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Sample records for adult blood lead

  1. California adults with elevated blood lead levels, 1987 through 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Follow-up of California blood lead registry reports, 95% of which are of occupationally exposed adults, can guide interventions at specific high-risk work sites and measure the impact of targeted, industry-specific interventions. METHODS. A protocol was implemented to follow up the most severe case reports (> or = 2.90 mumol/L) and establish a statistical database for descriptive analysis. RESULTS. From 1987 through 1990, the California Department of Health Services received 17,951 reports for 4069 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults employed by at least 328 companies. Of 232 incident case subjects with severe lead toxicity (> or = 2.90 mumol/L), 182 were successfully traced and interviewed. Index case subjects were mostly male (95%) and disproportionately Hispanic (46%); 35% lived with children aged 7 or younger, and 10% had been hospitalized. Ninety-four percent involved overexposures at work sites that lacked medical removal (50%), ventilation (36%), appropriate respirators (62%), training (64%), clothing changes (45%), or showering (60%). CONCLUSIONS. Well-known risk factors for occupational lead poisoning clustered at the work sites of index case subjects. Despite standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, lead overexposure in California adults remains a significant public and occupational health concern. PMID:8438980

  2. Tracking blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in Andean adults working in a lead contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4, and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007, and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Lead exposure of the workers needs to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  3. Tracking Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin Levels in Andean Adults Working in a Lead Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4 and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007 and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Pb exposure of the workers need to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  4. Gender differences in blood lead and hemoglobin levels in Andean adults with chronic lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Buchanan, L H; Ortega, F

    2001-01-01

    A field study of the prevalence of lead (Pb) intoxication was conducted in 158 adults (67 men and 91 women) living at 2,500-2,800 meters in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination from local small-scale Pb-glazing cottage industries. Venous blood samples showed mean blood lead (PbB) levels of 34.5 microg/dL (SD 22.2) for men and 27.0 microg/dL (SD 18.4) for women; this difference was significant (t-test, p = 0.022; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.044). An ANOVA showed no significant main effect for gender (F = 0.118, p = 0.782) or age (F = 2.479, p = 0.117), and no significant gender-by-age interaction (F = 0.273, p = 0.602). In the Pb-glazing study group, 39% of the men had PbB levels > or = 40 microg/dL, while 41% of the women had PbB levels > or = 30 microg/dL (the WHO health-based biological limits). A reference group of 39 adults (24 men and 15 women) had a mean PbB level of 5.9 microg/dL (SD 2.8; range: 1.8-16.8), significantly different from that of the 158 subjects in the study group (t-test, p < 0.0001). The difference in mean PbB levels of men (6.8 microg/dL) and women (4.7 microg/dL) in the reference group was significant (t-test, p = 0.026; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.019). The mean altitude-corrected hemoglobin levels in the study group were lower than normal, 11.3 g/dL for men and 10.9 g/dL for women. PMID:11373041

  5. The influence of bone and blood lead on plasma lead levels in environmentally exposed adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Avila, M; Smith, D; Meneses, F; Sanin, L H; Hu, H

    1998-01-01

    There is concern that previously accumulated bone lead stores may constitute an internal source of exposure, particularly during periods of increased bone mineral loss (e.g., pregnancy, lactation, and menopause). Furthermore, the contribution of lead mobilized from bone to plasma may not be adequately reflected by whole-blood lead levels. This possibility is especially alarming because plasma is the main circulatory compartment of lead that is available to cross cell membranes and deposit in soft tissues. We studied 26 residents of Mexico City who had no history of occupational lead exposure. Two samples of venous blood were collected from each individual. One sample was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-magnetic sector mass spectrometry for whole-blood lead levels. The other sample was centrifuged to separate plasma, which was then isolated and analyzed for lead content by the same analytical technique. Bone lead levels in the tibia and patella were determined with a spot-source 109Cd K-X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean lead concentrations were 0.54 microg/l in plasma, 119 microg/l in whole blood, and 23.27 and 11.71 microg/g bone mineral in the patella and tibia, respectively. The plasma-to-whole-blood lead concentration ratios ranged from 0.27% to 0.70%. Whole-blood lead level was highly correlated with plasma lead level and accounted for 95% of the variability of plasma lead concentrations. Patella and tibia lead levels were also highly correlated with plasma lead levels. The bivariate regression coefficients of patella and tibia on plasma lead were 0.034 (p<0. 001) and 0.053 (p<0.001), respectively. In a multivariate regression model of plasma lead levels that included whole-blood lead, patella lead level remained an independent predictor of plasma lead level (ss = 0.007, p<0.001). Our data suggest that although whole-blood lead levels are highly correlated with plasma lead levels, lead levels in bone (particularly trabecular bone) exert an additional

  6. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

  7. Elevated blood lead levels among adults in Massachusetts, 1991-1995.

    PubMed Central

    Tumpowsky, C M; Davis, L K; Rabin, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning, the oldest recognized occupational disease, remains a danger for children and adults. Data collected for 664 cases reported to the Massachusetts Occupational Lead Registry in 1991-1995 were summarized in a 1998 state report. Here, the authors present some of the key findings from that report for a wider audience. METHODS: The authors summarize key findings of the 1998 state report. FINDINGS: Construction workers, in particular licensed deleaders and house painters, accounted for almost 70% of occupational cases involving blood lead levels > or = 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter (mcg/dl) of blood. Among 100 workers with the highest blood lead levels (> or = 60 mcg/dl), 29% were house painters. Hispanic workers were over-represented in the Registry. A small proportion of cases were non-occupational, typically associated with recreational use of firing ranges or do-it-yourself home renovations. CONCLUSION: Lead poisoning is a preventable disease, yet these data indicate that additional prevention efforts are warranted. PMID:11059431

  8. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  9. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted. PMID:27089677

  10. Blood Cadmium and Lead and Chronic Kidney Disease in US Adults: A Joint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Muntner, Paul; Silbergeld, Ellen; Jaar, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Environmental cadmium and lead exposures are widespread, and both metals are nephrotoxic at high exposure levels. Few studies have evaluated the associations between low-level cadmium and clinical renal outcomes, particularly with respect to joint cadmium and lead exposure. The geometric mean levels of blood cadmium and lead were 0.41 μg/L (3.65 nmol/L) and 1.58 μg/dL (0.076 μmol/L), respectively, in 14,778 adults aged ≥20 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006). After adjustment for survey year, sociodemographic factors, chronic kidney disease risk factors, and blood lead, the odds ratios for albuminuria (≥30 mg/g creatinine), reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), and both albuminuria and reduced eGFR were 1.92 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.43), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.76, 4.81), respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest blood cadmium quartiles. The odds ratios comparing participants in the highest with the lowest quartiles of both cadmium and lead were 2.34 (95% CI: 1.72, 3.18) for albuminuria, 1.98 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.10) for reduced eGFR, and 4.10 (95% CI: 1.58, 10.65) for both outcomes. These findings support consideration of cadmium and lead as chronic kidney disease risk factors in the general population and provide novel evidence of risk with environmental exposure to both metals. PMID:19700501

  11. Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Winters, Paul C; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current study was limited to adults age 60 and older. We examined two measures of cognitive functioning: self-reported functional limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion (NHANES 1999-2008; n=7277) and performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; NHANES 1999-2002; n=2299). We evaluated quintiles of BLL (<1.30, 1.79-<2.30, 2.30-<3.20, and ≥3.20μg/dL) in relation to cognitive functioning using logistic (functional limitation) and linear (DSST scores) regression in SUDAAN, adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty-income ratio, education, and self-reported general health status. BLLs were not associated with self-reported confusion or memory problems in crude and adjusted analyses, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.0 (ref.), 0.9 (CI=0.7-1.3), 0.8 (CI=0.6-1.2), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.3), 1.0 (CI=0.7-1.4), respectively, in increasing quintiles. Similarly, there was no clear association between performance on the DSST and BLL after accounting for all covariates. Our findings add to the inconsistent evidence regarding the association between concurrent BLLs and cognitive function in older adults. Early-life or long-term, accumulated lead exposures may be etiologically more relevant to accelerated cognitive decline at older age. PMID:21093481

  12. Blood lead slope factor models for adults: comparisons of observations and predictions.

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, T S; Cohen, J T

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore the appropriateness of various parameter values for the Bowers et al. model [Risk Anal 14:183-189, 1994] in the context of predicting the influence of site-related exposure to lead in soil on the blood lead (PbB) levels of women of childbearing age. We outline the parameters prescribed by Bowers et al. as well as those prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Comparison of the PbB levels predicted by the Bowers et al. model to those predicted by the validated O'Flaherty pharmacokinetic model indicates that the Bowers et al. model performs favorably when parameter values prescribed here are used. Use of the U.S. EPA-prescribed parameters yields predicted PbB levels that substantially exceed the validated O'Flaherty model predictions. Finally, both the U.S. EPA-prescribed parameter values and the parameter values recommended herein are used to predict PbB levels among adults living in four Superfund communities. Comparison of predicted PbB levels for these communities indicates that the U.S. EPA parameters overstate the incremental influence of lead in soil on PbB levels. Differences between the parameter values prescribed here and the U.S. EPA-prescribed parameters yield substantially different cleanup criteria for lead in soil, although conservative parameter values may still be appropriate for screening purposes. PMID:9860916

  13. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  14. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  15. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern. PMID:2368852

  16. Impact on blood lead in children and adults following relocation from their source of exposure and contribution of skeletal tissue to blood lead

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, B.L. |

    1996-04-01

    The goal of hazard abatement is the identification and systematic elimination of lead hazards in the community, which should ultimately result in lowering of blood lead (PbB), especially in children. Such a goal is a daunting task in mining or smelting communities such as Broken Hill in Australia where industrial activities operating for more than 100 years and natural weathering over millennia have resulted in widespread contamination. {open_quotes}The single most important factor in managing of childhood lead poisoning is reducing the child`s exposure to lead{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}. Luke reviewed the remediation programs in seven large smelter operations outside Australia using environmental and biological indices, before and after intervention, to gauge the success. He concluded that outcomes varied from temporary improvements in Kellog, Idaho to apparently more successful outcomes in El Paso and Dallas, Texas. At Port Pirie, Luke identified that the most significant predictor of a reduction in PbB levels was permanent relocation out of the high risk areas, whereas in a later assessment Maynard identified, in addition to permanent relocation, level of expenditure on house dedusting and refurbishment, improved dust hygiene practices, and improved early morning diet as likely to reduce PbB levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on PbB of relocation of two families from their source of lead, in this case from the Broken Hill mining community. To gauge the impact of relocation, the results are compared with twenty seven children who relocated within the Broken Hill community from high to low risk areas. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  18. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  19. Lead toxicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vig, E K; Hu, H

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, older adults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among older adults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to

  20. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and when based on a child's risk for lead poisoning. Those who are considered at risk — such as ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? Lead Poisoning Pica Getting a Blood Test (Video) ...

  1. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children who ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the environment, ...

  2. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  3. CHICAGO BLOOD LEAD MAPPING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Region 5's Office of Strategic Environmental Analysis (OSEA) undertook an effort to map blood lead data in the Chicago area and assess the associated risk factors that influence the elevated lead levels. The goal was to obtain individual blood lead results and map the data on th...

  4. Contribution of lead from calcium supplements to blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Palmer, J M; Korsch, M J; Taylor, A J

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to determine the contribution of lead to blood from consumption of calcium supplements approximating the recommended daily intakes over a 6-month period. Subjects were males and females ages 21 to 47 years (geometric mean 32 years) with a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 2.5 microg/dL. They were subdivided into three groups. One treatment group (n = 8) was administered a complex calcium supplement (carbonate/phosphate/citrate) and the other treatment group (n = 7) calcium carbonate. The control group (n = 6) received no supplement. The lead isotopic compositions of the supplements were completely different from those of the blood of the subjects, allowing us easily to estimate contribution from the supplements. The daily lead dose from the supplements at 100% compliance was about 3 microg Pb. Three blood samples were taken at 2-month intervals before treatment to provide background values, and three were taken during treatment. Subjects in the treatment group were thus their own controls. Lead isotopic compositions for the complex supplement showed minimal change during treatment compared with pretreatment. Lead isotopic compositions in blood for the calcium carbonate supplement showed increases of up to 0.5% in the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio, and for all isotope ratios there was a statistically significant difference between baseline and treatment (p < 0.005). The change from baseline to treatment for the calcium carbonate supplement differed from that for both the control group and the group administered the complex supplement. Blood lead concentrations, however, showed minimal changes. Variations in blood lead levels over time did not differ significantly between groups. Our results are consistent with earlier investigations using radioactive and stable lead tracers, which showed minimal gastrointestinal absorption of lead in the presence of calcium (+/- phosphorus) in adults. Even though there is no discernible increase in

  5. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US adults aged 20-64 years and senior citizens aged ≥65 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-07-01

    Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among adults aged 20-64 years (adults) and seniors aged ≥65 years (seniors). In addition, the contribution of other factors like gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home in explaining variability in BLL was also evaluated by fitting regression models with log10 transformed values of BLL as dependent variables. BLL decreased over 2003-2012 (p < 0.01). Irrespective of gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status, seniors were found to have higher BLL than adults. Based on the magnitude of differences between the 5th and 95th percentiles, variability in the levels of blood lead was found to be substantially higher among seniors than among adults. Males had statistically significantly higher adjusted BLL than females (2.32 vs. 1.76 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.66 vs. 1.13 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-Hispanic whites had statistically significantly lower adjusted BLL than non-Hispanic blacks (1.99 vs. 2.42 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.22 vs. 1.42 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). When compared with non-smokers, smokers had statistically significantly higher BLL (2.19 vs. 1.86 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.54 vs. 1.22 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-obese had statistically significantly higher BLL than obese individuals (2.11 vs. 1.93 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.48 vs. 1.27 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Exposure to secondhand smoke at home (SHS) was associated with statistically significantly higher BLL than when there was no exposure to SHS (β = 0.0683, p = 0.03 for seniors; β = 0.034, p = 0.034, p < 0.01 for adults). PMID:27044289

  6. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  7. Blood lead--tooth lead relationship among Boston children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Leviton, A.; Bellinger, D.C. )

    1989-10-01

    The amount of lead in deciduous teeth has been used extensively as a marker for infant lead exposure and body burden. Elevated tooth lead levels have been seen in children who had lead poisoning. Also, on a population wide basis tooth lead levels appear to vary according to housing status and presumably lead exposure. This exposure index has been applied using varying techniques in Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Because of the neurotoxicity of lead, the tooth lead levels of retarded and normal children have been compared. Most recently, in research of lead and child development, tooth lead levels have been used as markers of past lead exposure. Despite the widespread use of tooth lead values, very little is known about the exact time course of lead deposition in tooth from blood. This report compares blood lead levels at different ages to tooth lead levels in a group of Boston children.

  8. Soil lead-blood lead relationship among Boston children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B.; Bellinger, D.C.

    1988-12-01

    Lead contaminated soil has been consistently been found to contribute significantly to children's risk of blood lead elevation. An association between soil lead and blood lead has been reported for children in Holland, Rochester, New York, Omaha, Nebraska, Christchurch, New Zealand, and Kellogg, Idaho. The authors report on the connection between soil and blood lead levels among a group of Boston children in order to document this pattern of association in a specific setting which may be analogous to other situations of interest. The base population consisted of 11,837 consecutive births at the Boston Hospital for Women between April 1979 and April 1981.

  9. Evidence of Genetic Effects on Blood Lead Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, John B.; Dy, Veronica; McQuilty, Robert; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Duffy, David L.; Neale, Michael C.; Heijmans, Bas T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead is an environmental pollutant that causes acute and chronic toxicity. Surveys have related mean blood lead concentrations to exogenous sources, including industrial activity, use of lead-based paints, or traffic density. However, there has been little investigation of individual differences in lead absorption, distribution, or toxicity, or of genetic causes of such variation. Objectives We assessed the genetic contribution to variation in blood lead concentration in adults and conducted a preliminary search for genes producing such variation. Methods Erythrocyte lead concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in venous blood samples from 2,926 Australian adult male and female twins. Mean lead concentrations were compared by place of residence, social class and education, and by the subjects’ age, sex, alcohol intake, smoking habits, iron status, and HFE genotype. Results After adjustment for these covariates, there was strong evidence of genetic effects but not for shared environmental effects persisting into adult life. Linkage analysis showed suggestive evidence (logarithm of odds = 2.63, genome-wide p = 0.170) for a quantitative trait locus affecting blood lead values on chromosome 3 with the linkage peak close to SLC4A7, a gene whose product affects lead transport. Conclusions We conclude that genetic variation plays a significant role in determining lead absorption, lead distribution within the body, or both. PMID:17687451

  10. Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, E A; Piacitelli, G M; Gerwel, B; Schnorr, T M; Mueller, C A; Gittleman, J; Matte, T D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children of lead-exposed construction workers had higher blood lead levels than neighborhood control children. METHODS: Twenty-nine construction workers were identified from the New Jersey Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) registry. Eighteen control families were referred by workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 50 children (31 exposed, 19 control subjects) under age 6. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of workers children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48 mumol/L (10 micrograms/dL), compared with 5% of control children (unadjusted odds ratio = 6.1; 95% confidence interval = 0.9, 147.2). CONCLUSIONS: Children of construction workers may be at risk for excessive lead exposure. Health care providers should assess parental occupation as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. PMID:9279275

  11. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  12. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values. PMID:27178291

  13. [Development of lead benchmarks for soil based on human blood lead level in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-zhen; Luo, Yong-ming; Zhang, Hai-bo; Song, Jing; Xia, Jia-qi; Zhao, Qi-guo

    2009-10-15

    Lead benchmarks for soil are mainly established based on blood lead concentration of children. This is because lead plays a dramatically negative role in children's cognitive development and intellectual performance and thus soil lead has been concerned as main lead exposure source for children. Based on the extensively collection of domestic available data, lead levels in air, drinking water are 0.12-1.0 microg x m(-3) and 2-10 microg x L(-1); ingestion of lead from food by children of 0-6 years old is 10-25 microg x d(-1); geometric mean of women blood lead 1concentration of child bearing age is 4.79 microg x dL(-1), with 1.48 GSD. Lead benchmarks for soil were calculated with the Integration Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model (IEUBK) and the Adult Lead Model (ALM). The results showed the lead criteria values for residual land and commercial/industrial land was 282 mg x kg(-1) and 627 mg x kg(-1) respectively, which was slightly lower compared with U.S.A. and U.K. Parameters sensitivity analysis indicated that lead exposure scenario of children in China was significantly different from children in developed countries and children lead exposure level in China was obviously higher. Urgent work is required for the relationship studies between lead exposure scenario and blood lead level of children and establishment of risk assessment guideline of lead contaminated soil based on human blood lead level. PMID:19968127

  14. Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, D K; Hodgson, M J; Bromet, E J; Dew, M A; Connell, M M

    1987-01-01

    Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in randomly selected samples of 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant nu a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and time weighted average blood lead value. After controlling for other known risk factors such as age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, and exercise, the associations between exposure and blood pressure were small and non-significant. In the absence of a biologically feasible hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which low level lead exposure would influence blood pressure the present findings challenge the validity of the general population association. PMID:3689706

  15. [Determination of lead in blood by polarography].

    PubMed

    Mu, W; Li, Y; Ling, B; Wang, L; Gong, G

    1996-12-01

    A method for determination of trace lead in blood with complex catlysis polarography was develop. The peak potential of lead is -0.54 V in the system of hydrochloric acidpotassium iodide-vanadium (IV)-ethanol-ascorbic acid. There is good linelar relationship between peak current and lead concentration in the range of 0-1.0 microgram/3 ml. The recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 76.0% to 105.0% and the average recovery was 91.0% with RSD of 3.6% to 7.0%. The detection limit was 45 micrograms/L. The blood samples of 24 normal people and 6 workers with occupational exposure to lead were measured and the results were concordant with the clinical diagnoses. The proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive and reliable. It is suitable for determination of trace lead in blood. PMID:9389021

  16. Impact of soil and dust lead on children's blood lead on Children's blood lead in contaminated areas of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, M.; Lind, B.; Soerensen, S.; Vahter, M.

    2000-04-01

    The impact of lead in soil and dust on blood lead concentrations in young children and the risk of health effects were investigated in an urban and a mining areas of Sweden. Blood, soil, and indoor dust, as well as information on lead-exposure factors, were collected. The blood lead concentrations (total range = 9--77 {micro}g/l) the authors measured indicated a low risk for lead-induced health effects. Lead in soil and in dust had little effect on blood lead concentrations, given the present conditions and present concentration range--especially in the mining area. Urban children had significantly higher blood lead concentrations that children in the mining area, despite higher concentrations of lead in soil in the mining area. In the urban children, blood lead concentrations were influenced by parental smoking and lead in dust at day-care centers.

  17. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (<10 µg/dL) have indicated associations of blood lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  18. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOEpatents

    Nogar, Nicholas S.

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  19. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California.

    PubMed

    Satin, K P; Neutra, R R; Guirguis, G; Flessel, P

    1991-01-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means approximately 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants. PMID:2039272

  20. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California

    SciTech Connect

    Satin, K.P.; Neutra, R.R.; Guirguis, G.; Flessel, P. )

    1991-05-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means {approximately} 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.

  1. Blood lead concentrations of spectacled eiders near the Kashunuk River, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Creekmore, L.H.; Flint, P.; Smith, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We collected, 342 blood samples from spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) on their breeding grounds in western Alaska from late May through to early August 1993a??1995. Lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. wet weight were found in the blood of 20% of the adult female eiders, 2% of the adult males and 6% of the ducklings. Lead was detected (a?Y0.02 p.p.m.) more frequently in the blood of adult females than in adult males or ducklings and the maximum concentrations were 14.37, 0.50 and 4.28 p.p.m. wet weight, respectively. In adult females, there was a significant difference in the proportion of detectable blood lead concentrations between three collection times (arrival/nesting, hatch and brood rearing), with the highest proportion (92%) occurring at hatch. Nine hens with blood lead concentrations of a?Y0.50 p.p.m. were captured a second time several weeks to 1 year later. In the hens sampled twice at intervals of several weeks, the blood lead concentrations increased and declined at mean daily rates of 1.10 and 0.94, respectively. The lead concentrations in the blood of adults were not correlated with body weights. Radiographs were taken of 119 eiders and corresponding blood samples from 98 of these birds were analysed for lead. Ingested shot was seen in X-rays of 12 adults and three ducklings and, of the 13 blood samples tested, all had detectable lead concentrations. Of the birds without radiographic evidence of ingested shot, 84% of the adult females, 19% of the adult males and 17% of the ducklings had detectable lead concentrations in their blood. Breeding ground exposure of waterfowl to lead shot is unusual and is of particular concern in spectacled eiders because of their threatened status and declining numbers in western Alaska.

  2. Predicting blood lead concentrations from lead in environmental media.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, K R

    1998-01-01

    Policy statements providing health and environmental criteria for blood lead (PbB) often give recommendations on an acceptable distribution of PbB concentrations. Such statements may recommend distributions of PbB concentrations including an upper range (e.g., maximum and/or 90th percentile values) and central tendency (e.g., mean and/or 50th percentile) of the PbB distribution. Two major, and fundamentally dissimilar, methods to predict the distribution of PbB are currently in use: statistical analyses of epidemiologic data, and application of biokinetic models to environmental lead measurements to predict PbB. Although biokinetic models may include a parameter to predict contribution of lead from bone (PbBone), contemporary data based on chemical analyses of pediatric bone samples are rare. Dramatic decreases in environmental lead exposures over the past 15 years make questionable use of earlier data on PbBone concentrations to estimate a contribution of lead from bone; often used by physiologic modelers to predict PbB. X-ray fluorescent techniques estimating PbBone typically have an instrument-based quantitation limit that is too high for use with many young children. While these quantitation limits have improved during the late 1990s, PbBone estimates using an epidemiologic approach to describing these limits for general populations of children may generate values lower than the instrument's quantitation limit. Additional problems that occur if predicting PbB from environmental lead by biokinetic modeling include a) uncertainty regarding the fractional lead absorption by young children; b) questions of bioavailability of specific environmental sources of lead; and c) variability in fractional absorption values over a range of exposures. Additional sources of variability in lead exposures that affect predictions of PbB from models include differences in the prevalence of such child behaviors as intensity of hand-to-mouth activity and pica. In contrast with these

  3. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  4. Silver Valley lead study: further analysis of the relationship between blood lead and air lead

    SciTech Connect

    Snee, R.D.

    1982-02-01

    Blood lead and air lead levels of children who lived within 32 km of a smelter in Kellogg, ID were measured in 1974 and 1975. While an analysis of the 1974 survey has appeared, the results of the 1975 survey and an evaluation of the change in blood lead levels of those children who participated in both the 1974 and 1975 surveys has not previously been discussed in the literature. It is concluded that, for these data, in the air lead range of 0.5-5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, the blood lead-air lead relationship can be adequately described by blood lead-air lead slope which is approximately 1.0 and at most 1.4. This slope was also found to be independent of children's age. It is shown that an accurate estimate of the blood lead-air lead relationship cannot be obtained without taking proper account of selected environmental variables; specifically, pica, sex, age, father's work status, education, and home cleanliness.

  5. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  6. Predictors of blood lead levels in organolead manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    McGrail, M P; Stewart, W; Schwartz, B S

    1995-10-01

    The relations between recent and cumulative exposure to organic and inorganic lead and blood lead levels were examined in 222 organolead manufacturing workers. Personal monitoring data grouped by 29 exposure zones were used to derive estimates of recent and cumulative occupational exposure. Recent exposure to organic lead and recent combined exposure to organic and inorganic lead were significantly and positively associated with blood lead levels. Exposure duration was found to modify the relation between recent inorganic lead exposure and blood lead levels. Age and cigarette smoking were positively associated with blood lead levels, whereas alcohol use was associated with lower blood lead levels. This is in notable contrast to the influence of alcohol consumption on blood lead levels among inorganic lead workers or the general population. Furthermore, the data suggested that current alcohol use modified the relation between recent organic lead exposure and blood lead levels (P = .08): current alcohol users evidenced less of an increase in blood lead levels with increasing recent organic lead exposures than did workers who did not currently use alcoholic beverages. The data suggest that organic lead exposure affects blood lead levels, probably after dealkylation to inorganic lead. The associations with alcohol consumption may be evidence for differences in enzyme-mediated metabolism of organolead compounds. Finally, the data suggest that recent external lead exposure and internal lead stores both influenced blood lead levels in these workers. PMID:8542343

  7. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Adults with Childhood Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Kim M.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Egelhoff, John C.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Brubaker, Christopher J.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure adversely affects neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined changes in human brain metabolism that may underlie known adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Objective We examined the association between mean childhood blood lead levels and in vivo brain metabolite concentrations as adults, determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a birth cohort with documented low-to-moderate lead exposure. Methods Adult participants from the Cincinnati Lead Study [n = 159; mean age (± SD), 20.8 ± 0.9 years] completed a quantitative, short-echo proton MRS protocol evaluating seven regions to determine brain concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr), cholines (Cho), myo-inositol, and a composite of glutamate and glutamine (GLX). Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Results Mean childhood blood lead levels were associated with regionally specific brain metabolite concentrations adjusted for age at imaging and Full-Scale intelligence quotient. Adjusted analyses estimated for a unit (micrograms per deciliter) increase in mean childhood blood lead concentrations, a decrease of NAA and Cr concentration levels in the basal ganglia, a decrease of NAA and a decrease of Cho concentration levels in the cerebellar hemisphere, a decrease of GLX concentration levels in vermis, a decrease of Cho and a decrease of GLX concentration levels in parietal white matter, and a decrease of Cho concentration levels in frontal white matter. Conclusions Gray-matter NAA reductions associated with increasing childhood blood lead levels suggest that sustained childhood lead exposure produces an irreversible pattern of neuronal dysfunction, whereas associated white-matter choline declines indicate a permanent alteration to myelin architecture. PMID:20947467

  8. Blood lead levels in children, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shunqin; Zhang Jinliang . E-mail: jinliangzhg@263.net

    2006-07-15

    To evaluate Chinese children's blood lead levels (BLLs) and identify its distribution features, we collected articles on children's BLLs published from 1994 to March 2004 using the Chinese Biomedical Disc and reviewed 32 articles eligible for the following criteria: (1) BLLs measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; (2) strict quality control; (3) no lead pollution sources in the areas where the screened subjects live; and (4) sample size bigger than 100. We found that mean BLLs of Chinese children was 92.9 {mu}g/L (37.2-254.2 {mu}g/L), and 33.8% (9.6-80.5%) of the subjects had BLLs higher than 100 {mu}g/L. Nine of the 27 provinces or cities reported had average BLLs {>=}100 {mu}g/L. Boys' BLL was 96.4 {mu}g/L, significantly higher than girls' 89.4 {mu}g/L (P<0.001). BLLs of children {<=}6 years increased with age. The mean BLLs of children living in industrial and urban areas were significantly higher than those of children in suburbs and rural areas. Our results suggested that children's BLLs in China are higher than those of their counterparts in other countries due to its heavy lead pollution. Therefore, this is of great public health importance.

  9. Lead concentration in the blood of the general population living near a lead-zinc mine site, Nigeria: Exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Bello, Olanrewaju; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin

    2016-01-15

    Lead (Pb) poisoning in children is a major public health catastrophe worldwide. This report summarises both exposure pathways and blood Pb levels in children below 7 years of age and adults (above 18 years) from the Adudu community living near a lead-zinc mine in Nasawara, Nigeria. The average and median blood Pb levels in children and adults were 2.1 and 1.3 μg/dL, 3.1 and 1.8 μg/dL, respectively. However, Pb in 14% of adults' blood exceeded 5 μg/dL, which is the recommended threshold blood Pb concentration in adults as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore 68% of adults' blood exceeded blood Pb action level of 2 μg/dL. For children, 11.4% and 31% of the blood samples exceeded 5 μg/dL and 2 μg/dL, respectively, while no safe blood Pb level in children has been recommended. In Nasawara, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between the various age groups in children with 2-4 years old having the highest levels and 6 year old children having the lowest Pb levels. Although this study did not detect elevated levels of Pb in children's blood in regions such as Zamfara, Nigeria and Kabwe, Zambia, a high percentage of samples exceeded 2 μg/dL. Soils, floor dusts, water and crops also reveal that Pb contamination in the study area could potentially be the major cause of blood Pb in the community exposed to mining. This study also observed a significant correlation between water Pb levels of adults and blood Pb levels, suggesting that water is the major exposure pathway. This analysis highlights the need to properly manage mining activities so that the health of communities living in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine is not compromised. PMID:26556755

  10. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P.; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M.; Whitfield, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993–1996 and 2002–2005 and from UK in 1991–1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10−14 for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  11. Genome-wide association study of blood lead shows multiple associations near ALAD.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Nicole M; Zhu, Gu; Dy, Veronica; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Hemani, Gibran; Kemp, John P; Mcmahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Lawlor, Debbie A; Steer, Colin; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Davey Smith, George; Evans, David M; Whitfield, John B

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental lead, or biomarker evidence of high body lead content, is associated with anaemia, developmental and neurological deficits in children, and increased mortality in adults. Adverse effects of lead still occur despite substantial reduction in environmental exposure. There is genetic variation between individuals in blood lead concentration but the polymorphisms contributing to this have not been defined. We measured blood or erythrocyte lead content, and carried out genome-wide association analysis, on population-based cohorts of adult volunteers from Australia and UK (N = 5433). Samples from Australia were collected in two studies, in 1993-1996 and 2002-2005 and from UK in 1991-1992. One locus, at ALAD on chromosome 9, showed consistent association with blood lead across countries and evidence for multiple independent allelic effects. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805313 (P = 3.91 × 10(-14) for lead concentration in a meta-analysis of all data), is known to have effects on ALAD expression in blood cells but other SNPs affecting ALAD expression did not affect blood lead. Variants at 12 other loci, including ABO, showed suggestive associations (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). Identification of genetic polymorphisms affecting blood lead reinforces the view that genetic factors, as well as environmental ones, are important in determining blood lead levels. The ways in which ALAD variation affects lead uptake or distribution are still to be determined. PMID:25820613

  12. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), at a wavelength of 283.3 nm. FAAS was used especially adequate for metals at relatively high concentration levels. Results The geometric mean of the 45 airborne lead levels was 81.14 µg/m3 (range 9.0-677.2 µg/m3). The geometric mean blood lead level of the 45 workers was 16.25 µg/dL (range 4.59-39.33 µg/dL). No worker had a blood lead level > 60 µg/dL. A statistically significantly positive correlation was found between airborne lead level and blood lead levels (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). It was observed that personal hygiene was poor; workers smoked and did not wash their hands before drinking or eating. It was concluded that these behaviors had a significant correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001). Conclusion Improvements in working conditions and occupational health education are required due to the correlation found between blood leads and airborne lead levels. PMID:23019534

  13. UK Blood Lead Monitoring Programme 1984-1987: protocol and results for 1984.

    PubMed

    Quinn, M J; Delves, H T

    1987-11-01

    The Department of the Environment (DOE) has undertaken an extensive programme to monitor blood lead concentrations annually over the period 1984 to 1987 in the context of the reduction in the maximum permissible lead content of petrol from 0.4 to 0.15 g/l from 1st January 1986. The study includes adults living in heavily trafficked urban areas and in occupational groups particularly exposed to petrol lead; children aged 6-7 years attending schools in heavily trafficked urban areas; and control groups of adults and children in rural areas. The surveys are planned to cover about 1500 adults and 1000 children in total each year. Cohorts of adults are being followed, with replacement where necessary owing to moving, etc. For ethical reasons, no child will be sampled more than once, although the schools concerned will be revisited each year; children's blood is also being examined for antibodies to measles and poliomyelitis. Blood samples are being analysed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS); considerable efforts are being made to ensure the validity of the analytical results during the period of the study. Results for 1984 indicated that average blood lead concentrations in both adults and children were generally low and were in line with levels expected on the basis of earlier surveys; only a very small proportion of individuals had raised levels. A detailed statistical analysis has confirmed the results of the EEC Blood Lead Surveys (carried out in 1979-1981) that blood lead concentrations were related to a range of personal, social and environmental factors including age, sex and smoking and drinking habits. Comparisons of any trends during the survey period in blood level concentrations in the exposed and control groups, together with results from the monitoring of sources of environmental lead should enable a broad assessment to be made of the effect of the reduction in petrol lead. PMID:2447012

  14. Semi-automatic determination of lead in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Delves, H T; Vinter, P

    1966-09-01

    The procedure developed by Browett and Moss (1964) for the semi-automatic determination of the lead content of urine has been adapted for the determination of lead in blood. Determinations are normally carried out in duplicate on 2.0 ml. samples of whole blood and the minimum sample size is 0.5 ml. The organic substances present in blood are destroyed by a manual wet-oxidation procedure and the lead is determined colorimetrically as lead dithizonate using a Technicon AutoAnalyzer. The lower limit of detection, expressed as three times the standard deviation of the blank value, is 5 mug. Pb/100 ml. blood. The standard deviation of the method in the upper range of normal blood lead level of 30 mug. Pb/100 ml. blood (Moncrieff, Koumides, Clayton, Patrick, Renwick, and Roberts, 1964), is +/- 3 mug. Pb/100 ml. blood. Ten samples per hour may be estimated in duplicate. PMID:5919367

  15. Blood Lead and Other Metal Biomarkers as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yutaka; Brody, Debra J.; Flegal, Katherine M.; Fakhouri, Tala H.I.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Axelrad, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Analyses of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 1988 to 1994 found an association of increasing blood lead levels <10 μg/dL with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The potential need to correct blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjust for biomarkers for other metals, for example, cadmium and iron, had not been addressed in the previous NHANES III-based studies on blood lead-CVD mortality association. We analyzed 1999 to 2010 NHANES data for 18,602 participants who had a blood lead measurement, were ≥40 years of age at the baseline examination and were followed for mortality through 2011. We calculated the relative risk for CVD mortality as a function of hemoglobin- or hematocrit-corrected log-transformed blood lead through Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with adjustment for serum iron, blood cadmium, serum C-reactive protein, serum calcium, smoking, alcohol intake, race/Hispanic origin, and sex. The adjusted relative risk for CVD mortality was 1.44 (95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.98) per 10-fold increase in hematocrit-corrected blood lead with little evidence of nonlinearity. Similar results were obtained with hemoglobin-corrected blood lead. Not correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin resulted in underestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association while not adjusting for iron status and blood cadmium resulted in overestimation of the lead-CVD mortality association. In a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, log-transformed blood lead was linearly associated with increased CVD mortality. Correcting blood lead for hematocrit/hemoglobin and adjustments for some biomarkers affected the association. PMID:26735529

  16. Prediction of pediatric blood lead levels from gasoline consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Billick, I.H.

    1982-04-21

    Tables illustrate the results of a study which analyzed the relationship between blood levels in children and gasoline lead consumption in New York City, Chicago, and Louisville. It examined the percent of blood lead measurements which exceeded 30 micrograms of lead per 100 milliliters of blood, a level which the Environmental Protection Agency has concluded is the maximum safe level. Tables provide data on the blood lead levels, by race, age group, and sampling data for all three cities. The New York City data are separated by screening status as well. The blood lead levels are reported both as geometric mean blood lead, for the given cell, and the percent of observations with blood leads greater than 30 micrograms of lead per 100 milliliters of blood. To illustrate the time dependence of the blood lead, plots have been made for a single age - race population for all three cities. The 24 - 35 year old age group was selected since this appears to be the most sensitive group. Tables summarize data base characteristics and the number of observations for each city, broken down by race. Gasoline data are appended.

  17. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead-Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes calculation of blood lead-air lead slope factor within an analysis of the relationship between blood lead levels and air lead levels among participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The slope factors are compared wi...

  18. The relationship of blood lead to blood pressure in a longitudinal study of working men.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S T; Muñoz, A; Stein, A; Sparrow, D; Speizer, F E

    1986-05-01

    The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure. PMID:3485920

  19. Relationship of blood lead to blood pressure in a longitudinal study of working men

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure.

  20. Relating tooth and blood lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, M.B. |

    1995-12-01

    Lead concentrations in shed teeth have found increasing utility in research studies of lead exposure and child development. Teeth are useful because they record lead levels and are easily collected. However, in considering internal doses of lead, most of what has been learned about human lead toxicity and kinetics has been expressed in terms of blood lead concentrations. For example, a computerized literature search found {open_quotes}blood lead{close_quotes} as a key word in 1,035 articles cited between January and October 1994. Only 9 articles were found for {open_quotes}tooth lead{close_quotes}. Because of the advantages of using teeth to assess lead exposure, the relation between teeth and blood lead levels deserves more attention. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Blood lead and cadmium levels in children: A study conducted in Changchun, Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianling; Sheng, Lianxi; Yan, Zhenghong; Hong, Lianjin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to lead and cadmium in developing countries is considered to be a public health emergency. The present study was designed to investigate children’s exposure to lead and cadmium in Changchun, China. METHODS: A total of 1619 blood samples were collected at random from 1426 children between one and 14 years of age, and 204 adults from Changchun, China. Blood lead and cadmium levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The average blood lead level in children was 60.29 μg/L, with boys exhibiting higher blood lead levels than girls. The average blood cadmium level in children was 1.26 μg/L, and differences were not observed between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Children from Changchun exhibited relatively low blood lead and cadmium levels compared with children from other cities, and higher lead and lower cadmium levels than adults. This may be related to leaded gasoline environmental pollution and children’s hand-to-mouth activities. PMID:24596479

  2. Relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1988-06-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an elevated blood lead level was a significant predictor of subsequent systolic blood pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed association. These data suggest that blood lead level can influence systolic blood pressure even within the normal range.

  3. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children

    SciTech Connect

    von Schirnding, Y.; Bradshaw, D. ); Fuggle, R. ); Stokol, M. )

    1991-08-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels {ge} 25 {mu}g/dL, the US action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure.

  4. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  5. Leading Online Learning Initiatives in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen-Tracey, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Adult learners often face barriers to participation in traditional classroom instruction. As technology access grows and adults naturally incorporate technology into their daily lives, adult education programs are finding innovative ways to blend technology with instruction through quality online learning opportunities. This article highlights the…

  6. Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk.

    PubMed

    Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Puneet; Shekhar, Pallav

    2005-10-15

    Lead is pervasive environmental pollutant with potential public health hazard as a contaminant of food from animal origin. The present study examines the blood and milk lead level in animals reared in areas around different industrial activities and to find out correlation between blood and milk lead levels in lactating cows. Blood and milk samples (n = 149) were collected from animals reared around steel processing unit (n = 22), lead-zinc smelter (n = 21), aluminum processing plant (n = 25), rock phosphate mining area cum phosphate fertilizer plant (n = 21), coal mining areas (n = 46) and closed lead but functional zinc smelter (n = 14). Samples were also collected from randomly chosen 52 lactating cows reared in non-polluted areas to serve as controls. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher blood lead level was recorded in animals reared around lead-zinc smelting factories followed by closed lead but functional zinc smelter, aluminum processing unit and steel manufacturing plant, as compared to values recorded for control animals. The highest milk lead level (0.84 +/- 0.11 microg/ ml) was detected in animals reared in the vicinity of lead-zinc smelting unit followed by aluminum processing plant and steel processing unit. Analysis of correlation between blood lead levels and lead excretion in milk through sorting the blood lead values into 9 different ranges irrespective of site of collection of samples (n = 201) revealed significant correlation (r = 0.469 at P < 0.01) between blood and milk lead concentrations. The lactating cows with blood lead levels above 0.20 microg/ml (groups 5-9) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher milk lead excretion than those with blood lead levels from non detectable to 0.20 microg/ml (groups 1-4). Pearson correlation analysis between blood and milk lead concentrations in 122 animals with blood lead <0.20 microg/ml showed non-significant correlation (r = 0.030 at P < 0.05) but a significant correlation was observed between these two

  7. Blood lead levels in lactating cows reared around polluted localities; transfer of lead into milk.

    PubMed

    Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Naresh, Ram; Kumar, Puneet; Shekhar, Pallav

    2005-07-15

    Lead is pervasive environmental pollutant with potential public health hazard as a contaminant of food from animal origin. The present study examines the blood and milk lead level in animals reared in areas around different industrial activities and to find out correlation between blood and milk lead levels in lactating cows. Blood and milk samples (n=149) were collected from animals reared around steel processing unit (n=22), lead-zinc smelter (n=21), aluminum processing plant (n=25), rock phosphate mining area cum phosphate fertilizer plant (n=21), coal mining areas (n=46) and closed lead but functional zinc smelter (n=14). Samples were also collected from randomly chosen 52 lactating cows reared in non-polluted areas to serve as controls. Significantly (P<0.05) higher blood lead level was recorded in animals reared around lead-zinc smelting factories followed by closed lead but functional zinc smelter, aluminum processing unit and steel manufacturing plant, as compared to values recorded for control animals. The highest milk lead level (0.84+/-0.11 microg/ml) was detected in animals reared in the vicinity of lead-zinc smelting unit followed by aluminum processing plant and steel processing unit. Analysis of correlation between blood lead levels and lead excretion in milk through sorting the blood lead values into nine different ranges irrespective of site of collection of samples (n=201) revealed significant correlation (r=0.469 at P<0.01) between blood and milk lead concentrations. The lactating cows with blood lead levels above 0.20 microg/ml (Groups 5 to 9) had significantly (P<0.05) higher milk lead excretion than those with blood lead levels from non-detectable to 0.20 microg/ml (Groups 1 to 4). Pearson correlation analysis between blood and milk lead concentrations in 122 animals with blood lead blood lead

  8. Blood lead levels of Korean lead workers in 2003–2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to document the trend in blood lead levels in Korean lead workers from 2003 until 2011 and blood lead levels within each of the main industries. Methods Nine years (2003–2011) of blood lead level data measured during a special health examination of Korean lead workers and collected by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency were analyzed. Blood lead levels were determined by year, and a geometric mean (GM) was calculated for each industry division. Results The overall GM blood lead level for all years combined (n = 365,331) was 4.35 μg/dL. The GM blood lead level decreased from 5.89 μg/dL in 2003 to 3.53 μg/dL in 2011. The proportion of the results ≥30 μg/dL decreased from 4.3% in 2003 to 0.8% in 2011. In the “Manufacture of Electrical Equipment” division, the GM blood lead level was 7.80 μg/dL, which was the highest among the industry divisions. The GM blood lead levels were 7.35 μg/dL and 6.77 μg/dL in the “Manufacturers of Rubber and Plastic Products” and the “Manufacture of Basic Metal Products” division, respectively. Conclusions The blood lead levels in Korean lead workers decreased from 2003 to 2011 and were similar to those in the US and UK. Moreover, workers in industries conventionally considered to have a high risk of lead exposure also tended to have relatively high blood lead levels compared to those in other industries. PMID:25379187

  9. Children's Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Sadler, Richard C; Gonzales, Christopher R; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2016-04-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children's average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children's blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  10. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality. PMID:9377649

  11. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Treble, R.G.; Thompson, T.S.; Morton, D.N.

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 {micro}mol/L, respectively. The father`s blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level. The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L, both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children. The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  12. Trends in blood lead levels in Christchurch (NZ) and environs 1978-85.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, D; Coope, P A; Malpress, W A; Janus, E D

    1986-01-01

    Blood lead levels have been monitored since 1974 and have shown a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) from 1978 to 1985 in 2830 subjects from Christchurch and environs. From a baseline in August 1978-81 to August 1985 blood lead levels in a population which had no relevant exposure to lead other than that from the general environment have fallen in adult males and females (greater than 17 years) by 42%, and in school and pre-school children greater than 9 months by 44% and 46% respectively. Reduction of blood lead has accelerated during the last three years. This can be linked to changes in dietary intake and clean up of lead in domestic and industrial environments. Over this decade the lead content of petrol (0.84 g/l) and petrol sales have remained unchanged. PMID:3772282

  13. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  14. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid-June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  15. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  16. Blood lead levels in South African inner-city children.

    PubMed Central

    von Schirnding, Y; Bradshaw, D; Fuggle, R; Stokol, M

    1991-01-01

    Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In a detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/dL, the U.S. action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 microgram/m3, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure. At the time of the study, South Africa had one of the highest levels of lead in gasoline in the Western World, namely, 0.836 g/L. Although levels have subsequently been reduced, this is typical of the situation in many African countries today. PMID:1720096

  17. Lead poisoning following ingestion of pieces of lead roofing plates: pica-like behavior in an adult.

    PubMed

    Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert

    2008-03-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies. PMID:17906991

  18. Depressed serum erythropoietin in pregnant women with elevated blood lead.

    PubMed

    Graziano, J H; Slavkovic, V; Factor-Litvak, P; Popovac, D; Ahmedi, X; Mehmeti, A

    1991-01-01

    During the course of a prospective study of lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in 1,502 women, we tested the hypothesis that environmental lead exposure is associated with depressed serum erythropoietin concentration. At mid-pregnancy and at delivery, blood samples were stratified by hemoglobin concentration; within each hemoglobin stratum, sera of women with the lowest and highest whole blood lead concentrations were selected for serum erythropoietin analysis. Analysis of variance revealed that women with higher blood lead levels had inappropriately low serum erythropoietin at both mid-pregnancy and at delivery. Thus, depressed serum erythropoietin appears to indicate lead nephrotoxicity, and it may also be responsible for the anemia associated with lead poisoning. PMID:1772259

  19. Semi-automatic determination of lead in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Delves, H. T.; Vinter, P.

    1966-01-01

    The procedure developed by Browett and Moss (1964) for the semi-automatic determination of the lead content of urine has been adapted for the determination of lead in blood. Determinations are normally carried out in duplicate on 2.0 ml. samples of whole blood and the minimum sample size is 0.5 ml. The organic substances present in blood are destroyed by a manual wet-oxidation procedure and the lead is determined colorimetrically as lead dithizonate using a Technicon AutoAnalyzer. The lower limit of detection, expressed as three times the standard deviation of the blank value, is 5 μg. Pb/100 ml. blood. The standard deviation of the method in the upper range of normal blood lead level of 30 μg. Pb/100 ml. blood (Moncrieff, Koumides, Clayton, Patrick, Renwick, and Roberts, 1964), is ± 3 μg. Pb/100 ml. blood. Ten samples per hour may be estimated in duplicate. Images PMID:5919367

  20. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the information included sex, age, weight, blood lead levels and history of convulsion gathered in the questionnaire. Finally all of data were statistically analyzed. Results: 66.7% of samples were male and 33.3% were female. The mean age was 32.57±38.27 months and the mean weight was 13.04±9.61kg. The Mean and Standard deviation of Blood lead level was 4.83±3.50μg/dL. 10% of samples had lead levels greater than 10μg/dL. 53.3% of patients have convulsion and other don’t have it. Blood lead levels was 4.91±3.65μg/dL in children with convulsion and 4.73± 3.38μg/dL in children without it; the difference was not significant (p= 0.8). Conclusion: Overall, no significant association was found between blood lead levels and convulsion. PMID:25664298

  1. Blood lead levels in children living in three communities, at different risks of lead pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Abbritti, G.; Cicioni, C.; Gambelunghe, M.; Fiordi, T.; Accattoli, M.P.; Morucci, P.; Bellucci, E.; Bauleo, F.A. )

    1988-12-01

    We carried out a survey on blood lead levels in children living in three different communities in Umbria, Italy: Corciano, a small community (12,500 inhabitants), free of lead-using factories and with light traffic; Perugia, a medium-sized city (146,500 inhabitants); Deruta, a small community (7500 inhabitants) whose economy is based mainly on the production of artistic pottery, mostly in small home-operated factories. The study sample was made up of 539 children (275 boys and 264 girls); 156 of them attended nursery school (aged 3-6) and 383 primary school (aged 6-11). The mean blood lead level was significantly higher in Deruta than in Corciano (9.7 vs 8.3 micrograms/dl); Deruta children whose parents were occupationally exposed to lead had significantly higher blood lead levels than children of lead-unexposed parents (10.7 vs 9.0 micrograms/dl). The mean blood lead level was higher in Perugia than in Corciano children. On the average boys had higher blood lead levels than girls in all of the groups. We conclude that blood lead levels were low in the groups of children studied. Nevertheless children of ceramic workers and children living in a medium-sized city had greater lead absorption than children living in the control area.

  2. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  3. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. PMID:8605853

  4. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure. PMID:15383411

  5. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  6. Relationship of blood lead levels to blood pressure in exhaust battery storage workers.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina; Cacciola, Anna; Martino, Lucia Barbaro; Calderaro, Santina Ricciardo; Di Nola, Carmelina; Verzera, Aurelio; Trimarchi, Giuseppe; Germanò, Domenico

    2006-04-01

    Several researches has focused the hypothesis that low blood lead levels could be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the relation between occupational lead exposure and elevated blood pressure a group of 27 workers, age range from 27 to 62 years, mean (SD) 36.52 (+/- 8.16) yr; length of employment mean (DS) 2.97 (+/- 1.67) yr, were recruited as study subjects. The following variables were measured: blood lead concentration (BPb), delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) activity, Zinc Protoporphirin (ZPP), creatinine, hematocrit, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood (DBP) Pressure. The results showed that long term occupational exposure was related to a slight increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among workers who had been exposed to higher level of lead with respect to workers exposed to lower level of lead. Furthermore, blood lead concentration (BPb) and ZPP resulted higher among workers exposed to higher level of ambient lead, while in the same group of workers ALAD activity resulted more inhibited. The authors concluded long term cumulative lead exposure can significantly increase blood pressure in low level Pb exposed workers. PMID:16716009

  7. Soil lead abatement and children's blood lead levels in an urban setting.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, K P; Brophy, M C; Chisolm, J J; Rohde, C A; Strauss, W J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The effect of abating soil lead was assessed among Baltimore children. The hypothesis was that a reduction of 1000 parts per million would reduce children's blood lead levels by 0.14 to 0.29 mumol/L (3-6 micrograms/dL). METHODS: In 2 neighborhoods (study and control), 187 children completed the protocol. In the study area, contaminated soil was replaced with clean soil. RESULTS: Soil lead abatement in this study did not lower children's blood lead. CONCLUSIONS: Although it did not show an effect in this study, soil lead abatement may be useful in certain areas. PMID:9842383

  8. Bioavailability of soilborne lead in adults, by stable isotope dilution.

    PubMed Central

    Maddaloni, M; Lolacono, N; Manton, W; Blum, C; Drexler, J; Graziano, J

    1998-01-01

    Using stable isotope dilution, we determined the bioavailability of soilborne lead (Pb) in human adult volunteers. Soil from a residential yard at a mining-impacted federal Superfund site that had negligible amounts of other priority pollutants was dried and screened through a 25-micron mesh sieve. The < 250-micron fraction, which likely represents that ingested via hand-to-mouth activity, was then sterilized by exposure to radiation. Ten replicate samples yielded a mean (SD) soil Pb concentration of 2924 +/- 36 ppm, and a mean 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.1083 +/- 0.0002, indicating remarkable soil homogeneity. Six adults with 206Pb/207Pb ratios of > 1.190 were admitted to the clinical research center and fasted overnight prior to dosing with 250 micrograms Pb/70 kg bw (i.e., 85.5 mg soil/70 kg) in a gelatin capsule. Blood for Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios was obtained at 14 time points through 30 hr. Results of the isotopic analyses from these subjects indicate that on average 26.2% +/- 8.1 of the administered dose was absorbed. Six additional subjects were subsequently studied but ingested soil immediately after a standardized breakfast. Bioavailability in this group was only 2.52% +/- 1.7. Collectively, this study provides the first experimental estimates of soil Pb absorption in humans, and should allow for more precise estimates of health risks due to Pb-contaminated soil. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9860919

  9. Environmental Lead Exposure among Preschool Children in Shanghai, China: Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Yu, Guangjun; Yan, Chonghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. Methods A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. Results The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291) with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291) with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L) were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L). The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. Conclusions The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas. PMID:25436459

  10. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  11. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  12. Comparison of three models for predicting blood lead levels in children: episodic exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Lakind, J S

    1998-01-01

    A threshold blood lead level in children below which no adverse effects occur has not been identified (CDC, 1991), Therefore, the traditional risk assessment method of relating dose to a reference dose (RfD) for noncancer effects is not applicable to lead. To assess whether environmental lead concentrations may result in adverse health effects, predicted blood lead levels are compared to a blood lead level of 10 micrograms/dL, the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention level of concern. Children's blood lead levels may be predicted with one of at least three models: USEPA'S Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model (IEUBK), and models by O'Flaherty (1993) and Carlisle and Wade (1992). This paper explores the utility of these models for predicting blood lead levels in children, and discusses areas of uncertainty associated with the use of these models in evaluating episodic exposures. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate interest further researching exposure and health effects from episodic contact with lead contaminated media. PMID:9679219

  13. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  14. Impacts of traffic-induced lead emissions on air, soil and blood lead levels in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Hashisho, Z; El-Fadel, M

    2004-01-01

    Lead is a purely toxic heavy metal which induces a wide variety of adverse physiologic effects. Nevertheless, it has been mined and used for more than 8,000 years. Among the different contemporary sources of lead pollution, traffic-induced emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline is of particular concern, as it can constitute more than 90 percent of total lead emissions into the atmosphere in congested urban areas where no phase-out activities have been adopted. Gasoline lead content and traffic volume are strongly correlated with concentrations of lead in various environmental media. In the absence of policies to reduce the use of lead in gasoline or to favor the use of unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline remains the predominant grade in many countries. This paper assesses the status of lead pollution from the combustion of leaded gasoline in Beirut based on field measurements of lead in air and roadside dust of urban and rural/suburban areas and recent data on soil and blood lead levels. Average atmospheric lead concentrations was about 1.86 microg m(-3) at urban locations and 0.147 microg m(-3) at suburban locations. The analysis of roadside dust revealed an average lead level of 353 microg g(-1) along urban streets and 125 microg g(-1) along rural/suburban roads. Blood lead levels were also relatively high in comparison to countries where leaded gasoline has been phased-out. PMID:15074616

  15. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  16. Association of blood lead and homocysteine levels among lead exposed subjects in Vietnam and Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Sin Eng; Ali, Safiyya Mohamed; Lee, Bee Lan; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Jin, Su; Dong, Nguyen‐Viet; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ong, Choon Nam; Chia, Kee Seng

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Lead and homocysteine are both linked to cardiovascular disease. With this in mind, the authors evaluated the relation between blood lead and homocysteine in people aged 19–66 years in two Asian populations. Methods This cross‐sectional study comprised 183 workers from a lead stabiliser factory in Singapore and 323 workers from a battery factory in Vietnam. Workers were occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead was analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while plasma homocysteine was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Chinese subjects had the lowest blood lead levels while the Indians had the highest. Controlling for age, sex and race, an increase of 1 μg/dl in blood lead was associated with an increase of 0.04 μmol/l of homocysteine on the log scale. Gender and ethnicity seemed to be strongly associated with the relation between lead and homocysteine. The positive relation between lead and homocysteine among the Vietnamese subjects was significant (Pearson's r = 0.254, p<0.01). When blood lead levels were divided by quartiles, the correlation coefficient between blood lead levels in the 4th quartile and homocysteine among the Vietnamese was higher (r = 0.405, p<0.01). Overall, an increase of 1 μg/dl in blood lead in all the Vietnamese subjects was associated with an increase of 0.05 μmol/l increase in homocysteine on the log scale. However, in the 4th quartile, the same increase was associated with an increase of 0.41 μmol/l of homocysteine on the log scale. Conclusions Blood lead was found to be associated with homocysteine levels in this Asian sample. Although we cannot determine causality from cross‐sectional data, it is sensible to consider the probability that this relation could explain one of the mechanisms of the impact of lead on the cardiovascular system. More studies would be needed to confirm this inference. PMID:17449564

  17. The relationship of environmental lead to blood-lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.D.; Quah, R.; Meigs, J.W.; DeLouise, E.R.

    1982-04-01

    An in-depth study of the distribution of lead sources in the residential environment of 377 children in New Haven, Connecticut, was carried out. Substantial amounts of lead were present in soil, paint, and house dust throughout New Haven, but not in air or water. Multiple regression modeling indicated that the most important contributors to variation in children's blood-lead levels were soil lead and exterior house paint lead. Using the best five-variable model only 11.7% of the variation in the children's blood-lead levels could be explained. This led to the conclusion that availability of lead in the residential environment did not account for most of the variation observed in the population.

  18. Environmental correlates of infant blood lead levels in Boston.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, M; Leviton, A; Needleman, H; Bellinger, D; Waternaux, C

    1985-10-01

    From a blood lead survey of 11,837 births, 249 newborns were enrolled in a 2-year, longitudinal study. Their blood leads (PbB) were measured semiannually, and their homes were visited for repeated collections of dust, soil, indoor air, tap water, and paint. Recent refinishing activity and the sizes of nearby streets were recorded. Overall mean PbB was 7.2 micrograms/dl (SD = 5.3) at birth. PbB did not vary systematically with age. Each subject's average postnatal PbB correlated highly with the amount of lead in dust (r = 0.4, P less than 0.0001) and soil (r = 0.3, P less than 0.001), and with the lead in paint (r = 0.2, P less than 0.01). Dust, soil and air lead levels correlated with one another. Refinishing activity in the presence of lead paint was associated with elevations of PbB. Water lead, proximate traffic, weight of recovered dust, race, maternal age and education, and sex were not predictive of PbB. Multivariate models of PbB were constructed that become increasingly predictive with age (r2 = 20 to 37%). Indoor dust lead, lead in soil, refinishing activity, and season were the independent variables. PMID:4076115

  19. Blood lead levels in children and pregnant women living near a lead-reclamation plant.

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, P; Lavoie, M; Goulet, L; Nantel, A J; Gingras, S

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of lead contamination around a lead-reclamation plant on the blood lead levels of children and pregnant women living in the area. DESIGN: Prevalence study. SETTING: Residents living 150 m or less (high-exposure area), 151 to 400 m (intermediate-exposure area) or 401 to 800 m (low-exposure area) southeast from the plant. PARTICIPANTS: All children aged 10 years or less and all pregnant women living in the designated area. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of venous blood lead levels with soil lead concentrations in the areas in which the subjects lived and with sociodemographic and behavioural factors. MAIN RESULTS: Of the estimated 57 pregnant women 38 (67%) participated: 20 were in the high-exposure area and 18 in the other two areas; their geometric mean blood lead levels were low (0.15 and 0.13 mumol/L respectively). Of the 625 eligible children 510 (82%) participated: 169 were in the high-exposure area, 179 in the intermediate-exposure area and 162 in the low-exposure area; their geometric mean lead levels were 0.43, 0.30 and 0.26 mumol/L respectively. Within each age group children in the high-exposure area had the highest levels. The mean levels for children aged 6 months to 5 years were 0.49, 0.35 and 0.28 mumol/L in the three areas respectively. Within each exposure group children aged 1 to 2 years had the highest levels. No potential confounding variables could explain the relation between blood lead level and soil lead concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant women's blood lead levels did not seem to be affected by exposure level, but the children's levels were primarily related to the soil lead concentration. PMID:2007239

  20. EFFECT MEASURE MODIFICATION OF BLOOD LEAD-AIR LEAD SLOPE FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is abundant literature finding that blood lead (PbB) levels are directly influenced by susceptibility factors including race and ethnicity, age, and housing. However, no study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the PbB-air lead (PbA) relationship...

  1. Effect measure modification of blood lead-air lead slope factors.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Meng, Qingyu; Cohen, Jonathan; Davis, J Allen; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant literature finding that susceptibility factors, including race and ethnicity, age, and housing, directly influence blood lead levels. No study has explored how susceptibility factors influence the blood lead-air lead relationship nationally. The objective is to evaluate whether susceptibility factors act as effect measure modifiers on the blood lead-air lead relationship. Participant level blood lead data from the 1999 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were merged with air lead data from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Linear mixed effects models were run with and without an air lead interaction term for age group, sex, housing age, or race/ethnicity to determine whether these factors are effect measure modifiers for all ages combined and for five age brackets. Age group and race/ethnicity were determined to be effect measure modifiers in the all-age model and for some age groups. Being a child (1-5, 6-11, and 12-19 years) or of Mexican-American ethnicity increased the effect estimate. Living in older housing (built before 1950) decreased the effect estimate for all models except for the 1-5-year group, where older housing was an effect measure modifier. These results are consistent with the peer-reviewed literature of time-activity patterns, ventilation, and toxicokinetics. PMID:24961837

  2. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... below to read more. High Blood Pressure and Edema : You may notice swelling in some parts of ... blood pressure. This buildup of fluids, called peripheral edema, usually occurs in your ankles, feet, lower legs, ...

  3. Blood lead concentrations in mallards from Delevan and Colusa National Wildlife Refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauser, David M.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Mensik, John G.; Brand, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 181 (108 adult drakes and 73 individuals of mixed age and sex) mallards, Anas platyrhynchos , from Colusa and Delevan National Wildlife Refuges during late winter and summer of 1987. The percentage of birds with elevated lead concentration was 28.7 for late winter and 16.4 for late summer. For summer trapped birds, a significantly greater proportion of males than females contained elevated lead levels. These findings indicate that lead poisoning may be a year-round event in certain areas of the Sacramento Valley.

  4. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    RAHBAR, MOHAMMAD H.; SAMMS-VAUGHAN, MAUREEN; DICKERSON, AISHA S.; LOVELAND, KATHERINE A.; ARDJOMAND-HESSABI, MANOUCHEHR; BRESSLER, JAN; SHAKESPEARE-PELLINGTON, SYDONNIE; GROVE, MEGAN L.; BOERWINKLE, ERIC

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2–8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009 – 2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg/dL. In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg/dL vs. 2.31 μg/dL; P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg/dL vs. 2.52 μg/dL; P < 0.01), and children who reported eating ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg/dL vs. 1.65 μg/dL; P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg/dL vs. 2.19 μg/dL; P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead

  5. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  6. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Namihira, D; Saldivar, L; Pustilnik, N; Carreón, G J; Salinas, M E

    1993-03-01

    Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 micrograms/dl (SD 19.88 microgram/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 micrograms/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 micrograms/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 micrograms/kg/d. PMID:8450554

  7. Influence of social and environmental factors on dust, lead, hand lead, and blood lead levels in young children

    SciTech Connect

    Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.; Dietrich, K.N.; Clark, C.S.; Que Hee, S.; Hammond, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The roles of environmental and behavioral factors in determining blood lead levels were studied in a cohort of young children living in an urban environment. The subjects were observed at 3-month intervals from birth to 24 months of age. Repeated measurements were made of the children's blood lead levels, environmental levels of lead in house dust, and in the dust found on the children's hands. A qualitative rating of the residence and of the socioeconomic status of the family was obtained. Interviews and direct observation of parent and child at home were used to evaluate various aspects of caretaker-child interactions. Data analysis consisted of a comparison of results obtained by (a) simple correlational analysis, (b) multiple regression analysis, and (c) structural equations analysis. The results demonstrated that structural equation modeling offers a useful approach to unraveling the complex interactions present in the data set. In this preliminary analysis, the suspected relationship between the levels of lead in house dust and on hands and the blood lead level was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, the analyses indicated an important interplay between environmental sources and social factors in the determination of hand lead and blood lead levels in very young children.

  8. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  9. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.; Esterman, A.; Lewis, M.; Roder, D.; Calder, I.

    1986-07-01

    This survey included 1239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's ''level of concern.'' There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  10. Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria A; Jolly, Kevin W; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2010-01-01

    In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adult and pediatric average blood lead levels in the US have been extraordinary. Progress continues: the US Environmental Protection Agency recently developed a new air standard for lead. In the 21st Century, the average blood lead level in a society may be seen as a marker of the status of their public’s health. However, the threat of lead exposure remains a significant public health problem among subpopulation groups in the US and in many less developed countries. This paper examines some of the specific issues involved in the reduction of blood lead in a post-industrial era. These involve the control of the remaining exogenous primary sources, both general (eg, industrial emissions) and specific (eg, at-risk occupations), exogenous secondary sources (eg, contaminated urban soils, legacy lead-based paints), an endogenous source (ie, cumulative body lead burden) and emergent sources. PMID:22282686

  11. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  12. Blood lead levels in children: epidemiology vs. simulations.

    PubMed

    Biesiada, M; Hubicki, L

    1999-05-01

    The key problem in environmental health is to identify the potential health hazards at the lowest possible cost based upon available environmental data. Biokinetic models such as IEUBK Lead 0.99d are very promising in this respect. We attempted a comparison between epidemiological data and predictions of the model. As input, we used the existing exposure data for the Katowice Voivodship (administrative district, Poland). Epidemiological analysis was based on the results of the screening programme 'Prevention of the Environmental Lead Intoxication in Children Living in Katowice Voivodship'. The simulations consisted of predicted distributions of blood lead levels in children. They have been compared with observed distributions. Sensitivity analysis of simulations with respect to lead concentration in air, soil, water and diet has also been performed. The agreement between predicted and observed mean blood lead levels was quite good (relative difference of about 40%) as for the coarse exposure assessment employed. At the level of risk (fraction of population having blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dl) the difference is much higher (about a factor of 2). In order to explain this discrepancy we checked the goodness of fit for the log-normal distribution function (usually taken as a template distribution for lead in the population) in the right tail of the distribution. We noticed a systematic effect depleting the right tail of the actual distribution as compared with the log-normal one. Therefore one can expect that using (as a template) another skewed distribution better fitted in the right tail would improve the accuracy of risk assessment. PMID:10442475

  13. Dietary exposure to lead of adults in Shenzhen city, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liubo; Wang, Zhou; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Huimin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Jiang, Jie; Pathiraja, Nimal; Xiao, Ying; Jiao, Rui; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, can be found in the environment and food. The present study is the first to estimate the lead dietary exposure of Shenzhen adults (≥ 20 years old) in various age-gender subgroups, and to assess the associated health risk. Food samples that represented the Shenzhen people's dietary pattern were collected and prepared for analysis. Lead was determined in 13 food groups using 276 individual cooked samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the local food consumption data of Shenzhen adults. The mean and 95th percentile lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 0.59-0.73 and 0.75-0.94 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. In all food groups, the highest lead exposure was from 'Eggs and their products' (42.4-51.6% of the total exposure); preserved eggs being the main contributor. The other major contributors to lead exposure of Shenzhen adults were 'Fish and seafood, and their products' (14.3-16.7% of the total exposure) and 'Vegetables and their products' (15.5-16.2% of the total exposure). The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for the risk assessment of lead, and the results showed that the risk was considered to be low in all age-gender groups for Shenzhen adults. However, having considered a number of toxic effects of lead, it is suggested that more efforts should be made to reduce the lead levels in foodstuff for Shenzhen adults. PMID:27295315

  14. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos. PMID:27038476

  15. Lead and the Environment: An Approach to Educating Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; Nieboer, Evert; Karagatzides, Jim D.

    1999-01-01

    A lead shot environmental education program using hands-on activities and public information displays was directed toward adult Cree of Mushkegowuk Territory, Ontario (Canada). Of 47 participants at the beginning of the study, 7 thought lead shot was detrimental to animals, the environment, and people. After program implementation, all…

  16. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar; Khan, Manzurul Haque; Khandker, Salamat; Sarwar, A. F. M.; Yasmin, Nahid; Faruquee, M. H.; Yasmin, Rabeya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB) in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL) among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety. PMID:24707223

  17. Chelatable lead body burden (by calcium-disodium EDTA) and blood lead concentration in man

    SciTech Connect

    Brangstrup Hansen, J.P.; Dossing, M.; Paulev, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The chelatable part of lead body burden was measured in 32 workers and seven office workers after an infusion test with CaNa/sub 2/EDTA. The workers had been exposed to lead at a lead and zinc processing unit for one to three years (mean one year). There was good correlation (r = 0.87) between blood lead and chelatable urinary lead excretion described by the equation y = 0 07.10/sup 0.46 x/. From this equation it can be predicted that the generally accepted limit value for chelatable urinary lead excretion, 0.42 ..mu..mol/mmol CaNa/sub 2/EDTA administered per 24 hours (3.1 ..mu..mol/24 hours or 650 ..mu..g/24 hours), corresponds to a blood lead concentration (PbB) of 1.7 ..mu..mol/l (or 35 ..mu..g/100 ml), which is lower than the commonly accepted limit value of 2.9 ..mu..mol/1 (or 60..mu..g/100 ml) for occupationally lead-exposed persons. There was a better correlation between the chelatable lead excretion and the urinary ALA-excretion (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) than between PbB and the urinary ALA-excretion (r = 0.26; p > 0.05).

  18. Updating about reductions of air and blood lead concentrations in Turin, Italy, following reductions in the lead content of gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, R.; Pignata, C.; Gilli, G.

    1995-07-01

    Considering its well known toxicity and the chronic human exposure to lead, international lawmakers enforced some directives or laws calling for the reduction of lead content in gasoline. All of these legislative acts aimed to reduce health risks for the general population. The aim of this study was to consider the effectiveness of these laws on air lead levels and consequently on blood lead levels in a randomly selected urban Italian population. In particular, these markers were analyzed over the course of several years, corresponding to the periods just before and after enforcements of the reductions of lead in petrol. Data presented point out some considerations: (1) enforcement of legislative measures concerning the reduction of lead in petrol has reduced atmospheric levels of lead. This result demonstrates a major environmental success in primary prevention efforts. (2) This success is clear especially considering that the actual Pb-B levels can be extended to the urbanized populations. Pb-B levels were consistently higher for drinkers, for older adults and for males. The mean of Pb-B level for the present urbanized population is higher than the U.S. overall population (6.4 vs 3 {mu}g/dl). This difference can be also explained considering the different historical period of enforcement of the restriction laws. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, X M; Yan, C H; Guo, D; Wu, S M; Li, R Q; Huang, H; Ao, L M; Zhou, J D; Hong, Z Y; Xu, J D; Jin, X M; Tang, J M

    1997-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the cord blood lead (BPb) levels of babies born in one urban area of Shanghai, and to preliminarily identify the demographic, social environment and prenatal factors which have an effect on the cord BPb concentrations. From August to November 1993, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 605 live newborns in the Yangpu Maternal and Child Hospital. 257 samples were excluded from measurement because of clotting. In 348 cord samples, the geometric mean of cord BPb levels was 9.2 micrograms/dl, with a 95% confidence interval of the mean 8.86-9.54 (micrograms/dl). 142 babies (40.8%) had cord BPb levels of 10 micrograms/dl or greater. As a result of this high percentage of newborns with BPb levels equal to or greater than 10 micrograms/dl, we estimate that each year in the Shanghai City about 60,000 newborns are at risk for developing neuropsychological deficiencies caused by maternal lead exposure during pregnancy. To investigate the factors affecting cord blood levels, the subjects with levels greater than the 70th percentile (10.7 micrograms/dl) (n = 104) and less than the 30th percentile (7.4 micrograms/dl) (n = 104) were selected to compare the demographic, environment and prenatal medical history. Increased BPb levels at birth were associated with maternal passive smoking, a family member being occupationally exposed to lead, proximity to major traffic way, household coal combustion, neighborhood coal combustion, low level of maternal occupations, and the increasing occurrence of having the high lead foodstuff pidan (preserved duck egg) during pregnancy. We conclude that prenatal lead exposure has become an important health issue for young children in Shanghai. PMID:9099425

  20. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  1. Blood thiamine values in captive adult African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Hoover, John P; DiGesualdo, Cynthia L

    2005-09-01

    Heparinized whole-blood samples from 22 adult African lions (Panthera leo) fed diets considered nutritionally adequate in 10 American Zoo and Aquarium Association member zoos in North America were provided for this study. Blood thiamine values were estimated using a standard microbiological assay method. The mean +/- standard deviation for blood thiamine values was 249.3 +/- 43.5 nmol/L with a range in values from 160 to 350 nmol/L after exclusion of one outlier. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the mean blood thiamine values of male and female lions, or of lions that were over and under 10 yr of age. This range (160 to 350 nmol/L) is proposed as a reasonable estimate of the expected range in blood thiamine values for captive adult African lions as currently fed in North American zoos. PMID:17312758

  2. Association of Blood Lead level with Elevated Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alghasham, Abdullah A.; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M.A.; Ismail, Hisham A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is a metal with many important industrial uses. The relationship between lead exposure and the rise of blood pressure has received a great deal of attention as it was implicated that the mortality from cardiovascular diseases might be reduced by lowering lead levels in the environment. Objectives: The study was to investigate the correlation between the blood lead (B-Pb) levels and the values of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Moreover, the plasma activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), total antioxidants (TAOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated to investigate the correlations between the measured parameters and B-Pb levels in hypertensive patients. Methods: Fifty-five hypertensive patients were compared with fifty-three age and sex matched control group. The B-Pb levels were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The plasma levels of ACE activities, NO, TAOX and MDA were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: In the hypertensive patients, B-Pb levels were significantly higher than controls. Concomitantly, the plasma levels of ACE activities and MDA were significantly increased while the plasma levels of NO and TAOX were significantly reduced in the hypertensive patients in comparison with controls. There were significant positive correlations between B-Pb and each of MDA, and systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb and NO. Conclusions: Our study indicated that a positive relationship exists between blood pressure and B-Pb levels. The increased B-Pb levels were associated with oxidative stress. Moreover, The B-Pb level was negatively correlated with NO and this may clarify the implication of Pb as leading risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. These findings provide support for continued efforts to reduce lead concentration in the population at Qassim region. PMID:22489226

  3. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: High Blood Pressure More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously believed. With more ...

  4. Screening for lead poisoning in urban school children of southern India using capillary and venous blood samples.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Herman S; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2002-01-01

    Our study aimed at comparing lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in capillary and venous blood samples in a small population and to employ an easier method of sample collection for a major screening program in school children in major Indian cities. An awareness program on lead and its effects was conducted in two different schools. A total of thirty urban school children from South India, with an age group between 4-12 years consented for dual blood sampling and reported for the study. Venous and capillary blood samples were obtained simultaneously. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were estimated using ESA Lead Analyzer and Haematofluorometer respectively. A significant correlation between capillary and venous ZPP (r=0.98) and lead (r=0.99) was observed. Rank sum test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between capillary and venous ZPP (P=0.891) and lead (P=0.672) values. This pilot study recommends that screening for lead may be done using capillary blood samples since significant correlation is observed between capillary and venous blood measurements. Obtaining samples using this mode is a non-invasive, less expensive, quick and easy method in children. Appropriately performed capillary sampling may be considered as an acceptable alternative to venipuncture for screening of blood for lead poisoning both in children and adults. PMID:23105327

  5. Blood lead in children and its determinants in Nagpur, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, A B; Williams, S V; Frumkin, H; Kondawar, V K; Glick, H; Ganju, A K

    2001-01-01

    In a community-based cross-sectional study of 297 children aged 6 months to 6 years in an Indian city, the authors assessed the prevalence of elevated (> or = 10 microg/dL) blood lead (PbB) levels, their risk factors, and the lead contents in potential environmental sources. Mean PbB was 18.4 microg/dL +/- 16.5. The prevalence of elevated PbB was 67%. Anticipated risk factors for elevated PbB were living in houses painted with lead-based paint, odds ratio (OR) 6.42 (1.75, 23.6; p = 0.005), recent exposures to lead-based paint, OR 2.61 (1.07, 6.66; p = 0.03), and the use of the eye cosmetic ma," OR 2.63 (1.24, 5.56; p = 0.01). Unanticipated results were effect of upper caste as a risk factor, OR (adjusted) 1.85 (95% CI = 0.96, 3.57; p = 0.06), and the lack of effect of traffic, parental occupational exposure, or nutritional status. Analysis of various environmental sources such as paint, pencils, crayons, and clay revealed high lead levels. These results demonstrate the existence of a major environmental health problem in Indian children, with risk factors that differ from those in other countries. PMID:11373042

  6. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993.
    ...

  7. Blood Pressure in Older Adults: the Importance of Frailty.

    PubMed

    Odden, Michelle C; Beilby, Pamela R; Peralta, Carmen A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of high blood pressure (BP) and the effect of BP lowering in older adults remain controversial due to the mixed evidence in this population. Frailty status may resolve the apparently conflicting findings and identify subpopulations who share common risk. Emerging evidence demonstrates that low BP is associated with poor outcomes in older frail adults or those with poor functional status. In contrast, in non-frail older adults, low BP appears beneficial. Frail older adults may be at increased risk of hypotension, serious fall injuries, and polypharmacy. Additionally, peripheral BP may not be the best prognostic measure in this population. The majority of clinical practice guidelines give little recommendation for frail older adults, which is likely due to their systematic underrepresentation in randomized controlled trials. Future studies need to consider modifications to safely include frail older adults, and guidelines should consider inclusion of evidence beyond randomized controlled trials. PMID:26068656

  8. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene. PMID:22512792

  9. Lead-contaminated imported tamarind candy and children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, R A; Boatright, D T; Moss, S K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, an investigation implicated tamarind candy as the potential source of lead exposure for a child with a significantly elevated blood lead level (BLL). The Oklahoma City-County Health Department tested two types of tamarind suckers and their packaging for lead content. More than 50% of the tested suckers exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Level of Concern for lead in this type of product. The authors calculated that a child consuming one-quarter to one-half of either of the two types of suckers in a day would exceed the maximum FDA Provis onal Tolerable Intake for lead. High lead concentrations in the two types of wrappers suggested leaching as a potential source of contamination. The authors used the Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model to predict the effects of consumption of contaminated tamarind suckers on populat on BLLs. The IEUBK model predicted that consumption of either type of sucker at a rate of one per day would result in dramatic increases in mean BLLs for children ages 6-84 months in Oklahoma and in the percentage of children wth elevated BLLs (> or =10 micrograms per deciliter [microg/dL]). The authors conclude that consumption of these products represents a potential public health threat. In addition, a history of lead contamination in imported tamarind products suggests that import control measures may not be completely effective in preventing additional lead exposure. PMID:11354337

  10. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed. PMID:24627997

  11. Association between essential tremor and blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Jurewicz, Eva C; Applegate, LaKeisha; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Parides, Michael; Andrews, Leslie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Carroll, Spencer; Todd, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant that causes tremor and cerebellar damage. Essential tremor (ET) is a highly prevalent neurologic disease associated with cerebellar involvement. Although environmental toxicants may play a role in ET etiology and their identification is a critical step in disease prevention, these toxicants have received little attention. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that ET is associated with lead exposure. Therefore, blood lead (BPb) concentrations were measured and a lifetime occupational history was assessed in ET patients and in controls. We frequency matched 100 ET patients and 143 controls on age, sex, and ethnicity. BPb concentrations were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A lifetime occupational history was reviewed by an industrial hygienist. BPb concentrations were higher in ET patients than in controls (mean +/- SD, 3.3 +/- 2.4 and 2.6 +/- 1.6 microg/dL, respectively; median, 2.7 and 2.3 microg/dL; p = 0.038). In a logistic regression model, BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis [control vs. ET patient, odds ratio (OR) per unit increase = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.39; p = 0.007]. BPb concentration was associated with diagnosis (OR per unit increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37; p = 0.02) after adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence of lifetime occupational lead exposure was similar in ET patients and controls. We report an association between BPb concentration and ET. Determining whether this association is due to increased exposure to lead or a difference in lead kinetics in ET patients requires further investigation. PMID:14594619

  12. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P < 0.01), sleep duration (r = 0.139, P < 0.001), and night waking (r = 0.089, P < 0.05). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (26.1% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001) and use of sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL < 10.0 μg/dL. After adjusting for demographics, BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL was significantly associated with increased risk for insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–3.95) and EDS (OR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.27–6.61). Conclusion: The findings indicate that elevated blood lead levels in early childhood are associated with increased risk for sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  13. Changes in serial blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Fernández Alba, J

    1994-01-01

    The first step in modeling lead kinetics during pregnancy includes a description of sequential maternal blood lead (PbB) during pregnancy and the factors controlling it. We analyzed PbB of 105 women living in the Valley of Mexico from week 12 to week 36 of pregnancy and again at parturition. We also used data from all women contributing blood at any stage of pregnancy to determine antecedents of PbB. Pregnancies were uneventful, and offspring were normal. Although geometric mean PbB level averaged around 7.0 micrograms/dl (0.34 mumol/l), with a range of 1.0-35.5 micrograms/dl throughout pregnancy, analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in mean PbB from week 12 to week 20 (1.1 micrograms/dl) and various significant increases in mean PbB from week 20 to parturition (1.6 micrograms/dl). Regression analyses confirmed the positive linear PbB trend from 20 weeks to parturition and additional contributions of dietary calcium, reproductive history, lifetime residence of Mexico City, coffee drinking, and use of indigenous lead-glazed pottery. Although decreasing hematocrit has been suggested to explain first-half pregnancy PbB decrease, the time course of hematocrit decrease in the present study did not match the sequential changes in PbB. While hemodilution and organ growth in the first half of pregnancy may account for much of the PbB decrease seen between 12 and 20 weeks, the remaining hemodilution and accelerated organ growth of the last half of pregnancy do not predict the trend toward increasing maternal PbB concentration from 20 weeks to delivery. Mobilization of bone lead, increased gut absorption, and increased retention of lead may explain part of the upward PbB trend in the second half of pregnancy. Reduction of lifetime lead exposure may be required to decrease risk of fetal exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9644197

  14. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    SciTech Connect

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  15. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  16. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  17. Protecting Adults and Children from Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…

  18. Serum immunoglobulins and lymphocyte subset distributions in children and adults living in communities assessed for lead and cadmium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarasua, S.M.; Vogt, R.F.; Henderson, L.O.; Jones, P.A.; Lybarger, J.A.

    2000-05-12

    This study assessed the impact of environmental cadmium and lead exposure on the immune system of more than 2,000 children and adults. Serum immunoglobulins [immunoglobulins (lg) A, G, and M] and peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes (T cells, B cells, NK cells, and CD4/CD8 subsets) were measured in a total of 2041 children and adults who lived either in sites with elevated soil levels of cadmium and lead (n = 1,561) or in comparison communities (n = 480). The blood lead and urine cadmium levels of participants were somewhat higher than national average mean blood lead levels were 7 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 6--35 mo; 6 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 36--71 mo, 4 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 6--15 yr; and 4.3 {micro}g/dl for participants aged 16--75 yr. Multivariate analysis indicated no marked differences in any of the immune marker distributions attributed to lead for adults or children over 3 yr of age. However, in children under age 3, increased blood lead levels, principally those over 15 {micro}g/dl were associated with increases in IgA, IgC, IgM, and circulating B/lymphocytes. Youth adults urine cadmium levels over 1.5 {micro}g/g were associated with higher levels of IgA and circulating B.

  19. Blood lead concentration and biological effects in workers exposed to very low lead levels.

    PubMed

    Masci, O; Carelli, G; Vinci, F; Castellino, N

    1998-10-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on two groups of workers engaged in tin/lead alloy welding in the telecommunication sector. The risk of exposure was evaluated by measuring levels of airborne lead (PbA) and the amount of lead absorbed (PbB). The-correlated effects were assessed by determining zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) count. We also recorded subjective symptoms reported by workers. One group of welders composed of 365 subjects underwent two monitoring sessions performed in 1991 and 1995, respectively (Group A). A second group of welders (whose number fluctuated between 148 and 247 subjects) underwent yearly testing for 7 consecutive years (1988-1994; Group B). Results indicated a very low risk of lead exposure during microwelding operations (PbA range, 1.5-24 micrograms/m3). In fact, blood concentrations of Pb (range, 5-55, micrograms/dL) among both groups of welders were significantly higher than those in the general population in Rome (PbB range, 5-16 micrograms/dL); nevertheless, they were significantly lower than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limits ZPP determined only in Group B of welders ranged from 5 to 16 micrograms/dL (median, 22 micrograms/dL). No variation was found in the other biological parameters investigated, and no health effects were observed. During the study period, the introduction of some technological innovations led to a further reduction in Pb exposure and, subsequently, to its total elimination. PbB concentrations gradually declined to lower values (6-36 micrograms/dL), and it was interesting to note that ZPP concentrations also decreased to normal levels (range, 2-47 micrograms/dL; median, 11 micrograms/dL), demonstrating that the effect of lead on heme synthesis may occur even at very low levels of Pb exposure. PMID:9800174

  20. Comparison of IEUBK model predictions and actual blood lead values at a former battery recycling site.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, T A; Forslund, B L

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of US EPA's integrated exposureuptake biokinetic model for lead (IEUBK model) using data obtained during emergency removal operations at a former lead-acid battery recycling plant and the surrounding community. Data employed in the study include soil lead and interior dust lead, air lead levels collected at the site perimeter, drinking water lead levels at the community water main and blood lead data collected from an annual blood lead monitoring programme conducted over a four year period during the remediation activities.Geometric mean soil and dust concentrations were found to be a better predictor of blood lead than arithmetic mean data. However, weight based dust lead data were believed to be an inappropriate measure of dust lead levels. Estimates of household dust lead concentrations based upon surface loading data (μg m(-2)) yielded blood lead predictions which were more consistent with data collected in the blood lead monitoring programme. PMID:24197215

  1. Children’s Blood Lead Seasonality in Flint, Michigan (USA), and Soil-Sourced Lead Hazard Risks

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Mark A.S.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.; Sadler, Richard C.; Gonzales, Christopher R.; Ball, Andrew S.; Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In Flint; MI; USA; a public health crisis resulted from the switching of the water supply from Lake Huron to a more corrosive source from the Flint River in April 2014; which caused lead to leach from water lines. Between 2010 and 2015; Flint area children’s average blood lead patterns display consistent peaks in the third quarter of the year. The third quarter blood lead peaks displayed a declining trend between 2010 and 2013; then rose abruptly between the third quarters of 2013 from 3.6% blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL to a peak of about 7% in the third quarter of 2014; an increase of approximately 50%. The percentage of blood lead level ≥5 µg/dL in the first quarter of 2015 then dropped to 2.3%; which was the same percentage as the first quarter of 2014 (prior to the Flint River water source change). The Flint quarterly blood lead level peak then rose to about 6% blood lead levels ≥ 5 µg/dL in the third quarter of 2015; and then declined to about 2.5% in the fourth quarter of 2015. Soil lead data collected by Edible Flint food collaborative reveal generally higher soil lead values in the metropolitan center for Flint; with lower values in the outskirts of the city. The questions that are not being asked is why did children’s blood lead levels display a seasonal blood lead pattern before the introduction of the new water supply in Flint; and what are the implications of these seasonal blood lead patterns? Based upon previous findings in Detroit and other North American cities we infer that resuspension to the air of lead in the form of dust from lead contaminated soils in Flint appears to be a persistent contribution to lead exposure of Flint children even before the change in the water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. PMID:27023578

  2. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Junenette L. Patricia Fabian, M. Levy, Jonathan I.

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  3. Blood lead concentration and related factors in Korea from the 2008 National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Wook; Lee, Chae Kwan; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Soo Woong; Park, Yeong Beom; Lee, Jong Wha; Yu, Seung-Do; Moon, Chan Seok; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated blood lead concentrations in the Korean general population and the correlation between various exposure sources using data from the 2008 Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the Human Body (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea). The general and occupational characteristics were gathered from 5136 participants who were 20 years of age and older using a structured questionnaire. Blood lead concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regressions of the log lead concentrations to the independent variables such as age, gender, smoke, herbal medication and drug consumption, drinking water, and living area. Geometric mean (GM) blood lead concentrations in Korean adults were 19.7 μg/l. The blood lead concentrations increased with age; the highest concentrations were found in the 50-69-year age group (p<0.001). Males were higher than in females (p<0.001). Current smokers and drinkers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers (p<0.001) and nondrinkers (p<0.001), respectively. People who took herbal medication and drug consumption were higher than those who did not (p<0.001). Education level was negatively associated with blood lead concentration (p<0.001). People living in or around industrial areas had elevated blood lead concentration (p<0.001). Family income was also negatively associated with lead concentration, but not significantly. For drinking water, the underground water (spring or well water) drinking group had higher concentrations than other types of water drinking groups, but not significantly (p=0.063). The blood lead concentrations by occupation were significant (p<0.034): the highest was in laborer and Agricultural-Fishery-Forestry and the lowest in office workers. In women, blood lead concentrations tended to decrease with increasing delivery times, but not significantly. The blood lead concentration (GM) of the

  4. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.S.; Luebbert, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Schamber, J.; Rosenberg, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  5. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure. PMID:26351197

  6. Lead concentrations in blood and milk from periparturient dairy heifers seven months after an episode of acute lead toxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galey, F.D.; Slenning, B.D.; Anderson, M.L.; Breneman, P.C.; Littlefield, E.S.; Melton, L.A.; Tracy, M.L. )

    1990-07-01

    In September 1988, 100 of 300 yearling dairy heifers developed blindness, tachypnea, foaming at the mouth, chewing, and facial fasciculations. Twenty-five animals died. Lead toxicosis was diagnosed based on the clinical signs and the presence of excessive concentrations of lead in whole blood, liver, kidney, and rumen contents of affected animals. The source of the lead was sudan grass silage that had been contaminated by soil that contained up to 77,000 mg/kg of lead. Lead concentrations were determined approximately 7 months after the acute episode of lead toxicosis. Whole blood and milk samples were obtained from heifers and a group of control cows 2 weeks prior to (blood only), at the time of, and 2 and 4 weeks after freshening. No lead was found in any of the milk samples (detection limit = 0.055 mg/liter). Animals that had been severely affected by lead toxicosis experienced a transient increase in whole blood lead concentrations at freshening that was not high enough to be considered toxic. No similar increases in blood lead were observed for control cows or heifers that had experienced milder toxicosis. These findings suggest that at parturition lead is mobilized into the blood of cattle previously exposed to excessive lead.

  7. Relationship between blood lead levels and hematological indices in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Lugo-Soto, Rodrigo; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Salas-Pacheco, José-Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Barraza-Salas, Marcel; Vázquez-Alanís, Fernando; García-Vargas, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have revealed a negative association between blood lead levels and hematological impairment. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between blood lead levels and hematological indices in 292 pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. Apparently healthy pregnant women, aged 14-41 years and at 3-41 weeks of gestation, were recruited between June 2007 and May 2008. Blood lead and hematological indices were measured. The mean blood lead was 2.79 ± 2.16 μg/dL, and lead levels ≥ 5 μg/dL were detected in 25 women (8.6%). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells count were significantly higher in pregnant women with a blood lead concentration of ≥ 5 μg/dL than the group with lower blood lead levels (p < .05). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were not significantly related to lead levels. Hemoglobin and hematocrit showed a non-significant positive correlation with blood lead, but the correlation between red blood cell count and blood lead levels was statistically significant (r = 0.185, p = .002). The findings suggest that a positive association between blood lead and some hematological indices may occur at relatively low blood lead concentration (mean < 5 μg/dL). PMID:25531188

  8. Moderate lead poisoning: trends in blood lead levels in unchelated children.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, M E; Bijur, P E; Ruff, H A; Balbi, K; Rosen, J F

    1996-01-01

    The appropriate clinical management of children who are moderately poisoned with lead (Pb) is under active investigation. To determine the pattern of change in blood Pb (BPb) levels in the absence of chelation therapy, we followed moderately Pb-poisoned children (initial blood Pb levels 1.21-2.66 mumol/l or 25-55 micrograms/dl) for 6 months with repeated BPb level measurements. Chelation therapy was not administered because all the children had negative lead mobilization tests indicating limited response to the chelating agent, calcium disodium edetate (CaNa2EDTA). Eligible children received the following interventions: notification of the health department to remediate lead hazards; reinforced educational efforts about the toxicity sources and treatment of Pb during 10 clinic and 3 home visits; and iron therapy for children with ferritin levels less than 16 micrograms/l. To quantify the lead paint hazards in the home, we combined a visual rating of the surfaces (intact to peeling) with an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement of the lead content of the painted surface. The sum of these assessments is termed the home environmental score (HES). Data were analyzed from 79 children. BPb levels declined by 27%, on average, over 6 months. HES was correlated with BPb at enrollment, but neither the initial nor later HES measurements predicted BPb at other time points. The HES was highest at enrollment and declined by 50% and 75% at the second and third home visits, respectively. However, only a minority of the children (20%) achieved an HES of 0, indicating no lead paint hazards at home. Despite some ongoing Pb exposure, a parallel fall in BPb levels was observed in subgroups of children with either initially low or high HES (above or below the median HES of 37). Iron status did not account for the change in BPb levels. These data provide evidence that our measure, the HES, is quantifiably related to BPb levels in children, that this correlation is significant only prior

  9. The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children`s blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphear, B.P.; Matte, T.D.; Rogers, J.

    1998-10-01

    In 1992, the US Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among US children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children`s blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children`s blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the US Department of Housing and urban Development`s current post-abatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency`s guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child`s age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure.

  10. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    PubMed

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community. PMID:22782519

  11. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  12. Ultrastructural and functional effects of lead poisoning on adult canine myocardium: assessment of thiamin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of lead (Pb) poisoning on the adult canine myocardium were assessed quantitatively using stereological techniques, functional testing, and blood analyses as well as qualitatively by morphological investigation. Relative measurements using stereological techniques compared the volume fractions of cellular components of the three groups. Blood was analyzed for lead, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total erythrocytes, total leukocytes, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALAD), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). The major finding of the stereological analysis was the statistically significant increase of 3.2% in myofilament volume in the Pb treated group and the significant decrease in mitochondrial volume in both the Pb treated and Pb + B/sub 1/ treated groups. A statistically significant decrease in the mitochondria/myofilament volume ratio was found in the Pb treated, but no Pb + B/sub 1/ treated group. This may indicate either a protective effect of thiamin on mitochondria or a reduced compensatory need of the myocyte to increase myofilament volume.

  13. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  14. The Epidemiology of Lead Toxicity in Adults: Measuring Dose and Consideration of Other Methodologic Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Howard; Shih, Regina; Rothenberg, Stephen; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    We review several issues of broad relevance to the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence concerning the toxicity of lead in adults, particularly regarding cognitive function and the cardiovascular system, which are the subjects of two systematic reviews that are also part of this mini-monograph. Chief among the recent developments in methodologic advances has been the refinement of concepts and methods for measuring individual lead dose in terms of appreciating distinctions between recent versus cumulative doses and the use of biological markers to measure these parameters in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease. Attention is focused particularly on bone lead levels measured by K-shell X-ray fluorescence as a relatively new biological marker of cumulative dose that has been used in many recent epidemiologic studies to generate insights into lead’s impact on cognition and risk of hypertension, as well as the alternative method of estimating cumulative dose using available repeated measures of blood lead to calculate an individual’s cumulative blood lead index. We review the relevance and interpretation of these lead biomarkers in the context of the toxico-kinetics of lead. In addition, we also discuss methodologic challenges that arise in studies of occupationally and environmentally exposed subjects and those concerning race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and other important covariates. PMID:17431499

  15. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies. PMID:26450984

  16. Air lead exposures and blood lead levels within a large automobile manufacturing workforce, 1980-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.; Kintner, H.J.; Bivol, K.R. )

    1989-07-01

    Recent (1980-1985) trends in air lead (PbA) exposures and blood lead (PbB) levels experienced by approximately 10,000 workers employed in various stages of the automobile manufacturing process (i.e., auto assembly, lead-acid battery manufacture, foundry work, and other manufacturing-related operations) are described. Between 1980-1985, the mean PbB levels of assembly, battery, foundry, and other workers decreased by 28, 24, 3, and 27%, respectively, to 16.6, 23.6, 15.9, and 11.8 micrograms Pb/dl. Workers in the following job categories experienced the highest annual mean PbB levels: paste machine operators (battery plants), solder-grinders (assembly plants), and crane operators (foundries). During the same period, median 8-h Time Weighted Average PbA exposures (micrograms Pb/m3) in assembly plants, battery plants, and foundries decreased by 10, 12, and 20%, respectively, to 8.1, 13.6, and 10.9 micrograms/m3.

  17. Air lead exposures and blood lead levels within a large automobile manufacturing workforce, 1980-1985.

    PubMed

    Kononen, D W; Kintner, H J; Bivol, K R

    1989-01-01

    Recent (1980-1985) trends in air lead (PbA) exposures and blood lead (PbB) levels experienced by approximately 10,000 workers employed in various stages of the automobile manufacturing process (i.e., auto assembly, lead-acid battery manufacture, foundry work, and "other" manufacturing-related operations) are described. Between 1980-1985, the mean PbB levels of assembly, battery, foundry, and "other" workers decreased by 28, 24, 3, and 27%, respectively, to 16.6, 23.6, 15.9, and 11.8 micrograms Pb/dl. Workers in the following job categories experienced the highest annual mean PbB levels: paste machine operators (battery plants), solder-grinders (assembly plants), and crane operators (foundries). During the same period, median 8-h Time Weighted Average PbA exposures (micrograms Pb/m3) in assembly plants, battery plants, and foundries decreased by 10, 12, and 20%, respectively, to 8.1, 13.6, and 10.9 micrograms/m3. PMID:2782946

  18. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure to describe the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, the model, ln PbB = ln (Bo + B1 PbA + B2 PbS + B3 PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m.

  19. Time trend and determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss population over a transition period (1984-1993) from leaded to unleaded gasoline use

    SciTech Connect

    Wietlisbach, V.; Rickenbach, M.; Berode, M.

    1995-02-01

    This study analyzes the trend and determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss region (population 770,000) over the 10-year period following the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1985. The consumption of unleaded fuel increased rapidly, accounting in 1988 for 36% and in 1992 for 65% of all gasoline sales. Blood lead levels were measured in three representative samples (n = 1700) of the adult population within the framework of a health examination survey carried out in 1984/1985, 1988/1989, and 1992/1993. The geometric mean blood lead levels were, respectively, 0.59, 0.42, and 0.33 {mu}mole/liter in men, 0.41, 0.29, and 0.25 {mu}mole/liter in women. Similar trends have been observed across all age groups, occupational classes, and categories across all age groups, occupational classes, and categories based on smoking, drinking, and dietary habits. The overexposure of city residents, in comparison to village residents, fades out over the observation period. These findings suggest that the changeover from leaded to unleaded gasoline has been the major cause of the blood lead decline. Wine drinking, cigarette smoking, and age appear to be significant determinants of blood lead for both sexes in all three surveys. In contrast, the association is inverse for milk consumption. The multivariate regression analysis shows that wine drinking remains the most important predictor of blood lead, whereas the influence of age increases with time and overcomes the effect of smoking in the third survey. 32 refs., 21 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Lead in umbilical blood, indoor air, tap water, and gasoline in Boston.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, M; Needleman, H; Burley, M; Finch, H; Rees, J

    1984-01-01

    A strong statistical correlation was found among the monthly averages of lead concentrations in umbilical cord blood (about 500 births/month), indoor air (12 sites/month), and gasoline lead sales between March, 1980 and April, 1981 in Boston. Tap water lead (24/month) variations did not correlate with blood lead in this population. PMID:6497447

  1. The distribution of blood lead levels and job titles among lead-acid battery workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, Kun-Yu; Shin, Wen-Yi; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-07-01

    There were several reports about elevated blood lead levels in lead battery workers. However, their subjects came from only one or several plants. We visited all the 23 registered lead-acid battery plants in Taiwan and collected their health examination records in 1992, the blood lead analyses of which were completed in 3 medical college hospitals. In total, we have obtained 1726 records. The average blood lead concentration was 37.1 ug/dl, and 37% of blood lead levels were more than 40 ug/dl (action level). The overall participation rate for health examination among employees was 69.4%. The participation rates were different among both plant sizes and job titles. Assuming that there was no peculiar variation within the four working zones (plate manufacture jobs, assembly jobs, part-time exposure jobs, and office jobs) in each plant, and that blood lead levels of our samples were stable after deleting newly hired workers, we estimated that the blood lead distributions of 2486 employees in these plants were 63.3%, 26.4%, 9.25% and 1.05% for below 40, 40-59, 60-79, and above 80 ug/dl respectively. We conclude that such an analysis should be performed each year to monitor the effectiveness of occupational hygiene in workplace of lead battery plants. PMID:12380325

  2. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  3. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  4. Behaviors and blood lead levels of children in a lead-mining area and a comparison community

    SciTech Connect

    Murgueytio, A.M.; Evans, R.G.; Sterling, D.; Serrano, F.; Roberts, D.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between behavioral and other modifiable factors and blood lead levels in children living in a lead-mining community and in a comparison group of children. Children six to 71 months of age were selected from a community that was heavily contaminated with lead-mining waste and from a comparison community. Participants were interviewed, and venous blood was collected for lead analysis. Environmental measurements of soil, dust, and paint were made. Study results indicate that average blood lead levels and environmental measurements were significantly higher in the mining community. Factors that were related to blood lead levels included income, education, home ownership, age of home, playing in grassy areas rather than dirt, putting nonfood items in mouth, bathing and washing practices, number of hours playing outside, taking nonfood items outside, swallowing nonfood items, and putting paint chips in mouth. These factors explained more of the variation in blood lead levels in the control group than in the mining group. Lead intervention strategies that consist only of education designed to modify behavior might be less effective in high-exposure areas such as those where lead-mining and smelting operations occur. Interventions that combine education with remedial activities are more effective in prevention of lead exposure.

  5. Modified fabrication techniques lead to improved centrifugal blood pump performance.

    PubMed

    Pacella, J J; Goldstein, A H; Magovern, G J; Clark, R F

    1994-01-01

    The authors are developing an implantable centrifugal blood pump for short- and medium-term (1-6 months) left ventricular assist. They hypothesized that the application of result dependent modifications to this pump would lead to overall improved performance in long-term implantation studies. Essential requirements for pump operation, such as durability and resistance to clot formation, have been achieved through specialized fabrication techniques. The antithrombogenic character of the pump has been improved through coating at the cannula-housing interfaces and the baffle seal, and through changing the impeller blade material from polysulfone to pyrolytic carbon. The electronic components of the pump have been sealed for implantable use through specialized processes of dipping and potting, and the surfaces of the internal pump components have been treated to increase durability. The device has demonstrated efficacy in five chronic sheep implantation studies of 14, 10, 28, 35, and 154 day duration. Post mortem findings from the 14 day experiment showed stable fibrin entangled around the impeller shaft and blades. After pump modification, autopsy findings of the 10 day study showed no evidence of clot. Additionally, the results of the 28 day experiment showed only a small (2.0 mm) ring of fibrin at the shaft-seal interface. In the 35 and 154 day experiments, redesign of the stators have resulted in improved motor corrosion resistance. The 35 day study showed a small, 0.5 mm wide fibrin deposit at the lip seal, but no motor failure. In the 154 day experiment, the motor failed because of stator fluid corrosion, while the explanted pump was devoid of thrombus. Based on these findings, the authors believe that these pump refinements have contributed significantly to improvements in durability and resistance to clot formation. PMID:8555619

  6. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Jameson, C W; Mahaffey, K R; Mizon, K J; Patison, N; Law, A J; Korsch, M J; Salter, M A

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained stable lead isotope and lead concentration data from a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and in which the newly born infants were monitored for 6 months postpartum to evaluate the effects of the local environment on lead body burden of the infant. Samples of maternal and infant blood, urine, and diet and especially breast milk were measured for 21 mothers and 24 infants. Blood lead concentrations were less than 5 microg/dl in all except one subject. The mean lead concentration in breast milk +/- standard deviation was 0.73 +/- 0.70 microg/kg. In seven subjects for whom serial breast milk sampling was possible, the lead concentration varied by factors of from 2 to 4, and for three subjects there was an increase at or after 90 days postpartum. For the first 60-90 days postpartum, the contribution from breast milk to blood lead in the infants varied from 36 to 80%. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated statistically significant relationships for some of the variables of isotope ratios and lead concentrations between breast milk, blood, urine, and diet for infants and mothers. For example, the analyses revealed that both a mother's breast milk 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios and lead concentration provide information to predict her infant's blood 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios. The major sources of lead in breast milk are from the maternal bone and diet. An evaluation of breast milk lead concentrations published over the last 15 years indicates that studies in which the ratio of lead concentrations in breast milk to lead concentrations in whole maternal blood (Multiple>100) were greater than 15 should be viewed with caution because of potential contamination during sampling and/or laboratory analyses. Selected studies also appear to show a linear relationship between breast milk and maternal whole blood, with the percentage of lead in breast milk compared with whole blood

  7. Globin chain synthesis in single erythroid bursts from cord blood: studies on gamma leads to beta and G gamma leads to A gamma switches.

    PubMed

    Comi, P; Giglioni, B; Ottolenghi, S; Gianni, A M; Polli, E; Barba, P; Covelli, A; Migliaccio, G; Condorelli, M; Peschle, C

    1980-01-01

    Erythroid bursts from cord or adult blood were grown in methylcellulose cultures (3 international units of erythropoietin per plate). On day 13, single bursts were picked up and reincubated for 16-24 hr with [3H]leucine. Radioactive globin chains [alpha,beta,G gamma, and A gamma (Ala-136)] were analyzed by either isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels and fluorography or carboxymethylcellulose chromatography. In all cases, alpha to non-alpha globin radioactivity ratios were close to 1. In single cord blood bursts, the values of both gamma-to-beta and G gamma-to-A gamma ratios were spread over a large spectrum and further characterized by a continuous rather than a bimodal distribution. Morever, the G gamma-to-A gamma ratios demonstrated in single bursts appeared to be directly correlated with the respective gamma-to-beta ratios. These data suggest that both the gamma leads to beta and the G gamma leads to A gamma switches are mediated via mechanisms modulating the relative activities of the different genes in the non-alpha globin gene cluster rather than via selection of clones committed to the preferential synthesis of beta and A gamma globins. In contrast with the results obtained with cord blood, individual adult blood bursts synthesize a lower and hence relatively more uniform amount of gamma globin chains. PMID:6153796

  8. EVIDENCE FOR EFFECTS OF CHRONIC LEAD EXPOSURE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information obtained in a number of experimental studies conducted over the last forty years on the effects of lead on blood pressure is reviewed. Differences in animal species, age at beginning of exposure, level of lead exposure, indices of lead burden, and blood pressure effec...

  9. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05). Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  10. The paper punched disc technique for lead in blood samples with abnormal haemoglobin values.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, G F

    1978-01-01

    A series of 15 blood samples with haemoglobin levels ranging from 4-6--16-1 g/dl were spotted on to Whatman No. 4 filter paper. Blood samples with low haemoglobin concentrations spread over a greater area of the filter paper than did those with high haemoglobin concentrations. This was further investigated by studying the performance of laboratory-prepared samples, and any effect on the estimation of blood lead value. Blood lead values assayed by the punched disc method on blood samples with low haemoglobin values were unreliable unless the estimated value was adjusted with respect to the area over which the blood had spread. Images PMID:698139

  11. Zinc protoporphyrin IX concentrations between normal adults and the lead-exposed workers measured by HPLC, spectrofluorometer, and hematofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Roh, Y M; Kim, K; Kim, H

    2000-10-01

    To establish the relationship between Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations and blood lead (PbB) levels and to identify reliable analytical methods of ZPP and Protoporhyrin (PP), blood samples were obtained from 263 office workers without the history of occupational lead exposure and 49 lead-acid battery workers. The mean concentrations of PbB for the normal adults and the battery workers were 9.26 microg/dl and 42.60 microg/dl, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of ZPP and PP by HPLC were 18.73 microg/dl and 2.27 microg/dl for normal adults and were 46.99 microg/dl and 5.53 microg/dl for the exposed workers, respectively. The geometric mean concentrations of ZPP and PP by a spectrofluorometer (SF) were 30.27 microg/dl and 5.16 microg/dl for normal adults and were 50.91 microg/dl and 6.69 +/- 1.39 microg/dl for the exposed workers. The geometric mean ZPP concentration measured by a hematofluorometer (HF) was 30.88 microg/dl for normal adults. The results showed that ZPP concentrations measured by HF were consistently higher than those by HPLC and SF for normal adults, and lower for the exposed workers. ZPP concentrations were not correlated with PbB levels for normal adults but a statistically significant correlation was found among the exposed workers. PMID:11061480

  12. Association of tibia lead and blood lead with end-stage renal disease: A pilot study of African-Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Muntner, Paul . E-mail: pmuntner@tulane.edu; Menke, Andy; Batuman, Vecihi; Rabito, Felicia A.; He Jiang; Todd, Andrew C.

    2007-07-15

    The association between body lead burden and kidney disease remains controversial. Fifty-five African-American end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases and 53 age- and sex-matched African-American controls without known renal disease were recruited from Tulane University-affiliated dialysis clinics and out-patient clinics, respectively. Blood lead was measured via atomic absorption spectrophotometry and tibia lead (a measure of body lead) was measured via {sup 109}Cd-based K shell X-ray fluorescence. Median blood lead levels were significantly higher among ESRD cases (6 {mu}g/dL) compared to their control counterparts (3 {mu}g/dL; P<0.001). Although no participants had overt lead poisoning (blood lead {>=}25 {mu}g/dL), seven cases but no controls had blood lead levels above 10 {mu}g/dL (P=0.006). The median tibia lead level was 17 micrograms of lead per gram of bone mineral ({mu}g/g) and 13 {mu}g/g among ESRD cases and their control counterparts, respectively (P=0.134). Four ESRD cases (7%), but no controls, had a tibia lead level above 40 {mu}g/g (P=0.115) while a similar proportion of cases and controls had tibia lead between 20 and 39 {mu}g/g (33% and 32%, respectively; P=0.726). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios of ESRD associated with a tibia lead {>=}20 {mu}g/g and each four-fold higher tibia lead (e.g., 5-20 {mu}g/g) were 1.55 (95% CI: 0.55, 4.41) and 1.88 (95% CI: 0.53, 6.68), respectively. These findings support the need for prospective cohort studies of body lead burden and renal disease progression.

  13. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  14. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G. L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 Å and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ɛ bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases.

  15. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game. PMID:18678397

  16. Relationship between increased blood lead and pregnancy hypertension in women without occupational lead exposure in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Mazaheri, Maria; Beheshti, Sasan; Ghazizadeh, Shirin; Sakai, Tadashi; Morita, Yoko; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Araki, Shunichi

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between blood lead levels and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Participants were 110 pregnant women, of whom 55 were hypertensive, 27 +/- 5.6 yr of age (mean +/- standard deviation) (range = 17-40 yr); the other 55 women were age- and gravidity-matched normotensive controls. Participants were selected on the basis of their medical history and the results of a questionnaire-based interview. Subjects were at gestational ages 37 +/- 2.5 wk (range = 30-41 wk) and were not occupationally exposed to lead. Blood samples were collected within 24 hr after delivery, and blood lead levels were measured. For the hypertensive cases, blood lead levels were 5.7 +/- 2 microg/dl (range = 2.2-12.6 microg/dl [0.27 +/- 0.10 micromol/l; range = 0.11-0.60 micromol/l]), which were significantly higher than those of the control group (i.e., 4.8 +/- 1.9 microg/dl; range = 1.9-10.6 microg/dl [0.23 +/- 0.09 micromol/l; range = 0.09-0.51 micromol/l]). There were no significant differences in blood lead concentrations among hypertensive subjects with proteinuria (n = 30) and those without proteinuria (n = 25). Results of this study indicated that low-level lead exposure may be a risk factor for pregnancy hypertension. PMID:16075900

  17. Condition and type of housing as an indicator of potential environmental lead exposure and pediatric blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.S.; Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.; Que Hee, S.S.; Hammond, P.B.; Peace, B.

    1985-10-01

    Environmental evaluations in a prospective behavior study of children with blood lead levels up to about 50 g/dl were performed by an intensive environmental survey and by exterior visual evaluations of housing quality. Serial blood lead values for infants in the study were compared to exterior housing type and quality, which itself was also compared with results of the intensive environmental evaluation. Five housing condition and type categories were defined: public housing; private housing (satisfactory, deteriorated, and dilapidated); and rehabilitated private housing. In this interim report on the first subset of available data, the housing categories were found to differ in paint and environment dust lead levels, with public and rehabilitated housing having lowest values. Blood lead concentrations of children differed across housing categories as early as 6 months of age, with children residing in public housing having lowest levels, followed by those in rehabilitated housing. The spread in mean blood lead concentrations among the housing quality categories increased with increasing age of the children. Housing category accounted for over one-half of the blood lead variability in 18-month-old children.

  18. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control) groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits. PMID:20459857

  19. The impact of low technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Aschengrau, A.; Hardy, S.; Mackey, P.; Pultinas, D.

    1998-10-01

    This prospective environmental intervention study was conducted to determine the impact of low-technology lead hazard reduction activities among children with mildly elevated blood lead levels. Children whose homes had severe lead hazards were automatically assigned to the intervention group. Children whose homes had lesser hazards were randomly assigned to the intervention group or comparison group. The one-time intervention focused mainly on cleaning and repainting window areas and educating caregivers to maintain effective housekeeping techniques. Changes in blood lead and dust lead loading levels were observed following the interventions. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust comparisons of postintervention levels for preintervention levels and other variables. The lead hazard reduction activities were associated with a modest decline in blood lead levels among children with severe hazards. The magnitude of the decline depended on the confounder that was controlled; the majority ranged from {minus}1.1 to {minus}1.6 {micro}g/dL. A moderate reduction in window well dust lead loading levels was also observed. While low-technology lead hazard reduction measures appeared to be an effective secondary prevention strategy among children with severe household lead hazards, larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  20. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China. PMID:25294690

  1. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  2. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. PMID:27135573

  3. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  4. Lifestyle and environmental factors as determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss population

    SciTech Connect

    Berode, M.; Wietlisbach, V.; Rickenbach, M.; Guillemin, M.P. )

    1991-06-01

    The determination of blood lead levels was included in a Swiss population survey on cardiovascular risk factors in 1984-1985; 931 men and 843 women aged 25 to 75 years participated in the study. Mean blood lead levels ({plus minus}SD) were 0.63 {plus minus} 0.27 {mu}mole/liter for men and 0.44 {plus minus} 0.19 {mu}mole/liter for women, respectively, with a slight increase with age for both sexes. These values are below the maximum level recommended by the Commission of the European Community in 1977; 18 cases were found with blood lead higher than 1.5 {mu}mole/liter and in six of these, a professional exposure was suspected. Smoking habits, drinking habits, and consumption of diary products were selected as lifestyle descriptors and educational level, occupational category, and size of the community as sociodemographic indicators. Smoking and alcohol consumption show a direct association with blood lead, consuming dairy products an inverse one. Occupation and level of education are significantly related to blood lead only for men, blue-collar workers and less-educated men being more exposed. A higher blood lead level in cities was only found for women. The lifestyle indicators showed a consistently stronger effect on blood lead than sociodemographic indicators. For mean, smoking has an effect on blood lead for blue-collar workers much stronger than that for nonindustrial employees and may compound in some way the professional exposure to lead.

  5. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)

    Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  6. Prospective associations between childhood low-level lead exposure and adult mental health problems: the Port Pirie cohort study.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander C; Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Galletly, Cherrie; Sim, Malcolm R; Clark, Levina S

    2013-12-01

    Low-level environmental lead exposure during childhood is associated with poorer emotional/behavioural functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Scarce research has examined whether these apparent effects persist into adulthood. This study is the first to examine prospective associations between lead exposure across early childhood and several common adult mental health problems. Childhood data (including blood lead concentrations) and adult data (from mental health questionnaires and psychiatric interviews) were available for 210 participants (44% males, mean age=26.3 years) from the Port Pirie cohort study (1979-1982 birth cohort). Participants had a mean childhood (to 7 years) average blood lead concentration of 17.2μg/dL. Among females, childhood blood lead showed small significant positive associations with lifetime diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse and social phobia, and with anxiety, somatic and antisocial personality problems. For example: for a 10μg/dL blood lead increase, females were 2.84 times (95% CI 1.10, 7.30) more likely to have an alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, adjustment for childhood covariates - particularly stimulation within the home environment - rendered these associations non-significant. No significant or sizeable unadjusted or adjusted associations were seen for males. The associations between early lead exposure and emotional/behavioural functioning in children might persist into adulthood, at least for females. However, it is unclear whether such results arise from residual confounding, or other mechanisms. Interventions that focus on improving the childhood home environment may have a long-term positive impact on adult mental health outcomes. However, more prospective research using large and representative samples is needed to substantiate these results. PMID:23958641

  7. Analysis of pediatric blood lead levels in New York City for 1970-1976.

    PubMed Central

    Billick, I H; Curran, A S; Shier, D R

    1979-01-01

    A study was completed of more than 170,000 records of pediatric venous blood levels and supporting demographic information collected in New York City during 1970-1976. The geometric mean (GM) blood lead level shows a consistent cyclical variation superimposed on an overall decreasing trend with time for all ages and ethnic groups studied. The GM blood lead levels for blacks are significantly greater than those for either Hispanics or whites. Regression analysis indicates a significant statistical association between GM blood lead level and ambient air lead level, after appropriate adjustments are made for age and ethnic group. These highly significant statistical relationships provide extremely strong incentives and directions for research into casual factors related to blood lead levels in children. PMID:499123

  8. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead toxicity in children from schools and an urban slum in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Veena; Chitralekha, K T; Dua, Tarun; Pandey, R M; Gupta, Yogesh

    2003-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the mean blood lead levels (BLL) and prevalence of lead toxicity in a representative sample of schoolchildren and children residing in an urban slum. In addition, the association of potential environmental risk factors with elevated BLL was studied. Children aged 4-6 years were selected from schools of the South zone of Delhi (n = 125) and from an urban slum (n = 65). Risk factors were recorded using a pre-tested questionnaire and blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were estimated. The mean BLL was 7.8 microg/dl (SD 3.9) and the proportion of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dl was 18.4 per cent. Distance of the residence or school from a main road appeared to be associated with higher blood lead concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. In our setting, vehicular pollution may be a major contributing factor in lead contamination of the environment. PMID:12729296

  9. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in donkeys and mules near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Gunter, E.W.; Matte, T.D. )

    1990-02-01

    During the course of an investigation into community lead poisoning near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels were measured in 8 exposed and 6 (3 Jamaican, 3 US) unexposed donkeys and mules. The blood lead levels of 6 animals in the contaminated area ranged from 7.5 to 33 micrograms/dl (mean = 17.6 micrograms/dl), compared to 1.8 and 2.4 in unexposed Jamaican animals. More striking was the difference in zinc protoporphyrin levels; all 8 exposed donkeys and mules had values between 900 and 1890 micrograms/dl, compared with a range of 34-46 micrograms/dl for 3 Jamaican control donkeys. These findings suggest that zinc protoporphyrin may be a useful method of screening for subclinical lead toxicity in equines.

  10. Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphism and blood lead concentration in children.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Erin N; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Hornung, Richard; Wenstrup, Richard; Dietrich, Kim; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2003-01-01

    Variation in blood lead concentration is caused by a complex interaction of environmental, social, nutritional, and genetic factors. We evaluated the association between blood lead concentration and a vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism. Environmental samples and blood were analyzed for lead, nutritional and behavioral factors were assessed, and VDR -Fok1 genotype was determined in 245 children. We found a significant interaction between floor dust lead and genotype on blood lead concentration. For every 1 microg/ft(2) increase in floor dust, children with VDR -FF genotype had a 1.1% increase in blood lead [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.5], VDR -Ff, 0.53% increase (95% CI, 0.1-0.92), and VDR -ff, 3.8% increase (95% CI, 1.2-6.3); however, at floor dust levels < 10 microg/ft(2), children with VDR -ff had the lowest blood lead concentrations. These data suggest that VDR -Fok1 is an effect modifier of the relationship of floor dust lead exposure and blood lead concentration. PMID:14527848

  11. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-01-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC–HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin (125I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC–HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using 125I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having ‘optimal’ body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC–HES; 74.5 mL/kg by 125I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R2 = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  12. Measurement of Blood Volume in Adult Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Theodore R; Blue, Steven W; Park, Byung S; Greisel, Jennifer J; Conn, P Michael; Pau, Francis K-Y

    2015-11-01

    Most biomedical facilities that use rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) limit the amount of blood that may be collected for experimental purposes. These limits typically are expressed as a percentage of blood volume (BV), estimated by using a fixed ratio of blood (mL) per body weight (kg). BV estimation ratios vary widely among facilities and typically do not factor in variables known to influence BV in humans: sex, age, and body condition. We used indicator dilution methodology to determine the BV of 20 adult rhesus macaques (10 male, 10 female) that varied widely in body condition. We measured body composition by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, weight, crown-to-rump length, and body condition score. Two indicators, FITC-labeled hydroxyethyl starch (FITC-HES) and radioiodinated rhesus serum albumin ((125)I-RhSA), were injected simultaneously, followed by serial blood collection. Plasma volume at time 0 was determined by linear regression. BV was calculated from the plasma volume and Hct. We found that BV calculated by using FITC-HES was consistently lower than BV calculated by using (125)I-RhSA. Sex and age did not significantly affect BV. Percentage body fat was significantly associated with BV. Subjects categorized as having 'optimal' body condition score had 18% body fat and 62.1 mL/kg BV (by FITC-HES; 74.5 mL/kg by (125)I-RhSA). Each 1% increase in body fat corresponded to approximately 1 mL/kg decrease in BV. Body condition score correlated with the body fat percentage (R(2) = 0.7469). We provide an equation for calculating BV from weight and body condition score. PMID:26632777

  13. Derivation of a target concentration of Pb in soil based on elevation of adult blood pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H.

    1996-04-01

    The increase in systolic blood pressure in males appears to be the most sensitive adult endpoint appropriate for deriving a health risk-based target level of lead (Ph) in soil. Because the response of blood pressure to blood Ph concentration (PbB) has no apparent threshold, traditional approaches based on the application of a Reference Dose (RfD) are not applicable. An alternative approach is presented based on a model which predicts the population shift in systolic blood pressure from ingestion of Pb contaminated soil as a simultaneous function of exposure to Pb in soil, the baseline distribution of blood Pb concentration in the population and the baseline distribution of systolic pressure in the population. This model is analyzed using Monte Carlo analysis to predict the population distribution of systolic pressure resulting from Ph exposure. Based on this analysis, it is predicted that for adult males 18-65 years old, exposure to 1000 ppm Pb in soil will result in an increase of approximately 1 mm Hg systolic pressure, an increase in the incidence of systolic hypertension (i.e., systolic pressure >140 mm Hg) of approximately 1% and an increase in PbB of 1-3 {mu}g/dl. Based on the proposition that these adverse effects can be considered de minimis, 1000 ppm Ph in soil is proposed as a target soil concentration for adult exposure. Available data do not appear to be adequate to predict the newborn PbB level which would result from exposure to this soil level during pregnancy, 36 refs., 6 figs.

  14. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... young adults have high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously ... 12 ounces of beer or five ounces of wine.) Finally, quit smoking. Among other things, smoking damages ...

  15. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  16. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = < 0.001). Other significant variables included age, gender (males), and non-farming-related occupations (e.g., technicians, factory workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = < 0.05). Thus, blood lead levels were positively associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended. PMID:10926720

  17. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease ... Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q- ...

  18. Iron deficiency associated with higher blood lead in children living in contaminated environments.

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, L R

    2001-01-01

    The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted for lead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 microg/dL; 14% exceeded 10 microg/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24% with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 microg/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 microg/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 microg/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 microg/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 microg/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status

  19. Determination of lead in the blood of children in the town of Berat, Albania.

    PubMed

    Saraci, M; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

    1999-08-01

    Little is known about exposure to lead during childhood in Albania. An analytical survey was carried out in order to determine the levels of lead in blood (PbB) and associated risk factors for 107 inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren living in the town of Berat in Albania, where a plant producing lead-acid batteries exists. The analysis showed that 68% of the children examined had blood levels equal to or greater than 10 micrograms/dL. The mean concentration of lead in the blood of the children was 11.20 micrograms/dL. The influence of the sex and the age of the children, as well as the distance of their homes from the lead-acid battery plant, on the blood lead content was examined. PMID:10422256

  20. Delayed blood regeneration in lead exposure: An effect on reserve capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Jensen, B.M.; Sando, S.H.; Jogensen, P.J.; Antonsen, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.

  1. Cord Blood Transplantation Following Reduced-intensity Conditioning for Adult-onset Inherited Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Takuro; Kato, Koji; Sakamoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masayasu; Takashima, Shuichiro; Mori, Yasuo; Takenaka, Katsuto; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Teshima, Takanori; Harada, Naoki; Nagafuji, Koji; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Inherited hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a genetic anomaly disorder in which abnormally activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes cannot induce the apoptosis of target cells and antigen-presenting cells, leading to hemophagocytosis, pancytopenia, and a variety of symptoms such as a high fever. The present patient with adult-onset HLH developed refractory disease despite receiving immunosuppressive treatments. He underwent a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen that comprised antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by cord blood transplantation (RIC-CBT). He achieved and maintained a complete donor type. The incorporation of ATG into RIC-CBT may prevent graft failure and control hemophagocytosis, however, further efforts are necessary to reduce infectious complications. PMID:26984088

  2. Association between δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase G177C polymorphism and blood lead levels in brain tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    TAHA, MAHMOUD MOSTAFA; GABER, OSAMA ABD EL AZIZ; SABBAH, NORHAN ABDALLA; ABD ELAZEM, ABD ALLAH S

    2015-01-01

    As the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) G177C polymorphism affects the toxicokinetics of lead in the body, and the corresponding exposure to lead may increase the risk of adult brain tumors, we hypothesize that there is a possible association of the ALAD G177C genotype and the risk of brain tumors in human. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the role of the ALAD enzyme gene polymorphism at position G177C in the pathogenesis of brain tumors and its correlation to lead exposure. The ALAD gene polymorphism at position G177C was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism method and measured the blood lead level by atomic absorption in 81 brain tumor patients and compared the results with 81 controls. The frequency of the GC genotype (ALAD1-2) was significantly increased in primary brain tumor patients compared to the control group. The genotype frequency of ALAD2 (ALAD1-2 and ALAD2-2) was significantly higher in the meningioma patients but was not significant in glioma patients. There was no significant difference in the number of patients and blood lead level when compared with the control. There was a significant increase when compared to ALAD1 regarding a mean value of the lead level. The genotyping of the ALAD G177C polymorphism in the present study revealed a significant association between ALAD2 and brain tumors. The ALAD G177C polymorphism may modify the lead kinetics in the blood, is associated with higher blood lead burden and may provide a biomarker of neurotoxic risk. PMID:26623039

  3. Identification of a T lineage committed progenitor in adult blood

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Andreas; von Boehmer, Harald

    2007-01-01

    With help of a hCD25 reporter controlled by Ptcra regulatory elements T cell precursors were identified in peripheral blood. Sca-1+, IL-7Rα+, Flt3− precursors that were c-kitlo and Thy-1hi generated T lineage cells when cultured on OP9-DL1 stromal cells and upon transfer into Rag−/−γc−/− mice. No B cells were generated in vivo and only few in vitro. The circulating T cell progenitors (CTP) were found at the same frequency in Foxn1nu/nu thymus deficient mice and wt mice indicating that they were pre- rather than post-thymic, consistent with the observation that inhibition of Notch signaling in vivo did reduce the frequency of intrathymic ETP, but not CTP. Thus, extrathymic T cell commitment is Notch-independent even in adult mice. PMID:17222572

  4. Why some adult Canadians do not have blood pressure measured.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Ernest; Campbell, Norman R C; Maxwell, Colleen; Onysko, Jay; Quan, Hude

    2007-12-01

    Regular blood pressure (BP) measurements are required to identify people with hypertension and to optimally manage their cardiovascular risk. Analyses of data from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey showed that most adult Canadians have had a BP assessment in the previous 2 years and few have never had one. Large numbers of persons without BP recordings were observed, however, among persons who were younger, were male, who did not have either a regular doctor or physician contact in the previous year, who were recent immigrants or visible minorities (nonwhite and non-Aboriginal), and who spoke neither French nor English. Common reasons reported for not having a BP assessment included believing it was not necessary and simply not getting around to it. Education programs targeting those at risk as well as more convenient BP screening may improve awareness and testing. PMID:18046100

  5. Control of Blood Vessel Identity: From Embryo to Adult

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Arteries and veins have been historically defined by the direction of blood flow and oxygen tension within the vessel, in addition to their functional, hemodynamic, and anatomical differences. It is now known that the molecular identity of these vessels is genetically predetermined, with specific molecular pathways activated during the development of arteries and veins. Eph-B4 is a determinant of venous differentiation and Ephrin-B2 is a determinant of arterial differentiation. Placement of a vein into the higher pressure and flow of the arterial circulation results in adaptation of the vein to the arterial environment. There is selective loss of Eph-B4 expression without induction of Ephrin-B2 expression during vein graft adaptation. These findings suggest that loss of venous identity is the crucial mechanism in vein graft adaptation and that developmentally critical determinants of vessel identity are plastic during adult life. PMID:23555335

  6. Blood Lead Levels and children’s Behavioral and Emotional Problems: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Wang, Wei; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Linda; Yan, Chonghuai; Rogan, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The association between lead exposure and children’s IQ has been well studied, but few studies have examined the effects of blood lead on children’s behavior. Objective This study examined the association between blood lead concentrations and behavioral problems in a community sample of Chinese preschool children with a mean blood lead level <10 µg/dL. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Four elementary schools in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province of China. Participants Participants were 1341 children at ages 3–5 years. Main Outcome Measures Blood lead concentration was measured at ages 3–5 years. Behavioral problems were assessed using Chinese versions of the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form when children at age 6 years. Results Mean blood lead concentration was 6.4 µg/dL (SD=2.6), with 75th and 90th percentiles being 7.7 and 9.4 µg/dL respectively. General linear modeling showed significant associations between blood lead concentrations and increased scores for teacher reported behavioral problems. One µg/dL increase of blood lead concentration resulted in a 0.32, 0.25 and 0.30 increase of behavior scores on emotional reactivity, anxiety/depressed and pervasive developmental problems, respectively (p <0.05), while adjusting for parental and child variables,. Spline modeling showed that teacher-reported behavior scores increased with blood lead concentration, particular for older girls. Conclusions and Relevance Blood lead concentrations, even at mean levels of 6.4 µg/dL, were associated with increased risk of behavioral problems in Chinese preschool children, including internalizing and pervasive developmental problems. This association showed different patterns depending on age and gender. PMID:25090293

  7. Evidence for effects of chronic lead exposure on blood pressure in experimental animals: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Victery, W.

    1988-06-01

    Information obtained in a number of experimental studies conducted over the last 40 years on the effects of lead on blood pressure is reviewed. Differences in animal species, age at beginning of exposure, level of lead exposure, indices of lead burden, and blood pressure effects on each study are reported. In several of the high-dose experiments, hypertension was observed, but nephrotoxicity of lead may have contributed to its development. Moreover, in other high-dose experiments, no hypertension was observed, and in at least one experiment, the evidence suggested that lead could reduce an elevated blood pressure. In contrast, the lower dose experiments consistently demonstrated a hypertensive effect. Overall, the data suggest a biphasic dose response. Establishment of an appropriate animal model to study blood pressure effects of lead will require careful assessment of dietary interactions with lead, unstressed blood pressure monitoring with standardized techniques, and documentation of biologically effective lead burden. Future research should examine lead exposure at more environmentally appropriate levels in order to determine the validity of associating this pollutant with blood pressure effects in human population.

  8. A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ayurvedic medications consist of herbs that may be intentionally combined with metals, such as lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. Ayurvedic practitioners and their patients believe that the toxic properties of the metals are reduced or eliminated during preparation and processing. Case report A 69 year old Caucasian male retired professional with a prior history of stroke presented for evaluation of new onset depression, fatigue, generalized weakness, constipation, anorexia, and weight loss. History revealed that his symptoms were temporally related to initiation of an Ayurvedic herbal medication. The patient had been previously admitted to another hospital for these symptoms and was found to have a severe anemia for which no etiology was found. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated blood lead level and a diagnosis of symptomatic lead toxicity was made. The patient was treated with intramuscular, intravenous, and oral chelation therapy to promote lead excretion. Because of complaints of continued poor mental function, neuropsychological tests were administered before and after one of the chelation treatments and showed improvement in measures of attention and other cognitive domains. In addition, the patient was able to discontinue use of antidepressant medication after chelation. Discussion A high index of suspicion of metal toxicity is necessary among persons with characteristic symptoms and signs in the absence of occupational exposure. Despite limited evidence for chelation in adults and in those with modest blood lead levels, this patient appeared to benefit from repeated chelation therapy. Both allopathic and alternative medicine practitioners and public health specialists need to be aware of the potential for contamination of and side effects from alternative pharmacologic and herbal therapies. PMID:24083830

  9. Maternal Blood, Plasma, and Breast Milk Lead: Lactational Transfer and Contribution to Infant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. Objectives: We explored the dose–response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. Methods: We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose–response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Results: Maternal lead levels (mean ± SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7 ± 4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8 ± 0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6–39.8) with 97% of the ratios being > 1. The dose–response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function = 6.5, p = 0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4 ± 2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.3). Conclusions: The M/P ratio for lead in humans is substantially higher than previously reported, and transfer of lead from plasma to milk may be higher at lower levels of plasma lead. Breast milk is an important determinant of lead burden among breastfeeding infants. Citation: Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith DR, Lupoli N, Mercado-García A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernández-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87–92; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  10. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p < 0.0001). Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p < 0.0001). Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p < 0.0003) and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship with frequency of incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  11. Relationship among maternal blood lead, ALAD gene polymorphism and neonatal neurobehavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Li; Zhang, Weixing; Qin, Kejun

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a widely used heavy metal that can affect children’s nervous system development. ALAD gene polymorphism is associated with lead neurotoxicity. This study aimed to clarify the relationship among maternal blood lead, ALAD gene polymorphism, and neonatal neurobehavioral development through detecting maternal blood lead and ALAD gene polymorphism. 198 maternal and neonatal were selected as the research object. Graphite furnace atomic absorption method was applied to detect the maternal blood lead concentration. PCR-RFLP was used to detect ALAD genotype distribution. Neonatal NANB score was treated as effect indicator. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. The ALAD genotype was 181 cases (91.4%) for ALAD11 and 17 cases (8.6%) for ALAD12. ALAD allele frequency distribution accords with genetics Hardy-Weinberg balance (P > 0.05). Blood lead level in maternal with ALAD12 genotype was significantly higher than with ALAD11 genotype (P < 0.01). NANB score in high blood lead neonatal group was obviously lower than the low blood lead group (P < 0.05). Newborn’s NANB score from the maternal with ALAD11 genotype was lower than from the maternal with ALAD12 genotype (P < 0.01). After ruling out the confounding factors influence by multiple linear regressions, ALAD gene polymorphisms had no significant correlation with neonatal NANB score (P > 0.05). ALAD gene polymorphism is associated with the blood lead level. Low level lead exposure in utero may cause newborn early neurobehavioral maldevelopment. Maternal ALAD gene polymorphism can affect early neonatal neurobehavioral development by influencing the blood lead level. PMID:26261627

  12. Ethnic differences in blood lead concentration among workers in a battery manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Chia, K S; Ong, C N

    1991-11-01

    Blood lead levels of two ethnic groups (11 Chinese and 25 Malays) of workers in a factory manufacturing lead accumulator battery were studied. The mean adjusted (for environmental lead levels, age, exposure duration and stick-years of smoking by analysis of covariance) blood lead level of the Malays was 34.8 micrograms/dl as compared to 22.4 micrograms/dl for the Chinese. This difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Oral ingestion of lead, through eating of food with hands contaminated by lead compound, among the Malay workers was suggested as a possible cause for the difference in the mean blood lead levels. Preventive measures and recommendations to overcome the problem among this particular group of workers were discussed. PMID:1803964

  13. Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

  14. Elevated blood lead levels among unskilled construction workers in Jimma, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No study has been carried out to assess the blood lead levels of workers or the contribution of common workplace practices to lead exposure in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to assess the blood lead levels of female and male laborers in the construction sector in Jimma town, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study on the blood lead levels of 45 construction workers was carried out in the town of Jimma. The t-test, analysis of variance, the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann–Whitney and odds ratio tests were used to compare mean blood lead levels and to investigate the associations between specific job type, use of self-protection device, sex, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean blood lead level of the exposed group (40.03 ± 10.41 μg/dL) was found to be significantly greater than that of the unexposed group (29.81 ± 10.21 μg/dL), p = 0.05. Among the exposed group female workers were found to have higher mean blood lead level (42.04 ± 4.11 μg/dL) than their male colleagues (33.99 ± 3.28 μg/dL). Laborers who were regularly using self-protection devices were found to have significantly lower blood lead levels than those who were not using. Conclusion The blood lead levels of construction workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 20.46 – 70.46 μg/dL and the workers are in danger of imminent lead toxicity. More endangered are female construction workers who are bearers of the future children of the country and the issue requires urgent attention. PMID:24645964

  15. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  16. The effects of succimer on the absorption of lead in adults determined by using the stable isotope [sup 204]Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA ); Markowitz, M.E.; Rosen, J.F. ); Crick, J.; Flegal, A.R. )

    1994-10-01

    The chelating agent succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccine acid) is orally effective at inducing a urinary lead diuresis and a decrease in blood lead levels in lead poisoned children and adults. However, there are concerns that succimer may increase the absorption of lead from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during treatment, particularly in cases of continuing lead exposure, which would compromise its effectiveness in reducing whole body lead stores. This preliminary study investigated the effects of succimer on the absorption of lead in adults using a stable lead isotopic tracer ([sup 204]Pb). Twelve male subjects were divided into control (no succimer), 10, and 30 mg succimer/kg body wt treatment groups of 4 individuals each. All subjects ingested a single tracer dose (200 [mu]g) of [sup 204]Pb, followed by a single oral dose of placebo (control) or succimer. Whole blood was collected at intervals of 0, 2, 4, and [approx] 26 hr following ingestion of the [sup 204]Pb tracer, and composite urine and feces samples were collected over the duration of the study ([approx] 26 hr). Mean intestinal excretion of [sup 204]Pb was reduced in the succimer-treated groups compared to the control (placebo), whereas urinary diuresis of [sup 204]Pb was higher in the succimer groups. The amount of lead [sup 204]Pb tracer accounted for at the end of the study was lower in the succimer-treated groups. These results suggest that GI lead absorption was enhanced by succimer and that succimer mediated the redistribution of lead from the circulation to other tissues. However, none of the differences between treatment groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05, t test) because of the relatively large within-group variability. This study demonstrates the utility of microgram doses of a stable lead isotopic tracer to assess the efficacy of clinical chelating agents in humans. 39 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  18. The relation between occupational exposure to lead and blood pressure among employed normotensive men

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Ladan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sanei, Hamid; Rabiei, Katayoun; Arabzadeh, Somayeh; Golshahi, Jafar; Afshar, Hamid; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead is a pollutant with numerous adverse effects on health. Since it can affect blood pressure, peripheral blood vessels, and the heart, the present study aimed to evaluate the relation between occupational exposure to lead and blood pressure. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included male individuals working in battery firms in Isfahan. A questionnaire covering demographic characteristics and the history of different diseases and occupational exposure to lead was completed. Each participant's blood pressure was also measured and recorded. After obtaining blood samples and determining lead levels, mean and frequency analyses were performed. In addition, Pearson's correlation test and linear regression were used to assess the relation between blood lead levels (BLLs) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. All analyses were performed in SPSS.19 Results: The mean age of the 182 studied workers was 42.85 ± 13.65 years. They had worked in battery firms for a mean period of 23.67 ± 14.72 years. Moreover, the mean value of BLLs among the participants was 7.92 ± 3.44 μg/dL. Correlation between BLL and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was not significant. The effects of lead on systolic and diastolic blood pressure after stepwise regression were B = –0.327 [confidence interval (CI) 95%: –0.877 to 0.223] and B = –0.094 (CI 95%: –0.495 to 0.307), respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that BLLs in battery firm workers to be normal. Additionally, BLLs were not significantly related with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure which might have been the result of normal BLLs. PMID:25197288

  19. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  20. Determinants of elevated blood lead during pregnancy in a population surrounding a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Graziano, J H; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Shrout, P; Kline, J; Murphy, M J; Zhao, Y H; Mehmeti, A; Ahmedi, X; Rajovic, B

    1990-11-01

    We are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a non-lead-exposed control town, were interviewed. Blood was obtained for blood lead (PbB), hemoglobin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin measurements. Women were seen again at delivery, at which time maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. While many demographic and social characteristics were similar across the two towns, women in Pristina were more likely to report employment outside the home, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use during pregnancy. As expected, PbB levels were substantially higher in the smelter town. At midpregnancy, PbB geometric means were 17.1 micrograms/dL in T. Mitrovica and 5.1 micrograms/dL in Pristina; 86% of the pregnant women in T. Mitrovica, compared to 3.4% of those in Pristina, had PbB levels greater than 10 micrograms/dL. Within T. Mitrovica, distance between the home and the smelter was the most important predictor of PbB at mid-pregnancy and delivery. Husband's employment in the lead industry was associated with a significant increase in maternal PbB levels independent of place of residence. Higher maternal serum ferritin concentrations were associated with lower PbB levels, suggesting that dietary iron inhibits lead absorption. Overall, the placenta was a poor barrier to lead; the relationship between maternal PbB and umbilical cord PbB was linear across a wide range of PbB levels. PMID:2088762

  1. Determinants of elevated blood lead during pregnancy in a population surrounding a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Joseph H.; Popovac, Dusan; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Shrout, Patrick; Kline, Jennie; Murphy, Mary J.; Zhao, Yu-hua; Mehmeti, Ali; Ahmedi, Xhemal; Rajovic, Biljana; Zvicer, Zorica; Nenezic, Dragoslav U.; Lolacono, Nancy J.; Stein, Zena

    1990-01-01

    We are prospectively examining the relation between environmental lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in cohorts of women exposed to a wide range of air lead concentrations. Titova Mitrovica, Yugoslavia, is the site of a large lead smelter, refinery, and battery factory. At midpregnancy, 602 women in T. Mitrovica and 900 women in Pristina, a non-lead-exposed control town, were interviewed. Blood was obtained for blood lead (PbB), hemoglobin, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin measurements. Women were seen again at delivery, at which time maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained. While many demographic and social characteristics were similar across the two towns, women in Pristina were more likely to report employment outside the home, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use during pregnancy. As expected, PbB levels were substantially higher in the smelter town. At midpregnancy, PbB geometric means were 17.1 μg/dL in T. Mitrovica and 5.1 μg/dL in Pristina; 86% of the pregnant women in T. Mitrovica, compared to 3.4% of those in Pristina, had PbB levels > 10 μg/dL. Within T. Mitrovica, distance between the home and the smelter was the most important predictor of PbB at mid-pregnancy and delivery. Husband's employment in the lead industry was associated with a significant increase in maternal PbB levels independent of place of residence. Higher maternal serum ferritin concentrations were associated with lower PbB levels, suggesting that dietary iron inhibits lead absorption. Overall, the placenta was a poor barrier to lead; the relationship between maternal PbB and umbilical cord PbB was linear across a wide range of PbB levels. PMID:2088762

  2. Comparison of skull and femur lead levels in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, J.E.; Potter, G.D.; Santolucito, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate the relationship between skull and femur lead levels in laboratory rats. Forty-eight female rats were given one of four lead chloride drinking water solutions: 0.05, 0.58, 17, or 352 ppM lead. Two animals from each group were sacrificed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 24 weeks of treatment. Both femurs and the frontal and parietal bones of the skull were removed from each animal and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A significant accumulation of lead was observed in femurs and skull bones only from animals in the 352 ppM lead treatment group. The lead concentrations of the femurs were significantly higher than skull lead concentrations for all groups and this relationship was described using a linear regression equation.

  3. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  4. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; White, Franklin; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Hozhabri, Siroos; Luby, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS: A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households. FINDINGS: About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood. CONCLUSION: These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element. PMID:12471396

  5. Blood lead concentrations as a result of retained lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edetanlen, B E; Saheeb, B D

    2016-06-01

    Patients who survive gunshot wounds often retain pellets in their bodies, which cause delayed morbidity from lead poisoning, and even death. Our aim was to find out whether there is a high concentration of lead in the blood of patients who have asymptomatic retention of lead pellets in the craniomaxillofacial region. We prospectively studied 28 patients who were admitted to our hospital with gunshot injuries to the region, and 28 control subjects. Each was originally recruited three days after injury. The control subjects were chosen from people who lived in the same household or worked in the same place as the patients. Any previous exposure to lead was excluded. Blood samples were collected three days and three months after injury and analysed for the presence of lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) age for both patients and control subjects was 33 (12) years. The mean (SD) and range of concentrations of lead in patients three days after injury was 0.11 (0.07), range 0.01-0.32μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0.03 (0.02) and 0-0.06, respectively. Three months after injury, the mean (SD) and range of concentrations of the patients were 0.30 (0.11) and 0.12-0.59μmol/L, while those of the control subjects were 0-1.25 and 0.12 (0.006) μmol/L, respectively (p= 0.000). The study showed a higher mean blood lead concentration in patients with gunshot injuries than in control subjects, but lower than the threshold values published by the Centers for Disease Control/Occupational Health and Safety Administration in the United States. PMID:26969292

  6. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando; Curtius, Adilson J.; Buzalaf, Marilia R.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2006-09-15

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L, with a mean of 76 {mu}g/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 {mu}g/L in men (mean, 98.3 {mu}g/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 {mu}g/L (mean, 62.8 {mu}g/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.66 {mu}g/L) and 0.02-1.5 {mu}g/L (mean, 0.42 {mu}g/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P<0.001 Spearman's correlation). The two quantities are related by the line y=0.0006x {sup 1492} (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x {sup 0.702}) and women (y=0.0534x {sup 0.5209}) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity.

  7. Ethical issues in using children's blood lead levels as a remedial action objective.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Sue M; Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  8. Ethical Issues in Using Children's Blood Lead Levels as a Remedial Action Objective

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  9. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (P<0.01), and a weaker but significant correlation between plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity and blood PCB concentrations (P<0.05). It was apparent that delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in the blood provided a sensitive and precise estimate of lead contamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  10. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  11. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process. PMID:23859360

  12. Interrelationships of blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in tests from one lead battery plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A period prevalence study examining concurrent PbB, ZPP and Hgb test values from 236 employees of one lead-acid battery manufacturing plant over a six month period was conducted. Fifty-six job categories in the plant were grouped on the basis of proximity and/or similarity of lead exposure. Diagrams of plant layout, the process flow chart, work order, department numbers and biological and environmental data from earlier plant surveys were used in dividing the jobs into five exposure index groups. Length of service with the company was calculated to provide an indication of the duration of occupational exposure to lead. Length of service in the exposure index group was calculated to provide information regarding the duration of exposure as measured by the type of job. Recommendations were made that: 1) a single set of tests not be evaluated in isolation but considered as part of the overall pattern of an individual's laboratory data; 2) ZPP be required by OSHA for periodic monitoring; 3) use of both the PbB and ZPP tests is necessary for biological monitoring at PbB levels less than or equal to 55 ..mu..g/dL; and 4) a PbB value of 40 ..mu..g/dL is a good level to use in determining who will have more frequent biological monitoring for the purpose of OSHA compliance.

  13. Measurement by ICP-MS of lead in plasma and whole blood of lead workers and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, A; Bergdahl, I A; Ekholm, A; Skerfving, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test a simple procedure for preparing samples for measurement of lead in blood plasma (P-Pb) and whole blood (B-Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), to measure P-Pb and B-Pb in lead workers and controls, and to evaluate any differences in the relation between B-Pb and P-Pb between people. METHODS: P-Pb and B-Pb were measured by ICP-MS in 43 male lead smelter workers and seven controls without occupational exposure to lead. For analysis, plasma and whole blood were diluted 1 in 4 and 1 in 9, respectively, with a diluted ammonia solution containing Triton-X 100 and EDTA. The samples were handled under routine laboratory conditions, without clean room facilities. RESULTS: P-Pb was measured with good precision (CV = 5%) even at concentrations present in the controls. Freeze storage of the samples had no effect on the results. The detection limit was 0.015 microgram/l. The P-Pb was 0.15 (range 0.1-0.3) microgram/l in controls and 1.2 (0.3-3.6) micrograms/l in lead workers, although the corresponding B-Pbs were 40 (24-59) micrograms/l and 281 (60-530) micrograms/l (1 microgram Pb/I = 4.8 nmol/l). B-Pb was closely associated with P-Pb (r = 0.90). The association was evidently non-linear; the ratio B-Pb/P-Pb decreased with increasing P-Pb. CONCLUSIONS: By means of ICP-MS and a simple dilution procedure, P-Pb may be measured accurately and with good precision down to concentrations present in controls. Contamination of blood at sampling and analysis is no major problem. With increasing P-Pb, the percentage of lead in plasma increases. In studies of lead toxicity, P-Pb should be considered as a complement to current indicators of lead exposure and risk. PMID:9038796

  14. Correlations of blood lead with DNA-protein cross-links and sister chromatid exchanges in lead workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Yang; Chang, Pao-Wen; Wu, Chin-Ching; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2002-03-01

    Levels of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), high-SCE frequency cells (HFCs), DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs), blood lead (BLL), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were measured in peripheral blood from three groups. The lead workers were divided into two groups: a high BLL group (> or =15 microg/dl) and a low BLL group (<15 microg/dl). The control subjects were selected from an area that had not been contaminated with lead and had normal BLL and ZPP levels. In addition, exposure to airborne lead was measured for 11 lead workers, and the time-weighted average was shown to range from 0.19 to 10.32 mg/m(3). The BLL levels of 9 of 11 workers were >15 microg/dl, of which, 3 exceeded current exposure limits (> or =40 microg/dl). The BLL levels of all 11 controls were < 15 microg/dl. The average SCE and DPC values for the workers were 6.1 SCEs/cell and 1.9%, which were significantly higher (P < 0.01, Wilcoxon's test) than the value of 5.2 SCEs/cell and 1.1% for the control subjects. Lead workers had significantly higher BLL and ZPP levels than did the controls. Statistically significant increases in DPCs, SCEs, and HFCs were observed for the high-BLL group compared with the control group. The results of this study suggest that DPCs, SCEs, and HFCs are reliable biomarkers for monitoring workers exposed to lead and clearly indicate health effects from occupational exposure to lead. PMID:11895879

  15. Effect of chelation treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-related blood pressure changes

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil-Manesh, F.; Gonick, H.C.; Weiler, E.W.J. Univ. of California, Los Angeles ); Prins, B.; Purdy, R. ); Weber, M.A. Univ. of California, Irvine ); Ren, Qing )

    1994-04-01

    An elevation in mean blood pressure was found in rats treated with low lead (0.01%) for 6 months and then only water for an additional 6 months (discontinuous low lead). Not change in blood pressure was found in rats similarly treated with high lead (0.5%) (discontinuous high lead). Administration of DMSA (0.5% in drinking water), for 5 days every 2 months following cessation of lead administration, resulted in a significant lowering of blood pressure in both groups of animals. In the low-lead but not the high-lead group, this was associated with an increase in plasma cyclic GMP (acting as a second messenger for endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF) and a decrease in the plasma concentration of 12-kDa hypertension-associated protein. Plasma endothelin-3 (ET-3) levels were decreased in discontinuous high-lead rats, increased in dicontinuous low-lead rats, but were unaltered by DMSA treatment. We infer that the elevated blood pressure in the discontinuous low-lead rats is related to an increase in the putative vasoconstrictors, ET-3 and the hypertension-associated protein, without a change in the vasodilator, EDRF. With DMSA treatment, plasma cyclic GMP in low-lead rats increased above normal, and the hypertension-associated protein decreased, resulting in lowered blood pressure. DMSA was shown to act as an antioxidant in vitro. Thus the DMSA effect on plasma cGMP (EDRF) may occur via a scavenging effect on EDRF-inactivating reactive oxygen species. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A.; Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  17. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  18. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  19. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  20. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  1. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  2. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  3. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  4. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  5. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...

  6. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  7. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  8. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...

  9. 24 CFR 35.730 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  10. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  11. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  12. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...

  13. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...

  14. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  15. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...

  16. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...

  17. Lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) from the coast of Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Miriam; Castillo-Guerrero, José Alfredo; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Fernández, Guillermo

    2016-09-15

    We used blood samples of the Blue-footed Booby, considering sex (female and male) and age-class (adult and chick) of individuals at different breeding stages during two breeding seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) in Isla El Rancho, Sinaloa, to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were below our detection limit (0.05 and 0.36ppm, respectively). A higher concentration of mercury was found in early stages of breeding, likely related to changes in mercury environmental availability. Mercury concentrations in adults did not relate with their breeding output. Males and adults had higher mercury concentration than females and chicks. We provide information of temporal, sex and age-related variations in the concentrations of mercury in blood of the Blue-footed Booby. PMID:27318761

  18. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  19. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood levels in children of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Carreon, T.; Lopez, L.

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants` households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 {mu}g/dl with a mean of 9.9 {mu}g/dl (SD 5.8 {mu}/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 {mu}g/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used or prepare children`s food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children`s hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. New ceramics-related industry implicated in elevated blood lead levels in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, W.E.; Novotny, T.E.; Tucker, M.

    1987-05-01

    Elevated lead levels have been implicated as a cause of a variety of health problems in children. Blood lead, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and hemoglobin levels were measured for family members of workers exposed to lead borosilicate dust in a capacitor and resistor plant in Colorado. Previous studies in other lead-related industries have shown an increased risk of lead poisoning among workers' children through exposure to dust brought home on work clothes. Eighty-nine family members of 41 exposed workers were tested along with 62 family members of 30 unexposed comparison households. The mean blood lead level in the family members of exposed workers was significantly elevated compared with that of the unexposed group (10.2 vs. 6.2 micrograms/dl, p = .0001).

  1. Concentration of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  2. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  3. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults: results of the prospective Cord Blood Transplantation (COBLT).

    PubMed

    Cornetta, Kenneth; Laughlin, Mary; Carter, Shelly; Wall, Donna; Weinthal, Joel; Delaney, Colleen; Wagner, John; Sweetman, Robert; McCarthy, Philip; Chao, Nelson

    2005-02-01

    The Cord Blood Transplantation study group conducted a prospective study of unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) to better define the role of this stem cell source for subjects requiring unrelated allogeneic transplantation. We report on 1 stratum of the study designated for adult subjects. The primary end point of the study was survival at 180 days. Secondary end points included engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and long-term survival. Eligibility criteria for malignant and nonmalignant diseases were specified. Subjects with active central nervous system disease, Karnofsky performance status <70%, grade 3 or 4 or primary myelofibrosis, or suitable related donors were excluded. Enrollment required a single cord blood unit containing >10(7) nucleated cells per kilogram of recipient weight and matched at > or =4 HLA-A and -B (low or intermediate resolution) and -DRB1 (high resolution) types. Thirty-four subjects were entered, with a median age of 34.5 years (range, 18.2-55 years). Most subjects (n = 23) had a 4 of 6 match, 10 subjects had a 5 of 6 match, and 1 subject had a 6 of 6 match. Diagnoses at transplantation included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 19), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 9), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 3), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) (n = 1), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1); 94% were classified as poor risk according to National Marrow Donor Program criteria. Subjects received total body irradiation/cyclophosphamide (n = 27) or busulfan/melphalan (n = 7) conditioning regimens. Four subjects died before CBT and are described here but are not included in the main analysis. The cumulative incidence rates and median times to neutrophil (500/microL) and platelet (>20,000/microL) engraftment were 0.66 by day 42 (median, 31 days) and 0.35 by day 180 (median, 117 days). The cumulative incidence rate for grade II-IV GVHD was 0.34 by day 100. For the primary end point, survival

  4. Parvovirus leading to thrombotic microangiopathy in a healthy adult.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bhanu; St Onge, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    A healthy 47-year-old man initially presented with symptoms of body rash, myalgias, dark urine, nausea and vomiting. Acute kidney injury, and positive urine analysis for blood and protein warranted a kidney biopsy, which revealed micro thrombi in kidney vasculature, suggestive of thrombotic microangiopathy. Serology revealed positive parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies and biopsy tests revealed a viral genome on PCR. Despite plasma exchanges and treatment with rituximab, renal function continued to deteriorate to end-stage renal disease. PMID:26811413

  5. Neurocognitive screening of lead-exposed andean adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the utility of two psychometric tests with putative minimal cultural bias for use in field screening of lead (Pb)-exposed Ecuadorian Andean workers. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness in Pb-exposed adolescents and young adults of a nonverbal reasoning test standardized for younger children, and compared the findings with performance on a test of auditory memory. The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was used as a test of nonverbal intelligence, and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler IV intelligence scale was used to assess auditory memory/attention. The participants were 35 chronically Pb-exposed Pb-glazing workers, aged 12-21 yr. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the study group ranged from 3 to 86 microg/dl, with 65.7% of the group at and above 10 microg/dl. Zinc protoporphyrin heme ratios (ZPP/heme) ranged from 38 to 380 micromol/mol, with 57.1% of the participants showing abnormal ZPP/heme (>69 micromol/mol). ZPP/heme was significantly correlated with PbB levels, suggesting chronic Pb exposure. Performance on the RCPM was less than average on the U.S., British, and Puerto Rican norms, but average on the Peruvian norms. Significant inverse associations between PbB/ZPP concentrations and RCPM standard scores using the U.S., Puerto Rican, and Peruvian norms were observed, indicating decreasing RCPM test performance with increasing PbB and ZPP levels. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with performance on the Digit Span test for auditory memory. Mean Digit Span scale score was less than average, suggesting auditory memory/attention deficits. In conclusion, both the RCPM and Digit Span tests were found to be effective instruments for field screening of visual-spatial reasoning and auditory memory abilities, respectively, in Pb-exposed Andean adolescents and young adults. PMID:19308847

  6. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. PMID:23648288

  7. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population

    SciTech Connect

    Hogervorst, Janneke; Plusquin, Michelle; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim; Cuypers, Ann; Van Hecke, Etienne; Roels, Harry A.; Carleer, Robert; Staessen, Jan A. . E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be

    2007-01-15

    Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24{mu}mol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm{sup 2}/92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks.

  8. Transition of cord blood lead level, 1985-2002, in the Taipei area and its determinants after the cease of leaded gasoline use.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Ko, Yi; Chiang, Chien-Dai; Hsu, Shih-Penn; Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Chiou, Chuen-Hua; Wang, Jung-Der; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2004-11-01

    Lead has long been of concern for its toxicity, impairment of neurobehavioral and cognitive development, and electrophysiological deficits in children, even at levels less than 10 microg/dL. The present study was conducted to elucidate the extent of cord blood lead level decline in the Taipei area from 1985 to 2002 and to explore the factors affecting the cord blood lead level after the cease of leaded gasoline use. In the current study period of 2001-2002, 184 of 1310 newborns delivered in the Taipei Municipal Women and Children Hospital between September 2001 and August 2002 were eligible and randomly selected to participate in this study. Neither of their parents had an occupational lead exposure history. At each delivery, a sample of 5-10 mL umbilical cord blood was collected for lead determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The cord blood lead level of the newborns in the current study period averaged 2.35 +/- 1.12 microg/dL. Together with the cord blood lead averages of 7.48 +/- 2.25 and 3.28 +/- 1.52 microg/dL obtained from two previous surveys conducted in 1985-1987 and 1990-1992, respectively, the cord blood lead level was significantly decreased (P < 0.005). It is estimated that such a reduction in cord blood lead from 7.48 to 2.35 microg/dL for each year's cohort of 260,000 newborns in Taiwan might benefit the economics, ranging from US$8.9 billion to US$12.1 billion by improving the worker productivity. For the time period from 1985 to 2002, there were consistent transition patterns among the yearly fluctuations of air lead level, leaded gasoline consumption, lead content in gasoline, estimated lead amount emitted from the consumed leaded gasoline, and average cord blood lead levels of the three respective study periods. Additionally, every 0.1-g/L reduction in lead content in gasoline might lead to a lowering of cord blood lead level by 1.78 microg/dL. Furthermore, at low level of around 2 microg/dL, a multiple regression

  9. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  10. Risk factors for high levels of lead in blood of schoolchildren in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Olaiz, G; Fortoul, T I; Rojas, R; Doyer, M; Palazuelos, E; Tapia, C R

    1996-01-01

    Risk factors associated with blood lead levels exceeding 15 microg/dl were analyzed in this report. This relatively high lead level was selected because, at the time the study commenced, it was considered to be a "safe" level. A total of 1583 schoolchildren were studied. The students were from (a) two areas in Mexico City (Tlalnepantla and Xalostoc) that have had historically high concentrations of lead in air, and (b) three areas (Pedregal, Iztalpalapa, and Centro) with less impressive air lead levels. Parents were presented with a questionnaire that solicited information about lead risk factors. A bivariate analysis and a multilogistic analysis were conducted to identify associations and to identify the model that most accurately explains the variability of the sample. High blood lead concentrations were found in children who lived in Xalostoc and Tlalnepantla (16.1 and 17.0 microg/dl, respectively), and the lowest concentration (i.e., 10 microg/dl) was found in children from Iztapalapa. The strongest association was with area of residence, followed by education level of parents, cooking of meals in glazed pottery, and chewing or sucking of yellow or other colored pencils. A child's area of residence is the most significant risk factor that must be accounted for when any study of lead and blood lead concentrations is undertaken. Follow-up in similar populations should assist greatly in the evaluation of the impact of governmental actions on public health. PMID:8638962

  11. Blood and hair lead in children with different extents of iron deficiency in Karachi

    SciTech Connect

    Ataur Rahman, Muhammad; Rahman, Bushra; Saeed Ahmad, Muhammad; Blann, Andrew; Ahmed, Nessar

    2012-10-15

    Childhood iron deficiency has a high incidence in Pakistan. Some but not all studies have shown that dietary iron deficiency may cause increased absorption of lead as both compete for the same transporters in the small intestine. Therefore, children in Pakistan, residing in heavily polluted cities like Karachi may be prone to lead poisoning. This hypothesis was tested by investigating blood and hair lead concentrations in children from Karachi who were divided into four groups of iron status; normal, borderline iron deficiency, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective observational study was conducted where 269 children were categorized into four groups of iron status using the World Health Organization criteria and one based on soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood iron status was determined using a full blood count, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptor measurements. Blood lead was determined by graphite atomic absorption spectroscopy, whereas hair lead was assessed using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher in children with iron deficiency anaemia (mean [95% confidence intervals] were 24.9 [22.6-27.2] {mu}g/dL) compared to those with normal iron status (19.1 [16.8-21.4] {mu}g/dL) using WHO criteria. In contrast, hair lead content was not significantly different in children of different iron status. Our findings reinforce the importance of not only reducing environmental lead pollution but also the development of national health strategies to reduce childhood iron deficiency in Pakistan.

  12. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. . Div. of Health Studies)

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  13. Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

  14. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    PubMed Central

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  15. Blood lead concentrations in school children of Upper Silesian Industrial Zone, Poland.

    PubMed

    Zejda, J E; Sokal, A; Grabecki, J; Panasiuk, Z; Jarkowski, M; Skiba, M

    1995-05-01

    Upper Silesian Industrial Zone (Katowice Voivodship, Poland), the country most industrialized and densely populated region is well recognized for the magnitude of environmental problems. Due to local lead mining and processing environmental exposure to lead is considered one of the most important hazards to the health of children. In the past, clinically confirmed cases of lead intoxication in children have been found and recent blood lead monitoring in major point source impact areas have documented increased blood lead concentration in children. However, much less is known about blood lead concentrations in general population of children who are exposed to increased levels of lead in ambient and soil. The study was undertaken in order to estimate the mean blood lead concentration (PbB) and its range in children aged seven years residing in urban non-point source impact area of Katowice Voivodship, and to examine potential determinants of increased blood lead concentration in these children. In a systematic sample of 431 children aged 7 years (208 girls and 223 boys), living in two large cities in the centre of Upper Silesian Industrial Zone the geometric mean and standard deviation of PbB was 7.94 +/- 1.48 micrograms/dl (range 4.0-38.0 micrograms/dl) and did not depend on sex or the city of residence. PbB equal to or larger than 15 micrograms/dl was found in 8.1% of children and PbB equal to or larger than 10 micrograms/dl in 27.4% of children. Blood lead concentration was associated with a number of factors that could be classified as family factors, housing and environmental factors. The identified risk factors add credibility to suggested directions of preventive measures that should extend beyond already implemented lead emission control in the industry and involve increased use of unleaded gasoline, upgrading of housing conditions and promotion of proper hygienic standards on a household level. The findings of the study indicate that children living in urban

  16. Blood Lead Concentration and Thyroid Function during Pregnancy: Results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda G.; Liu, Xinhua; Rajovic, Biljana; Popovac, Dusan; Oberfield, Sharon; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes as well as lower IQ in children, the environmental determinants of maternal thyroid dysfunction have yet to be fully explored. Objectives: We aimed to examine associations between mid-pregnancy blood lead (BPb) and concomitant measures of thyroid function among participants in the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Methods: As part of a population-based prospective study of two towns in Kosovo—one with high levels of environmental lead and one with low—women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy, at which time blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. We measured concentrations of BPb, free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in archived serum samples. Results: Compared with women from the unexposed town, women from the exposed town had lower mean FT4 (0.91 ± 0.17 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16 ng/dL), higher mean TPOAb (15.45 ± 33.08 vs. 5.12 ± 6.38 IU/mL), and higher mean BPb (20.00 ± 6.99 vs. 5.57 ± 2.01 μg/dL). No differences in TSH levels were found. After adjustment for potential confounders, for each natural log unit increase in BPb, FT4 decreased by 0.074 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.10, –0.046 ng/dL), and the odds ratio for testing positive to TPOAb was 2.41 (95% CI: 1.53, 3.82). We found no association between BPb and TSH. Conclusions: Prolonged lead exposure may contribute to maternal thyroid dysfunction by stimulating autoimmunity to the thyroid gland. Citation: Kahn LG, Liu X, Rajovic B, Popovac D, Oberfield S, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P. 2014. Blood lead concentration and thyroid function during pregnancy: results from the Yugoslavia Prospective Study of Environmental Lead Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:1134–1140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307669 PMID:24866691

  17. Does Visual Impairment Lead to Additional Disability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H. M.; Kooijman, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based questionnaires, prior to expert…

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p < 0.05). However, after controlling for potential confounders, there were no significant differences between adjusted geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  19. Blood lead levels of South African long-distance road-runners

    SciTech Connect

    Grobler, S.R.; Maresky, L.S.; Rossouw, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Road runners are exposed to vehicular exhaust aerosols which are a major source of atmospheric lead pollution in those countries where lead additives are incorporated in petrol. The purpose of this study was twofold: the authors wished to determine the blood lead levels of South African road runners, and they wished to investigate the influence of various environments on such levels. Blood samples were obtained by the finger-prick technique and analyzed for lead by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results were analyzed statistically and compared with control samples from a selected urban nonrunning population and a remote rural population, respectively. The mean blood lead levels obtained were 20.1 micrograms/dl, 51.9 micrograms/dl, 45.8 micrograms/dl, and 53.00 micrograms/dl for the rural trainers, urban trainers, Two Oceans pre-race, and Two Oceans post-race samples, respectively. The mean level for the selected urban control was 9.7 micrograms/dl. The results suggest that road runners are exposed to increased lead inhalation and that atmospheric lead levels differ in urban and rural areas of South Africa.

  20. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L). Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Conclusion Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the

  1. Blood lead concentrations in marine mammals validate estimates of 10{sup 2}- to 10{sup 3}-fold increase in human blood lead concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, B.D.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of ultra-low ambient blood lead (PbB) concentrations (mean {+-} SD = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 {micro}g/dL) in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) validate previous estimates of ultra-low PbB levels in preindustrial humans. These estimates had been unsubstituted, since PbB levels in this range had never been measured in any organisms prior to this study. Similarities in PbB levels among these contemporary and preindustrial mammals are consistent with similarities in their measured and estimated lead exposures, respectively. The marginally higher PbB levels and rates of lead exposure in contemporary marine mammals are, also, consistent with lead isotopic composition analyses that indicate their PbB levels have been elevated from exposure to industrial lead. Consequently, these analyses substantiate concerns that current baseline PbB levels in humans, which are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude above natural levels, may still constitute public health risks.

  2. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  3. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  4. Assessing risk with increasingly stringent public health goals: the case of water lead and blood lead in children.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Previous predictions of children's blood lead levels (BLLs) through biokinetic models conclude that lead in tap water is not a primary health risk for a typical child under scenarios representative of chronic exposure, when applying a 10 μg/dL BLL of concern. Use of the US Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) biokinetic model to simulate children's exposure to water lead at home and at school was re-examined by expanding the scope of previous modeling efforts to consider new public health goals and improved methodology. Specifically, explicit consideration of the more sensitive population groups (e.g., young children and, particularly, formula-fed infants), the variability in BLLs amongst exposed individuals within those groups (e.g., more sensitive children at the upper tail of the BLL distribution), more conservative BLL reference values (e.g., 5 and 2 μg/dL versus 10 μg/dL) and concerns of acute exposure revealed situations where relatively low water lead levels were predicted to pose a human health concern. PMID:24642433

  5. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  6. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  7. Monitoring of zinc protoporphyrin levels in blood following occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wildt, K.; Berlin, M.; Isberg, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The value of measurements of zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) in the surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to lead has been studied. From a group of referents, consisting of 1,088 men and 511 women, it has been established that the normal mean ZPP is in the region of 25 micrograms/100 ml, and only rarely do values exceed 45 micrograms/100 ml. The higher ZPP values are frequently associated with low blood hemoglobin concentrations and appear to be manifestations of an iron-deficiency anemia. Women have higher ZPP values than men; smoking has no influence. Measurements of ZPP and blood lead concentration (PbB) have been made every other month for 2.5 years on a group of around 200 men and 40 women exposed to lead in a storage battery factory. The mean ZPP of the group throughout the period was 70.9 micrograms/100 ml blood, and a linear relation between log ZPP and PbB in the PbB range of 10-80 micrograms/100 ml has been established. ZPP thresholds in the control of excessive occupational lead exposure, and the economic advantage of ZPP measurements over PbB, are discussed.

  8. Blood level of cadmium and lead in occupationally exposed persons in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the blood levels of cadmium and lead in some occupationally exposed individuals and compare the values with non-exposed individuals, with the aim of increasing the awareness of health risk caused by these heavy metals. A total of 120 subjects (64 occupationally exposed and 56 non-exposed subjects) with the age range of 15–40 years were studied in cross-sectional study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013 in Gwagwalada area of Abuja, Nigeria. Blood cadmium and lead were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The respective mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were 11.63±1.73 μg/dl and 45.43±6.93 μg/dl in occupationally-exposed subjects, while in non-exposed subjects 2.03±0.55 μg/dl and 12.08±2.87 μg/dl. The results show that occupational exposure increases the blood level of cadmium and lead, which consequently increases the health risk of the exposed individuals. PMID:27486374

  9. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children’s case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb2+ concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb2+ ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics.

  10. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...

  11. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...

  12. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...

  14. 24 CFR 35.1130 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...

  15. BLOOD LEAD, HEARING THRESHOLDS, AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN AND YOUTH (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHANES II audiometry data were used to confirm a previously observed link between blood lead (PbB) level and hearing threshold. Other indicators of neurological development, such as age at which a child first sat up, walked, and spoke, and the presence of speech difficulties and ...

  16. SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION SESSIONS: SYMPOSIUM ON LEAD-BLOOD PRESSURE RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Symposium on Lead-Blood Pressure Relationships was held in Chapel Hill, NC, April 27-29, 1987. The program was structured so as to first present an overview of theories and findings in the general area of human hypertension and then to have speakers review the e...

  17. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q.; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children’s case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb2+ concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb2+ ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics. PMID:26906251

  18. A label-free and portable graphene FET aptasensor for children blood lead detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Cui, Xinyi; Li, Ying; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a cumulative toxicant, which can induce severe health issues, especially in children's case due to their immature nervous system. While realizing large-scale monitoring of children blood lead remains challenging by utilizing traditional methods, it is highly desirable to search for alternative techniques or novel sensing materials. Here we report a label-free and portable aptasensor based on graphene field effect transistor (FET) for effective children blood lead detection. With standard solutions of different Pb(2+) concentrations, we obtained a dose-response curve and a detection limitation below 37.5 ng/L, which is three orders lower than the safe blood lead level (100 μg/L). The devices also showed excellent selectivity over other metal cations such as, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), suggesting the capability of working in a complex sample matrix. We further successfully demonstrated the detection of Pb(2+) ions in real blood samples from children by using our aptasensors, and explored their potential applications for quantification. Our results underscore such graphene FET aptasensors for future applications on fast detection of heavy metal ions for health monitoring and disease diagnostics. PMID:26906251

  19. Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J

    1979-01-01

    Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evidence was found of the hypothesized summer rise in blood lead level, while the predominant trend seemed to be for blood lead levels to display statistical regression to the mean. In children found to have low to intermediate blood lead levels (less than 55 microgram/100ml) at screening, variables which were found to predict a rise in blood lead level of 10 microgram/100ml or greater from winter to summer were under age three and/or exposure to paint or plaster. PMID:426160

  20. Interaction of blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in lead smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B H; Checkoway, H; Costa-Mallen, P; Faustman, E M; Woods, J S; Kelsey, K T; van Netten, C; Costa, L G

    1998-04-01

    The gene that encodes gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) has a polymorphism that may modify lead toxicokinetics and ultimately influence individual susceptibility to lead poisoning. To evaluate the effect of the ALAD polymorphism on lead-mediated outcomes, a cross-sectional study of male employees from a lead-zinc smelter compared associations between blood lead concentration and markers of heme synthesis and semen quality with respect to ALAD genotype. Male employees were recruited via postal questionnaire to donate blood and urine for analysis of blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary coproporphyrin (CPU), and ALAD genotype, and semen samples for semen analysis. Of the 134 workers who had ALAD genotypes completed, 114 (85%) were ALAD1-1 (ALAD1) and 20 (15%) were ALAD1-2 (ALAD2). The mean blood lead concentrations for ALAD1 and ALAD2 were 23.1 and 28.4 microg/dl (p = 0.08), respectively. ZPP/heme ratios were higher in ALAD1 workers (68.6 vs. 57.8 micromol/ml; p = 0.14), and the slope of the blood lead ZPP linear relationship was greater for ALAD1 (2.83 vs. 1.50, p = 0.06). No linear relationship between CPU and blood lead concentration was observed for either ALAD1 or ALAD2. The associations of blood lead concentration with ZPP, CPU, sperm count, and sperm concentration were more evident in workers with the ALAD1 genotype and blood lead concentrations >/= 40 microg/dl. The ALAD genetic polymorphism appears to modify the association between blood lead concentration and ZPP. However, consistent modification of effects were not found for CPU, sperm count, or sperm concentration. PMID:9495797

  1. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    PubMed Central

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly greater among the urban subgroup, as was the mean number of carious tooth surfaces. Blood lead level was positively associated with number of caries among urban children, even with adjustment for demographic and maternal factors and child dental practices. This association was stronger in primary than in permanent dentition and stronger for occlusal, lingual, and buccal tooth surfaces than for mesial or distal surfaces. In general, blood lead was not associated with caries in the rural subgroup. The difference between the strength of the associations in the urban and rural settings might reflect the presence of residual confounding in the former setting, the presence of greater variability in the latter setting in terms of important caries risk factors (e.g., fluoride exposure), or greater exposure misclassification in the rural setting. These findings add to the evidence supporting a weak association between children's lead exposure and caries prevalence. A biologic mechanism for lead cariogenicity has not been identified, however. Our data are also consistent with residual confounding by factors associated with both elevated lead exposure and dental caries. PMID:12361944

  2. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iavicoli, I. . E-mail: iavicoli.ivo@rm.unicatt.it; Carelli, G. . E-mail: gcarelli@rm.unicatt.it; Stanek, E.J. . E-mail: stanek@schoolph.umass.edu; Castellino, N. . E-mail: iclml@rm.unicatt.it; Calabrese, E.J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu

    2006-01-15

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-{gamma}) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-{gamma} and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 {mu}g/dL), which is below background (2-3 {mu}g/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-{gamma} and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations.

  3. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  4. Blood pressure and hair cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc concentrations in Mississippi adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, D.M.; Pellum, L.K.

    1985-02-01

    Increased cadmium and lead tissue concentrations have been associated with deaths resulting from heart disease. Liver cadmium concentrations and aortic lead levels have been reported to be higher in deaths resulting from heart related disease compared to non-heart related disease. Essential trace elements such as copper and zinc have also been postulated as playing a role in coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of hair lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in Mississippi adolescents and to determine if these hair elements were associated with blood pressure.

  5. The Influence of Declining Air Lead Levels on Blood Lead–Air Lead Slope Factors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Davis, Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Lu, Shou-En; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S.; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C.; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin P.; Ross, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to discern the proportion of blood lead (PbB) attributable to ambient air lead (PbA), given the multitude of lead (Pb) sources and pathways of exposure. The PbB–PbA relationship has previously been evaluated across populations. This relationship was a central consideration in the 2008 review of the Pb national ambient air quality standards. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between PbB and PbA concentrations among children nationwide for recent years and to compare the relationship with those obtained from other studies in the literature. Methods: We merged participant-level data for PbB from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994) and NHANES 9908 (1999–2008) with PbA data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We applied mixed-effects models, and we computed slope factor, d[PbB]/d[PbA] or the change in PbB per unit change in PbA, from the model results to assess the relationship between PbB and PbA. Results: Comparing the NHANES regression results with those from the literature shows that slope factor increased with decreasing PbA among children 0–11 years of age. Conclusion: These findings suggest that a larger relative public health benefit may be derived among children from decreases in PbA at low PbA exposures. Simultaneous declines in Pb from other sources, changes in PbA sampling uncertainties over time largely related to changes in the size distribution of Pb-bearing particulate matter, and limitations regarding sampling size and exposure error may contribute to the variability in slope factor observed across peer-reviewed studies. Citation: Richmond-Bryant J, Meng Q, Davis A, Cohen J, Lu SE, Svendsgaard D, Brown JS, Tuttle L, Hubbard H, Rice J, Kirrane E, Vinikoor-Imler LC, Kotchmar D, Hines EP, Ross M. 2014. The Influence of declining air lead levels on blood lead–air lead slope factors in children. Environ Health Perspect 122:754

  6. Chronic Lead Exposure Increases Blood Pressure and Myocardial Contractility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fioresi, Mirian; Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Furieri, Lorena Barros; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Vescovi, Marcos Vinícius A.; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular effects of lead exposure, emphasising its direct action on myocardial contractility. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into two groups: control (Ct) and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb) in the drinking water. Blood pressure (BP) was measured weekly. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were anaesthetised and haemodynamic parameters and contractility of the left ventricular papillary muscles were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigations. Statistical analyses were considered to be significant at p<0.05. The lead concentrations in the blood reached approximately 13 µg/dL, while the bone was the site of the highest deposition of this metal. BP in the Pb-treated group was higher from the first week of lead exposure and remained at the same level over the next four weeks. Haemodynamic evaluations revealed increases in systolic (Ct: 96±3.79 vs. Pb: 116±1.37 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (Ct: 60±2.93 vs. Pb: 70±3.38 mmHg), left ventricular systolic pressure (Ct: 104±5.85 vs. Pb: 120±2.51 mmHg) and heart rate (Ct: 307±10 vs. Pb: 348±16 bpm). Lead treatment did not alter the force and time derivatives of the force of left ventricular papillary muscles that were contracting isometrically. However, our results are suggestive of changes in the kinetics of calcium (Ca++) in cardiomyocytes increased transarcolemmal Ca++ influx, low Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and high extrusion by the sarcolemma. Altogether, these results show that despite the increased Ca++ influx that was induced by lead exposure, the myocytes had regulatory mechanisms that prevented increases in force, as evidenced in vivo by the increased systolic ventricular pressure. PMID:24841481

  7. Summary of discussion sessions: symposium on lead-blood pressure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Victery, W.; Tyroler, H.A.; Volpe, R.; Grant, L.D.

    1988-06-01

    The International Symposium on Lead-Blood Pressure Relationships was held in Chapel Hill, NC, April 27-29, 1987, with sponsorship from the Councils on Hypertension and Epidemiology of the American Heart Association; the Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina; the International Lead Zinc Research Organization; and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The program was structured so as to first present an overview of theories and findings in the general area of human hypertension and then to have speakers review the extant literature on lead and blood pressure relationships, including papers on the human observational studies of lead and human hypertension; related studies of lead and human hypertension; occupational studies of lead and hypertension, experimental studies of lead and hypertension; and papers presenting related information from work in progress. This report summarizes key exchanges of information during discussions after individual papers were presented or during separate discussion sessions. It also summarizes presentations by several speakers who declined to publish in these proceedings full-length papers on ongoing work.

  8. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  9. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  10. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Robins, T G; Hinkamp, D L; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1992-04-01

    The relation between lead in air (PbA) and lead in blood (PbB), concentrations was investigated among 44 workers in five major operations in a United States high volume, lead acid battery plant. The study covered a 30 month period in which workers received frequent PbA and PbB determinations, workers remained in a single job, and PbA concentrations averaged below the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms/m3. In both univariate and multivariable linear regressions, longitudinal analyses averaging PbA concentrations over the 30 month study period appeared superior to cross sectional analyses using only six month PbA averages to model PbB concentrations. The covariate adjusted coefficient (alpha value) for PbA (mu/m3) in models of PbB (micrograms/100 g) was 1.14. This figure is strikingly higher than that reported in previous studies in the lead acid battery industry in all of which PbA concentrations were substantially higher than in the current study. Plausible explanations for the difference in alpha values include non-linearity of the PbA-PbB curve, a higher fraction of large size particulate associated with higher PbA concentrations, survivor bias among workers exposed to higher PbA concentrations, and the cross sectional designs of most previous studies. Despite previously reported problems with the model used by OSHA to predict PbA-PbB relations, the findings of this study are in good agreement with the predictions of that model. PMID:1571294

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Whole Blood, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Polymorphonuclear Cells in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, M R; Dumitrescu, T P; Brouwer, K L R; Schmith, V D

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin's extensive distribution to proinflammatory cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), may be important to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The need to simultaneously predict azithromycin concentrations in whole blood (“blood”), PBMCs, and PMNs motivated this investigation. A single-dose study in 20 healthy adults was conducted, and nonlinear mixed effects modeling was used to simultaneously describe azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs (simultaneous PK model). Data were well described by a four-compartment mamillary model. Apparent central clearance and volume of distribution estimates were 67.3 l/hour and 336 l (interindividual variability of 114 and 122%, respectively). Bootstrapping and visual predictive checks showed adequate model performance. Azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs from external studies of healthy adults and cystic fibrosis patients were within the 5th and 95th percentiles of model simulations. This novel empirical model can be used to predict azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs with different dosing regimens. PMID:24599342

  12. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  13. Blood lead levels of the battery and exhaust workers and their pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Bagci, C; Bozkurt, A I; Cakmak, E A; Can, S; Cengiz, B

    2004-06-01

    In an attempt to understand the impact of inhaled lead on the pulmonary functions, we assessed the blood lead levels and pulmonary functions of the battery and exhaust workers who are potential candidates for lead inhalation. The hospital staff served as control group. The measurements of lead levels were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using a portable spirometer. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, exhaust workers and controls were found to be 36.83, 26.94 and 14.81 microg/dl, respectively. The values of the workers were significantly higher than the controls (p < 0.001). The lead levels of the battery workers were also significantly higher than the exhaust workers (p < 0.001). PFT results (maximum voluntary ventilation, forced expiration flow and first forced expiration volume values of the workers) were significantly worse than the controls, and their pulmonary function test results were consistent with restrictive problems in the airways. PMID:15311556

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  15. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  16. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly A; Kirk, Cassandra; Fearey, Donna; Castrodale, Louisa J; Verbrugge, David; McLaughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) ≥10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs ≥5 μg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards. PMID:26327721

  17. Blood transfusion in sickle cell disease leading to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).

    PubMed

    Raj, Shashi; Killinger, James; Overby, Philip

    2013-10-01

    Children with sickle cell disease have a very high risk of lifelong neurologic morbidity and mortality. Cerebrovascular accidents are a known complication in children with sickle cell disease. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a constellation of acute neurologic findings increasingly recognized in pediatric critical care population with evidence of vasogenic edema on brain imaging possibly due to cerebral vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. This report, for the first time, describes a young adult with sickle cell disease who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following blood transfusion. PMID:22899796

  18. Direct methods for the determination of lead in whole blood by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Méranger, J C

    1980-12-01

    Two methods for the direct determination of lead in whole blood by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) are described. The procedure in both methods involved the mixing of micro blood samples with a metal releasing reagent, Metexchange, and electrochemical analysis using carbon electrodes. A multiple Anodic Stripping Analyzer equipped with composite graphite mercury electrodes and a Charge Transfer Analyzer equipped with a mercury film electrode were employed. The standard addition method was used to minimize the matrix effects of whole blood. The ASV results correlated well with those obtained by flameless atomic absorption analysis. The methods are simple, reliable, and suitable for applications in the clinical field. The procedure using the Charge Transfer Analyzer is recommended because of its sensitivity and rapidity. PMID:7211939

  19. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  20. Blood lead concentrations in waterfowl utilizing Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.

    PubMed

    Spears, Brian L; Hansen, James A; Audet, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Lake Coeur d'Alene, and the Spokane River contain elevated heavy metal concentrations in sediment and water from historical mining and ore processing operations in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. Lead poisoning has been identified as the cause of death in hundreds of waterfowl utilizing wetlands in the floodplain of the Coeur d'Alene River, but little was known about hazards to waterfowl from heavy metal contamination in shallow bays and wetlands of Lake Coeur d'Alene. We examined lake sediment and blood lead concentrations in waterfowl utilizing Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, to evaluate potential lead contamination of waterfowl utilizing the lake. We collected 56 palustrine and 102 lacustrine sediment samples and 61 mallard and 8 wood duck blood samples. Mean lead concentrations from palustrine and lacustrine sediment samples ranged from 14 to 3508 mg/kg dry weight (dw) and from 19 to 5009 mg/kg (dw), respectively. Lead concentrations in palustrine and lacustrine sediment from several Lake Coeur d'Alene bays were higher than those in lake reference areas and were higher than Bunker Hill Superfund Site target cleanup levels and suggested site-specific toxicity thresholds for swans. Mean blood lead from mallard and wood ducks sampled from Lake Coeur d'Alene bays were within lead toxicity ranges for waterfowl associated with clinical and severe clinical lead poisoning. We also collected 19 Canada goose and 3 mallard fecal samples to evaluate exposure through sediment ingestion. Waterfowl using Lake Coeur d'Alene appear to be exposed to lead by ingesting contaminated lake sediment. Our model predicts a sediment lead effects range of 147-944 mg/kg (dw) and mortality effects level of 1652 mg/kg (dw) for mallards utilizing Lake Coeur d'Alene. The locations of Harrison Slough, Powderhorn Bay, and Cottonwood Bay at the mouth of the Coeur d'Alene River and Blackwell Island and Cougar Bay near the Spokane River outflow of Lake Coeur d'Alene were the

  1. Lead exposure in children: levels in blood, prevalence of intoxication and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Domínguez, C

    1998-09-01

    Lead is a highly toxic metal, the main source of which is contamination from combustion of unleaded petrol. The aims of this work were to detect the degree of lead exposure in a large sample of children; determine the relationship between blood lead levels (BPb) and age, sex, habitat and season of the year; and correlate BPb with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) values. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Blood from routine extractions drawn at our centre was used. BPb and ZPP were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and haematofluorimetry, respectively. We analysed 1158 blood samples from children. BPb (mean +/- SEM): 0.22 +/- 0.04 mumol l-1. Correlation BPb-age: BPb = 0.19 + 0.086 x age (months), r = 0.129, P < 0.0001. BPb was greater in boys (0.23 +/- 0.007 versus 0.20 +/- 0.006 mumol l-1, P < 0.0002). No differences were observed between habitats (urban versus rural). BPb were higher in the warm months (0.24 +/- 0.013 versus 0.21 +/- 0.007 mumol l-1, P < 0.0001). Prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol l-1) was 4.2%. No differences in prevalence were found among the different groups. The correlation between BPb and ZPP showed r = 0.0969, P = 0.0024. Utility for screening: sensitivity of 53.7% and specificity of 59.3% (cut-off point of 60 mumol ZPP mol-1 haem). We can conclude that lead exposure in children in our sample was in the range reported in similar studies in other areas and countries, and below the toxic limit. None of the factors analysed significantly influenced lead intoxication prevalence. There was no good correlation between ZPP and BPb in our samples and the ZPP cut-off point used did not present good specificity and sensitivity values. PMID:9850561

  2. Urinary cadmium and lead concentrations and their relation to blood pressure in a population with low exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Bulpitt, C J; Roels, H; Bernard, A; Fagard, R; Joossens, J V; Lauwerys, R; Lijnen, P; Amery, A

    1984-01-01

    The 24 hour urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd) and lead (U-Pb), and the excretion of beta-2- microglobulins and retinol binding protein concentration in spot urines, were determined in a random 4% sample of the population of a small Belgian town. Blood pressure and body weight were measured on two separate occasions. U-Cd averaged 2.4 nmol/24 h in 46 youths, increased with age, and was significantly higher in 57 adult men as compared with 59 women (9.3 v 7.2 nmol/24 h; p less than 0.01). U-Pb averaged 28 nmol/24 h in youths and similarly increased with age: adult men excreted more lead than women (64 v 40.0 nmol/24 h; p less than 0.001). Among men, manual workers excreted more cadmium (12.6 v 7.5 nmol/24 h; p less than 0.05) but a similar amount of lead (62 v 61 nmol/24 h) compared with office workers. After adjusting for sex and age, U-Cd and U-Pb were not related to body weight and cigarette consumption. In simple regression analysis, U-Cd was positively correlated with both systolic (r = +0.30; p less than 0.05) and diastolic (r = +0.38; p less than 0.01) blood pressure in women. After adjusting for other contributing variables, however, a weak but negative relation became apparent between systolic pressure and U-Cd in women (t = -2.21; p = 0.033) and between diastolic pressure and U-Cd in men (t = -2.04; p = 0.047). In women urinary beta-2-microglobulin was related to diastolic pressure (r-0.44; p<0.01) and after adjusting for age to both systolic (t=2.75; p=0.009) and diastolic (t=-3.07; p=0.004) pressure. In none of the sex-age groups did U-Pb and retinol binding protein contribute to the blood pressure variability. PMID:6372852

  3. Blood lead levels and risk factors in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    La-Llave-León, Osmel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Manuel Salas-Pacheco, José; Peña-Elósegui, Rocío; Duarte-Sustaita, Jaime; Candelas Rangel, Jorge-Luís; García Vargas, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study the authors determined blood lead levels (BLLs) and some risk factors for lead exposure in pregnant women. Two hundred ninety-nine pregnant women receiving medical attention by the Secretary of Health, State of Durango, Mexico, participated in this study between 2007 and 2008. BLLs were evaluated with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The authors used Student t test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression as statistical treatments. BLLs ranged from 0.36 to 23.6 μg/dL (mean = 2.79 μg/dL, standard deviation = 2.14). Multivariate analysis showed that the main predictors of BLLs were working in a place where lead is used, using lead glazed pottery, and eating soil. PMID:24484368

  4. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Chang, Se-Jin; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Jong-Ku; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL) with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.79), digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33–7.86), and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07–7.81) were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10–20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06–13.06). The RRs of females with 10–20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16–3.20) and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21–149.4). The RRs of females with BLL 10–20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74–62.93) and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69–147.86) was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender. PMID:26469177

  5. Lead risk assessment for children in Hungary by predicting their blood lead levels using US EPA integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, M A; Horváth, A

    1999-08-01

    The US EPA integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK 0.99d) lead exposure for children was validated, updated, and applied to predict mean blood lead levels based on lead uptake from multiple sources and provide assessment of risk. Surveys were carried out around houses in a polluted area (Heves, Hungary) in 1995. The collected data from that area have shown very high levels of lead in soil. In some cases the level of lead in soil has reached more than 1000 times the allowable limit value used (100 mg/kg) in Hungary. Moreover, the concentration of lead in air was measured and the concentration of lead in air varied from 0.05-1.83 micrograms/m3. The environmental data within the community were used to predict the children blood lead levels and to compare the observed estimates with the other predicted ones. The age of the investigated group of children varied from 0-60 months. The estimated blood lead levels have illustrated variation according to age, sex, and the specific site. It can be concluded from this study that the model can be used on a wide range to give us an excellent picture for site cleanup, to decision makers, and finally to use the environmental data to predict blood lead level for the community or population. Results of several validation exercises utilizing the IEUBK model comparing predicted and measured blood lead levels with international guidelines and the percent of risk of exceeding a specific blood lead level (i.e., 10 micrograms/dl) are presented in this paper. PMID:10499150

  6. Blood lead concentrations of waterfowl from unhunted and heavily hunted marshes of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Daury, R W; Schwab, F E; Bateman, M C

    1993-10-01

    Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, usually were < 30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot. Blood lead concentrations were > or = 100 ppb in seven of eight juveniles with ingested shot; thus we adopted blood lead concentrations 100 ppb as our threshold indicating exposure to non-background lead. The proportion of both American black ducks and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) with elevated blood lead concentrations (> 100 ppb) exceeded 5% in hunted areas sampled in NS and PEI combined. The Canadian Wildlife Service draft policy is to consider replacing lead shot with non-toxic shot for waterfowl and snipe hunting if 5% of American black ducks exceed a blood lead concentration of 200 ppb. American black ducks significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded this threshold but ring-necked ducks did not. The source of lead in hunted areas may have been lead shot; we recommend that it be eliminated and replaced by an acceptable non-toxic shot for waterfowl hunting. Twenty four (96%) of 25 of American black ducks overwintering in Sullivans Pond, Dartmouth, NS, contained elevated (> 100 ppb) blood lead concentrations and 19 (76%) had detrimental concentrations (> 200 ppb). We believe that the source of lead at Sullivans Pond was automobile emissions. PMID:8258857

  7. The contribution of housing renovation to children’s blood lead levels: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine renovation of older housing is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning, but the contribution to children’s blood lead levels is poorly defined for children with lower exposure levels. Methods We examined a prospective cohort of 276 children followed from 6 to 24 months of age. We conducted surveys of renovation activities and residential lead hazards and obtained blood lead level (B-Pb) every six months. We analyzed B-Pb in a repeated measures design using a mixed effects linear model. Results Parent reported interior renovation ranged from 11 to 25% of housing units at the four, 6-month periods. In multivariable analysis, children whose housing underwent interior renovation had a 12% higher mean B-Pb by two years of age compared with children whose housing units were not renovated (p < 0.01). The time between renovation and the child blood lead sample was associated with higher B-Pb (p-value for trend <0.01); compared to children in non-renovated housing, children whose housing units underwent renovation in the prior month had a 17% higher mean B-Pb at two years of age, whereas children whose housing renovation occurred in the prior 2–6 months had an 8% higher mean B-Pb. We also found an association between higher paint lead loading, measured using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based paint lead index, and child B-Pb (p = 0.02); for every 10 mg/cm2 increase in paint lead loading index there was a 7.5% higher mean childhood B-Pb. Conclusions In an analysis of data collected before the recent changes to Environmental Protection Agency’s Lead, Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule, routine interior housing renovation was associated with a modest increase in children’s B-Pb. These results are important for the provision of clinical advice, for housing and public health professionals, and for policymakers. PMID:23981571

  8. Predictive value of determinations of zinc protoporphyrin for increased blood lead concentrations.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Kristal-Boneh, E; Benbassat, J; Ashkanazi, R; Ribak, J

    1998-06-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and red cell zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used biomarkers for lead toxicity. It is uncertain, however, whether either or both are needed for monitoring lead exposure and how discordant PbB and ZPP values should be interpreted. We reviewed the results of PbB and ZPP determinations in 94 workers in a lead-battery plant over a 13-year period and retrieved all 807 sets of tests in which both PbB and ZPP were available, with a follow-up PbB value 6 months later. PbB exceeded 1.93 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) in 414 (51%), and 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL) in 105 (14%) of the blood samples. We derived the test properties of various ZPP concentrations for concurrent "toxic" PbB concentrations, defined as > or = 1.93 and 2.90 micromol/L (40 and 60 microg/dL). The results indicated that, given a population of lead-exposed workers with a 10% prevalence of PbB of > or = 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL), a policy of testing PbB only in those with ZPP > 0.71 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) would obviate 42% of the PbB tests, but would miss about three cases with toxic PbB concentrations in every 200 workers at risk. A finding of increased ZPP concentrations with a concurrent "nontoxic" PbB was associated with an increased risk of a toxic PbB concentration 6 months later. We conclude that (a) screening by testing only ZPP does not safeguard exposed persons against lead toxicity, and (b) the frequency of PbB monitoring should be guided by estimates of the risk of future lead toxicity in individual workers. PMID:9625054

  9. A comparison of blood lead levels between migrant and native lead workers before and after implementation of a new employment permit system for migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2011-01-01

    We compared the blood lead and other lead biomarkers between migrant and native workers with a focus on the impact of the legal employment permit system that was effective from 2003, which required employers to provide mandatory annual health examinations for migrant workers on lead biomarkers in 1997 and 2005. The mean blood lead level of migrant workers was 59.5 ± 19.4 μg/dl, yielding 47% of lead poisoning cases, which was significantly higher than that of native workers (36.8 ± 14.5 μg/dl; 11% of lead poisoning cases) in 1997 before enactment of the act. The overall mean blood ZPP levels and ALAU of migrant workers were significantly higher than those of native workers. In 2005, after new migrant worker regulations were instituted, the mean value of above lead biomarkers workers was still significantly higher than that of native workers, but the magnitude of the differences was smaller compared with the difference in 1997. We confirmed that the 2003 regulations played an important role in improving the health of migrant workers in the lead industry in terms of their blood lead levels and other lead biomarkers. PMID:21173525

  10. Improved participation for blood lead screening with in-home phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Kathryn C; Miranda, Veronica; Galaviz, Vanessa E

    2008-07-01

    Both nationally and within the State of California, it is unlikely that those children most susceptible to lead exposure are adequately screened for blood lead levels. New and creative approaches are necessary to reach these individuals. In-home phlebotomy was employed to test blood lead levels of 128 San Diego households containing Latino children aged 12-71 months. As part of a lead exposure study, these households were randomly selected from 12 census tracts in the downtown area during February-July, 2006. By employing a bicultural/bilingual phlebotomist, the participation rate for in-home phlebotomy was 89% among enrolled study participants. This rate is substantially higher than estimates for customary testing of similar underserved groups through physicians, has the advantage of reaching individuals without medical insurance, and contrasts favorably ($45 per individual test) with typical office visit costs. Culturally appropriate in-home phlebotomy may be a useful method for medical screening to meet the needs of underserved communities. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide an excellent example of the importance of bringing prevention services to clients, literally in terms of the home visitation format but also with respect to the comfort level that may come from interacting with a bicultural and bilingual professional. PMID:18584325

  11. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  12. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  13. Current pediatric and maternal lead levels in blood and breast milk in Andean inhabitants of a lead-glazing enclave.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    Prenatal and postnatal lead (Pb) exposure may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities in children. As part of an ongoing health-monitoring study, blood lead (PbB) levels were compared in 90 children tested in 2003 (current group) and 166 children tested between 1996 and 2000 (reference group) in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination. The mean PbB level for children in the reference group was 40 microg/dL (range, 6.2-119.1), and significantly higher than the mean PbB level of 25.5 microg/dL (range, 2.1-94.3) for the current group (t test, P = 0.0001). An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects for age and gender and no significant interaction between age and gender for the current group but a significant age by gender interaction for the reference group (F = 5.96, P = 0.01). Regression analysis revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.258, P = 0.01) between PbB level and age for males but not for females in the reference group. The Pb levels in breast milk from nursing mothers ranged from 0.4-20.5 microg/L (mean, 4.6), and the PbB levels in the breastfeeding mothers ranged from 4.5-35.2 microg/dL (mean, 17.1). The PbB levels of mother-infant pairs ranged from 4.6-27.4 microg/dL for mothers and 3.9-33.5 microg/dL for infants. The results showed significantly reduced PbB levels in children in the study area and suggest that a Pb education and prevention program contributed to the current reduction in Pb intoxication. PMID:15354063

  14. Comparative Assessment of Blood Lead Levels of Automobile Technicians in Organised and Roadside Garages in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Adebayo, Onajole; Kofoworola, Odeyemi; Babatunde, Ogunowo; Ismail, Abdussalam

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is common among automobile technicians and constitutes 0.9% of total global health burden with a majority of cases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the blood lead levels of automobile technicians in roadside and organised garages in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative cross-sectional study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Physical examinations were conducted and blood was analysed for lead using atomic spectrophotometery. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the median blood lead levels of each group using the independent sample (Mann-Whitney U) test. Seventy-three (40.3%) of the organised compared to 59 (34.3%) of the roadside groups had high blood lead levels. The organised group had statistically significant higher median blood lead levels of, 66.0 µg/dL than the roadside 43.5 µg/dL (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant association between high blood lead levels and abnormal discolouration of the mucosa of the mouth in the organised group. Automobile technicians in organised garages in Lagos have higher prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher median levels than the roadside group. Preventive strategies against lead exposures should be instituted by the employers and further actions should be taken to minimize exposures, improve work practices, implement engineering controls (e.g., proper ventilation), and ensure the use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25759723

  15. Implications of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Blood Lead Reference Value

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Mackenzie S.; Gerstenberger, Shawn L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535 000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels. PMID:24825227

  16. Implications of the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention blood lead reference value.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mackenzie S; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535,000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels. PMID:24825227

  17. Blood concentration of essential trace elements and heavy metals in workers exposed to lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, W; Gromadzińska, J; Rydzyński, K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine blood concentration of essential trace elements (Se, Zn, Cu) and toxic metals (Pb, Cd), markers of antioxidant (activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxidase dismutase and ceruloplasmin) and prooxidant processes (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in workers exposed to Pb and Cd. Forty three male workers of the lead-acid batteries department, aged 25-52 years, and twenty two workers, including 15 women, aged 36-51 years, exposed to Cd in the alkaline batteries department were examined. The reference group consisted of 52 healthy inhabitants of the same region. It was found that Se concentration and GPx activity in both erythrocytes and plasma of Cd exposed workers were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the reference group. We found an inverse linear correlation between blood Se and Cd concentrations in the workers exposed to Cd (r = -0.449; p < 0.01). Moreover, the activity of erythrocyte and plasma GPx was shown to be significantly lower in the study group of workers (p < 0.001). It was observed that TBARS concentration in plasma was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the lead exposed workers than in the group without contact with Pb. Our results indicate that exposure to Pb and Cd affects the antioxidant potential of blood in workers exposed to heavy metals. PMID:11764849

  18. The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed for participants in "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." It provides the 27 participant handouts for the six workshops in the series. The first in the series, "Setting the Stage: The Changing World of Work," is a workshop to clarify what is occurring in the world of work and apply that…

  19. The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults. Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet is designed to be used by facilitators of the Canadian Career Development Foundation's "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." The guide provides information, including objectives of the workshops and lists of required materials, needed in order to facilitate an introductory session as well as the…

  20. Cardiac morphology and blood pressure in the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hu, N; Yost, H J; Clark, E B

    2001-09-01

    Zebrafish has become a popular model for the study of cardiovascular development. We performed morphologic analysis on 3 months postfertilization zebrafish hearts (n > or = 20) with scanning electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining, and morphometric analysis on cell organelles with transmission electron photomicrographs. We measured atrial, ventricular, ventral, and dorsal aortic blood pressures (n > or = 5) with a servonull system. The atrioventricular orifice was positioned on the dorsomedial side of the anterior ventricle, surmounted by the single-chambered atrium. The atrioventricular valve was free of tension apparati but supported by papillary bands to prevent retrograde flow. The ventricle was spanned with fine trabeculae perpendicular to the compact layer and perforated with a subepicardial network of coronary arteries, which originated from the efferent branchial arteries by means of the main coronary vessel. Ventricular myocytes were larger than those in the atrium (P < 0.05) with abundant mitochondria close to the sarcolemmal. Sarcoplasmic reticulum was sparse in zebrafish ventricle. Bulbus arteriosus was located anterior to the ventricle, and functioned as an elastic reservoir to absorb the rapid rise of pressure during ventricular contraction. The dense matrix of collagen interspersed across the entire bulbus arteriosus exemplified the characteristics of vasculature smooth muscle. There were pressure gradients from atrium to ventricle, and from ventral to dorsal aorta, indicating that the valves and the branchial arteries, respectively, were points of resistance to blood flow. These data serve as a framework for structure-function investigations of the zebrafish cardiovascular system. PMID:11505366

  1. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

  2. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Baj, A; Bavazzano, P; Ganzi, A; Neri, G; Ronchi, A; Soleo, L; Di, Lorenzo L; Spinelli, P; Valente, T; Minoia, C

    2002-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a polycentric study carried out in seven different areas, organized by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) for assessing reference values of lead in blood (B-Pb) at the current doses of the metal to general population. The estimated arithmetic mean for B-Pb in males was of 45.1 microg/l and 30.6 microg/l in females; the 95th centile was 100 and 60 for males and females, respectively. The main variables influencing B-Pb levels were gender, age, BMI, outside sport practice, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, while the geographic area and the urban residence did not affect the metal concentration in blood. PMID:11883751

  3. In vivo X-ray fluorescence estimation of bone lead concentrations in Queensland adults.

    PubMed

    Price, J; Baddeley, H; Kenardy, J A; Thomas, B J; Thomas, B W

    1984-01-01

    A group of 200 Queensland adults without known health problems had in-vivo estimation of finger bone lead concentrations using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Forty of these subjects had elevated levels of bone lead of 25 ppm or more, consistent with exposure to the metal. Although the correlation between Queensland residence during childhood and raised bone lead levels was not significant, there were significant correlations between childhood residence in a painted wooden house and raised levels, and between occupational exposure and raised levels. Of the 40 subjects with elevated lead levels only two had neither a history of occupational exposure or childhood residence in a wooden house, whereas 11 of the 25 who had a history of both occupational and residential exposure were positive. The data are consistent with lead in housepaint, or absorbed during occupational exposure, being the two major sources of raised bone lead concentrations. PMID:6704645

  4. Comparing the Push-Pull Versus Discard Blood Sample Method From Adult Central Vascular Access Devices.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dia

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the discard blood sampling method for central vascular access devices with the push-pull method. A comparative, within-subject design was used to evaluate 61 unique, paired blood samples from 1 adult outpatient oncology clinic. A 21-measure laboratory panel was conducted on each of the paired samples. Interpretation showed a small mean bias and excellent agreement between the methods. Blood samples obtained using the push-pull method were within clinically acceptable ranges. No hemolysis was noted by laboratory evaluation of 59 samples. PMID:27074989

  5. The onchocercal nodule: interrelationship of adult worms and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    George, G H; Palmieri, J R; Connor, D H

    1985-11-01

    This study of onchocercal nodules reveals an intimate relationship between the cuticle of Onchocerca volvulus and the capillaries of the host. Perfusion of blood vessels with India ink and other special techniques reveal a proliferation of capillaries around the worms and communication between small vessels and the spaces around the worms. The space around the worm is continuous with the central fibrin lake. These findings, together with the fact that the worm's gut contains hemosiderin, suggest that the worm subverts the vascular reaction and causes within the nodule a controlled hemorrhage that serves the worm's nutritional needs. We believe this explains, in part, how worms survive in fibrous nodules for many years. PMID:3834800

  6. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  7. OXIDATIVE STRESS CONTRIBUTES TO SEX DIFFERENCES IN BLOOD PRESSURE IN ADULT GROWTH RESTRICTED OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Norma B.; Hennington, Bettye Sue; Williamson, Danielle T.; Hill, Melanie L.; Betson, Nicole E.E.; Sartori-Valinotti, Julio C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.; Royals, Thomas P.; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and importantly, that oxidative stress plays a more definitive role in mediating hypertension in males than in females. Intrauterine growth-restriction induced by reduced uterine perfusion initiated at day 14 of gestation in the rat programs hypertension in adult male growth-restricted offspring; yet, female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive. The mechanisms mediating sex differences in blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring are not clear. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that sex specific differences in renal oxidative stress contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring. A significant increase in blood pressure measured by telemetry in male growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05) was associated with a marked increase in renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with the antioxidant tempol had no effect on blood pressure in male control offspring, but it normalized blood pressure (P<0.05) and renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05) in male growth-restricted relative to male control. Renal markers of oxidative stress were not elevated in female growth-restricted offspring; however, renal activity of the antioxidant catalase was significantly elevated relative to female control (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with tempol did not significantly alter oxidative stress or blood pressure measured by telemetry in female offspring. Thus, these data suggest that sex differences in renal oxidative stress and antioxidant activity are present in adult growth-restricted offspring, and that oxidative stress may play a more important role in modulating blood pressure in male, but not female growth-restricted offspring. PMID:22585945

  8. AMBIENT COARSE PARTICLE MATTER ASSOCIATED WITH HRV, BLOOD COAGULATION, AND BLOOD LIPIDS IN ADULT ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: We investigated whether systemic inflammation markers in asthmatics change in response to fluctuations in ambient PM. Methods: Twelve atopic adults with mild to moderate persistent asthma living within a 30 mile radius of the US EPA clinic were followed for twelve w...

  9. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  10. Implications of different residential lead standards on children's blood lead levels in France: predictions based on a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Oulhote, Youssef; LeTertre, Alain; Etchevers, Anne; Le Bot, Barbara; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Strat, Yann; Lanphear, Bruce; Glorennec, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Despite the dramatic reductions in children's blood lead levels (BLLs), there is considerable evidence that low-level lead exposure is associated with intellectual deficits and behavioral problems, without apparent threshold. There are limited data, however, about the contribution of residential sources of lead to contemporary children's blood lead levels. The aim of this study is to calculate the contributions of residential sources of lead to assess the potential impact of setting new standards for lead levels in residential dust, soil and water. We enrolled 484 French children aged from 6 months to 6 years, and collected data on social, housing and individual characteristics. Lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples (water, soils, and dusts) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized additive model accounting for the sampling design and the sampling weights. We found that exceedingly low concentrations of lead in dust, soil and water were significant predictors of children's BLLs, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Lead-contaminated floor dust was the main source of lead in blood. BLLs (GM: 14μg/L) increased by 65%, 13%, 25%, and 5% when lead content in floor dust, loose soil, hard soil and water increased from their 25th percentile to their 95th percentile, respectively. We also observed that the steepest increase in BLLs occurred at the lowest levels of lead-contaminated floor dust, which indicates that lead contamination should be kept as low as possible. Impact of different possible standards on children's BLLs was also tabulated and indicated that unless standards are set low, they will only benefit a small proportion of children who have the highest exposures. PMID:23528234

  11. EFFECTS OF HEMORRHAGIC STRESS ON SEVERAL BLOOD PARAMETERS IN ADULT RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood was removed from ten adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on a sequential (7 days) weekly (4 weeks) and monthly (1 month) schedule and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma protein, acid phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Of the parame...

  12. A Systematic Assessment of Blood Lead Level in Children and Associated Risk Factors in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Li, Zhen; Huang, Shao Xin; DU, Chuang; Wang, Hong; He, Li Ping; Bi, Yong Yi; Shi, Yong; Wang, Chun Hong

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we searched multiple databases for all relevant original articles (1996-2013). To investigate blood lead levels (BLL) and possible risk factors for lead exposure among children in China A total of 388 articles met our inclusion criteria. The overall geometric mean (GM) BLL was 71 µg/L, and the prevalence of elevated BLL (EBLL, defined as BLL ⋝ 100 µg/L) was 18.48% among children. The prevalence of EBLL remained significantly higher among boys. In children less than 6 years of age, there were significantly increasing trends in both BLL and prevalence of EBLL in an age-dependent manner. The ban on leaded gasoline significantly reduced the BLL as well as EBLL prevalence; however, children whose parents had lower educational levels or were exposed to lead in the workplace had a higher EBLL prevalence. Despite its decline over time, the average BLL among children in China remains higher than the average level most recently reported in the United States. Childhood lead poisoning remains a public health problem in China. PMID:26383600

  13. Validation of K-XRF bone lead measurement in young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, J A; Aro, A C; Williams, P L; Hu, H; Ryan, P B

    1995-01-01

    K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) is a useful tool for assessing environmental exposure to lead in occupationally exposed individuals and older adults. This study explores the possibility of using this technique on young adults with low environmental lead exposure. Twenty-three college students, aged 18-21 years, were recruited for 2 hr of bone lead measurement. Bone lead measurements were taken from the mid-shaft tibia for periods of 30 or 60 min. In the analysis, 30-min measurements were combined so that each subject had the equivalent of two 60-min measurements. The average concentration of two bone lead measurements in this population ranged from -1.5 to 8.2 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral, with a mean of 3.0 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral. In a one sample t-test, this mean was significantly different from 0 (p < 0.0001). A linear trend with age was detected despite the small age range of our population. By doubling the sampling time, the reported measurement uncertainty decreased by a factor of 1.5, resulting in uncertainty estimates below the mean bone lead estimates. Power calculations using the observed variance estimates suggest that with 80% power, differences in bone lead concentration of 2-3 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral can be identified in groups of 100 or smaller. Due to the large within-person variation in young adults, K-XRF may not yet be a useful diagnostic tool for individual subjects, but it may be of great use to environmental scientists trying to characterize long-term lead exposure and dose in the general population or specific subpopulations. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7628429

  14. Systolic blood pressure goals to reduce cardiovascular disease among older adults.

    PubMed

    Muntner, Paul; Bowling, C Barrett; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-08-01

    The 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) was recently published. This guideline recommended that older adults (≥60 years) without diabetes or chronic kidney disease with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg be initiated on antihypertensive medication with a treatment goal SBP/DBP <150/90 mm Hg. In contrast, the previous 3 JNC guidelines recommended treatment for these individuals be initiated at SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg with goal SBP/DBP <140/90 mm Hg. In this article, we review randomized trials of antihypertensive medication and observational data on SBP and DBP with cardiovascular outcomes among older adults, possible explanations underlying the different findings from these randomized trials and observational studies, and contemporary antihypertensive treatment patterns among older U.S. adults. In closing, we highlight future research needs related to hypertension and outcomes among older adults. PMID:24978394

  15. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  16. Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Leads to an Increased HPA Axis Response

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, Robert J.; Manji, Husseini K.; Martinowich, Keri

    2009-01-01

    Stress and glucocorticoids are among the strongest inhibitors of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Despite the known role of the hippocampus in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, whether loss of hippocampal neurogenesis affects this inhibition has not been examined. Here we tested whether suppression of adult neurogenesis affected the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Our results show that suppression of neurogenesis leads to a potentiated hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response following exposure to a mild stressor. This study suggests that suppressed neurogenesis directly regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response. PMID:19322118

  17. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  18. Revisiting mobilisation of skeletal lead during pregnancy based on monthly sampling and cord/maternal blood lead relationships confirm placental transfer of lead.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael; Taylor, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Lead (Pb) can be released from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and transferred to the infant. Most support for this hypothesis comes from blood Pb (PbB) studies involving limited sampling during pregnancy, the maximum usually being five samplings, including at delivery. We provide longitudinal data for PbB concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios for three cohorts of pregnant females (n = 31), two of which are based on monthly sampling and the other on quarterly sampling. We also provide data for samples collected post-partum. The data are compared with changes observed in a matched, by country and age, non-pregnant control cohort (n = 5). The monthly data illustrate the variability between subjects, which is also apparent when the data are compared on a trimester basis. Mixed model analyses showed that, in the third trimester, the mean PbB level was significantly lower for women (n = 10) who took a calcium (Ca) supplement (PbB 1.6 µg/dL) than those whose Ca intake was low (low-Ca cohort; n = 15; PbB 2.5 µg/dL) because low Ca means more mobilisation is required for homoeostasis so that more Pb was mobilised from the skeleton. For women who took the supplement, post-partum PbB levels were significantly higher than those in the other periods (2.7 vs 1.4-1.6 µg/dL). For women in the low-Ca cohort, PbB levels were higher at post-partum than in pre-pregnancy and in the first and second trimesters (3.1 vs 1.8 µg/dL), while the levels in the third trimester were higher than those in the first and second trimesters. Importantly, the increase in PbB during gestation was delayed until the third trimester in the Ca-supplemented cohort compared with the low-Ca cohort. Regression analysis showed that the changes over trimester were very similar for PbB and the (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio providing convincing evidence for extra mobilisation of Pb from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation. Isotopic ratios in the cord blood samples were

  19. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  20. Review of pollutant lead decline in urban air and human blood: A case study from northwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Daniel; Véron, Alain; Flament, Pascal; Deboudt, Karine; Poirier, André

    2015-09-01

    A review of the transient decline of pollutant lead in the air (PbA) and the blood (PbB) has been conducted in order to assess the relationship between these environmental reservoirs. We have demonstrated that PbA decreased 20 to 100 times more than PbB for the past 30 years, suggesting another significant intake besides airborne lead to explain lead accumulated in humans. This trend has also been observed in two blood surveys we have completed in 1976-1978 and 2008-2009 in northern France and Belgium. Nowadays, the mean PbB (1.5-3.5 μg/dL) remains at least 100 times higher than the estimated non-contaminated PbB. Lead isotope imprints in blood could help decipher specific contamination cases, and were coherent with the decline of PbA, but could not help discriminate the source of blood lead owing to the lack of source imprints, especially from dietary intakes. Correlations between recent PbB, isotopic imprints and the age of the subjects suggested that lead released from bones has become a significant source of lead in blood. The significant cause for human exposure to lead may have shifted from direct pollutant lead input accumulated in exogenous reservoirs (air and diet) to endogenous lead release from bone tissues consequential to metabolic calcium homeostasis and bone turnover.

  1. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  2. Developmental lead acetate exposure induces embryonic toxicity and memory deficit in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Liu, Wei; Bai, Chenglian; Liu, Xuexia; Liu, Kai; Li, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a persistent metal and commonly present in our living environment. The present study was aimed to investigate lead-induced embryonic toxicity, behavioral responses, and adult learning/memory deficit in zebrafish. Lead acetate (PbAc) induced malformations such as uninflated swim bladder, bent spine and yolk-sac edema with an EC₅₀ of 0.29 mg/L at 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Spontaneous movement as characterized by tail bend frequency was significantly altered in zebrafish embryos following exposure to PbAc. Behavior assessment demonstrated that lead exposure changed behavioral responses in zebrafish larvae, as hyperactivity was detected within the first minute of light-to-dark transition in the fish exposed to PbAc from 6 to 96 hpf, and a different dose-dependent change was found in swimming speeds in the dark and in the light at 120 hpf following lead exposure. Learning/memory task assay showed that embryos exposed to PbAc from 6 to 120 hpf developed learning/memory deficit at adulthood as exhibited by a significant decrease in accuracy rate to find the food and a significant increase in finding time. Overall, our results suggested that low dose of developmental lead exposure resulted in embryonic toxicity, behavioral alteration, and adult learning/memory deficit in zebrafish. PMID:22975620

  3. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  4. A Multicenter Performance Evaluation of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System in 21 Leading Hospitals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, José Luis; Wallace, Jane F.; Petruschke, Thorsten; Pardo, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is crucial for the effective self-management of diabetes. The present study evaluated the accuracy of the Contour® XT blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) compared to the reference method in a large multicenter study under routine lab conditions at each hospital site. Methods: This study was conducted at 21 leading hospitals in Spain using leftover whole blood samples (n = 2100). Samples were tested with the BGMS using 1 commercial strip lot and the local laboratory hexokinase method. BGMS accuracy was assessed and results were compared to ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria and by using mean absolute relative difference analysis (MARD), consensus (Parkes) error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid analyses (SEG). Results: Pooled analysis of 2100 measurements from all sites showed that 99.43% of the BGMS results were within the ranges accepted by the accuracy limit criteria. The overall MARD was 3.85%. MARD was 4.47% for glucose concentrations < 70 mg/dL and 3.81% for concentrations of 70-300 mg/dL. In CEG, most results (99.8%) were within zone A (“no effect on clinical action”); the remaining ones (0.2%) were in zone B (“little to no effect on clinical action”). The SEG analysis showed that most of the results (98.4%) were in the “no risk” zone, with the remaining results in the “slight, lower” risk zone. Conclusions: This is the largest multicenter study of Contour XT BGMS to date, and shows that this BGMS meets the ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limit criteria under local routine conditions in 21 leading Spanish hospitals. PMID:26253142

  5. Effects of lead and mercury on the blood proteome of children

    PubMed Central

    Birdsall, Robert E.; Kiley, Michael P.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Madera, Milan; Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V.; Bendinskas, Kestutis G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were depleted of their most abundant proteins using antibody-based affinity columns and analyzed using two different methods, LC-MS/MS and 2-D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/MS and tandem mass spectrometry. Apolipoprotein E demonstrated an inverse significant association with lead concentrations (average being one microgram/deciliter) as deduced from LC-MS/MS and 2-D electrophoresis and confirmed by Western blot analysis. This coincides with prior findings that Apolipoprotein E genotype moderates neurobehavioral effects in individuals exposed to lead. Fifteen other proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS as proteins of interest exhibiting expressional differences in the presence of environmental lead and mercury. PMID:20681587

  6. Effects of lead and mercury on the blood proteome of children.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Robert E; Kiley, Michael P; Segu, Zaneer M; Palmer, Christopher D; Madera, Milan; Gump, Brooks B; MacKenzie, James A; Parsons, Patrick J; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V; Bendinskas, Kestutis G

    2010-09-01

    Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were depleted of their most abundant proteins using antibody-based affinity columns and analyzed using two different methods, LC-MS/MS and 2-D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/MS and tandem mass spectrometry. Apolipoprotein E demonstrated an inverse significant association with lead concentrations (average being one microgram/deciliter) as deduced from LC-MS/MS and 2-D electrophoresis and confirmed by Western blot analysis. This coincides with prior findings that Apolipoprotein E genotype moderates neurobehavioral effects in individuals exposed to lead. Fifteen other proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS as proteins of interest exhibiting expressional differences in the presence of environmental lead and mercury. PMID:20681587

  7. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  8. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross; Gardner, J Mark F; Bell, Andrew S; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  9. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J. Mark F.; Bell, Andrew S.; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  11. Ultrastructural analysis of blood-brain barrier breakdown in the peri-infarct zone in young adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nahirney, Patrick C; Reeson, Patrick; Brown, Craig E

    2016-02-01

    Following ischemia, the blood-brain barrier is compromised in the peri-infarct zone leading to secondary injury and dysfunction that can limit recovery. Currently, it is uncertain what structural changes could account for blood-brain barrier permeability, particularly with aging. Here we examined the ultrastructure of early and delayed changes (3 versus 72 h) to the blood-brain barrier in young adult and aged mice (3-4 versus 18 months) subjected to photothrombotic stroke. At both time points and ages, permeability was associated with a striking increase in endothelial caveolae and vacuoles. Tight junctions were generally intact although small spaces were detected in a few cases. In young mice, ischemia led to a significant increase in pericyte process area and vessel coverage whereas these changes were attenuated with aging. Stroke led to an expansion of the basement membrane region that peaked at 3 h and partially recovered by 72 h in both age groups. Astrocyte endfeet and their mitochondria were severely swollen at both times points and ages. Our results suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability in young and aged animals is mediated by transcellular pathways (caveolae/vacuoles), rather than tight junction loss. Further, our data indicate that the effects of ischemia on pericytes and basement membrane are affected by aging. PMID:26661190

  12. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  13. Blood lead level and its association with body mass index and obesity in China - Results from SPECT-China study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningjian; Chen, Chi; Nie, Xiaomin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Meng, Ying; Zhai, Hualing; Lin, Dongping; Cui, Shiyong; Jensen, Michael D.; Lu, Yingli

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to report environmental and blood lead level (BLL) in China, and investigate the relationship of BLL with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. 5558 subjects were enrolled from 16 sites in China. BLL was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Median (interquartile range) of BLL was 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.16) for men and 37.79 μg/L (25.13–54.35) for women, about twice higher than in U.S. population. Subjects in rural and high-economic-status areas had significantly greater BLL (P < 0.001). However, in these areas, the lead levels in drinking water, river water and rice were comparable to or significantly lower than those in urban and low-economic-status areas. After adjustment for age, urbanization, economic status and metabolic factors, BLL was independently associated with BMI in women (P for trend < 0.001), but not in men. In fully adjusted model, increased quartiles of BLL were associated with significantly increased odds ratios of obesity (P for trend < 0.01) in women. In conclusion, BLLs in Chinese adults were much higher than in developed countries. There was a sex-specific association between BLL and BMI. Elevated BLL does not appear to be associated with lead levels in drinking water or rice, suggesting some other exposure source. PMID:26658662

  14. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion is associated with blood pressure in obese young adults.

    PubMed

    Sato, Emiko; Mori, Takefumi; Satoh, Michihiro; Fujiwara, Mutsuko; Nakamichi, Yoshimi; Oba, Ikuko; Ogawa, Susumu; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Hida, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Intrarenal RAS has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. It was recently reported that urinary angiotensinogen excretion levels are associated with intrarenal RAS. However, few markers predicting intrarenal RAS have been investigated in obese young subjects. The present study evaluated the association between blood pressure and intrarenal RAS activity, inflammation and oxidative stress in obese young adults. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion and urinary monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and urinary thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS) as markers of intrarenal RAS activity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, respectively, were determined from morning urine of 111 young male adults. Participants were divided into two groups based on the body mass index (BMI). Natural log-transformed urinary angiotensinogen excretion level was significantly associated with blood pressure, MCP-1 excretion, and TBARS excretion elevation in the obese group (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)). Multivariable analyses showed that every 1 standard deviation increase in natural-log transformed urinary angiotensinogen and MCP-1 excretion, but not TBARS excretion level was associated with elevated blood pressure in the obese group. These results indicate that urinary angiotensinogen and MCP-1 excretion were associated with blood pressure elevation in this population of obese young adults. It suggested that inappropriate RAS activity and inflammation precedes hypertension in obese young subjects and urinary angiotensinogen could be a screening maker for hypertension in young obese subjects. PMID:26825581

  15. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  16. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  17. Daily Copper and Manganese Intakes and Their Relation to Blood Pressure in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Taisun

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that trace minerals have anti-oxidative functions and are related to the control of blood pressure, only a limited number of studies directly address the issue. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the intake of copper and manganese, which are trace minerals, and to clarify their relation to blood pressure. In a cross-sectional study, the blood pressure of 640 normotensive adults, from 19 to 69 year-old (320 males and 320 females), was measured, and its correlation with the intake of copper and manganese was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall method. The average value of the blood pressure was 126.4/80.2 mmHg for the males and 117.8/75.8 mmHg for the females. The daily copper intake was 1.3 mg/day for the males and 1.2 mg/day for the females. For manganese, the daily intake was 4.2 mg/day for the males and 4.1 mg/day for the females. Although the copper intake of all subjects showed a positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, there was no significant correlation when the potential confounding factors were adjusted. The manganese intake of the male subjects had a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure after adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, and energy intake. In conclusion, the daily manganese intake of the normotensitve adults showed a significantly negative correlation with the systolic blood pressure indicating a possibility of a positive effect of manganese on blood pressure. PMID:26566521

  18. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Decreases Aldosterone Production but Maintains Normal Plasma Volume and Increases Blood Pressure in Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    More, Amar S; Mishra, Jay S; Hankins, Gary D; Kumar, Sathish

    2016-08-01

    Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia and polycystic ovaries; their offspring are at increased risk for hypertension during adult life. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone exposure induces dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is known to play an important role in water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. Female rats (6 mo old) prenatally exposed to testosterone were examined for adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes, telemetric blood pressure, blood volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels, plasma aldosterone, angiotensin II and vasopressin levels, and vascular responses to angiotensin II and arg(8)-vasopressin. The levels of Cyp11b2 (aldosterone synthase), but not the other adrenal steroidogenic genes, were decreased in testosterone females. Accordingly, plasma aldosterone levels were lower in testosterone females. Plasma volume and serum and urine Na(+) and K(+) levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone females; however, prenatal testosterone exposure significantly increased plasma vasopressin and angiotensin II levels and arterial pressure in adult females. In testosterone females, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, while contractile responses to vasopressin were unaffected. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor expression was increased, while angiotensin II type-2 receptor was decreased in testosterone arteries. These results suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure downregulates adrenal Cyp11b2 expression, leading to decreased plasma aldosterone levels. Elevated angiotensin II and vasopressin levels along with enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II may serve as an underlying mechanism to maintain plasma volume and Na(+) and K(+) levels and mediate hypertension in adult testosterone females. PMID:27385784

  19. Environmental Factors Predicting Blood Lead Levels in Pregnant Women in the UK: The ALSPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M.; Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL) of 5–10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy. Objectives Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in 1991–1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19. Results The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41–19.14) µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.42; p<0.001). Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects. Conclusion The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed. PMID:24039753

  20. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  1. The effects of retinol on in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis by cord blood and adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Napoli, J L; Ballow, M

    1993-04-01

    In this study we examined the effects of retinol (ROH), a metabolic precursor of retinoic acid (RA), on Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC)-induced immunoglobulin synthesis of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) and adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). ROH augmented SAC-induced IgM synthesis of CBMC by 5.9 +/- 1.5-fold (n = 7, mean +/- s.d.), and IgG synthesis of adult PBMC by 16.3 +/- 5.1-fold (n = 3) at optimal concentrations of 10(-6) M and 10(-11) M, respectively. No augmenting effects could be demonstrated for the other immunoglobulin isotypes. Time-course studies showed that the synthesis of IgM by CBMC was accelerated with detectable immunoglobulin in supernatant fluids starting on day 3. ROH augmented immunoglobulin synthesis of CBMC stimulated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a T cell-independent polyclonal activator, and of EBV-transformed B cell clones (2.5 +/- 0.2 and 4.1 +/- 1.5-fold increase, respectively), which suggests that ROH can act directly on B cells to enhance immunoglobulin synthesis. In contrast, when ROH was preincubated with cord blood T cells, washed and added to the B cell-enriched fraction with SAC, no increase (0.9-1.8-fold) in IgM synthesis was obtained. Thus, the principal mechanism(s) by which ROH augments immunoglobulin synthesis is by acting on B cells. This is in contrast to the immunoglobulin-enhancing effects of RA which is mediated by T cells, or T cell products, e.g. cytokine. Our studies suggest that RA and ROH may have different pathways of immunoglobulin-enhancing effects, perhaps mediated by different retinoid binding proteins resulting in gene activation and immunoglobulin synthesis. PMID:8385583

  2. An Investigation of Outpatient Children's Blood Lead Level in Wuhan China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wu, Siqi; Xiang, Yun; Liang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Objective Blood lead levels (BLLs) and possible influencing factors in children in Wuhan China were investigated in order to understand current lead pollution exposure and provide a scientific basis for prevention and policy making. Materials and Methods BLL data were collected from 15,536 out-patients in Wuhan Children Hospital in 2012 full year. All of them were under 18 years of age (Mean ± SD: 4.32±3.2, 64.4% boys). The BLLs were measured by an atomic absorption spectrometry (BH2100). Results The geometric mean of BLLs for all the subjects was 44.75 µg/L (95%CI: 44.46 µg/L – 45.05 µg/L), much lower than that reported in previous studies. The prevalence of the elevated BLLs (≥ 100 µg/L) in the children tested was 2% in 2012 and the prevalence of BLLs (≥ 50 µg/L) was 44%. Age and sex could be possible influencing factors for BLLs in the children (p<0.001). In addition, the BLLs in different seasons were different (p<0.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate that BLLs have significantly decreased in children in Wuhan during recent years. However, we should continuously pay attention to lead pollution and emphasize that prevention is much more important than treatment for controlling children's BLLs. PMID:24740029

  3. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; P<0.001), with a similar association shown for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for baseline resting blood pressure and clinical parameters, each 5‐mm Hg increments in exercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (P<0.001) and 30% (P<0.001) increased risk for the development of hypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  4. Declining Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin levels in Ecuadorian Andean Children

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Coronel Parra, Angelica M.; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.; Rifai, Nader; Hoover, Patricia Nolan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate current lead (Pb) exposure in children living in Andean Ecuadorian communities. Blood Pb (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were used respectively as biomarkers of acute and chronic Pb poisoning. The current PbB-ZPP levels were compared with previous pediatric PbB-ZPP levels recorded over years in the study area. Design and Methods Samples of whole blood were collected from 22 Andean children of Quechua and Mestizo backgrounds and measured for PbB concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. ZPP/heme ratio and ZPP whole blood (ZPP WB) levels were measured with a hematofluorometer. Results The mean PbB level for children in the current study group was 14.5 μg/dL, which was significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 41.1 μg/dL found in the same study area in the 1996–2000 test period, and lower than the 22.2 μg/dL mean level found in the 2003–2007 period. The current mean ZPP/heme ratio was 102.1 μmol/mol, and the mean ZPP WB level was 46.3 μg/dL, both lower than values previously found in children in the study area. Conclusion While the current pediatric PbB-ZPP levels in the study area remain elevated in some children, the overall levels indicate a decline relative to levels observed in the same Pb-contaminated area in the period between 1996 and 2007. The elevated ZPP levels suggest a history of chronic Pb exposure, and potential iron deficiency in some children. The overall reduction in PbB-ZPP levels suggests a positive outcome of a Pb-exposure education and prevention program, and the therapeutic intervention of succimer chelation therapy. PMID:23684775

  5. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  6. The Longitudinal Association of Cumulative Lead Dose with Cognitive Function in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Glass, Thomas A.; Bolla, Karen I.; Todd, Andrew C.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate whether cumulative lead dose from environmental exposures is associated with cognitive function and decline, and whether persistent, reversible, or progressive effects are indicated. Methods We used longitudinal linear modeling to evaluate associations of tibia lead concentration with cognitive function and decline in socio-demographically diverse, community-dwelling adults, aged 50-70 years, randomly selected from neighborhoods in Baltimore. Six summary measures of cognitive function were created from standard tests in these domains: language, processing speed, eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, verbal memory and learning, and visual memory. Results The mean (SD) tibia lead level was 18.8 (11.6) μg/g. In models adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), and race/ethnicity, higher tibia lead was associated with a progressive decline in eye-hand coordination in all subjects; stratified analysis substantiated this association only in African-Americans. In all subjects, tibia lead was associated with persistent effects with worse cognitive function in all six domains, but these associations weakened after increasing covariate control. In fully adjusted stratified analysis, persistent effects were present in whites in eye-hand coordination, executive functioning, and verbal memory and learning. Conclusions The study presents the strongest adult evidence to date in a diverse population of the impacts of cumulative lead dose on cognitive function independent of SES. As the study population was relatively young and the average total duration of follow-up short (< 30 months), the findings may represent the lower bound of what the impact of cumulative lead dose might be on the cognitive function of older Americans. PMID:19752734

  7. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Anna Z; Mumford, Sunni L; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2015-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels, but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women apparently has not been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/L, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/L, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Each twofold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each twofold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A twofold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  8. Ligation of Glycophorin A Generates Reactive Oxygen Species Leading to Decreased Red Blood Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Khoory, Joseph; Estanislau, Jessica; Elkhal, Abdallah; Lazaar, Asmae; Melhorn, Mark I.; Brodsky, Abigail; Illigens, Ben; Hamachi, Itaru; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Ghiran, Ionita C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute, inflammatory conditions associated with dysregulated complement activation are characterized by significant increases in blood concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP. The mechanisms by which these molecules arise are not fully understood. In this study, using luminometric- and fluorescence-based methods, we show that ligation of glycophorin A (GPA) on human red blood cells (RBCs) results in a 2.1-fold, NADPH-oxidase-dependent increase in intracellular ROS that, in turn, trigger multiple downstream cascades leading to caspase-3 activation, ATP release, and increased band 3 phosphorylation. Functionally, using 2D microchannels to assess membrane deformability, GPS-ligated RBCs travel 33% slower than control RBCs, and lipid mobility was hindered by 10% using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). These outcomes were preventable by pretreating RBCs with cell-permeable ROS scavenger glutathione monoethyl ester (GSH-ME). Our results obtained in vitro using anti-GPA antibodies were validated using complement-altered RBCs isolated from control and septic patients. Our results suggest that during inflammatory conditions, circulating RBCs significantly contribute to capillary flow dysfunctions, and constitute an important but overlooked source of intravascular ROS and ATP, both critical mediators responsible for endothelial cell activation, microcirculation impairment, platelet activation, as well as long-term dysregulated adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:26784696

  9. Blood levels of cadmium and lead in residents near abandoned metal mine areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Soo-Geun; Yang, Won-Ho; Park, Doo-Yong; Hong, Yeong-Seoub; Park, Jung-Duck; Lee, Byung-Kook; Moon, Jai-Dong; Sakong, Joon; Ahn, Seung-Chul; Ryu, Jung-Min; Jung, Soon-Won

    2014-08-01

    We analyzed national data on blood lead levels (BLL) and blood cadmium levels (BCL) in residents living near 38 abandoned metal mining areas (n = 5,682, 18-96 years old) in Korea that were collected by the first Health Effect Surveillance for Residents in Abandoned Metal mines (HESRAM) from 2008 to 2011. The geometric mean BCL and BLL were 1.60 μg/L (95 % CI = 1.57-1.62 μg/L) and 2.87 μg/dL (95 % CI = 2.84-2.90 μg/dL), respectively, notably higher than levels in the general population in Korea and other countries. We found significantly higher BLL and BCL levels in people living within 2 km of an abandoned metal mine (n = 3,165, BCL = 1.87 μg/L, BLL = 2.91 μg/dL) compared to people living more than 2 km away (n = 2,517, BCL = 1.31 μg/L, BLL = 2.82 μg/dL; P < 0.0001) and to the general population values reported in the literature. PMID:24744211

  10. Kidney biomarkers associated with blood lead, mercury, and cadmium in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Mendola, Pauline; Perkins, Neil J.; Rotman, Yaron; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Certain metals are harmful to the kidney and liver at high levels but associations with functional biomarkers at low exposure levels among premenopausal women has not apparently been evaluated. Healthy, regularly menstruating women (n=259) were followed for up to two menstrual cycles with up to 16 visits. Renal and liver biomarkers were measured in serum at each clinic visit. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in whole blood at baseline. Linear mixed models were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), race, average calories, alcohol intake, smoking, and cycle day. Median levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were 0.31 μg/l, 0.88 μg/dl, and 1.1 μg/l, respectively. One-third of women had diminished glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<90 ml/min/1.73m2). Each 2-fold increase in Cd was associated with a negative 4.9% change in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin. Each 2-fold rise in Pb was associated with decreased eGFR and increased creatinine. A 2-fold elevation in Hg was associated with higher protein and reduced alkaline phosphatase. In healthy, predominantly nonsmoking women, low levels of Cd, Pb, and Hg were associated with changes in select biomarkers of kidney and liver function. PMID:25424620

  11. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C.

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Blood Lead Level and Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Alison G.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Weaver, Virginia M.; Furth, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of environmental exposure to lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression remains controversial, and most studies have been limited by a lack of direct glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Objective: We evaluated the association between lead exposure and GFR in children with CKD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and GFR measured by the plasma disappearance of iohexol among 391 participants in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study. Results: Median BLL and GFR were 1.2 µg/dL and 44.4 mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. The average percent change in GFR for each 1-µg/dL increase in BLL was –2.1 (95% CI: –6.0, 1.8). In analyses stratified by CKD diagnosis, the association between BLL and GFR was stronger among children with glomerular disease underlying CKD; in this group, each 1-µg/dL increase in BLL was associated with a –12.1 (95% CI: –22.2, –1.9) percent change in GFR. In analyses stratified by anemia status, each 1-µg/dL increase in BLL among those with and without anemia was associated with a –0.3 (95% CI: –7.2, 6.6) and –4.6 (95% CI: –8.9, –0.3) percent change in GFR, respectively. Conclusions: There was no significant association between BLL and directly measured GFR in this relatively large cohort of children with CKD, although associations were observed in some subgroups. Longitudinal analyses are needed to examine the temporal relationship between lead and GFR decline, and to further examine the impact of underlying cause of CKD and anemia/hemoglobin status among patients with CKD. PMID:23694739

  13. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center. Methods BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method. Results The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78) μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote) and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote) exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042) and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035) when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc.) were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086–0.096, P<0.05). Conclusions The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation. PMID:25723397

  14. Surveillance of childhood blood lead levels in Chengdu, China in 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue Zhong; Yang, Yi; Jiang, Yong Mei; Shi, Hua; Chang, Li; Li, Jia; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lead poisoning has been receiving great attention around the world. The Child Hygiene Cooperation Center of the World Health Organization in China has been conducting investigations to monitor blood lead levels (BLLs) from as early as 2004. However, only several lead poisoning studies have been conducted in China since August 2009. The aim of the present study was to investigate the BLLs in children aged < 7 years and to analyse the risk factors of high BLLs in Chengdu, China. METHODS Questionnaires were distributed to children in Chengdu from 2010 to 2011. A total of 2,271 children were included in this study – 1,157 received BLL tests in 2010 and the remaining received the tests in 2011. BLL was measured using a tungsten atomiser absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS The mean BLL of the 2,271 children was 6.2 µg/dL and 2.03% of the children had BLLs ≥ 10 µg/dL. Mean BLL seemed to increase with age. Unhygienic habits (e.g. not washing hands frequently, biting of toys and pencils), history of pica, use of coal and residence in an industrial zone were found to be the main risk factors contributing to high BLL (p < 0.05). Children with high BLLs have a higher risk of manifesting anorexia and/or abdominal pain as compared to those with low BLLs (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The mean BLL of children in Chengdu (i.e. 6.2 µg/dL) was found to be higher than that of children in developed countries. Childhood lead poisoning remains a public health problem. PMID:25532517

  15. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  16. Blood Lead Levels and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Concentrations in Peripubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood lead exposure has been associated with growth delay. However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure. Methods: We recruited 394 boys 8–9 years of age from an industrial Russian town in 2003–2005 and followed them annually thereafter. We used linear regression models to estimate the association of baseline BLLs with serum IGF-1 concentration at two follow-up visits (ages 10–11 and 12–13 years), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Results: At study entry, median BLL was 3 μg/dL (range, < 0.5–31 μg/dL), most boys (86%) were prepubertal, and mean ± SD height and BMI z-scores were 0.14 ± 1.0 and –0.2 ± 1.3, respectively. After adjustment for covariates, the mean follow-up IGF-1 concentration was 29.2 ng/mL lower (95% CI: –43.8, –14.5) for boys with high versus low BLL (≥ 5 μg/dL or < 5 μg/dL); this difference persisted after further adjustment for pubertal status. The association of BLL with IGF-1 was stronger for mid-pubertal than prepubertal boys (p = 0.04). Relative to boys with BLLs < 2 μg/dL, adjusted mean IGF-1 concentrations decreased by 12.8 ng/mL (95% CI: –29.9, 4.4) for boys with BLLs of 3–4 μg/dL; 34.5 ng/mL (95% CI: –53.1, –16.0) for BLLs 5–9 μg/dL; and 60.4 ng/mL (95% CI: –90.9, –29.9) for BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions: In peripubertal boys with low-level lead exposure, higher BLLs were associated with lower serum IGF-1. Inhibition of the hypothalamic–pituitary–growth axis may be one possible pathway by which lead exposure leads to growth delay. PMID:23632160

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  18. Sibling composition during childhood and adult blood pressure among native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Parida, Sabita; Zycherman, Ariela; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Godoy, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    Sibling configuration, including birth order, or the number, age, and sex of siblings is associated with parental resource allocation between children and is thus associated with a person's well-being. Little is known about the association between specific types of siblings and adult health outcomes. Here we test several hypotheses about sibling composition (number of older brothers, older sisters, younger sisters, younger brothers) and adult blood pressure in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'). We collected data in 2007 from 374 adults (16-60years of age) from 196 households in 13 villages. Household random-effects multiple regressions were run using systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as outcomes; covariates included the four sibling categories and control variables (e.g., sex, age, education, body mass index [BMI]). Mean SBP and DBP were 114 (SD=14) and 66 (SD=11)mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 5.08%. Having an additional younger brother bore a small (3.3-5.9%) positive association with both SBP and DBP, with the effect weakening as people aged. Having an additional younger sister was associated with a small (3.8%) increase in SBP among women, with the magnitude shrinking as people aged. In a large family, the number of younger brothers may exert an impact on an individual's blood pressure. PMID:23021349

  19. In vivo distribution and excretion studies and in vitro blood studies on the kinetics of lead-203 in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Coombs, Mark A.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of carrier free lead-203 between plasma and cells of canine blood in vitro was measured. Activity in the plasma decreased to less than 5% of the initial blood activity during the first 15 min and then exponentially with a half time of 160 min. Incubation in cell free plasma before addition to whole blood transformed the isotope, decreasing the amount subsequently associated with cells. In animal studies, activity was measured in plasma, blood cells, urine, and feces after exposure to lead-203. In one group, the animals were exposed by intravenous injection of dilute citric acid solutions of isotope. In a second group, carrier free isotope which had been transformed by incubation in plasma was injected intravenously. The kinetics of the distribution of the isotope differed between the two experimental groups. After injection of the transformed lead, the lead-203 content of the blood cell fraction rose from 10% of the dose at 5 min to 21% to 43% at 13 h. The red cell activity after injection of citric acid solutions of lead-203 remained between 50 and 60% of the dose from 5 min to 12 h post exposure. Excretion of lead in the urine during the first day after injection of transformed lead ranged from 5 to 45% of the dose, while that of citric acid solutions of lead was between 1 and 2%. Linear compartmental models for distribution of the isotope were developed for both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. In three additional experiments, animals were exposed to lead-203 extravascularly. In one, using a dilute citric acid solution of the isotope, plasma activity resembled that observed after intravenous injection, suggesting that isotope was transformed by extravascular fluids before reaching the circulation. In the two remaining experiments the animals were exposed to lead-203 by gavage. The results suggest that lead absorbed from the gut may have been transformed before reaching the circulation. (ERB)

  20. Behavioral and Environmental Explanations of Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, Stan A; Perlstadt, Harry; Dziura, James D; Post, Lori A

    2016-10-01

    Immigrant/refugee children sometimes have substantially higher blood lead levels (BLLs) than US-born children in similar environments. We try to understand why, by exploring the relationship between immigration status of mother and the BLLs of US-born children. We compared BLLs of children born in Michigan to immigrant and non-immigrant parents, using the Michigan database of BLL tests for 2002-2005, which includes the child's race, Medicaid eligibility and address. We added census data on socio-demographic/housing characteristics of the child's block group, and information about parents. Low parental education, single parent households, mothers' smoking and drinking, all increase the child's BLL. However, immigrant parents had fewer characteristics associated with high BLL than US born parents, and their children had lower BLLs than children of US-born mothers. Our findings suggest that prior findings of higher BLLs among immigrant/refugee children probably result from them starting life in high-lead environments. PMID:26163335

  1. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona: blood levels and related factors.

    PubMed

    Solé, E; Ballabriga, A; Dominguez, C

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals' age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22 +/- 0.011 mumol/l (mean +/- S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals' age (BPb = 0.08 + 0.05 x age; r = 0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb > 0.48 mumol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve = 0.5052, IC 95% = 0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries. PMID:9926425

  2. Changes in the lead isotopic composition of blood, diet and air in Australia over a decade: Globalization and implications for future isotopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gulson, Brian . E-mail: bgulson@gse.mq.edu.au; Mizon, Karen; Korsch, Michael; Taylor, Alan

    2006-01-15

    Source apportionment in biological or environmental samples using the lead isotope method, where there are diverse sources of lead, relies on a significant difference between the isotopic composition in the target media and the sources. Because of the unique isotopic composition of Australian lead, source apportionment has been relatively successful in the past. Over the period of a decade, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratio for Australian (mainly female) adults has shown an increase from a geometric mean of 16.8-17.3. Associated with this increase, there has been a decrease in mean blood lead concentration from 4.7 to 2.3 {mu}g/dL, or about 5% per year, similar to that observed in other countries. Lead in air, which up until 2000 was derived largely from the continued use of leaded gasoline, showed an overall increase in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratio during 1993-2000 from 16.5 to 17.2. Since 1998 the levels of lead in air were less than 0.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and would contribute negligibly to blood lead. Over the 10-year period, the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratio in diet, based mainly on quarterly 6-day duplicate diets, increased from 16.9 to 18.3. The lead concentration in diet showed a small decrease from 8.7 to 6.4 {mu}g Pb/kg although the daily intake increased markedly from 7.4 to 13.9 {mu}g Pb/day during the latter part of the decade probably reflecting differences in demographics. The changes in blood lead from sources such as lead in bone or soil or dust is not dominant because of the low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios in these media. Unless there are other sources not identified and analysed for these adults, it would appear that in spite of our earlier conclusions to the contrary, diet does make an overall contribution to blood lead, and this is certainly the case for specific individuals. Certain population groups from south Asia, south-east Asia, the Middle East and Europe (e.g. UK) are unsuitable for some studies as their isotopic ratios in blood are

  3. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Long, D Leann; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels with the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children aged 24-72 months using data from NHANES III (the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 µg/dl as the reference blood lead level (n = 3,127). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88 and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5, 5-10 and >10 µg/dl, respectively, compared with children having <2 µg/dl blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 and >10 µg/dl levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14 and 1.91, respectively, for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels with increasing numbers of carious teeth in children aged 24-72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases of children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  4. Dengue Seroprevalence of Healthy Adults in Singapore: Serosurvey among Blood Donors, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Low, Swee-Ling; Lam, Sally; Wong, Wing-Yan; Teo, Diana; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Li-Kiang

    2015-01-01

    Routine national notifications of dengue cases typically do not reflect the true dengue situation due to large proportion of unreported cases. Serosurveys, when conducted periodically, could shed light on the true dengue infections in the population. To determine the magnitude of dengue infections of the adult population in Singapore following the outbreak in 2007, we performed a cross-sectional study on blood donor samples from December 2009 to February 2010. The residual blood of 3,995 donors (aged 16–60 years) was screened for the presence of dengue-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The age-weighted IgG prevalence of residents was 50.8% (N = 3,627, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.4–52.3%). Dengue IgG prevalence increased with age, with the lowest in 16–20 years age group (16.1%) and the highest in 56–60 years age group (86.6%). Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) on samples of young resident adults (aged 16–30 years) revealed lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to each serotype, ranging from 5.4% to 20.3% compared with the older age groups. The level of exposure to dengue among the young adults is relatively low despite the endemicity of the disease in Singapore. It partially explains the population’s susceptibility to explosive outbreaks and the high incidence rate among young adults. PMID:26013376

  5. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  6. A community-initiated study of blood lead levels of Nicaraguan children living near a battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Morales Bonilla, C; Mauss, E A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In response to requests by parents in Managua, Nicaragua, whose neighborhood borders a battery factory, 97 children were tested for blood lead, as were 30 children in a neighborhood without an obvious source of environmental lead. METHODS: Venous blood was examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Educational workshops were conducted. RESULTS: Mean blood lead levels were 17.21 +/- 9.92 micrograms/dL in the index children and 7.40 +/- 5.37 micrograms/dL in the controls (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Children living near the battery factory are at increased risk of lead poisoning. The parents were able to petition the government to control the factory emissions and to improve appropriate health services. The factory is now closed. PMID:9842385

  7. Dietary and environmental determinants of blood and bone lead levels in lactating postpartum women living in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Avila, M; Gonzalez-Cossio, T; Palazuelos, E; Romieu, I; Aro, A; Fishbein, E; Peterson, K E; Hu, H

    1996-01-01

    Despite the recent declines in environmental lead exposure in the United States and Mexico, the potential for delayed toxicity from bone lead stores remains a significant public health concern. Some evidence indicates that mobilization of lead from bone may be markedly enhanced during the increased bone turnover of pregnancy and lactation, resulting in lead exposure to the fetus and the breast-fed infant. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of the interrelationships between environmental, dietary, and lifestyle histories, blood lead levels, and bone lead levels among 98 recently postpartum women living in Mexico City. Lead levels in the patella (representing trabecular bone) and tibia (representing cortical bone) were measured by K X-ray fluorescence (KXRF). Multivariate linear regression models showed that significant predictors of higher blood lead included a history of preparing or storing food in lead-glazed ceramic ware, lower milk consumption, and higher levels of lead in patella bone. A 34 micrograms/g increase in patella lead (from the medians of the lowest to the highest quartiles) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 2.4 micrograms/dl. Given the measurement error associated with KXRF and the extrapolation of lead burden from a single bone site, this contribution probably represents an underestimate of the influence of trabecular bone on blood lead. Significant predictors of bone lead in multivariate models included years living in Mexico City, lower consumption of high calcium content foods, and nonuse of calcium supplements for the patella and years living in Mexico City, older age, and lower calcium intake for tibia bone. Low consumption of milk and cheese, as compared to the highest consumption category (every day), was associated with an increase in tibia bone lead of 9.7 micrograms Pb/g bone mineral. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that patella bone is a significant contributor to blood lead during lactation

  8. Cognitive deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adult monozygotic twins with lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Hu, Howard; Mulkern, Robert V; White, Roberta; Aro, Antonio; Oliveira, Steve; Wright, Robert O

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-one-year-old identical twin brothers with chronic lead poisoning were identified from an occupational medicine clinic roster. Both were retired painters, but one brother (J.G.) primarily removed paint and had a history of higher chronic lead exposure. Patella and tibia bone lead concentrations measured by K-X-ray fluorescence in each brother were 5-10 times those of the general population and about 2.5 times higher in J.G. than in his brother (E.G.). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies examined N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratios, a marker of neuronal density. Ratios were lower in J.G. than in his brother. Scores on neurocognitive tests that assess working memory/executive function were below expectation in both twins. Short-term memory function was dramatically worse in J.G. than in his brother. These results demonstrate some of the more subtle long-term neurologic effects of chronic lead poisoning in adults. In particular, they suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in both twins, but more dramatic hippocampal dysfunction in the brother with higher lead exposure. The MRS findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure caused neuronal loss, which may contribute to the impairment in cognitive function. Although a causal relation cannot be inferred, the brothers were genetically identical, with similar life experiences. Although these results are promising, further study is necessary to determine whether MRS findings correlate both with markers of lead exposure and tests of cognitive function. Nevertheless, the results point to the potential utility of MRS in determining mechanisms of neurotoxicity not only for lead but also for other neurotoxicants as well. PMID:15064171

  9. Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure Versus Fatty Acid Content in Blood and Milk of the Mother and in the Blood of Newborn Children.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for

  10. Expansion of regulatory T cells from umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25 (+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Syh-Jae; Lu, Chun-Hao; Yan, Dah-Chin; Lee, Pei-Tzu; Hsiao, Hsiu-Shan; Kuo, Ming-Ling

    2014-10-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), if properly expanded from umbilical cord blood (UCB), may provide a promising immunotherapeutic tool. Our previous data demonstrated that UCB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with 4-day stimulation have comparable phenotypes and suppressive function to that of adult peripheral blood (APB) CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. We further examined whether 2-week culture would achieve higher expansion levels of Tregs. UCB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and their APB counterparts were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 in the presence of IL-2 or IL-15 for 2 weeks. The cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression were examined. The function of the expanded cells was then investigated by suppressive assay. IL-21 was applied to study whether it counteracts the function of UCB and APB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. The results indicate that UCB CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells expanded much better than their APB counterparts. IL-2 was superior to expand UCB and APB Tregs for 2 weeks than IL-15. FoxP3 expression which peaked on Day 10-14 was comparable. Most importantly, expanded UCB Tregs showed greater suppressive function in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. The addition of IL-21, however, counteracted the suppressive function of expanded UCB and APB Tregs. The results support using UCB as a source of Treg cells. PMID:24515612

  11. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-04-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  12. Lead sources, behaviors, and socioeconomic factors in relation to blood lead of native american and white children: a community-based assessment of a former mining area.

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lynch, Robert A; Keger, Michelle Crozier; Skaggs, Valerie J

    2002-01-01

    Lead poisoning prevention requires knowledge of lead sources and of appropriate residential lead standards. Data are severely lacking on lead sources for Native American children, many of whom live in rural areas. Further, the relation of mining waste to blood lead concentrations (BPbs) of rural children is controversial. In collaboration with the eight tribes of northeastern Oklahoma, we assessed lead sources and their effects on BPbs for rural Native American and White children living in a former mining region. Venous blood lead, residential environmental (soil, dust, paint, water), and caregiver interview (e.g., hand-to-mouth behaviors, socioeconomic conditions) data were obtained from a representative sample of 245 children 1-6 years of age. BPbs ranged from 1 to 24 microg/dL. There were no ethnic differences in BPbs (p= 0.48) nor any patterns of excess lead sources for Native American or White children. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that mean soil lead, mean floor lead loading, mouthing behaviors, caregivers' education, and residence in former mining towns were all strongly associated with BPbs. Logistic regression results showed mean floor dust lead loading greater than or equal to 10.1 microg/ft(2) (odds ratio [OR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-37.3), and yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL. We also found strong interactions between soil lead and poverty (p= 0.005), and dust and soil sources (p= 0.02). Our findings indicate that soil and dust lead derived largely from mining waste pose a health hazard to Native American and White children, and that current residential dust lead standards are insufficient to adequately protect children. Moreover, our finding that poor children are especially vulnerable to lead exposures suggests that residential standards should consider interactions among socioeconomic conditions and lead sources if

  13. Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bart

    1973-01-01

    An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

  14. Effect of restraint and copper deficiency on blood pressure and mortality of adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klevay, L.M.; Halas, E.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The etiology of most hypertension is unknown; stress is thought to elevate blood pressure. Male, weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified diet plus a drinking solution containing 10{mu}g Zn and 2{mu}g Cu/ml (acetate sulfate, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was measured without anesthesia. After being matched by mean weight (280g) and blood pressure into 4 groups of 15, groups 1 and 2 received a drinking solution without copper. After 24 days rats in groups 2 and 4 were restrained for 45 min. daily (A.M.) for 23 days in a small plastic cage (19{times}6{times}6 cm). Final pressures were affected both by stress and dietary Cu: group 1, 119; group 2, 131; group 3, 114; group 4, 123 mm Hg. One rat in each of groups 1, 3, 4 and 10 rats in group 2, died. Among these latter hemorrhage was prominent, blood being found in bladder (2), gut (2), peritoneum (2) and scrotum (1). Copper deficiency decreased cooper in both adrenal gland and liver by 58% and in heart by 29% restraint was without effect. Cardiac sodium was increased 6% only by deficiency. Results confirm the hypertensive effect of copper deficiency in adult rats and reveal that the stress of restraint increases blood pressure. Copper deficiency plus stress is harmful.

  15. Proximity of residence to an old mineral storage site in Chile and blood lead levels in children.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Loreto; Klarián, José; Campos, Rosario Toro; Iglesias, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that an old mineral storage site removed in 1998 due to high lead content, remains as a source of exposure in the city of Antofagasta, Chile. The aim was to determine the association between blood lead levels in children and the residential proximity to the old mineral storage site. A cross sectional study was conducted with 185 children aged 7 to 16 years. The outcome variable was blood lead levels measured in 2005. The exposure variable was the distance between the current residence and the old mineral storage site. The distance was measured in meters by Geographic Information System (GIS). The median blood lead level in 2005 was 3.3μg/dL (interquartile range ‒ IQR: 2.0-4.3). A significant inverse association was found between the residential distance to the old mineral storage site and the blood lead levels in children, after adjusting by confounders (β: -0.04; 95%CI: -0.09; -0.01). This result suggests that the old mineral storage site continues to be a source of lead exposure for the children living nearby. PMID:27096298

  16. Probit analysis of comparative assays on toxicities of lead chloride and lead acetate to in vitro cultured human umbilical cord blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Rajashree

    2015-01-01

    This work describes that cytotoxicity of lead chloride and lead acetate to in vitro cultured lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood, using four monitoring methods namely, trypan blue staining, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake assays; lead genotoxicity to lymphocytes was monitored by comet assay. The MIC value in each method was invariably 300 mg/L for PbCl2. Lethal concentration25 (LC25) values were almost in an agreeable range: 691.83 to 831.76 mg/L; LC50 values in each method were almost in the range: 1174.9 to 1348.9 mg/L; LC100 values were in the range: 3000 to 3300 mg/L, for lead chloride. Similarly, The MIC value in each method were invariably 150 mg/L; LC25 values were almost in the range: 295.12 to 371.53 mg/L; LC50 values were in the range: 501.18 to 588.84 mg/L; LC100 value was 1500 mg/L in all assays, for lead acetate. The comet assay also indicated that the LC100 values were 3300 mg/L lead chloride and 1500 mg/L lead acetate. Thus, both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were recorded at 3300 mg/L lead chloride and 1500 mg/L lead acetate with lymphocytes. PMID:27486358

  17. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  18. Assessing Skin Blood Flow Dynamics in Older Adults Using a Modified Sample Entropy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    The aging process may result in attenuated microvascular reactivity in response to environmental stimuli, which can be evaluated by analyzing skin blood flow (SBF) signals. Among various methods for analyzing physiological signals, sample entropy (SE) is commonly used to quantify the degree of regularity of time series. However, we found that for temporally correlated data, SE value depends on the sampling rate. When data are oversampled, SE may give misleading results. To address this problem, we propose to modify the definition of SE by using time-lagged vectors in the calculation of the conditional probability that any two vectors of successive data points are within a tolerance r for m points remain within the tolerance at the next point. The lag could be chosen as the first minimum of the auto mutual information function. We tested the performance of modified SE using simulated signals and SBF data. The results showed that modified SE is able to quantify the degree of regularity of the signals regardless of sampling rate. Using this approach, we observed a more regular behavior of blood flow oscillations (BFO) during local heating-induced maximal vasodilation period compared to the baseline in young and older adults and a more regular behavior of BFO in older adults compared to young adults. These results suggest that modified SE may be useful in the study of SBF dynamics. PMID:25570060

  19. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  20. Some characteristics and correlates of blood lead in early childhood: preliminary results from the Port Pirie study

    SciTech Connect

    Baghurst, P.; Oldfield, R.; Wigg, N.; McMichael, A.; Robertson, E.; Vimpani, G.

    1985-10-01

    In 1979 the recruiting of pregnant women for a prospective study of pregnancy outcome and early childhood growth and development was commenced in the South Australian town of Port Pirie. The Port Pirie community has been exposed over many years to an accumulation of lead and other heavy metals, because of the operation of Australia's largest lead smelter on the immediate periphery of the town. The basic aim of the study was to relate early childhood growth and development to cumulative lead exposure. Other specific aims included studying the relationship between childhood lead burden and various behavioral, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental factors thought likely to influence lead exposure. This paper relates, in a simple cross-sectional manner, the observed blood lead concentrations at 6, 15, and 24 months to the supplementary information obtained by questionnaire and interview with the mother at the times the blood samples were taken. The relationship between blood lead concentration and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FeP) at each age is also examined. 12 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. Maternal depression is associated with DNA methylation changes in cord blood T lymphocytes and adult hippocampi.

    PubMed

    Nemoda, Z; Massart, R; Suderman, M; Hallett, M; Li, T; Coote, M; Cody, N; Sun, Z S; Soares, C N; Turecki, G; Steiner, M; Szyf, M

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects 10-15% of pregnant women and has been associated with preterm delivery and later developmental, behavioural and learning disabilities. We tested the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with DNA methylation alterations in maternal T lymphocytes, neonatal cord blood T lymphocytes and adult offspring hippocampi. Genome-wide DNA methylation of CD3+ T lymphocytes isolated from 38 antepartum maternal and 44 neonatal cord blood samples were analyzed using Illumina Methylation 450 K microarrays. Previously obtained methylation data sets using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and array-hybridization of 62 postmortem hippocampal samples of adult males were re-analyzed to test associations with history of maternal depression. We found 145 (false discovery rate (FDR) q<0.05) and 2520 (FDR q<0.1) differentially methylated CG-sites in cord blood T lymphocytes of neonates from the maternal depression group as compared with the control group. However, no significant DNA methylation differences were detected in the antepartum maternal T lymphocytes of our preliminary data set. We also detected 294 differentially methylated probes (FDR q<0.1) in hippocampal samples associated with history of maternal depression. We observed a significant overlap (P=0.002) of 33 genes with changes in DNA methylation in T lymphocytes of neonates and brains of adult offspring. Many of these genes are involved in immune system functions. Our results show that DNA methylation changes in offspring associated with maternal depression are detectable at birth in the immune system and persist to adulthood in the brain. This is consistent with the hypothesis that system-wide epigenetic changes are involved in life-long responses to maternal depression in the offspring. PMID:25849984

  2. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Todd; Reeds, Dominic N.; Mondy, Kristin E.; Overton, Turner; Grassino, Joseph; Tucker, Shawn; Bopp, Coco; Laciny, Erin; Hubert, Sara; Lassa-Claxton, Sherry; Yarasheski, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV are high priorities. Objective We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virologic or immunologic status, or quality of life in HIV-infected adults more than in a matched control group. Methods Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 wks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were; 2hr-oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4+ T-cell number and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 health-related quality of life inventory. Results Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced more (p=0.04) in the yoga group (−5±2 and −3±1 mmHg) than in the standard of care group (+1±2 and +2±2 mmHg), despite no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass, proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall quality of life after yoga. Immune and virologic status was not adversely affected. Conclusion Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low cost, simple to administer, non-pharmacological, popular behavioral intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors. PMID:20059570

  3. Balance ability in 7- and 10-year-old children: associations with prenatal lead and cadmium exposure and with blood lead levels in childhood in a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M; Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most studies reporting evidence of adverse effects of lead and cadmium on the ability to balance have been conducted in high-exposure groups or have included adults. The effects of prenatal exposure have not been well studied, nor have the effects in children been directly studied. The aim of the study was to identify the associations of lead (in utero and in childhood) and cadmium (in utero) exposure with the ability to balance in children aged 7 and 10 years. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Participants Maternal blood lead (n=4285) and cadmium (n=4286) levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) during pregnancy. Child lead levels were measured in a subsample of 582 of ALSPAC children at age 30 months. Main outcome measures Children completed a heel-to-toe walking test at 7 years. At 10 years, the children underwent clinical tests of static and dynamic balance. Statistical analysis using SPSS V.19 included logistic regression modelling, comparing categories of ≥5 vs <5 µg/dL for lead, and ≥1 vs <1 µg/L for cadmium. Results Balance at age 7 years was not associated with elevated in utero lead or cadmium exposure (adjusted OR for balance dysfunction: Pb 1.01 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01), n=1732; Cd 0.95 (0.77 to 1.20), n=1734), or with elevated child blood lead level at age 30 months (adjusted OR 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05), n=354). Similarly, neither measures of static nor dynamic balance at age 10 years were associated with in utero lead or cadmium exposure, or child lead level. Conclusions These findings do not provide any evidence of an association of prenatal exposure to lead or cadmium, or lead levels in childhood, on balance ability in children. Confirmation in other cohorts is needed. PMID:26719320

  4. Forearm and upper-arm oscillometric blood pressure comparison in acutely ill adults.

    PubMed

    Schell, Kathleen; Morse, Kate; Waterhouse, Julie K

    2010-04-01

    When patients' upper arms are not accessible and/or when cuffs do not fit large upper arms, the forearm site is often used for blood pressure (BP) measurement. The purpose of this study is to compare forearm and upper-arm BPs in 70 acutely ill adults, admitted to a community hospital's 14-bed ICU. Using Philips oscillometric monitors, three repeated measures of forearm and upper-arm BPs are obtained with head of bed flat and with head of bed elevated at 30 degrees. Arms are resting on the bed. Paired t tests show statistically significant differences in systolic BPs, diastolic BPs, and mean arterial pressures in the supine and head-elevated positions. Bland-Altman analyses indicate that forearm and upper-arm oscillometric BPs are not interchangeable in acutely ill adults. PMID:20581399

  5. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%.

  6. BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AND SEXUAL MATURATION IN U.S. GIRLS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1988-94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context. Animal studies suggest that lead exposure may delay sexual maturation, raising concern about children's environmental lead exposure.
    Objective. Assess the realtion between blood lead and sexual maturation in girls.
    Design. Third National and Nutrition Examinatio...

  7. Endoscopic-assisted minimally invasive resection of a papillary muscle blood cyst in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Kudo, Mikihiko; Hayashi, Kanako; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    We describe endoscopic-assisted minimally invasive resection of a blood cyst originating from the papillary muscle that caused severe mitral regurgitation and necessitated mitral valve replacement in an active adult woman, as well as a review of the relevant literature. An endoscopic view increases the visibility of the surgical target and facilitates a precise observation of the tumour and dissection at the appropriate layer. The On-X mechanical valve was chosen for mitral valve repair to minimize thromboembolic risk. This patient additionally benefited from endoscopic-assisted right minithoracotomy in terms of both cosmetic and functional aspects. PMID:26586675

  8. Perioperative anaesthetic management of penetrating neck injury associated with Rh blood type in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yeting; Shi, Jiaohui; Wang, Zhichun

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a young adult patient with penetrating neck injuries (PNI) with an Rh negative blood type and discuss the perioperative anaesthetic management of single-stage surgical exploration under general anaesthesia and extracorporeal circulation in this patient. The patient had zone II PNI and he was in a haemodynamically progressive unstable state, and the knife penetrated the left internal jugular vein, superior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve; the trachea and the oesophagus were swelling at a rapid rate. Eight weeks after operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital without any complications. PMID:23429024

  9. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    SciTech Connect

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M.

    1992-06-01

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Gender-dependent behavioural impairment and brain metabolites in young adult rats after short term exposure to lead acetate.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, M T; Naghizadeh, B; López-Larrubia, P; Cauli, O

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the behavioural effects of short-term lead (Pb) exposure in adult rats producing blood Pb concentration (<10 μg/dL) below those associated with neurological impairment in occupationally exposed individuals. In order to assess gender differences, we performed parallel behavioural experiments in male and female rats. Exposure to Pb acetate (50 mg/L in drinking water) for 30-45 days induced behavioural alterations consisting in hyperactivity in a novel environment and impairment of spatial memory. These effects were observed only in male rats. Object recognition, motor coordination were unaffected by Pb exposure. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows in vivo assessment of main brain metabolites (glutamate/glutamine, creatine, myoinositol, N-acetylaspartate and choline) whose changes have been demonstrated in several central nervous system pathologies. Exposure to Pb did not affect metabolite profile in the striatum and increase myoinositol signal in the hippocampus of male rats. The increase in myoinositol in hippocampus suggests early Pb-induced alteration in glial metabolism in this brain region and may represent a potential marker of early brain dysfunction during Pb exposure. PMID:22285975

  11. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children ages 24-72 months: NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, RC; Long, DL; Jurevic, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels and the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children 24 to72 months using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 μg/dL as the reference blood lead level (N=3127). Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88, and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5 μg/dL, 5-10 μg/dL, and >10 μg/dL, respectively when compared with children having less than 2 μg/dL blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 μg/dL, and >10 μg/dL levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14, and 1.91, respectively for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels and increasing numbers of carious teeth in children 24 to72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  12. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations. PMID:22580791

  13. Lead concentration and the level of glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, reductase and peroxidase in the blood of some occupational workers from Irbid City, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hunaiti, A; Soud, M; Khalil, A

    1995-08-18

    Blood samples were collected from 263 lead-exposed suspected males living in Irbid area in the northern part of Jordan. The blood lead concentrations in the samples were determined by atomic absorption and were related to the type of work performed by the workers. The blood lead concentration was higher in metal casters, 41.6, and radiator welders, 32,8 micrograms/dl, compared to non-suspected lead-exposed university students, 5.7 micrograms/dl. Workers such as mechanics, bus drivers, car painters and gas station workers showed slightly higher but not significant blood lead. The blood glutathione content and the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase were also determined in non-suspected subjects and in those with occupational exposure to lead. With increasing blood lead concentration, glutathione content decreases as well as the activities of the glutathione utilizing enzymes. PMID:7569882

  14. Prioritization of Biomarker Targets in Human Umbilical Cord Blood: Identification of Proteins in Infant Blood Serving as Validated Biomarkers in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hansmeier, Nicole; Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Goldman, Lynn R.; Witter, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis represents one of the best lines of defense in the fight against a wide array of human diseases. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is one of the first easily available diagnostic biofluids and can inform about the health status of newborns. However, compared with adult blood, its diagnostic potential remains largely untapped. Objectives: Our goal was to accelerate biomarker research on UCB by exploring its detectable protein content and providing a priority list of potential biomarkers based on known proteins involved in disease pathways. Methods: We explored cord blood serum proteins by profiling a UCB pool of 12 neonates with different backgrounds using a combination of isoelectric focusing and liquid chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS) and by comparing results with information contained in metabolic and disease databases available for adult blood. Results: A total of 1,210 UCB proteins were identified with a protein-level false discovery rate of ~ 5% as estimated by naïve target-decoy and MAYU approaches, signifying a 6-fold increase in the number of UCB proteins described to date. Identified proteins correspond to 138 different metabolic and disease pathways and provide a platform of mechanistically linked biomarker candidates for tracking disruptions in cellular processes. Moreover, among the identified proteins, 38 were found to be approved biomarkers for adult blood. Conclusions: The results of this study advance current knowledge of the human cord blood serum proteome. They showcase the potential of UCB as a diagnostic medium for assessing infant health by detection and identification of candidate biomarkers for known disease pathways using a global, nontargeted approach. These biomarkers may inform about mechanisms of exposure–disease relationships. Furthermore, biomarkers approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for screening in adult blood were

  15. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  16. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 0–6 Years Old in Hunan Province, China from 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Kewei; Wu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Zhenghui; Lu, Xiulan; Zhu, Yimin; Zuo, Chao; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to describe blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children aged 0–6 years old and to analyze the BLL trend in children from 2009 to 2013 in China. Methods A total of 124,376 children aged 0–6 years old were recruited for this study from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2013. Their blood lead levels were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The median BLL was 64.3 μg/L (IQR: 49.6–81.0), and the range was 4.3–799.0 μg/L. Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (66.0 μg/L) than in girls (61.9 μg/L) (P<0.001). The overall prevalence of BLLs≥100 μg/L was 10.54% in children aged 0–6 years in Hunan Province. Between 2009 and 2013, the prevalence of EBLLs (≥100 μg/L) decreased from 18.31% to 4.26% in children aged 0–6 years and increased with age. The prevalence of EBLLs has dramatically decreased in two stages (2009–2010 and 2012–2013), with a slight fluctuation in 2010 and 2011. Conclusions Both BLLs and the prevalence of EBLLs in children aged 0–6 years old declined substantially from 2009 to 2013 in Hunan Province; however, both remain at unacceptably high levels compared to developed countries. Comprehensive strategies are required to further reduce blood lead levels in children. PMID:25830596

  17. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  18. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-04-01

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among children aged 1-5 and 6-11 years and smoker and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. Regression models with log10 transformed values of BLLs as dependent variable were fitted to evaluate how gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home affect BLLs. Irrespective of age, gender, and race/ethnicity, BLLs declined over the study period (p ≤ 0.01). Overall, adjusted BLLs declined by 0.00114 μg/dL for every 2 years. Children aged 1-5 years had about 50 % higher BLLs than smoker adolescents, about 75 % higher BLLs than nonsmoker adolescents, and about 45 % higher BLLs than children aged 6-11 years. While overall, children aged 1-5 years with BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL made up 3.24 %, 7.8 % non-Hispanic Black children aged 1-5 years had BLL ≥ 5 μg/dL. Males were found to have higher adjusted BLLs than females, and non-Hispanic Blacks were found to have higher adjusted BLLs than non-Hispanic Whites. Higher poverty income ratio was associated with lower adjusted BLLs (β = -0.02916, p < 0.01). Children living in owner-occupied homes had lower adjusted BLLs than children living in renter-occupied homes. BLLs increased with increase in number of smokers smoking inside the home (β = 0.02496, p = 0.02). In conclusion, while BLLs have declined for all age groups, genders, and races/ethnicities, certain races/ethnicities like non-Hispanic Blacks continue to have substantially higher BLLs than non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:26758308

  19. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Clinically, adult with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not been reported previously. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults people with ID can be influenced positively from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program, the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre-to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19089748

  20. Blood parameters in adults with intellectual disability at rest and after endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, adults with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not previously been reported. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults with ID can be positively influenced from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from 43 to 55 years were included in the study. The subjects (n = 22) exercised on a treadmill for 30-40 min/d for 4 day/wk/4 wks. Blood samples were drawn at rest and immediately after the last exercise training. Plasma concentration of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), glutamine, and uric acid (UA) as biomarkers of muscle stress were measured. The results indicate that following the exercise program the plasma glutamine and UA increased significantly (p < 0.05) from pre- to post-training levels, whereas CK isoenzyme and Mb levels showed no changes. In conclusion, 4 weeks of endurance training increased concentration of plasma glutamine and UA, which might be useful in the monitoring of training responses in adults with ID. PMID:19479628

  1. Diurnal blood pressure pattern and development of prehypertension or hypertension in young adults: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Anthony J.; Zhu, Sha; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Shimbo, Daichi; Person, Sharina D.; Jacobs, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Nondippers (people whose sleep systolic blood pressure (SBP) fails to decrease >10% from daytime SBP) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of nondipping in younger adults has not been well-studied, nor has its value for predicting hypertension. We examined the prevalence of nondipping in a sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) conferred by nondipping for incident prehypertension or hypertension (preHTN/HTN) over 15 years. Of the 264 non-hypertensive participants at baseline, 118 (45%) were nondippers. Blacks were more likely than Whites to be nondippers (52% vs 33%, p=0.004). The incidence rate of preHTN/HTN was 29.2/1000 person-years among dippers and 36.2/1000 person-years among nondippers. Compared to those in the lowest quartile of nighttime to daytime SBP, those in the highest quartile were more likely to develop preHTN/HTN (HR 1.61; p =0.06), but this relationship was attenuated after adjustment (HR 1.34; p =0.27). Our results demonstrate that nondipping is common in young, nonhypertensive adults, and is more common in Blacks than Whites. Nondipping might predate a meaningful clinically detected increase in BP in some people, but more research in larger study samples is needed. PMID:21269909

  2. Hierarchical inorganic-organic multi-shell nanospheres for intervention and treatment of lead-contaminated blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairy, Mohamed; El-Safty, Sherif A.; Shenashen, Mohamed. A.; Elshehy, Emad A.

    2013-08-01

    The highly toxic properties, bioavailability, and adverse effects of Pb2+ species on the environment and living organisms necessitate periodic monitoring and removal whenever possible of Pb2+ concentrations in the environment. In this study, we designed a novel optical multi-shell nanosphere sensor that enables selective recognition, unrestrained accessibility, continuous monitoring, and efficient removal (on the order of minutes) of Pb2+ ions from water and human blood, i.e., red blood cells (RBCs). The consequent decoration of the mesoporous core/double-shell silica nanospheres through a chemically responsive azo-chromophore with a long hydrophobic tail enabled us to create a unique hierarchical multi-shell sensor. We examined the efficiency of the multi-shell sensor in removing lead ions from the blood to ascertain the potential use of the sensor in medical applications. The lead-induced hemolysis of RBCs in the sensing/capture assay was inhibited by the ability of the hierarchical sensor to remove lead ions from blood. The results suggest the higher flux and diffusion of Pb2+ ions into the mesopores of the core/multi-shell sensor than into the RBC membranes. These findings indicate that the sensor could be used in the prevention of health risks associated with elevated blood lead levels such as anemia.The highly toxic properties, bioavailability, and adverse effects of Pb2+ species on the environment and living organisms necessitate periodic monitoring and removal whenever possible of Pb2+ concentrations in the environment. In this study, we designed a novel optical multi-shell nanosphere sensor that enables selective recognition, unrestrained accessibility, continuous monitoring, and efficient removal (on the order of minutes) of Pb2+ ions from water and human blood, i.e., red blood cells (RBCs). The consequent decoration of the mesoporous core/double-shell silica nanospheres through a chemically responsive azo-chromophore with a long hydrophobic tail enabled

  3. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun

    2014-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation. PMID:25546666

  4. [Blood pressure levels of Suruí indigenous adults in Rondônia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Felipe Guimarães; Coimbra Junior, Carlos Everaldo Alvares; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira

    2013-05-01

    Indigenous peoples in Brazil are experiencing rapid epidemiologic and nutritional transition, with non-communicable diseases such as hypertension emerging in their health profile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9 Suruí Indian villages (n-251 subjects) in Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon, in 2005, in order to assess blood pressure levels in adults (>20 years of age), as well as to investigate its possible relationship with nutritional and socioeconomic status (SES). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher in men. On average, an increase in SBP of 7.9 mmHg and of 1.4 mmHg in women and men, respectively, was detected. SBP was positively correlated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) in both sexes and with age in women. DBP showed statistically significant correlations with all anthropometric variables, except height and arm muscle area. The prevalence of hypertension was 2.8% (M: 2.4%, F: 3.1%), being higher in subjects > 40 years with PC or high WHR, especially in women and also in the group that manifested lower SES. The study concludes that hypertension is an emerging health problem among the Suruí. PMID:23670468

  5. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Mi; Chung, Jin-Young; An, Hyun Sook; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Bae, Jong Woon; Han, Myoungseok; Cho, Yeon Jean; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. PMID:26516876

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels. PMID:26896114

  7. COMPLIANCE STATUS DOES NOT EFFECT CHANGES IN CHILDREN'S BLOOD LEAD LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Childhood lead poisoning is a well-recognized health concern. Lead-based paint in homes poses a particular risk for children, and protecting children from lead hazards remains an urgent public health need. This study sought to examine the housing factors affecting lon...

  8. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  9. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme activity in blood, brain, and liver of lead-dosed ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Finley, M.T.

    1979-01-01

    Mallard ducks were dosed with a single shotgun pellet (ca. 200 mg lead). After 1 month there was about 1 ppm lead in blood, 2.5 in liver, and 0.5 in brain. Lead-induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme in blood and cerebellum was much greater than in cerebral hemisphere or liver and was strongly correlated with the lead concentration in these tissues. The cerebellar portion of the brain was more sensitive to delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme inhibition by lead than were the other tissues examined. There was also a greater increase in the glial cell marker enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase, in cerebellum than in cerebral hemisphere, suggesting that nonregenerating neuronal cells were destroyed by lead and replaced by glial cells in that portion of the brain. Even partial loss of cerebellar tissue is severely debilitating in waterfowl, because functions critical to survival such as visual, auditory, motor, and reflex responses are integrated at this brain center.

  10. Cost Implications of Improving Blood Pressure Management among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Aledort, Julia E; Adams, John; Lai, Julie; Go, Myong-Hyun; Keesey, Joan; McGlynn, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the cost-effectiveness of improving blood pressure management from the payer perspective. Data Source/Study Setting Medical record data for 4,500 U.S. adults with hypertension from the Community Quality Index (CQI) study (1996–2002), pharmaceutical claims from four Massachusetts health plans (2004–2006), Medicare fee schedule (2009), and published literature. Study Design A probability tree depicted blood pressure management over 2 years. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We determined how frequently CQI study subjects received recommended care processes and attained accepted treatment goals, estimated utilization of visits and medications associated with recommended care, assigned costs based on utilization, and then modeled how hospitalization rates, costs, and goal attainment would change if all recommended care was provided. Principal Findings Relative to current care, improved care would cost payers U.S.$170 more per hypertensive person annually (2009 dollars). The incremental cost per person newly attaining treatment goals over 2 years would be U.S.$1,696 overall, U.S.$801 for moderate hypertension, and U.S.$850 for severe hypertension. Among people with severe hypertension, blood pressure would decline substantially but seldom reach goal; the incremental cost per person attaining a relaxed goal (≤stage 1) would be U.S.$185. Conclusions Under the Health Care Effectiveness Data and Information Set program, which monitors the attainment of blood pressure treatment goals, payers will find it slightly more cost-effective to improve care for moderate than severe hypertension. Having a secondary, relaxed goal would substantially increase payers' incentive to improve care for severe hypertension. PMID:21306365

  11. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  12. The Effects of a Hypocaloric Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Blood Hormone Response in Healthy Male Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shunsuke; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss and management. Consumption of food and nutrients stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), as well as pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone secretion that may regulate energy metabolism. Yet, little is known about the impact of hypocaloric diets on energy metabolism-related parameters. In this study, we assessed the effects of hypocaloric diets on hormonal variance in relation to DIT in healthy adults. Ten healthy male adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study comprising three meal trials. Each subject was given a meal of 200 (extremely hypocaloric), 400 (moderately hypocaloric), or 800 kcal (normocaloric). Postprandial blood variables and energy expenditure were measured for 4 h (after the 200- and 400-kcal meals) or 6 h (after the 800-kcal meal). DIT and postprandial changes in blood pancreatic peptide and ghrelin were significantly smaller after the extremely or moderately hypocaloric diet than after the normocaloric diet but were similar between the hypocaloric diets. Postprandial blood insulin, amylin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide type-1 (GLP-1) increased in a calorie-dependent manner. Thermogenic efficiency (DIT per energy intake) was negatively correlated with the maximum blood level (Cmax) (p=0.01) and incremental area under the curve (p=0.01) of the blood GIP response. Calorie restriction thus leads to hormonal responses and lower DIT in healthy adults. Extreme calorie restriction, however, led to greater thermogenic efficiency compared with moderate calorie restriction. The postprandial GIP response may be a good predictor of postprandial thermogenic efficiency. PMID:27117850

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion. Nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Pasman, Suzanne A.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2008-07-01

    Recently, we derived equations relating the flow of adult red blood cells through a placental arterio-venous anastomosis with intra-uterine and post-natal measured adult hemoglobin concentrations. In this letter, we re-derived the equations, now including a more realistic nonlinear decay of adult red blood cells, and re-evaluated the measurement accuracy of the arterio-venous flow and the lifetime of the red blood cells.

  14. Observational study of erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening test for detecting low lead exposure in children: Impact of lowering the blood lead action threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. )

    1991-02-01

    We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.

  15. Indices of potential lead hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Posner, H S

    1977-01-01

    This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

  16. Childhood to Early-Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectories: Early-Life Predictors, Effect Modifiers, and Adult Cardiovascular Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Reremoana F; Broadbent, Jonathan; Nagin, Daniel; Ambler, Antony; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Cutfield, Wayne; Williams, Michael J A; Harrington, HonaLee; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Milne, Barry; Poulton, Richie

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modeled an average population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of developing adult hypertension early in life can inform effective risk reduction efforts. We sought to identify different systolic blood pressure trajectories from childhood, their correlated risk factors, and early-midlife cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure data at ages 7, 11, 18, 26, 32, and 38 years from a longitudinal, representative birth cohort study (n=975) were used to identify 4 distinct trajectory groups via group-based trajectory modeling: normal (21.8%), high-normal (43.3%), prehypertensive (31.6%), and hypertensive (4.2%). The categories refer to blood pressure beginning at the age of 7 years and most recently measured at the age of 38 years. Family history of high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR], 43.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.27-354.65), male sex (OR, 109.48; 95% CI, 26.82-446.96), being first born (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.00-8.69) and low birth weight (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.49-3.09) were associated with hypertensive group membership (compared with the normal group). Higher body mass index and cigarette smoking resulted in increasing blood pressure across trajectories, particularly for the higher blood pressure groups. Prehypertensive and hypertensive trajectory groups had worse cardiovascular outcomes by early midlife. Harmful blood pressure trajectories are identifiable in childhood, associated with both antecedent and modifiable risk factors over time, and predict adult cardiovascular disease risk. Early detection and subsequent targeted prevention and intervention may reduce the lifecourse burden associated with higher blood pressure. PMID:26558818

  17. Blood zinc protoporphyrin, serum total protein, and total cholesterol levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity: Our experience.

    PubMed

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Varghese, Earaly Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), serum total protein (TP), and total cholesterol (TC) levels in automobile workshop workers in relation to lead toxicity were analysed. In the present study, automobile workshop workers (healthy male workers at an age between 28 and 35 from four major automobile workshops in Kottayam, Kerala State, India) and the control (male healthy adults at an age between 28 and 35 residing at Aymanam, a distant village at Kottayam District, Kerala having reduced or no chance of lead exposure) displayed significant difference in blood lead (BPb) and blood ZZP (BZPP) level. The mean value of BPb in automobile workshop workers was 15.76±0.33 μg/dl, while in the control it was 8.20±0.15 μg/dl. In automobile workshop workers, the mean value of BZPP was 34.2±0.62 μg/dl. The control group exhibited a mean of 11.5±0.22 μg/dl. Automobile workshop workers exhibited significant increase in BZPP was corresponding to the increase in BPb level. The total protein levels estimated in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to control individuals, but was within the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean value of TP level in automobile workshop workers and control was 6.9±0.13 g/dl and 7.71±0.18 g/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference in blood haemoglobin (BHb) level among the automobile workshop workers and control. The serum TC level in automobile workshop workers showed significant decrease compared to the control individuals, but was with in the reference range of healthy individuals. The mean level of serum TC in automobile workshop workers was 162.00±3.44 mg/dl and the same in control was 172.86±4.32 mg/dl. The present study affirms occupational lead toxicity in automobile workshop workers and its effect on serum protein and cholesterol levels. PMID:23105626

  18. Delta-aminolevulinic Acid dehydratase genotype and its relationship with blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead-exposed children living in a smelter community in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mijares, I A; López, P; Rosado, J L; Cebrián, A; Vera-Aguilar, E; Alatorre, J; Quintanilla-Vega, M B; García, A E Rojas; Stoltzfus, R J; Cebrián, M E; García-Vargas, G G

    2006-01-01

    The implications of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism for lead kinetics and toxicity have been mainly studied in occupationally exposed adults. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the distribution of ALAD genotype and its association with biomarkers of exposure (PbB levels) and effect (Blood ZPP) among children living in a smelter community in Mexico. We recruited 569 children from nine elementary schools close to a smelter site. PbB was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based protocol was used for ALAD genotyping. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in blood was measured by direct fluorometry. Most children (93.15%) were homozygous for ALAD (1-1), 6.67% were heterozygous for ALAD for (1-2), and one child was homozygous for ALAD (2-2). There was an increased proportion of ALAD (1-2/2-2) genotype with respect to PbB levels. The ZPP geometric mean was slightly higher in ALAD (1-1) genotype children (63.48 mu mol ZPP/mol Hb) than in those having the ALAD-2 genotype (58.22 mu mol ZPP/mol Hb; p = 0.051). Linear and quadratic models showed significant relationships between ZPP and PbB. A significant increase in the odds ratio (OR) for the effect of lead exposure on ZPP levels was observed for ALAD (1-1) children having PbB values above 20 mu g/dL, as compared to those having PbB levels below 10 mu g/dL (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.45-5.97; p = 0.003), whereas no significant increases were observed for the ALAD (1-2/2-2) children. In summary, our results suggest that heme biosynthesis was less affected in ALAD (1-2/2-2) lead-exposed children than in those carrying the ALAD (1-1) genotype. PMID:20021040

  19. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France

    PubMed Central

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The decline in children’s Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008–2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child’s address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead