered to be oxidative markers in red blood cells. To predict the factors affecting the oxyHb, the artificial neural network (MLP: 11,2,2,1) in SPSS software was applied. Results The test subjects showed increased concentrations of metHb (1.8 ± 0.19 vs. 1.36 ± 0.25) and hemichrome (6.01 ± 0.57) in relation to the control subjects. The decreased absorbance at 340 nm (0.88 ± 0.09 vs. 1.07 ± 0.08) demonstrated the reduced interaction between the globin chain and the heme ring. The decreased absorbance at 420 nm (Soret band) (2.96 ± 0.13) and the increased absorbance at 630 nm (0.07 ± 0.002 vs. 0.064 ± 0.005) indicated the conversion of oxyHb to metHb, which confirmed the oxidative damage to the erythrocytes. The linear regression analysis showed significant positive correlations between lead concentration and the percentage of plasma carbonyl content (R2 = 0.96), the relation of plasma carbonyl content to Hb absorbance at 630 nm (R2 = 0.97), and the relation of plasma carbonyl content to metHb concentration (R2 = 0.95) after 120 minutes incubation with lead

  10. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  11. Low Blood Lead Levels Associated with Clinically Diagnosed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mediated by Weak Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.; Knottnerus, G. Mark; Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Cavanagh, Kevin; Karmaus, Wilfried; Rappley, Marsha D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low-level lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children, and studies of large populations have suggested that these conditions are related. We examine this relationship in children from a community sample exposed to average background levels of lead who have a diagnosis of ADHD that is established by clinical criteria. Methods One hundred fifty children ages 8–17 years participated (mean age = 14 years; 53 control subjects, 47 ADHD Predominantly Inattentive type, 50 ADHD-Combined type). Diagnosis was formally established with a semi-structured clinical interview and parent and teacher ratings. Children completed intelligence quotient (IQ) measures and the stop task (a neuropsychological measure). Lead was assayed from whole blood with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Blood lead levels in this sample closely matched US population exposure averages, with a maximum level of 3.4 μg/dL. Blood lead levels were statistically significantly higher in ADHD-combined type than in non-ADHD control (p < .05) children. Blood lead was associated with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity but not inattention-disorganization, after control of covariates. Blood lead levels were linked with a lower IQ (p < .05), but IQ did not account for effects on hyperactivity. Instead, hyperactivity mediated effects of lead on IQ. Effects of blood lead on hyperactivity-impulsivity were mediated by poor performance on the stop task. This mediation effect was independent of effects of lead on IQ. Conclusions Low-level lead exposure might be an important contributor to ADHD. Its effects seem to be mediated by less effective cognitive control, consistent with a route of influence via striatal-frontal neural circuits. PMID:17868654

  12. Relationships between serial childhood adiposity measures and adult blood pressure: The Fels longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Roy Travis; Lu, Zheng; Daniels, Stephen; Sun, Shumei S

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that causes of adult hypertension arise in childhood, and obesity may be a potential cause or at least a mitigating factor in this development. Body mass index is a well studied obesity metric, yet other potential adiposity measures such as percent body fat and waist circumference have been somewhat less considered. The purpose of this study is to determine associations between these alternative serial childhood adiposity measures and adulthood blood pressure. Measurements from participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study were used to summarize childhood adiposity, represented by childhood measurements of percent body fat and height-adjusted waist circumference. These subjects also provided systolic and diastolic blood pressure as adults. Childhood adiposity levels were categorized as high or low as compared to the respective upper quartile, and associations with adult blood pressure were measured using Poisson regression to estimate the number of expected occurrences of elevated adiposity during childhood. Adult lifestyle covariates and adiposity were accounted for using multiple linear regression. Summary indices of the childhood adiposity measures were significantly associated with both adult blood pressure metrics in men and women, though some of these associations were altered or reduced in the presence of adult lifestyle characteristics and adult adiposity measures. Childhood measures of percent body fat and height-adjusted waist circumference have an effect on adult blood pressure, though the effect can be mitigated by adult lifestyles. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Blood thioredoxin reductase activity, oxidative stress and hematological parameters in painters and battery workers: relationship with lead and cadmium levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Conterato, Greicy M M; Bulcão, Rachel P; Sobieski, Rocheli; Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele F; de Freitas, Fernando A; de Almeida, Fernanda L; Moreira, Ana P L; Roehrs, Miguel; Tonello, Raquel; Batista, Bruno L; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa, Fernando; Garcia, Solange C; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in lead and cadmium toxicity. We recently showed that the activity of the antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is increased in the kidneys of lead-exposed rats. The present study evaluated the blood cadmium and blood lead levels (BLLs) and their relationship with hematological and oxidative stress parameters, including blood TrxR activity in 50 painters, 23 battery workers and 36 control subjects. Erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity and its reactivation index were measured as biomarkers of lead effects. BLLs increased in painters, but were even higher in the battery workers group. In turn, blood cadmium levels increased only in the painters group, whose levels were higher than the recommended limit. δ-ALA-D activity was inhibited only in battery workers, whereas the δ-ALA-D reactivation index increased in both exposed groups; both parameters were correlated to BLLs (r = -0.59 and 0.84, P < 0.05), whereas the reactivation index was also correlated to blood cadmium levels (r = 0.27, P < 0.05). The changes in oxidative stress and hematological parameters were distinctively associated with either BLLs or blood cadmium levels, except glutathione-S-transferase activity, which was correlated with both lead (r = 0.34) and cadmium (r = 0.47; P < 0.05). However, TrxR activity did not correlate with any of the metals evaluated. In conclusion, blood TrxR activity does not seem to be a good parameter to evaluate oxidative stress in lead- and cadmium-exposed populations. However, lead-associated changes in biochemical and hematological parameters at low BLLs underlie the necessity of re-evaluating the recommended health-based limits in occupational exposure to this metal. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Declining Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin levels in Ecuadorian Andean Children

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Coronel Parra, Angelica M.; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.; Rifai, Nader; Hoover, Patricia Nolan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate current lead (Pb) exposure in children living in Andean Ecuadorian communities. Blood Pb (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were used respectively as biomarkers of acute and chronic Pb poisoning. The current PbB-ZPP levels were compared with previous pediatric PbB-ZPP levels recorded over years in the study area. Design and Methods Samples of whole blood were collected from 22 Andean children of Quechua and Mestizo backgrounds and measured for PbB concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. ZPP/heme ratio and ZPP whole blood (ZPP WB) levels were measured with a hematofluorometer. Results The mean PbB level for children in the current study group was 14.5 μg/dL, which was significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 41.1 μg/dL found in the same study area in the 1996–2000 test period, and lower than the 22.2 μg/dL mean level found in the 2003–2007 period. The current mean ZPP/heme ratio was 102.1 μmol/mol, and the mean ZPP WB level was 46.3 μg/dL, both lower than values previously found in children in the study area. Conclusion While the current pediatric PbB-ZPP levels in the study area remain elevated in some children, the overall levels indicate a decline relative to levels observed in the same Pb-contaminated area in the period between 1996 and 2007. The elevated ZPP levels suggest a history of chronic Pb exposure, and potential iron deficiency in some children. The overall reduction in PbB-ZPP levels suggests a positive outcome of a Pb-exposure education and prevention program, and the therapeutic intervention of succimer chelation therapy. PMID:23684775

  15. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  16. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J.; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women has not apparently been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n=259) were followed for up to two menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/l, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/l, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73m2). Each 2-fold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each 2-fold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A 2-fold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  17. Upregulation of zinc transporter 2 in the blood-CSF barrier following lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xue; Zeng, Andrew; Zheng, Wei; Du, Yansheng

    2014-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for normal brain function; an abnormal Zn homeostasis in brain and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been implied in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms that regulate Zn transport in the blood-brain interface remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate Zn transport by the blood-CSF barrier (BCB) in the choroid plexus, with a particular focus on Zn transporter-2 (ZnT2), and to understand if lead (Pb) accumulation in the choroid plexus disturbed the Zn regulatory function in the BCB. Confocal microscopy, quantitative PCR and western blot demonstrated the presence of ZnT2 in the choroidal epithelia; ZnT2 was primarily in cytosol in freshly isolated plexus tissues but more toward the peripheral membrane in established choroidal Z310 cells. Exposure of rats to Pb (single ip injection of 50 mg Pb acetate/kg) for 24 h increased ZnT2 fluorescent signals in plexus tissues by confocal imaging and protein expression by western blot. Similar results were obtained by in vitro experiments using Z310 cells. Further studies using cultured cells and a two-chamber Transwell device showed that Pb treatment significantly reduced the cellular Zn concentration and led to an increased transport of Zn across the BCB, the effect that may be due to the increased ZnT2 by Pb exposure. Taken together, these results indicate that ZnT2 is present in the BCB; Pb exposure increases the ZnT2 expression in choroidal epithelial cells by a yet unknown mechanism and as a result, more Zn ions may be deposited into the intracellular Zn pool, leading to a relative Zn deficiency state in the cytoplasm at the BCB.

  18. Investigation of blood lead concentrations in dogs living in Flint, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Daniel K; Kaneene, John B; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Daniels, Barbara L; Mejia-Abreu, Hilda; Frank, Nancy A; Buchweitz, John P

    2017-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To measure blood lead concentrations (BLCs) in dogs living in Flint, Mich, following a declared water crisis and to assess potential associations of BLCs with demographic data, water sources, and clinical signs in these dogs. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 284 dogs residing in Flint, Mich (test population), and 47 dogs residing in East Lansing, Mich (control population), and immediately adjacent areas. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected at free screening clinics in Flint (test population) and at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Medical Center (control population). Owners of test population dogs completed questionnaires providing demographic and clinical information. Hematologic evaluations were performed; BLCs were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS 4 of 284 test population dogs had BLCs > 50 ppb; an additional 20 had BLCs > 20 ppb. Overall, BLCs of test population dogs were higher than those of control dogs. Within the test population, young dogs (≤ 2 years of age) had higher BLCs than old dogs (≥ 6 years of age). Only 7.2% of test population dogs were drinking unfiltered tap water at the time of screening; however, dogs that had been receiving filtered or bottled water for ≤ 3 months before screening had higher BLCs than did those that received such water for > 3 months. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Taken together, findings suggested that the impact of the Flint water crisis extended to companion animals. Results highlighted the importance of maintaining awareness of lead exposure and considering both human and animal well-being in cases of environmental toxicant exposures.

  19. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Children with Blood Lead Levels ≥45 μg/dL.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brett; Faciano, Andrew; Tsega, Adey; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To identify risk factors and describe outcomes for children newly identified with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥45 µg/dL in New York City (NYC) during 2004-2010 to promote timely identification as well as inform clinical practice and public health policy. Inclusion criteria were residence in NYC and an elevated confirmatory venous test within 2 weeks of the initial BLL ≥45 µg/dL. Data collected during case coordination of these children were linked with blood testing data and home inspection reports. Children with BLLs ≥45 µg/dL also were compared with the general population of children younger than 18 years of age in NYC. A total of 145 children <18 years of age were newly identified with BLLs ≥45 µg/dL. The mean age was 3.83 years, and the median time for BLL to decline below 10 µg/dL was 3.26 years. Major reported risk factors were eating paint (36%), spending time outside the US (34%), having a developmental delay (27%), using imported products (26%), being foreign born (14%), being of Pakistani descent (12%), eating soil (5%), and having sickle cell disease (4%). Compared with the age-standardized NYC population, cases were more likely to be Asian or black and live in housing built before 1940. Although the incidence of lead poisoning has declined in the US, severe cases still occur. Physicians should be especially vigilant in certain at-risk populations including children who eat paint chips or soil, spend time outside the US (particularly in Pakistan), use imported products, or have developmental delays or sickle cell disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Elevated blood lead levels and reading readiness at the start of kindergarten.

    PubMed

    McLaine, Pat; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lee, Rebecca; Simon, Peter; Diener-West, Marie; Agnew, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and reading readiness at kindergarten entry, an early marker of school performance, in a diverse urban school population. Kindergarten reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, Rhode Island, were linked to state health department records of blood lead testing by using individual identifiers. The study population (N = 3406) was 59% Hispanic. For each child, the geometric mean BLL was estimated by using all previously reported BLLs. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, year enrolled, race, child language, and free/reduced lunch status as a measure of socioeconomic status. The median geometric mean BLL was 4.2 µg/dL; 20% of children had at least 1 venous BLL ≥10 µg/dL. Compared with children with BLLs <5 µg/dL, the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for failing to achieve the national benchmark for reading readiness were 1.21 (1.19 to 1.23) and 1.56 (1.51 to 1.60) for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively. On average, reading readiness scores decreased by 4.5 (95% CI: -2.9 to -6.2) and 10.0 (95% CI: -7.0 to -13.3) points for children with BLLs of 5 to 9 and ≥10 µg/dL, respectively, compared with BLLs <5 µg/dL. BLLs well below 10 µg/dL were associated with lower reading readiness at kindergarten entry. The high prevalence of elevated BLLs warrants additional investigation in other high-risk US populations. Results suggest benefits from additional collaboration between public health, public education, and community data providers.

  1. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  2. The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed to be used by facilitators of the Canadian Career Development Foundation's "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." The guide provides information, including objectives of the workshops and lists of required materials, needed in order to facilitate an introductory session as well…

  3. Association of childhood blood-lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead

  4. Contamination of houses by workers occupationally exposed in a lead-zinc-copper mine and impact on blood lead concentrations in the families.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, M; Gulson, B L; MacDonald, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathway of leaded dust from a lead-zinc-copper mine to houses of employees, and the impact on blood lead concentrations (PbB) of children. METHODS: High precision lead isotope and lead concentration data were obtained on venous blood and environmental samples (vacuum cleaner dust, interior dustfall accumulation, water, paint) for eight children of six employees (and the employees) from a lead-zinc-copper mine. These data were compared with results for 11 children from occupationally unexposed control families living in the same city. RESULTS: The median (range) concentrations of lead in vacuum cleaner dust was 470 (21-1300) ppm. In the houses of the mine employees, vacuum cleaner dust contained varying higher proportions of mine lead than did airborne particulate matter measured as dustfall accumulated over a three month period. The median (range) concentrations of lead in soil were 30 (5-407) ppm and these showed no evidence of any mine lead. Lead in blood of the mine employees varied from 7 to 25 micrograms/dl and was generally dominated by mine lead (> 60%). The mean (SD) PbB in the children of the mine employees was 5.7 (1.7) micrograms/dl compared with 4.1 (1.4) micrograms/dl for the control children (P = 0.02). The PbB of all children was always < 10 micrograms/dl, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council goal for all Australians. Some of the control children had higher PbB than the children of mine employees, probably from exposure to leaded paint as six of the eight houses of the control children were > 50 years old. In five of the eight children of mine employees > 20% of PbB was from the lead mine. However, in the other three cases of children of mine employees, their PbB was from sources other than mine lead (paint, petrol, background sources). CONCLUSIONS: Houses of employees from a lead mine can be contaminated by mine lead even if they are not situated in the same place as the mine. Delineation of the mine

  5. A polymorphism in AGT and AGTR1 gene is associated with lead-related high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Hwayoung; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Kim, Hak-Jae

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association of polymorphisms in two renin-angiotensin system-related genes, expressed as angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), with blood lead levels and lead-related blood pressure in lead-exposed male workers in Korea. A cross-sectional study involving 808 lead-exposed male workers in Korea was conducted using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy to differentiate the various genotypes of polymorphisms in the AGT and AGTR1 genes. The association of clinical characteristics with genotypes as modifiers was estimated after adjustment for age, smoking status, drinking status, body mass index and job duration of each subject. Genotype and allele frequencies of the M235T polymorphism in AGT were associated with lead-related high blood pressure status. Moreover, blood lead levels were associated with allele frequencies of the AGT M235T polymorphism. These results suggested that the M/M genotype and M allele of AGT are risk factors for lead-related high blood pressure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Adult and cord blood endothelial progenitor cells have different gene expression profiles and immunogenic potential

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzolo, Eugenia R.; Capodimonti, Sara; Martini, Maurizio; Iachininoto, Maria G.; Bianchi, Maria; Cocomazzi, Alessandra; Zini, Gina; Leone, Giuseppe; Larocca, Luigi M.; Teofili, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) are endowed with vascular regenerative ability in vivo and in vitro. In this study we compared the genotypic profile and the immunogenic potential of adult and cord blood ECFC, in order to explore the feasibility of using them as a cell therapy product. Materials and methods ECFC were obtained from cord blood samples not suitable for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and from adult healthy blood donors after informed consent. Genotypes were analysed by commercially available microarray assays and results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. HLA antigen expression was evaluated by flow-cytometry. Immunogenic capacity was investigated by evaluating the activation of allogeneic lymphocytes and monocytes in co-cultures with ECFC. Results Microarray assays revealed that the genetic profile of cord blood and adult ECFC differed in about 20% of examined genes. We found that cord blood ECFC were characterised by lower pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic gene expression as compared to adult ECFC. Furthermore, whereas cord blood and adult ECFCs expressed similar amount of HLA molecules both at baseline and after incubation with γ-interferon, cord blood ECFC elicited a weaker expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Finally, we observed no differences in the amount of HLA antigens expressed among cord blood ECFC, adult ECFC and mesenchymal cells. Conclusions Our observations suggest that cord blood ECFC have a lower pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic profile than adult ECFC. These preliminary data offer level-headed evidence to use cord blood ECFC as a cell therapy product in vascular diseases. PMID:23867184

  7. Social and Built Environmental Correlates of Predicted Blood Lead Levels in the Flint Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard Casey; LaChance, Jenny; Hanna-Attisha, Mona

    2017-05-01

    To highlight contextual factors tied to increased blood lead level (BLL) risk following the lead-in-water contamination in Flint, Michigan. Using geocoded BLL data collected in 2013 and 2015 and areal interpolation, we predicted BLLs at every residential parcel in the city. We then spatially joined social and built environmental variables to link the parcels with neighborhood-level factors that may influence BLLs. When we compared levels before and during the water crisis, we saw the highest estimates of predicted BLLs during the water crisis and the greatest changes in BLLs in neighborhoods with the longest water residence time in pipes (μ = 2.30 µg/dL; Δ = 0.45 µg/dL), oldest house age (μ = 2.22 µg/dL; Δ = 0.37 µg/dL), and poorest average neighborhood housing condition (μ = 2.18 µg/dL; Δ = 0.44 µg/dL). Key social and built environmental variables correlate with BLL; such information can continue to guide response by prioritizing older, deteriorating neighborhoods with the longest water residence time in pipes.

  8. Vehicular traffic as a determinant of blood-lead levels in children: A pilot study in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Palazuelos, E.; Meneses, F.

    The major determinants of blood-lead levels were studied in 90 children who attended an outpatient pediatric clinic in Mexico City. All children, who were from 1-10 y of age, were from homes for which socioeconomic status had been categorized as medium to high. Blood-lead levels ranged from 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.008) to 1.21 (SD = 0.06 [mu]mol/l). The main determinant of blood-lead levels was place of residence. Children who lived on private streets (i.e., low-traffic areas) had a significantly lower blood-lead level than children who lived on large avenues and who resided close to main roads ([rho] =more » .0001, r[sup 2] = .27). This observation documented high exposure levels among children who live in Mexico City and suggested that leaded fuel used in Mexico could play an important role in determining blood-lead levels in this population. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  9. Blood Lead Levels and Dental Caries in U.S. Children Who Do Not Drink Tap Water.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anne E; Slade, Gary D

    2018-02-01

    This study's purpose is to determine whether nonconsumption of tap water is associated with lower prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher prevalence of dental caries in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014 recorded drinking water source (n=15,604) and blood lead levels (n=12,373) for participants aged 2-19 years, and dental caries experience for the 2011-2014 subset (n=5,677). The threshold for elevated blood lead level was ≥3 μg/dL. A binary outcome indicated presence or absence of dental caries experience. Multivariable generalized linear models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% confidence limits. In analysis conducted in 2017, 15% of children and adolescents did not drink tap water, 3% had elevated blood lead levels ≥3 μg/dL, and 50% had dental caries experience. Children and adolescents who did not drink water were less likely than tap water drinkers to have an elevated blood lead level (adjusted prevalence ratios=0.62, 95% confidence limits=0.42, 0.90). Nonconsumers of tap water were more likely to have dental caries (adjusted prevalence ratios=1.13, 95% confidence limits=1.03, 1.23). Results persisted after adjustment for other covariates and using a higher threshold for elevated blood lead level. In this nationally representative U.S. survey, children and adolescents who did not drink tap water had lower prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher prevalence of dental caries than those who drank tap water. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A community-initiated study of blood lead levels of Nicaraguan children living near a battery factory.

    PubMed

    Morales Bonilla, C; Mauss, E A

    1998-12-01

    In response to requests by parents in Managua, Nicaragua, whose neighborhood borders a battery factory, 97 children were tested for blood lead, as were 30 children in a neighborhood without an obvious source of environmental lead. Venous blood was examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Educational workshops were conducted. Mean blood lead levels were 17.21 +/- 9.92 micrograms/dL in the index children and 7.40 +/- 5.37 micrograms/dL in the controls (P < .001). Children living near the battery factory are at increased risk of lead poisoning. The parents were able to petition the government to control the factory emissions and to improve appropriate health services. The factory is now closed.

  11. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  12. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-12-03

    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 18,231 Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. The PA levels of the respondents were categorised as low, moderate or high according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a digital blood pressure-measuring device and finger-prick test, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) level was positively associated with PA level (p = 0.02) whilst no significant association was noted between PA level and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In contrast, respondents with low (adjusted coefficient = 0.17) or moderate (adjusted coefficient = 0.03) level of PA had significantly higher blood glucose level as compared to those who were highly active (p = 0.04). A significant negative association was observed between PA level and blood glucose only. Future studies should employ an objective measurement in estimating PA level in order to elucidate the actual relationship between PA, hypertension and diabetes for the development of effective interventions to combat the increasing burden of premature-mortality and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity in Malaysia.

  13. Effects of mixology courses and blood lead levels on dental caries among students.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Yang, Ya-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Liu, Ching-Wen; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Shih-Li; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2010-06-01

    Dental caries can be affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption also increases blood lead levels (BLLs) in humans and BLLs have been correlated with caries. Culinary students participate in mixology courses on either an elective or a mandatory basis. Therefore, we conducted this study to elucidate the effects of mixology courses and elevated BLLs on dental caries among students. This study had a cross-sectional design. We recruited first-year at one hospitality college and one university in southern Taiwan in September 2004. We applied a questionnaire, collected a blood specimen and performed a dental caries examination for each student. The subjects comprised 133 students who had ever participated in a mixology course (≥2 credits) during high school (exposure group) and 160 who had not participated in such a course (control group). Compared with the control group, the exposure group had a higher prevalence of a DMFT index ≥ 0 (92.5% versus 81.2%, P = 0.005), a higher DMFT index [5.59 ± 3.53 (mean ± SD) versus 4.21 ± 3.64 teeth, P ≤ 0.001], and a higher BLL (3.12 ± 1.02 versus 2.67 ± 0.83 μg/dl, P = ≤ 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, dental caries was significantly associated with participation in a mixology course.   Alcohol exposure associated with participation in a mixology course may have an effect on caries in students. These findings suggest that occupational safety and health education should be applied to students participating in mixology courses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Blood metal concentrations of manganese, lead, and cadmium in relation to serum ferritin levels in Ohio residents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wright, Chris W; Gocheva, Vihra V; Hudgens, Edward; Bowler, Rosemarie M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess ferritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents. Recruited participants included residents from Marietta, East Liverpool, and Mt. Vernon, OH, USA, who were aged 30-75 years and lived at least 10 years in their respective town. The levels of the neurotoxic metals such as manganese, cadmium, and lead were assayed in whole blood. Serum was analyzed for ferritin level [as a biomarker of iron (Fe) status]. An association between blood metal concentrations and independent variables (age, serum ferritin, manganese exposure status, and sex) by multiple regression analysis was assessed, controlling for various covariates such as BMI, educational level, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. Overall, the geometric means of blood manganese, cadmium, and lead levels of all participants (n = 276) were 9.307 μg/L, 0.393 μg/L, and 1.276 μg/dL, respectively. Log serum ferritin concentrations were inversely associated with log blood manganese concentration (β = -0.061 log ferritin and β = 0.146 categorical ferritin) and log blood cadmium concentrations (β = -0.090 log ferritin and β = 0.256 categorical ferritin). Log serum ferritin concentrations were not associated with log blood lead concentrations. Variables of age, sex, and exposure status were not associated with log manganese concentrations; however, log blood cadmium concentrations were higher in older population, women, and smokers. Log blood lead concentrations were higher in older population, men, and postmenopausal women. Our study showed that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood manganese and cadmium, but not blood lead, in Ohio residents. These metals showed different toxicokinetics in relation to age, sex, and menopausal status despite

  15. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A V; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-02-08

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-sectional data from the Indian Migration Study (2005-2007). Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents and their urban siblings from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore (n = 7067, mean age 40.8 yrs). Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered, 184-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, physical activity, medical history, as well as anthropometric measurements were collected. Fasting-blood samples were collected for estimation of blood lipids and glucose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify major DPs based on eigenvalue> 1 and component interpretability. Robust standard error multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the association of DPs (tertiles) with total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, fasting-blood glucose (FBG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels. Three major DPs were identified: 'cereal-savoury' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-vegetable-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs) patterns. High intake of the 'animal food' pattern was positively associated with levels of TC (β = 0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17 mmol/L; p

  16. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00-62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00-59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  17. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  18. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  19. Changes in the lead isotopic composition of blood, diet and air in Australia over a decade: Globalization and implications for future isotopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael

    2006-01-15

    Source apportionment in biological or environmental samples using the lead isotope method, where there are diverse sources of lead, relies on a significant difference between the isotopic composition in the target media and the sources. Because of the unique isotopic composition of Australian lead, source apportionment has been relatively successful in the past. Over the period of a decade, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratio for Australian (mainly female) adults has shown an increase from a geometric mean of 16.8-17.3. Associated with this increase, there has been a decrease in mean blood lead concentration from 4.7 to 2.3 {mu}g/dL, or aboutmore » 5% per year, similar to that observed in other countries. Lead in air, which up until 2000 was derived largely from the continued use of leaded gasoline, showed an overall increase in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratio during 1993-2000 from 16.5 to 17.2. Since 1998 the levels of lead in air were less than 0.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and would contribute negligibly to blood lead. Over the 10-year period, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratio in diet, based mainly on quarterly 6-day duplicate diets, increased from 16.9 to 18.3. The lead concentration in diet showed a small decrease from 8.7 to 6.4 {mu}g Pb/kg although the daily intake increased markedly from 7.4 to 13.9 {mu}g Pb/day during the latter part of the decade probably reflecting differences in demographics. The changes in blood lead from sources such as lead in bone or soil or dust is not dominant because of the low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios in these media. Unless there are other sources not identified and analysed for these adults, it would appear that in spite of our earlier conclusions to the contrary, diet does make an overall contribution to blood lead, and this is certainly the case for specific individuals. Certain population groups from south Asia, south-east Asia, the Middle East and Europe (e.g. UK) are unsuitable for some studies as their isotopic ratios in

  20. Fear of blood/injection in healthy and unhealthy adults admitted to a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Kose, S; Mandiracioglu, A

    2007-03-01

    Blood/injury phobia is one of the specific phobias. The aim of this study was to determine the fear of injection and blood in patients and healthy people. This study was carried out at Tepecik Hospital, Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory and Blood Center. Data were collected from 1500 adults who agreed to participate in the study (237 patients with chronic diseases and 1263 healthy people) during the period from January 2003 to February 2005. All participants completed two self-administered questionnaires (17-item Symptom Questionnaire and 20-item Blood/Injection Fear Scale) after giving blood samples by blood donation. 30.1% of the patients and 19.5% of the healthy adults reported that they had fear of blood/injection. Symptoms related to having blood drawn or injection were more frequently reported among women than men. Patients' educational level was also associated with the Symptom Questionnaire and fear of blood/injection scores. Fear of blood/injection was significantly higher in patients with chronic diseases. Fear of blood/injection should be considered by healthcare professionals as it is important for assessing the treatment-seeking individuals.

  1. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J. Mark F.; Bell, Andrew S.; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  2. Relationship between selenium, lead, and mercury in red blood cells of Saudi autistic children.

    PubMed

    El-Ansary, Afaf; Bjørklund, Geir; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V; Al Dera, Hussain

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. Environmental contribution to ASD is due in large part to the sensitivity of the developing brain to external exposures such as lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) as toxic heavy metals or due to a poor detoxification ability as the phenotype of this disorder. Selenium (Se) as an antioxidant element that counteracts the neurotoxicity of Hg, and Pb, presumably through the formation of nontoxic complexes. In the present study, Pb, Hg, and Se were measured in red blood cells (RBCs) of 35 children with ASD and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy control children using atomic absorption spectrometry. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis of the obtained data was performed to measure the predictive value of their absolute and relative concentrations. The obtained data demonstrates a significant elevation of Hg and Pb together with a significant decrease in the Se levels in RBCs of patients with ASD when compared to the healthy controls. The ratios of Se to both Pb and Hg were remarkably altered, being indicative of heavy metal neurotoxicity in patients with ASD. In conclusion, the present study indicates the importance of Se for prevention and/or therapy of heavy metal neurotoxicity.

  3. Blood lead levels in candy sellers working near an international road in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoglu, Onur; Caglayan, Cigdem; Yavuz, Cavit I; Sevin, Erce

    2007-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this study was to examine the effects on health, as measured by blood lead levels (BLLs), of living and working near the D-100 international road, which passes through Kocaeli, Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examine BLLs in 3 groups to determine the health effects of exposure to motorized road transport. By comparing the 3 groups, the investigators found that the mean BLL was 4.23 +/- 1.59 microg/dL in a group of candy sellers who worked beside the road, 4.18 +/- 2.07 microg/dL in a group of city residents, and 3.82 +/- 1.71 microg/dL in a group of village residents. (The latter 2 groups were not in close proximity to the road, and the authors used their measurements for comparison.) The difference in BLLs between the candy sellers and the village residents was statistically significant (p < .05). No significant difference in BLLs was determined between city and village residents or between candy sellers and city residents (p > .05). The authors recommend limiting the use of the D-100's city section to only local traffic and preventing heavy cargo vehicles from passing through.

  4. Efforts to identify at-risk children for blood lead screening in pediatric clinics--Clark County, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mackenzie S; Shah, Lopa H; Marquez, Erika R; Denton, Scott L; Neyland, Beverly A; Vereschzagin, Diana; Gremse, David A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2012-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning continues to be a public health problem; however, lead screening rates remain low in many areas. Our objective is to increase screening in pediatric clinics, while testing a questionnaire for its predictability of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). Participants were approached at pediatric clinics in Las Vegas, Nevada. A brief questionnaire assessed the child's potential exposure to lead and a blood sample was collected from each child. Of 564 children tested, 35 had detectable BLLs. Two questions from the questionnaire demonstrated significant differences in proportions (Fisher's exact test: P < .05) of affirmative/negative responses, for the 35 participants with detectable BLLs. The questionnaire failed to identify reliable associations between detectable BLLs and affirmative responses, limiting its use as an in-office tool. More research is recommended to identify and alleviate barriers to childhood lead screening in the clinical setting and to develop more applicable risk assessment tools.

  5. Proximity of residence to an old mineral storage site in Chile and blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Loreto; Klarián, José; Campos, Rosario Toro; Iglesias, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that an old mineral storage site removed in 1998 due to high lead content, remains as a source of exposure in the city of Antofagasta, Chile. The aim was to determine the association between blood lead levels in children and the residential proximity to the old mineral storage site. A cross sectional study was conducted with 185 children aged 7 to 16 years. The outcome variable was blood lead levels measured in 2005. The exposure variable was the distance between the current residence and the old mineral storage site. The distance was measured in meters by Geographic Information System (GIS). The median blood lead level in 2005 was 3.3μg/dL (interquartile range ‒ IQR: 2.0-4.3). A significant inverse association was found between the residential distance to the old mineral storage site and the blood lead levels in children, after adjusting by confounders (β: -0.04; 95%CI: -0.09; -0.01). This result suggests that the old mineral storage site continues to be a source of lead exposure for the children living nearby.

  6. Gender Difference in Blood pressure, Blood Sugar, and Cholesterol in Young Adults with Comparable Routine Physical Exertion.

    PubMed

    Anish, T S; Shahulhameed, Safraj; Vijayakumar, K; Joy, Teena Mary; Sreelakshmi, P R; Kuriakose, Anu

    2013-04-01

    Gender differences in the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a matter of debate. The susceptibility of a woman to NCD should be evaluated taking into consideration the social factors that limit the physical activity among women. It will be interesting to note what will happen if women are allowed to take part in physical exercise to the extent of men. To find out the gender difference in the pattern of the clinical and biochemical indices related to NCD in young adults with comparable daily physical activity. This is an institution-based cross-sectional study and the setting was Lekshmibhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The study participants were students who were regularly involved in more than three hours of physical exercise daily at least for the previous one year. The information on socio-demography, anthropometry, and blood pressure was recorded. Blood samples were taken for laboratory examination. Out of 150 students registered, 126 (84%) in the age group of 17 to 25 years who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were studied. Fifty-five (43.7%) of them were women. Systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and low-density lipoprotein were found significantly lower in women. No significant difference was noted in the case of diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Gender differences exist for NCD risk factors among young adults with comparable physical activity and physical exertion seems to be more protective for females.

  7. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (≥20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated blood lead levels and cytogenetic markers in buccal epithelial cells of painters in India: genotoxicity in painters exposed to lead containing paints.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Imran; Ahmad, Iqbal; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Islam, Najmul; Ashquin, Mohd; Venkatesh, Thuppil

    2010-08-01

    Lead, a major contaminant, is highly used in paint manufacturing due to its anticorrosive properties. Recent reports indicated high lead content among Indian paints used for commercial purposes. Painters are continuously exposed to these lead containing paints during painting of both commercial as well as residential buildings. Lead is well-known for its genotoxicty in occupational workers; however, in Indian painters the genotoxic effects of lead have not been reported to date. Therefore we aimed to study the genotoxic end points in painters due to their long-term exposure to these high lead-containing Indian paints. Study group selection was made after a questionnaire administration, which included questions about lifestyle and medical history to exclude exposure to the other potential sources of genotoxics. Blood and buccal cell samples were obtained from 30 male painters and from a similar number of age-matched controls of same location with no occupational exposure to lead. Blood lead levels (Pb-B) were measured in painters and controls. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear changes, i.e., karyorrhexis, karyolysis, broken egg, and binucleated, were investigated in buccal epithelial cells. Painters had significantly (P < 0.01) greater lead levels in blood than the control group. MN frequencies and nuclear changes in buccal epithelial cells were also significantly (P < 0.01) elevated in painters as compared with control subjects. Regression analysis also revealed significant (P < 0.01) association of Pb-B with all the genotoxic endpoints in painters. Cytogenetic damage was significantly associated with Pb-B as no other co-founding factors (smoking, alcohols) showed significant difference between both groups. Lead is widely used in paints which may serve as potential source of exposure among painters due to their long-term engagement with paints. Our results clearly demonstrated genotoxicity among the exposed population as evident from increase micronucleus

  9. The effects of metallothionein 2A polymorphism on lead metabolism: are pregnant women with a heterozygote genotype for metallothionein 2A polymorphism and their newborns at risk of having higher blood lead levels?

    PubMed

    Tekin, Deniz; Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2012-08-01

    Numerous studies indicate that certain genetic polymorphisms modify lead toxicokinetics. Metallothioneins are protective against the toxicity of many metals, including lead. The aim of this study was to determine whether the maternal metallothionein 2A (MT2A) -5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism is related to the lead levels in maternal blood, placental tissue and cord blood in 91 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother was collected to investigate lead levels and MT2A polymorphism. Cord blood and placenta were collected for lead levels. Analyses were made using an Atomic Absorption Graphite Furnace Spectrophotometer. Standard PCR-RFLP technique was used to determine MT2A polymorphism. Blood lead levels of heterozygote genotype (AG) mothers were statistically higher than those of homozygote genotype (AA) (P < 0.05). Maternal lead levels were significantly associated with cord blood lead levels for pregnant women with AA genotype (P < 0.001). This association was not statistically significant for pregnant women with AG. In contrast, the mean value of cord blood lead level for newborns with mothers of AG genotype was slightly higher than others, though the difference was not significant. No significant difference existed in placenta lead levels between the groups. This study suggests that pregnant women with AG genotype for MT2A polymorphism might have high blood lead levels and their newborns may be at risk of low-level cord blood lead variation.

  10. Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure Versus Fatty Acid Content in Blood and Milk of the Mother and in the Blood of Newborn Children.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for

  11. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008more » National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  12. Blood Lead Levels in Andean Infants and Young Children in Ecuador: An International Comparison.

    PubMed

    Allen Counter, S; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in infants and children remains an international health concern. Blood lead (PbB) levels of a cohort of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children aged 0.33 to 5.8 yr were compared to values reported for similar age groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States. The mean PbB level for the total group of 130 Ecuadorian infants and young children in this study was 29.4 μg/dl (SD: 24.3; range: 3.0-128.2; median: 21.7; geometric mean: 20.7 μg/dl). The mean PbB level for the 0-2 yr age group (infants) was 33.6 μg/dl (SD: 28.9; median: 22.0; range: 3.9-119.7; geometric mean: 23.6 μg/dl), while the average PbB level for the 3-5 yr age group (young children) was 27.9 μg/dl (SD: 22.5: median: 22; range: 3-128.2; geometric mean: 19.8 μg/dl). The difference between the mean PbB levels for the infants and young children was not statistically significant. The average PbB level of 32.6 μg/dl for males was not statistically different from the mean PbB level of 26.3 μg/dl for females. The PbB levels observed in Ecuadorian infants and young children in this investigation were elevated above the World Health Organization (WHO) level of concern of 10 μg/dl and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) current reference value of 5 μg/dl. Values were comparable to concentrations found in Pakistan, where occupational use of Pb is prevalent. These findings further indicate that infants and young children exposed to Pb from Pb glazing of ceramics in Andean Ecuadorian villages exhibit greater potential metal-mediated poisoning than children of similar ages in Asia, Europe, other Latin American countries, and the United States.

  13. Red blood cell transfusion in premature infants leads to worse necrotizing enterocolitis outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kellie E; Okolo, Frances C; Baker, Robyn; Mollen, Kevin P; Good, Misty

    2017-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe intestinal disease of premature infants with high mortality. Studies suggest a causative relationship between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and NEC; however, whether RBC transfusion leads to worse outcomes in NEC is unknown. We sought to determine whether RBC transfusion was associated with an increased risk of surgical NEC and mortality. In this retrospective study, 115 patients were enrolled with NEC Bell's stage 2A or greater from 2010-2015. Patients were classified based on the timing of RBC transfusion before NEC: ≤72 h, >72 h, and no transfusion. Variables including gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), feedings, and hematocrit levels were analyzed. Outcomes were surgical intervention for NEC following RBC transfusion and mortality. Twenty-three (20%) infants developed NEC ≤ 72 h after RBC transfusion, 16 (69.6%) required surgery with a mortality rate of 21.7% (n = 5). Seventeen (15%) infants developed NEC > 72 h after RBC transfusion, 12 (70.6%) required surgery with a mortality rate of 23.5% (n = 4). 75 (65%) patients developed NEC without RBC transfusion, 17 (22.7%) required surgery with a mortality rate of 4% (n = 3). Lower GA and BW were significantly associated with RBC transfusion and the need for surgical intervention. RBC transfusion ≤72 h before NEC was associated with surgical NEC (pairwise adjusted P < 0.001) and mortality (pairwise adjusted P = 0.048). However, multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed RBC transfusion is not an independent risk factor for surgical NEC. Infants of lower GA and BW were more likely to receive an RBC transfusion before NEC, which was significantly associated with surgical intervention and an increasing risk of mortality. Judicious use of transfusions in premature infants may improve NEC outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  15. Engineering Robust and Functional Vascular Networks in Vivo with Human Adult and Cord Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    expanded from human umbilical cord blood or from adult peripheral blood. EPCs were then combined with human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells...characterized human mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) from umbilical cord blood and from adult human bone marrow. We showed that MPCs

  16. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  17. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  18. [Prenatal lead exposure related to cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impaired neonatal neurobehavioral development].

    PubMed

    Ren, L H; Mu, X Y; Chen, H Y; Yang, H L; Qi, W

    2016-06-01

    To explore the relationship between umbilical cord blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neonatal neurobehavioral development in lead exposure infants. All infants and their mother were randomly selected during 2011 to 2012, subjects were selected according to the umbilical cord blood lead concentrations, which contcentration of lead was higher than 0.48 μmol/L were taken into high lead exposure group, about 60 subjects included. Comparing to the high lead exposure group, according to gender, weight, pregnant week, length and head circumferenece, the level of cord blood lead concentration under 0.48 μmol/L were taken into control group, 60 cases included. Lead content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to determine the development of neonatal neuronal behavior. The content of BDNF was detected by ELISA. Comparing the BDNF and the NBNA score between two groups, and linear correlation was given on analysis the correlation between lead concentration in cord blood and BDNF, BDNF and the NBNA score. Lead content in high exposure group was (0.613±0.139) μmol/L, and higher than (0.336±0.142) μmol/L in low exposure group (t=3.21, P<0.001) . NBNA summary score (36.35±1.86), active muscle tension score (6.90±0.27) and general assessment score (5.93±0.32) in high exposure group were lower than those (38.13±0.96, 7.79±0.35, 6.00±0.00) in low exposure group (t values were 8.21, 10.23, 2.32, respectively, P values were <0.001, <0.001 and 0.037) . BDNF content in high exposure group which was (3.538±1.203) ng/ml was higher than low exposure group (2.464±0.918) ng/ml (t=7.60, P<0.001). The correlation analysis found that the cord blood BDNF content was negatively correlated with NBNA summary score, passive muscle tension and active muscle tone score (r was -0.27, -0.29, -0.30, respectively, P values were <0.001, respectively) . Prenatal lead exposure results poor

  19. The effect of tannic acid on the bone tissue of adult male Wistar rats exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk, Agnieszka; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2017-03-02

    Toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) accumulate to the largest extent in bones. Rats at the age of 12 weeks were used to check whether tannic acid (TA) at the concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%. 2.0% or 2.5% would have a protective effect on the structure and properties of bones in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb (diet: 7mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg) for 12 weeks. The effects of administration of TA in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on bone mechanical and geometric properties, trabecular histomorphometry as well as the morphology of articular and growth cartilages were determined. All the rats co-exposured to Cd and Pb had enhanced heavy metals concentration in blood plasma and bone and reduced bone Ca content irrespective of the tannic acid administration. Heave metals given to adult rats did not influence the morphology and geometry of the femur, but reduced the mechanical endurance and histomorphometric parameters of trabecular bone irrespective of the treatment. A diet rich in TA improved articular cartilage and growth plate constituents in heavy metal-poisoned rats, as indicated by the measurement of the thickness of particular zones. It seems that a use of alimentary TA supplementation in adult rats can counteract, in a dose-dependent manner, only some of the destructive changes evoked by Cd and Pb excess. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations.

  1. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI <16.48 kg/m 2 ) and in children with BMI ≥ median value (BMI ≥16.48 kg/m 2 ). In all participants, values of Se-B and CST were estimated. In the entire group of examined children no significant differences in mean CST values were detected between groups distinguished on the base of normative Se-B values. Among children with BMI below 16.48 kg/m 2 , children with marginally low Se-B manifested significantly higher mean CST values, as compared to children with optimum Se-B (0.95 ± 0.07 vs. 0.82 ± 0.15 mg/l, p < 0.05). In summary, in a randomly selected population of healthy children no relationships could be detected between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  2. Management of intraoperative fluid balance and blood conservation techniques in adult cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Vretzakis, George; Kleitsaki, Athina; Aretha, Diamanto; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2011-02-01

    Blood transfusions are associated with adverse physiologic effects and increased cost, and therefore reduction of blood product use during surgery is a desirable goal for all patients. Cardiac surgery is a major consumer of donor blood products, especially when cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used, because hematocrit drops precipitously during CPB due to blood loss and blood cell dilution. Advanced age, low preoperative red blood cell volume (preoperative anemia or small body size), preoperative antiplatelet or antithrombotic drugs, complex or re-operative procedures or emergency operations, and patient comorbidities were identified as important transfusion risk indicators in a report recently published by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. This report also identified several pre- and intraoperative interventions that may help reduce blood transfusions, including off-pump procedures, preoperative autologous blood donation, normovolemic hemodilution, and routine cell saver use.A multimodal approach to blood conservation, with high-risk patients receiving all available interventions, may help preserve vital organ perfusion and reduce blood product utilization. In addition, because positive intravenous fluid balance is a significant factor affecting hemodilution during cardiac surgery, especially when CPB is used, strategies aimed at limiting intraoperative fluid balance positiveness may also lead to reduced blood product utilization.This review discusses currently available techniques that can be used intraoperatively in an attempt to avoid or minimize fluid balance positiveness, to preserve the patient's own red blood cells, and to decrease blood product utilization during cardiac surgery.

  3. Cognitive deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adult monozygotic twins with lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Hu, Howard; Mulkern, Robert V; White, Roberta; Aro, Antonio; Oliveira, Steve; Wright, Robert O

    2004-04-01

    Seventy-one-year-old identical twin brothers with chronic lead poisoning were identified from an occupational medicine clinic roster. Both were retired painters, but one brother (J.G.) primarily removed paint and had a history of higher chronic lead exposure. Patella and tibia bone lead concentrations measured by K-X-ray fluorescence in each brother were 5-10 times those of the general population and about 2.5 times higher in J.G. than in his brother (E.G.). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies examined N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratios, a marker of neuronal density. Ratios were lower in J.G. than in his brother. Scores on neurocognitive tests that assess working memory/executive function were below expectation in both twins. Short-term memory function was dramatically worse in J.G. than in his brother. These results demonstrate some of the more subtle long-term neurologic effects of chronic lead poisoning in adults. In particular, they suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in both twins, but more dramatic hippocampal dysfunction in the brother with higher lead exposure. The MRS findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure caused neuronal loss, which may contribute to the impairment in cognitive function. Although a causal relation cannot be inferred, the brothers were genetically identical, with similar life experiences. Although these results are promising, further study is necessary to determine whether MRS findings correlate both with markers of lead exposure and tests of cognitive function. Nevertheless, the results point to the potential utility of MRS in determining mechanisms of neurotoxicity not only for lead but also for other neurotoxicants as well.

  4. Relationship between dietary caffeine intake and blood pressure in adults.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Eda; Yardımcı, Hülya; Kocaadam, Betül; Deniz Güneş, Burcu; Yılmaz, Birsen; Karabudak, Efsun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the consumption frequency of caffeinated foods and beverages and daily caffeine consumption amounts, and examine relation between caffeine and blood pressure (BP). A cross sectional door-to-door interview was conducted with 1329 volunteers between the ages of 20 and 60 (mean ages 29.9 ± 10.8 years) and based in Ankara/Turkey. The rate of individuals whose BPs were above 140/90 mmHg was 13.5%. The median caffeine consumption was 150.0 ± 122.06 mg. Although no significant correlation was found between total caffeine intake and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of individuals, a positive correlation was observed between daily total caffeine and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < .05). Also, when analyzed factors that could be associated with DBP and SBP, BMI had effect in the model formed for both types of BP (p < .05). While smoking status associated with SBP (p = .002), gender and waist circumference related to DBP (p < .05) As a result relationship between caffeine intake and BP was affected other factors.

  5. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed.

  6. Pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burned adults.

    PubMed

    Moi, Asgjerd L; Nilsen, Roy M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burn patients. Data on burn-specific health, generic health, overall quality of life, injury characteristics and socio-demographics were obtained from 95 adult burn patients 47.0 (23.8) [mean (SD)] months after injury. A theoretical path model was established based on the concepts of Wilson and Cleary's model on health-related quality of life [1], and the proposed model was examined by structural equation modelling. Two main paths were identified, one leading to general health perception and the other leading to overall quality of life. Together, direct and indirect paths explained 63% of the variance of perceived general health and 43% of the variance in overall quality of life. The total effects of the SF-36 domain Vitality on perceived general health and overall quality of life were 0.62 and 0.66, respectively. No statistically significant path could be revealed between general health perception and overall quality of life. The results indicate that self-perceived general health and overall quality of life are related but distinct constructs. Moreover, vitality seems to be an important factor for the perception of both general health and overall quality of life in burned adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among Malay primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Elias, S M; Hashim, Z; Marjan, Z M; Abdullah, A S; Hashim, J H

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the relationship between blood lead concentration and nutritional status among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 225 Malay students, 113 male and 112 female, aged 6.3 to 9.8 were selected through a stratified random sampling method. The random blood samples were collected and blood lead concentration was measured by a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The nutrient intake was determined by the 24-hour Dietary Recall method and Food Frequency Questionnaire. An anthropometric assessment was reported according to growth indices (z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height). The mean blood lead concentration was low (3.4 +/- 1.91 ug/dL) and was significantly different between gender. Only 14.7% of the respondents fulfilled the daily energy requirement. The protein and iron intakes were adequate for a majority of the children. However, 34.7% of the total children showed inadequate intake of calcium. The energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly different by gender, that is, males had better intake than females. Majority of respondents had normal mean z-score of growth indices. Ten percent of the respondents were underweight, 2.8% wasted and 5.4% stunted. Multiple linear regression showed inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.647, p < 0.001) and per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.018). There were inverse significant relationships between blood lead concentration with children's age (beta = -0.877, p = 0.001) and calcium intake (beta = -0.011, p = 0.014) and positive significant relationship with weight-for-height (beta = 0.326, p = 0.041) among those with inadequate calcium intake. Among children with inadequate energy intake, children's age (beta = -0.621, p < 0.001), per capita income (beta = -0.001, p = 0.025) and protein intake (beta = -0.019, p = 0.027) were inversely and

  8. Lead intoxication due to ayurvedic medications as a cause of abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Varun; Midha, Vandana; Mahajan, Ramit; Narang, Vikram; Wander, Praneet; Sood, Ridhi; Sood, Ajit

    2017-02-01

    Though a majority of cases of lead intoxication come from occupational exposures, traditional and folk remedies have also been reported to contain toxic amounts of lead. We present a large series of patients with lead poisoning due to intake of Ayurvedic medicines, all of whom presented with unexplained abdominal pain. This was a retrospective, observational case series from a tertiary care center in India. The charts of patients who underwent blood lead level (BLL) testing as a part of workup for unexplained abdominal pain between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. The patients with lead intoxication (BLLs >25 μg/dl) were identified and demographics, history, possible risk factors, clinical presentation and investigations were reviewed. Treatment details, duration, time to symptomatic recovery, laboratory follow-up and adverse events during therapy were recorded. BLLs were tested in 786 patients with unexplained abdominal pain and high levels were identified in 75 (9.5%) patients, of which a majority (73 patients, 9.3%) had history of Ayurvedic medication intake and only two had occupational exposure. Five randomly chosen Ayurvedic medications were analyzed and lead levels were impermissibly high (14-34,950 ppm) in all of them. Besides pain in abdomen, other presenting complaints were constipation, hypertension, neurological symptoms and acute kidney injury. Anemia and abnormal liver biochemical tests were observed in all the 73 patients. Discontinuing the Ayurvedic medicines and chelation with d-penicillamine led to improvement in symptoms and reduction in BLLs in all patients within 3-4 months. The patients presenting with severe recurrent abdominal pain, anemia and history of use of Ayurvedic medicines should be evaluated for lead toxicity. Early diagnosis in such cases can prevent unnecessary investigations and interventions, and permits early commencement of the treatment.

  9. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  10. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-04-01

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among children aged 1-5 and 6-11 years and smoker and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. Regression models with log10 transformed values of BLLs as dependent variable were fitted to evaluate how gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home affect BLLs. Irrespective of age, gender, and race/ethnicity, BLLs declined over the study period (p ≤ 0.01). Overall, adjusted BLLs declined by 0.00114 μg/dL for every 2 years. Children aged 1-5 years had about 50 % higher BLLs than smoker adolescents, about 75 % higher BLLs than nonsmoker adolescents, and about 45 % higher BLLs than children aged 6-11 years. While overall, children aged 1-5 years with BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL made up 3.24 %, 7.8 % non-Hispanic Black children aged 1-5 years had BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL. Males were found to have higher adjusted BLLs than females, and non-Hispanic Blacks were found to have higher adjusted BLLs than non-Hispanic Whites. Higher poverty income ratio was associated with lower adjusted BLLs (β = -0.02916, p < 0.01). Children living in owner-occupied homes had lower adjusted BLLs than children living in renter-occupied homes. BLLs increased with increase in number of smokers smoking inside the home (β = 0.02496, p = 0.02). In conclusion, while BLLs have declined for all age groups, genders, and races/ethnicities, certain races/ethnicities like non-Hispanic Blacks continue to have substantially higher BLLs than non-Hispanic Whites.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metalmore » trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  12. The Role of Blood Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in Development and Severity of Acne Vulgaris in a Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Ikaraoha, C I; Mbadiwe, N C; Anyanwu, C J; Odekhian, J; Nwadike, C N; Amah, H C

    2017-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder affecting human beings. There is a paucity of report on the role of heavy metals-lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)-globally, and trace metals-zinc (Zn) and copper (Cd)-particularly in Nigeria in the development/severity of acne vulgaris. This study is aimed to determine the blood levels of some heavy metals-cadmium and lead-and trace metals-zinc and copper-in acne vulgaris sufferers in a Nigerian population. Venous blood samples were collected from a total number of 90 non-obese female subjects consisting of 30 mild, 30 moderate and 30 severe acne vulgaris sufferers for blood Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn determination. They were age-matched with 60 females without acne vulgaris who served as the control subjects. Acne sufferers had significantly higher blood Cd and Pb (P = 0.0143 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significantly different blood levels of Cu and Zn (P = 0.910 and P = 0.2140 respectively) compared to controls. There were significant progressive increases in blood levels of Cd and Pb (P = 0.0330 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significant differences in the mean blood level of Cu and Zn (P = 0.1821 and P = 0.2728 respectively) from mild to moderate and severe acne vulgaris sufferers. Increases in blood Cd and Pb may play critical roles in the pathogenesis/severity of acne vulgaris, while Cu and Zn seem to play less significant roles in the development of this disorder in this environment.

  13. Reference levels of blood mercury and association with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Choi, Sun-Hee; Ahn, Su-Ju; Kim, Dong-Kyeong; Kim, Dong-Won; Lim, Ji-Ae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Shin, Hye-Jung; Yun, Sin-Weon; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Young-Seoub; Yun, Yong-Woon; Sohn, Seok-Joon; Kim, Heon; Park, Kyung-Su; Pyo, Hee-Soo; Kim, Ho; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Lee, Sang-Ah; Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Park, Jung-Duck

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a nonessential and toxic metal that is widely distributed in the environment. This study was performed to estimate the representative blood Hg level, to determine the contributing factors to Hg exposure, and to analyze the association of blood Hg with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Mercury exposure is assessed by total Hg concentration in blood. A total of 2,114 healthy adults who have not been exposed to Hg occupationally were sampled by the multistaged, sex-, and age-stratified probability method. Information was collected regarding the subjects' demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and past medical history. The participants then underwent physical examination and blood sampling. The geometric mean concentration of Hg in whole blood was 3.90 μg/L, which was significantly influenced by sex, age, smoking, alcoholic consumption, residence area, and seafood intake after adjustment for confounders. Significant increases in body mass index, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglyceride were observed according to the blood Hg levels after adjustment for covariates. Also, Hg exposure was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome and their components such as obesity and increased fasting glucose. The blood Hg level in Korean adults is higher than that in USA and other Western countries, while it is similar to or lower than that in other Asian countries. The blood Hg level is influenced by sociodemographic factors and individual lifestyles including dietary habits. Furthermore, blood Hg is associated with metabolic syndrome, in which Hg exposure may play a role as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Exome-wide association study identifies genetic polymorphisms of C12orf51, MYL2, and ALDH2 associated with blood lead levels in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Ji-Ae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2017-02-17

    Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous toxic metal present in the environment that poses adverse health effects to humans. Inter-individual variation in blood Pb levels is affected by various factors, including genetic makeup. However, limited data are available on the association between genetic variation and blood Pb levels. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic markers associated with blood Pb levels in the Korean population. The study subjects consisted of 1,483 healthy adults with no history of occupational exposure to Pb. We measured blood Pb levels and calculated probable daily intake of Pb according to dietary data collected using 24-hour recall. We conducted exome-wide association screening using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform (n = 500) and a replication analysis using VeraCode Goldengate assay (n = 1,483). Among the 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, 12 SNPs associated with blood Pb level were identified, with suggestive significance level (P < 1 × 10 -4 ). In the Goldengate assay for replication, three SNPs (C12orf51 rs11066280, MYL2 rs12229654, and ALDH2 rs671) were associated with statistically suggestively significant differences in blood Pb levels. When stratified by drinking status, a potential association of C12orf51 rs11066280, MYL2 rs12229654, and ALDH2 rs671 with blood Pb level was observed only in drinkers. A marginally significant gene-environment interaction between ALDH2 rs671 and alcohol consumption was observed in relation to blood Pb levels. The effects of the three suggestively significant SNPs on blood Pb levels was dependent on daily calcium intake amounts. This exome-wide association study indicated that C12orf51 rs11066280, MYL2 rs12229654, and ALDH2 rs671 polymorphisms are linked to blood Pb levels in the Korean population. Our results suggest that these three SNPs are involved in the determination of Pb levels in Koreans via the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior, and that their

  15. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium andmore » mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.« less

  16. COMPLIANCE STATUS DOES NOT EFFECT CHANGES IN CHILDREN'S BLOOD LEAD LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Childhood lead poisoning is a well-recognized health concern. Lead-based paint in homes poses a particular risk for children, and protecting children from lead hazards remains an urgent public health need. This study sought to examine the housing factors affecting lon...

  17. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for

  18. Toxicants in folk remedies: Implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant’s venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  19. Toxicants in folk remedies: implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, Mateusz P; Morman, Suzette A; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D

    2017-10-01

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  20. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of cell saving blood autotransfusion in adult lumbar fusion.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, C; Chatziioannou, S N; Pilichou, A; Pneumaticos, S G

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the use of cell saver blood autotransfusion in spinal surgery and to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of cell saver blood autotransfusion during lumbar spine fusion in adults. Specific indications for the use of cell saver in adult lumbar fusion surgery have not yet been clearly determined. A total of 50 consecutive candidates for posterolateral fusion with internal fixation were prospectively randomized into either receiving perioperatively cell saving autotransfusion (Group A: 25 patients) or not (Group B: 25 patients). The use of cell saving technique did not exclude the use of allogenic blood transfusion. Surgical indications were spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, degenerative scoliosis and fractures. Medical and financial data were recorded. A cost-analysis was performed. Patients in Group A received 880 +/- 216 mL from cell saver and 175 +/- 202 mL allogenic blood. The patients in Group B received 908 +/- 244 mL allogenic blood. Blood volumes data collected were expressed in mean +/- SD values. The cost of blood transfusion in Group A was 995 +/-euro447 per patient and 1220 +/- 269 in Group B (P < 0.05). In elective lumbar fusion blood requirements can be satisfied with the use of autotransfusion. The use of cell saver appears to be useful and cost-effective during most elective lumbar fusions.

  1. Influence of Child and Adult Elevated Blood Pressure on Adult Arterial Stiffness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Aatola, Heikki; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Tuominen, Heikki; Juonala, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina

    2017-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) in childhood has been associated with increased adult arterial stiffness, the independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The favorable BP change from childhood to adulthood and the risk of high adult arterial stiffness has not been reported. We examined the effect of child and adult BP on pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessed in adulthood among 1540 white adults followed-up for 27 years since baseline (1980, aged 6-18 years). Childhood elevated BP was defined according to the tables from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. In adulthood, BP was classified as elevated if systolic BP ≥120 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medications. PWV was measured in 2007 by whole-body impedance cardiography, and high PWV was defined as values at or above the age-, sex-, and heart rate-specific 80th percentile. Individuals with persistently elevated BP and individuals with normal child but elevated adult BP had increased risk of high adult PWV (relative risk [95% confidence interval], 3.18 [2.22-4.55] and 2.64 [1.79-3.88], respectively) in comparison with individuals with normal (both child and adult) BP. In contrast, individuals with elevated BP in childhood but not in adulthood did not have significantly increased risk of high PWV (relative risk [95% confidence interval], 1.26[0.80-1.99]). The results were consistent when different definitions for child and adult elevated BP were applied. These findings highlight the importance of BP control in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Hierarchical inorganic-organic multi-shell nanospheres for intervention and treatment of lead-contaminated blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairy, Mohamed; El-Safty, Sherif A.; Shenashen, Mohamed. A.; Elshehy, Emad A.

    2013-08-01

    The highly toxic properties, bioavailability, and adverse effects of Pb2+ species on the environment and living organisms necessitate periodic monitoring and removal whenever possible of Pb2+ concentrations in the environment. In this study, we designed a novel optical multi-shell nanosphere sensor that enables selective recognition, unrestrained accessibility, continuous monitoring, and efficient removal (on the order of minutes) of Pb2+ ions from water and human blood, i.e., red blood cells (RBCs). The consequent decoration of the mesoporous core/double-shell silica nanospheres through a chemically responsive azo-chromophore with a long hydrophobic tail enabled us to create a unique hierarchical multi-shell sensor. We examined the efficiency of the multi-shell sensor in removing lead ions from the blood to ascertain the potential use of the sensor in medical applications. The lead-induced hemolysis of RBCs in the sensing/capture assay was inhibited by the ability of the hierarchical sensor to remove lead ions from blood. The results suggest the higher flux and diffusion of Pb2+ ions into the mesopores of the core/multi-shell sensor than into the RBC membranes. These findings indicate that the sensor could be used in the prevention of health risks associated with elevated blood lead levels such as anemia.The highly toxic properties, bioavailability, and adverse effects of Pb2+ species on the environment and living organisms necessitate periodic monitoring and removal whenever possible of Pb2+ concentrations in the environment. In this study, we designed a novel optical multi-shell nanosphere sensor that enables selective recognition, unrestrained accessibility, continuous monitoring, and efficient removal (on the order of minutes) of Pb2+ ions from water and human blood, i.e., red blood cells (RBCs). The consequent decoration of the mesoporous core/double-shell silica nanospheres through a chemically responsive azo-chromophore with a long hydrophobic tail enabled

  3. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICLE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HRV, BLOOD COAGULATION, AND BLOOD LIPIDS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether systemic inflammation markers in asthmatics change in response to fluctuations in ambient PM. Methods: Twelve atopic adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma living within a 30 mile radius of the US EPA clinic were followed for twelve w...

  4. Vestibular dysfunction in the adult CBA/CaJ mouse after lead and cadmium treatment.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Katarina E M; Lee, Min Young; King, W. Michael; Raphael, Yehoash; Schacht, Jochen; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    The vestibular system allows the perception of position and motion and its dysfunction presents as motion impairment, vertigo and balance abnormalities, leading to debilitating psychological discomfort and difficulty performing daily tasks. Although declines and deficits in vestibular function have been noted in rats exposed to lead (Pb) and in humans exposed to Pb and cadmium (Cd), no studies have directly examined the pathological and pathophysiological effects upon the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear. Eighteen young adult mice were exposed through their drinking water (3 mM Pb, 300 µM Cd, or a control treatment) for 10 weeks. Before and after treatment, they underwent a vestibular assessment, consisting of a rotarod performance test and a novel head stability test to measure the vestibulocolic reflex. At the conclusion of the study, the utricles were analyzed immunohistologically for condition of hair cells and nerve fibers. Increased levels of Pb exposure correlated with decreased head stability in space; no significant decline in performance on rotarod test was found. No damage to the hair cells or the nerve fibers of the utricle was observed in histology. The young adult CBA/CaJ mouse is able to tolerate occupationally-relevant Pb and Cd exposure well, but the correlation between Pb exposure and reduced head stability suggests that Pb exposure causes a decline in vestibular function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 869-876, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Vestibular dysfunction in the adult CBA/CaJ mouse after lead and cadmium treatment

    PubMed Central

    Klimpel, Katarina E. M.; Lee, Min Young; King, W. Michael; Raphael, Yehoash; Schacht, Jochen; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The vestibular system allows the perception of position and motion and its dysfunction presents as motion impairment, vertigo and balance abnormalities, leading to debilitating psychological discomfort and difficulty performing daily tasks. Although declines and deficits in vestibular function have been noted in rats exposed to lead (Pb) and in humans exposed to Pb and cadmium (Cd), no studies have directly examined the pathological and pathophysiological effects upon the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear. METHODS Eighteen young adult mice were exposed through their drinking water (3 mM Pb, 300 μM Cd, or a control treatment) for 10 weeks. Before and after treatment, they underwent a vestibular assessment, consisting of a rotarod performance test and a novel head stability test to measure the vestibulocolic reflex. At the conclusion of the study, the utricles were analyzed immunohistologically for condition of hair cells and nerve fibers. RESULTS Increased levels of Pb exposure correlated with decreased head stability in space; no significant decline in performance on rotarod test was found. No damage to the hair cells or the nerve fibers of the utricle was observed in histology. CONCLUSIONS The young adult CBA/CaJ mouse is able to tolerate occupationally-relevant Pb and Cd exposure well, but the correlation between Pb exposure and reduced head stability suggests that Pb exposure causes a decline in vestibular function. PMID:27257108

  6. Identification of dietary patterns associated with blood pressure in a sample of overweight Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Anil, S; Charlton, K E; Tapsell, L C; Probst, Y; Ndanuko, R; Batterham, M J

    2016-11-01

    The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet provides strong evidence for an optimal dietary pattern for blood pressure (BP) control; however, investigation at the level of key foods in a dietary pattern is sparse. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns driven by key foods with BP in a sample of obese Australian adults. Secondary analysis was conducted on baseline data of 118 participants (45.1±8.4 years, mean BP=124.1±15.8/72.6±9.2 mm Hg) recruited in a weight reduction randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12608000425392). Dietary assessment was by a validated diet history interview. The average of three office BP measurements was taken. Factor analysis extracted dietary patterns and their relation to systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) was analysed using multiple linear regression. Eight dietary patterns were identified based on leading foods: meat and alcohol; seafood; fats; fruits and nuts; legumes; confectionery; sweet foods; and yeast extracts and seasonings. A lower SBP was associated with alignment with the fruit and nuts pattern (β=-4.1 (95% confidence interval -7.5 to -0.7) mm Hg) and with seafood for DBP (β=-2.4 (-4.6 to -0.3) mm Hg). SBP and DBP were higher with yeast extract and seasonings (β=4.3 (1.4-7.3); 2.5 (0.9-4.0) mm Hg, respectively). In obese adults attending for weight loss, dietary patterns that included larger amounts of fruits and nuts and/or seafood were associated with lower BP at baseline, whereas patterns that were characterised by yeast extract and seasonings were associated with higher BP.

  7. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  8. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme activity in blood, brain, and liver of lead-dosed ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Finley, M.T.

    1979-01-01

    Mallard ducks were dosed with a single shotgun pellet (ca. 200 mg lead). After 1 month there was about 1 ppm lead in blood, 2.5 in liver, and 0.5 in brain. Lead-induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme in blood and cerebellum was much greater than in cerebral hemisphere or liver and was strongly correlated with the lead concentration in these tissues. The cerebellar portion of the brain was more sensitive to delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme inhibition by lead than were the other tissues examined. There was also a greater increase in the glial cell marker enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase, in cerebellum than in cerebral hemisphere, suggesting that nonregenerating neuronal cells were destroyed by lead and replaced by glial cells in that portion of the brain. Even partial loss of cerebellar tissue is severely debilitating in waterfowl, because functions critical to survival such as visual, auditory, motor, and reflex responses are integrated at this brain center.

  9. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates

    PubMed Central

    Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G.; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L.; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1–3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother’s residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact. PMID:28520816

  10. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  11. Loss of Adult Cardiac Myocyte GSK-3 Leads to Mitotic Catastrophe Resulting in Fatal Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jibin; Ahmad, Firdos; Parikh, Shan; Hoffman, Nichole E.; Rajan, Sudarsan; Verma, Vipin K.; Song, Jianliang; Yuan, Ancai; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Guo, Yuanjun; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter; Woodgett, James R.; Muniswamy, Madesh; Kishore, Raj; Lal, Hind; Force, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Cardiac myocyte-specific deletion of either Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)3A or GSK3B leads to cardiac protection following myocardial infarction, suggesting that deletion of both isoforms may provide synergistic protection. This is an important consideration due to the fact that all GSK-3–targeted drugs including the drugs already in clinical trial target both isoforms of GSK-3 and none are isoform specific. Objective To identify the consequences of combined deletion of cardiac myocyte GSK3A and GSK3B in heart function. Methods and Results We generated tamoxifen-inducible cardiac myocyte-specific mice lacking both GSK-3 isoforms (double knockout, DKO). We unexpectedly found that cardiac myocyte GSK-3 is essential for cardiac homeostasis and overall survival. Serial echocardiographic analysis reveals that within 2 weeks of tamoxifen treatment, DKO hearts leads to excessive dilatative remodeling and ventricular dysfunction. Further experimentation with isolated adult cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts from DKO implicated cardiac myocytes intrinsic factors responsible for observed phenotype. Mechanistically, loss of GSK-3 in adult cardiac myocytes resulted in induction of mitotic catastrophe, a previously unreported event in cardiac myocytes. DKO cardiac myocytes showed cell cycle progression resulting in increased DNA content and multi-nucleation. However, increased cell cycle activity was rivaled by marked activation of DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoint activation, and mitotic catastrophe induced apoptotic cell death. Importantly, mitotic catastrophe was also confirmed in isolated adult cardiac myocytes. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that cardiac myocyte GSK-3 is required to maintain normal cardiac homeostasis and its loss is incompatible with life due to cell cycle dysregulation that ultimately results in a severe fatal dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26976650

  12. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Time trends and exposure determinants of lead and cadmium in the adult population of northern Sweden 1990-2014.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2017-11-01

    This study follows cadmium and lead concentrations in blood in the adult population in northern Sweden over 24 years. Concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in single whole blood samples (B-Pb and B-Cd) from 619 men and 926 women participating in the Northern Sweden WHO MONICA Study on one occasion 1990-2014. Associations with smoking and dietary factors were investigated. Consumption of moose meat was asked for in 2014. In the adult population in northern Sweden, the median B-Pb in 2014 was 11.0µg/L in young (25-35 years) men and 9.69µg/L in young women. In an older age-group (50-60 years), the median B-Pb was 15.1µg/L in men and 13.1µg/L in women. B-Pb decreased from 1990 to 2009, after which time no further decrease was observed. B-Pb was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In never-smokers, positive associations were found between B-Pb and consumption of wine and brewed coffee (women only) in 2004-2014. Higher B-Pb with consumption of moose meat was demonstrated in men, but not in women. B-Cd was essentially stable over the whole period, but an increase in B-Cd, of 3% per year, was detected in never-smoking women between 2009 and 2014. In 2014, median B-Cd in never-smokers in the four groups was; 0.11µg/L in younger men, 0.15µg/L in younger women, 0.14µg/L in older men, and 0.21µg/L in older women. B-Cd was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The only positive association between B-Cd and food items in 2004-2014 was with consumption of brewed coffee (men only). The lack of a decrease in B-Cd from 1990 to 2014 and the absence of a further decrease in B-Pb after 2009 are unsatisfactory considering the health risks these metals pose in the general population at current concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  15. Nuclear receptor and VEGF pathways for gene-blood lead interactions, on bone mineral density, in Korean smokers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Park, Taesung

    2018-01-01

    Osteoporosis has a complex etiology and is considered a multifactorial polygenic disease, in which genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, lifestyle, environmental, and nutritional factors. Therefore, investigating these multiple factors, and the interactions between them, might lead to a better understanding of osteoporosis pathogenesis, and possible therapeutic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between three blood metals (Pb, Cd, and Al), in smoking and nonsmoking patients' sera, and prevalence of osteoporosis. In particular, we focused on gene-environment interactions of metal exposure, including a dataset obtained through genome-wide association study (GWAS). Subsequently, we conducted a pathway-based analysis, using a GWAS dataset, to elucidate how metal exposure influences susceptibility to osteoporosis. In this study, we evaluated blood metal exposures for estimating the prevalence of osteoporosis in 443 participants (aged 53.24 ± 8.29), from the Republic of Korea. Those analyses revealed a negative association between lead blood levels and bone mineral density in current smokers (p trend <0.01). By further using GWAS-based pathway analysis, we found nuclear receptor (FDR<0.05) and VEGF pathways (FDR<0.05) to be significantly upregulated by blood lead burden, with regard to the prevalence of osteoporosis, in current smokers. These findings suggest that the intracellular pathways of angiogenesis and nuclear hormonal signaling can modulate interactions between lead exposure and genetic variation, with regard to susceptibility to diminished bone mineral density. Our findings may provide new leads for understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis, including possible interventions.

  16. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P < 0.0002). Similarly, mean blood lead concentrations in birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P < 0.05). In addition, samples from insectivorous birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  18. Lead concentrations in whole blood, serum, saliva and house dust in samples collected at two time points (12 months apart) in Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Guerra, Carolina; Magna, Gustavo Alonso Muñoz; Machado, Sandro Lemos; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Ramos, Junia; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Peixoto, Aníbal Araujo Alves; Moreno, Maria Lucia Vieira; Alva, Juan Carlos Rossi; Nakadi, Flávio Venâncio; da Veiga, Márcia Andreia Mesquita Silva; Barbosa, Fernando; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; de Fátima Carvalho, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    Whole Blood Lead Level (BLL) is the main marker used to verify lead contamination. The present study explores how BLL is associated with lead concentrations in serum, saliva and house dust. Samples were collected twice from Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil, a region that was contaminated by a lead smelter in the past; a time interval of 12 months was allowed between the two collections. It is noteworthy that the following measures have recently been taken to diminish exposure of the population to lead: streets have been paved with asphalt, and educational campaigns have been launched to reduce exposure to contaminated dust. Compared with the first time point, all the samples collected at the second time point contained lower lead concentration (p<0.05), which suggested that the adopted measures effectively reduced exposure of the population to lead present in contaminated soil and dust. Statistically significant correlations only existed between lead in blood collected in the first year and lead in blood collected in the second year (Spearman's r=0.55; p<0.0001; n=62), and lead in house dust collected in the first year and lead in house dust collected in the second year (Spearman's r=0.5; p<0.0001; n=59). Results support the validity of lead determination in blood and in house dust to assess lead exposure over time. However, lead in blood and lead in dust did not correlate with lead in serum or lead in saliva. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  20. OXIDATIVE STRESS CONTRIBUTES TO SEX DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD PRESSURE IN ADULT GROWTH RESTRICTED OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Norma B.; Hennington, Bettye Sue; Williamson, Danielle T.; Hill, Melanie L.; Betson, Nicole E.E.; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.; Royals, Thomas P.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and importantly, that oxidative stress plays a more definitive role in mediating hypertension in males than in females. Intrauterine growth-restriction induced by reduced uterine perfusion initiated at day 14 of gestation in the rat programs hypertension in adult male growth-restricted offspring; yet, female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive. The mechanisms mediating sex differences in blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring are not clear. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that sex specific differences in renal oxidative stress contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring. A significant increase in blood pressure measured by telemetry in male growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05) was associated with a marked increase in renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with the antioxidant tempol had no effect on blood pressure in male control offspring, but it normalized blood pressure (P<0.05) and renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05) in male growth-restricted relative to male control. Renal markers of oxidative stress were not elevated in female growth-restricted offspring; however, renal activity of the antioxidant catalase was significantly elevated relative to female control (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with tempol did not significantly alter oxidative stress or blood pressure measured by telemetry in female offspring. Thus, these data suggest that sex differences in renal oxidative stress and antioxidant activity are present in adult growth-restricted offspring, and that oxidative stress may play a more important role in modulating blood pressure in male, but not female growth-restricted offspring. PMID:22585945

  1. Adult Neurogenesis Leads to the Functional Reconstruction of a Telencephalic Neural Circuit.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rachel E; Macedo-Lima, Matheus; Miller, Kimberly E; Brenowitz, Eliot A

    2016-08-24

    Seasonally breeding songbirds exhibit pronounced annual changes in song behavior, and in the morphology and physiology of the telencephalic neural circuit underlying production of learned song. Each breeding season, new adult-born neurons are added to the pallial nucleus HVC in response to seasonal changes in steroid hormone levels, and send long axonal projections to their target nucleus, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). We investigated the role that adult neurogenesis plays in the seasonal reconstruction of this circuit. We labeled newborn HVC neurons with BrdU, and RA-projecting HVC neurons (HVCRA) with retrograde tracer injected in RA of adult male white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in breeding or nonbreeding conditions. We found that there were many more HVCRA neurons in breeding than nonbreeding birds. Furthermore, we observed that more newborn HVC neurons were back-filled by the tracer in breeding animals. Behaviorally, song structure degraded as the HVC-RA circuit degenerated, and recovered as the circuit regenerated, in close correlation with the number of new HVCRA neurons. These results support the hypothesis that the HVC-RA circuit degenerates in nonbreeding birds, and that newborn neurons reconstruct the circuit in breeding birds, leading to functional recovery of song behavior. We investigated the role that adult neurogenesis plays in the seasonal reconstruction of a telencephalic neural circuit that controls song behavior in white-crowned sparrows. We showed that nonbreeding birds had a 36%-49% reduction in the number of projection neurons compared with breeding birds, and the regeneration of the circuit in the breeding season is due to the integration of adult-born projection neurons. Additionally, song structure degraded as the circuit degenerated and recovered as the circuit regenerated, in close correlation with new projection neuron number. This study demonstrates that steroid hormones can help reestablish

  2. Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Oswaldo Luiz; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Pozzan, Roberto; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Fonseca, Flavia Lopes; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Brandão, Ayrton Pires

    2013-01-01

    Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males) were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method), blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV) tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  3. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health department or other medical... shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling unit in which the child lived at the time the blood was last sampled and of common areas servicing the dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in...

  4. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health department or other medical... shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling unit in which the child lived at the time the blood was last sampled and of common areas servicing the dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in...

  5. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health department or other medical... shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling unit in which the child lived at the time the blood was last sampled and of common areas servicing the dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in...

  6. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health department or other medical... shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling unit in which the child lived at the time the blood was last sampled and of common areas servicing the dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in...

  7. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health department or other medical... shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling unit in which the child lived at the time the blood was last sampled and of common areas servicing the dwelling unit. The risk assessment shall be conducted in...

  8. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France

    PubMed Central

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The decline in children’s Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008–2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child’s address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria. PMID:26633457

  9. [The morbidity and mortality of adult population because of diseases of blood circulation system].

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The article presents comparative results of analysis of morbidity and mortality in the Omskaia oblast and data of official statistics of the Russian Federation and the Sibirskii federal okrug. The regional characteristics are revealed concerning morbidity of adult population with diseases of blood circulation system.

  10. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA Study of young black and white adults.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Sidney, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between blood pressure and self reported experiences of racial discrimination and responses to unfair treatment. METHODS: Survey data were collected in year 7 (1992/93) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a prospective multisite community-based investigation. Participants included 831 Black men, 1143 Black women, 1006 White men, and 1106 White women 25 to 37 years old. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure among working-class Black adults reporting that they typically accepted unfair treatment and had experienced racial discrimination in none of seven situations was about 7 mm Hg higher than among those reporting that they challenged unfair treatment and experienced racial discrimination in one or two of the situations. Among professional Black adults, systolic blood pressure was 9 to 10 mm Hg lower among those reporting that they typically challenged unfair treatment and had not experienced racial discrimination. Black-White differences in blood pressure were substantially reduced by taking into account reported experiences of racial discrimination and responses to unfair treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Research on racial/ ethnic distributions of blood pressure should take into account how discrimination may harm health. PMID:8876504

  11. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels <10.5g/dL. Older child age, hemoglobin <10.5g/dL, and putting fingers/toys in the mouth were associated with higher BPbs. Yo