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Sample records for adult body composition

  1. Early childhood predictors of adult body composition.

    PubMed

    Druet, Céline; Ong, Ken K

    2008-06-01

    Intra-uterine life has been identified as a possible critical period for the development of obesity risk in both adults and children; others have highlighted the importance of growth and nutrition in the first few years. It is suggested that fetal growth, as assessed by birth weight, may programme lean body mass later in life. Children who are born small for gestational age also have a predisposition to accumulating fat mass, particularly intra-abdominal fat. It is not yet clear whether this predisposition is due to their prenatal growth restraint, their rapid postnatal catch-up growth or a combination of both. Recently, genetic and heritable factors have been shown to contribute to both rapid postnatal growth and childhood obesity risk in children and adults. Future studies should explore their timing of action and potential interactions with markers of antenatal growth restraint.

  2. Determination of body composition in conscious adult female Wistar utilising total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K; North, T J; Telford, G; Smith, S; Brammer, R; Jones, R B; Heal, D J

    2001-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions of the TOBEC analyser have always used anaesthesia to minimise movement artefacts. As repeated anaesthesia also has the potential to induce artefacts by disrupting food intake, for example, we have also attempted to determine if this TOBEC analyser can be used to predict body composition in conscious adult weight-stable female Wistar rats. A simplified cafeteria diet was used to produce large variations in body composition (40-350 g fat/carcass) and a full chemical body composition analysis was performed to generate a TOBEC calibration equation. The TOBEC parameter was more strongly correlated to FFM (r(2)=.785) than it was to body weight (r(2)=.669) or other body composition parameters. Using the TOBEC calibration equation to predict fat mass on these data, there was an excellent correlation with the value obtained by chemical analyses (r(2)=.952, slope=0.958). To determine if the TOBEC calibration equation derived from this calibration study would then be useful for the routine estimation of body composition an additional, validation study was performed. This validation study was performed 6 months later, used an independent group of obese female Wistar rats and was undertaken by different TOBEC operators. This validation study, again, showed a good correlation between the TOBEC- and chemical-derived fat mass (r(2)=.918, slope=1.003) indicating stability of the calibration equation with time and independence from operator. We therefore conclude that it is possible to meaningfully estimate body fat changes in conscious rats using this TOBEC analysis system.

  3. Reference values for body proportions and body composition in adult women with Ullrich-Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gravholt, C H; Weis Naeraa, R

    1997-11-12

    This cross sectional study was undertaken to establish reference values for adult women with Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS) verified cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone during childhood and adolescence, with respect to anthropometric and body composition measurements, for future evaluations of growth promoting therapy. All members of the Danish Turner Association were invited, and 79 women with UTS participated. Forty-two had the 45,X karyotype and the other 37 had different karyotypes. Outcome measures were height, sitting height, arm span, length of hand and foot, biacromial and biiliac diameter, and hip, waist, and head circumference. Bioelectrical impedance was performed, and total body water, lean body mass, and fat mass were calculated. Results give a very distinct anthropometric picture of adult women with the UTS, with a mean height of 146.8+/-6.7 cm (mean+/-SD), sitting height of 78.6+/-3.6 cm, arm span measurements of 147.9+/-7.1 cm, being between 3 and 4 standard deviation scores (SDS) below average; with a mean hand length of 17.0+/-1.1 cm and foot length of 22.4+/-1.2 cm, being around 1.5 SDS below average; a mean weight of 56.3+/-12.8 kg, head circumference of 55.3+/-2.0 cm and biacromial diameter of 36.5+/-2.0 cm, being around 0 SDS; and finally, biiliacal diameter of 29.5+/-2.2 cm, being 1.4 SDS above average. The average body mass index (BMI) in the study was 26.3+/-5.3 kg/m2. As a group, females with UTS are overweight when compared with a group of "normal" women, with a higher fat mass, a lower lean body mass, but with a comparable amount of total body water (in %). This study presents the first comprehensive reference data on body proportions in the adult UTS. It shows that adult women with the Ullrich-Turner syndrome has a characteristic anthropometric shape. The data should be of use for future evaluations of growth hormone treatment or other growth promoting therapy in the UTS on anthropometric and body

  4. Body Composition and Anthropometric Correlates of Isokinetic Leg Extension Strength of Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Thorland, William G.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of body size and composition as determinants of differences in isokinetic leg extensor strength in young adult males performing at slow, moderate, and fast speeds. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  5. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  6. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Jerry L.

    1981-01-01

    Body composition refers to the types and amounts of tissues which make up the body. The most acceptable method for assessing body composition is underwater weighing. A subcutaneous skinfold provides a quantitative measurement of fat below the skin. The skinfold technique permits a valid estimate of the body's total fat content. (JN)

  8. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  9. Sex impacts the relation between body composition and physical function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Rudy J.; Misic, Mark M.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the sex-specific relationships between physical activity, aerobic fitness, adiposity (%Fat), mineral-free lean mass (MFLM) and balance and gait performance in older adults. Design Eighty-five female and 49 male sedentary, healthy, community-dwelling older adults (M±SD; 69.6±5.4 and 70.3±4.7 years, respectively) were evaluated on habitual physical activity via questionnaire, aerobic fitness by a maximal oxygen consumption treadmill test, whole and regional body composition by DXA, and lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) using gait tasks and computerized dynamic posturography. Results As expected, males had less body fat, more lean mass and higher aerobic fitness than females, and tended to perform better on all LEPF tasks (all p≤0.1). Physical activity was not related to gait; however, fitness was related to gait in both sexes (r>0.50, all p<0.05). Body fat was related to gait in women (r=−0.38, p<0.05) but not men. Neither fitness nor body composition was related to balance in men, whereas in women leg MFLM was positively associated (r=0.27, p<0.05). Women, but not men, with a greater body weight to leg MFLM ratio performed worse on gait tasks (p<0.001). There was an interaction with sex for %Fat on gait (p=0.05), and for MFLMLEG on balance (p<0.05). Conclusions In sedentary healthy older adults the relation between body composition, aerobic fitness and balance and gait differs between sexes such that women are more strongly impacted by alterations in body composition. Lower %Fat and preservation of lower body lean mass have important implications for reducing the risk of physical disability, especially in older women. PMID:19423997

  10. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise Interventions on Body Composition in HIV+ Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leach, L.L; Bassett, S.H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B.S; Travill, A.L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26587075

  11. Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a review.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Goran, Michael I; McCrory, Megan A

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory-based body-composition techniques include hydrostatic weighing (HW), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measurement of total body water (TBW) by isotope dilution, measurement of total body potassium, and multicompartment models. Although these reference methods are used routinely, each has inherent practical limitations. Whole-body air-displacement plethysmography is a new practical alternative to these more traditional body-composition methods. We reviewed the principal findings from studies published between December 1995 and August 2001 that compared the BOD POD method (Life Measurement, Inc, Concord, CA) with reference methods and summarized factors contributing to the different study findings. The average of the study means indicates that the BOD POD and HW agree within 1% body fat (BF) for adults and children, whereas the BOD POD and DXA agree within 1% BF for adults and 2% BF for children. Few studies have compared the BOD POD with multicompartment models; those that have suggest a similar average underestimation of approximate 2-3% BF by both the BOD POD and HW. Individual variations between 2-compartment models compared with DXA and 4 -compartment models are partly attributable to deviations from the assumed chemical composition of the body. Wide variations among study means, -4.0% to 1.9% BF for BOD POD - HW and -3.0% to 1.7% BF for BOD POD - DXA, are likely due in part to differences in laboratory equipment, study design, and subject characteristics and in some cases to failure to follow the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Wide intersubject variations between methods are partly attributed to technical precision and biological error but to a large extent remain unexplained. On the basis of this review, future research goals are suggested.

  12. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p < 0.01). [Formula: see text]O2max was significantly improved in both genders (males: pre: 30.63 ± 2.06 vs. post: 33.19 ± 1.77 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), females: pre: 25.93 ± 1.01 vs. post: 29.51 ± 1.06 ml(.)kg(-1) min(-1), p < 0.01). A significant correlation was found between the change in [Formula: see text]O2max and the change in body weight and BMI (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the relative change in [Formula: see text]O2max explained approximately 26% of the variance in the changes for both BMI (p = 0.07) and body weight (p = 0.06). A treatment of exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  13. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  14. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  15. Field assessments for obesity prevention in children and adults: physical activity, fitness, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Spears, Karen; Idris, Rafida; Dyrek, Anthony; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas.

  16. Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (β 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (β 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (β 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (β 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

  17. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  18. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species. PMID:22005403

  19. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species.

  20. The Association of Physical Activity during Weekdays and Weekend with Body Composition in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185

  1. Footprint-based estimates of arch structure are confounded by body composition in adults.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Grigg, Nicole L; Lau, Hin C; Smeathers, James E

    2012-08-01

    Previous research employing indirect measures of arch structure, such as those derived from footprints, have indicated that obesity results in a "flatter" foot type. In the absence of radiographic measures, however, definitive conclusions regarding the osseous alignment of the foot cannot be made. We determined the effect of body mass index (BMI) on radiographic and footprint-based measures of arch structure. The research was a cross-sectional study in which radiographic and footprint-based measures of foot structure were made in 30 subjects (10 males, 20 female) in addition to standard anthropometric measures of height, weight, and BMI. Multiple (univariate) regression analysis demonstrated that both BMI (β = 0.39, t(26) = 2.12, p = 0.04) and radiographic arch alignment (β = 0.51, t(26) = 3.32, p < 0.01) were significant predictors of footprint-based measures of arch height after controlling for all variables in the model (R(2) = 0.59, F(3,26) = 12.3, p < 0.01). In contrast, radiographic arch alignment was not significantly associated with BMI (β = -0.03, t(26) = -0.13, p = 0.89) when Arch Index and age were held constant (R(2) = 0.52, F(3,26) = 9.3, p < 0.01). Adult obesity does not influence osseous alignment of the medial longitudinal arch, but selectively distorts footprint-based measures of arch structure. Footprint-based measures of arch structure should be interpreted with caution when comparing groups of varying body composition.

  2. Ultrasonic assessment of body composition in obese adults: overcoming the limitations of the skinfold caliper.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, R J; Fanelli, M T; Koch, G G

    1987-04-01

    Previous research in this laboratory, using relatively lean males, indicated that the skinfold caliper and ultrasound techniques gave similar predictions of body density. The present study compared caliper with ultrasound measurements in predicting body density of 44 white, obese, free-living adult volunteers of both sexes. Subcutaneous-fat thickness was measured at six body sites with a Lange caliper and an ADR 2130 ultrasound scanner. By hydrostatic weighing, mean (+/- SD) body density was 1.01 g/mL (+/- 0.02) and percentage body fat, 41.7% (+/- 7.8). The best predictors of body density were the thigh and biceps sites with ultrasound (r = 0.820) and the triceps site with the calipers (r = 0.633). Further, ultrasound proved to be superior to the caliper technique in measuring subcutaneous fat of obese persons.

  3. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-09-07

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.

  4. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  5. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  6. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    PubMed Central

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C.; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI≥40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r≥0.95,P<0.001 for FFM, FM and BF), but Bland-Altman analyses revealed significant bias (P<0.01 for all). ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P<0.01 for all). BMI explained 27% of the variance in differences between FFM measurements (P<0.001), and 37% and 33% of the variances in differences between FM and BF measurements, respectively (P<0.001 for both). Within normal weight and overweight classifications, ADP estimated greater FFM and lower FM and BF (P<0.001 for all), but the opposite occurred within the extremely obese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (P<0.05 for all). Conclusions Body composition analyses by the two technologies were strongly congruent, but systematically different and influenced by BMI. Caution should be taken when utilizing ADP to estimate body composition parameters over a wide range of BMI classifications that include extremely obese. PMID:24170704

  7. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition.

  8. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  9. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  10. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  11. Direct profiling of the phospholipid composition of adult Caenorhabditis elegans using whole-body imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Saira; Ikegami, Koji; Sugiyama, Eiji; Matsushita, Shoko; Kimura, Yoshishige; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Sugiura, Yuki; Masaki, Noritaka; Waki, Michihiko; Ohta, Isao; Hossen, Md Amir; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-10-01

    A protocol for the direct analysis of the phospholipid composition in the whole body of adult soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), was developed, which combined freeze-cracking of the exoskeletal cuticle and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). Biomolecules in the m/z range from 700 to 900 were more effectively detected in the freeze-cracked than from simple frozen adult nematode bodies. Different distribution of biomolecules was observed in a nematode body when the matrix was applied with a sublimation deposition method. The whole-body IMS technique was applied on genetically deficient mutant C. elegans to combine whole-body lipidomics and genetics, by comparing the fatty acid compositions, especially of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, between the wild-type and fat-1 mutants, which lack the gene encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. A significant reduction of PC(20:5/20:5) and PC(20:4/20:5) and a marked increase of PC(20:4/20:4), PC(20:3/20:4), and PC(20:3/20:3) were detected in the fat-1 mutants in positive ion mode. In addition, phospholipid compositions other than PCs were analyzed in negative ion mode. A loss of a possible phosphatidylinositol (PI) with 18:0/20:5 and a compensative accumulation of putative PI(18:0/20:4) were detected in the fat-1 mutants. In conclusion, the whole-body MALDI-IMS technique is useful for the profiling of multiple biomolecules in C. elegans in both intra- and inter-individual levels.

  12. Biosocial and nutritional effects on body composition in young adults from Wrocław, Poland.

    PubMed

    Bergman, P; Hauser, G

    2006-11-01

    This work concerns the questions if and to what extent social variables past and present, and actual sports activity and nutritional and smoking habits, have an influence on body compartment indices, and how this differs between female and male medical students from Wrocław, Poland. Backward stepwise regression was applied to four dependent variables, i.e. Body Mass Index (BMI), %Fat Mass (%FM), Extracellular Water/Intracellular Water Index (100 x ECW/ICW) and Body Cell Mass Index (BCMI=BCM/height2), and for eighteen independent variables including nutrition, parents' social status, smoking and sports activity. Females ate meat less frequently and fruit and vegetables more often, and drank beer less frequently but milk more often than did male students. It seems that there exists some effect on fat accumulation resulting from difference in nutrition between females and males. The results may be interpreted in terms of a parental gender effect on body composition of children associated with different conditions of life and nutrition in childhood and youth for female and male students in Wrocław. PMID:17029660

  13. Assessment of adult body composition using bioelectrical impedance: comparison of researcher calculated to machine outputted values

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Villoria, Maria; Wright, Charlotte M; McColl, John H; Sherriff, Andrea; Pearce, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the usefulness of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) for general use by identifying best-evidenced formulae to calculate lean and fat mass, comparing these to historical gold standard data and comparing these results with machine-generated output. In addition, we explored how to best to adjust lean and fat estimates for height and how these overlapped with body mass index (BMI). Design Cross-sectional observational study within population representative cohort study. Setting Urban community, North East England Participants Sample of 506 mothers of children aged 7–8 years, mean age 36.3 years. Methods Participants were measured at a home visit using a portable height measure and leg-to-leg BIA machine (Tanita TBF-300MA). Measures Height, weight, bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Outcome measures Lean and fat mass calculated using best-evidenced published formulae as well as machine-calculated lean and fat mass data. Results Estimates of lean mass were similar to historical results using gold standard methods. When compared with the machine-generated values, there were wide limits of agreement for fat mass and a large relative bias for lean that varied with size. Lean and fat residuals adjusted for height differed little from indices of lean (or fat)/height2. Of 112 women with BMI >30 kg/m2, 100 (91%) also had high fat, but of the 16 with low BMI (<19 kg/m2) only 5 (31%) also had low fat. Conclusions Lean and fat mass calculated from BIA using published formulae produces plausible values and demonstrate good concordance between high BMI and high fat, but these differ substantially from the machine-generated values. Bioelectrical impedance can supply a robust and useful field measure of body composition, so long as the machine-generated output is not used. PMID:26743700

  14. Validation of fan beam dual energy x ray absorptiometry for body composition assessment in adults aged 18–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Norcross, J; Van Loan, M D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Pencil beam dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to provide valid estimates of body fat (%BF), but DXA fan beam technology has not been adequately tested to determine its validity. Objective: To compare %BF estimated from fan beam DXA with %BF determined using two and three compartment (2C, 3C) models. Methods: Men (n = 25) and women (n = 31), aged 18–41 years, participated in the study. Body density, from hydrostatic weighing, was used in the 2C estimate of %BF; DXA was used to determine bone mineral content (BMC) for the 3C estimate of %BF calculated using body density and BMC (3CBMC). DXA was also used to determine %BF. Analysis of variance was used to test for significant differences in %BF between sexes and among methods. Results: Women were significantly shorter, weighed less, had less fat free mass, and a higher %BF than men. No significant differences were found among methods (2C, 3CBMC, DXA) for determination of %BF in either sex. Although not significant, Bland-Altman plots showed that DXA gave higher values for %BF than the 2C and 3CBMC methods. Conclusion: DXA determination of %BF was not different from that of the 2C and 3CBMC models in this group of young adults. However, to validate fan beam DXA fully as a method for body composition assessment in a wide range of individuals and populations, comparisons are needed that use a 4C model with a measure of total body water and BMC. PMID:15273189

  15. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001). Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and

  16. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheim, Loanda Maria G; Oliveira, Elisângela A; Arantes, Vanessa C; Veloso, Roberto V; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora B; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena G; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Latorraca, Márcia Q

    2009-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC group. Conclusion Protein

  17. A novel zoometric index for assessing body composition in adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sweet, H; Pearson, A J; Watson, P J; German, A J

    2013-10-19

    Obesity is an emerging problem in domesticated rabbits, and an easy-to-use measure of adipose tissue mass is needed. The current study aimed to develop a zoometric ratio, capable of estimating body condition in rabbits. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and zoometric measures (distal forelimb length, DFL; vertebral length, VL were measured in 150 pet rabbits. Zoometric formulae were created, combining BW with a zoometric measure, and these were tested for their ability to predict adipose tissue mass judged by BCS. Seventy-five (50 per cent) of the rabbits were in ideal condition (BCS 2.5-3.5), 52 (35 per cent) were overweight (BCS>3.5), and 23 (15 per cent) were underweight (BCS<2.5). Median (range) DFL and VL measurements were 12.1 (8.8-16.4 cm) and 34.0 (26.5-50.5 cm), respectively. In rabbits of medium breed size, the BW/DFL ratio was most strongly associated with BCS (Kendall's τ 0.80, P<0.001). Using BW/DFL limits for optimum body condition (eg, minimum 0.16; maximum 0.21), all underweight and overweight rabbits were correctly classified, while only 2/61 (3 per cent) rabbits with an optimum BCS were incorrectly classified as overweight. This study provides preliminary evidence that the BW/DFL might be a useful indirect measure of adipose tissue mass in rabbits of medium breed size. PMID:24078228

  18. A novel zoometric index for assessing body composition in adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sweet, H; Pearson, A J; Watson, P J; German, A J

    2013-10-19

    Obesity is an emerging problem in domesticated rabbits, and an easy-to-use measure of adipose tissue mass is needed. The current study aimed to develop a zoometric ratio, capable of estimating body condition in rabbits. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and zoometric measures (distal forelimb length, DFL; vertebral length, VL were measured in 150 pet rabbits. Zoometric formulae were created, combining BW with a zoometric measure, and these were tested for their ability to predict adipose tissue mass judged by BCS. Seventy-five (50 per cent) of the rabbits were in ideal condition (BCS 2.5-3.5), 52 (35 per cent) were overweight (BCS>3.5), and 23 (15 per cent) were underweight (BCS<2.5). Median (range) DFL and VL measurements were 12.1 (8.8-16.4 cm) and 34.0 (26.5-50.5 cm), respectively. In rabbits of medium breed size, the BW/DFL ratio was most strongly associated with BCS (Kendall's τ 0.80, P<0.001). Using BW/DFL limits for optimum body condition (eg, minimum 0.16; maximum 0.21), all underweight and overweight rabbits were correctly classified, while only 2/61 (3 per cent) rabbits with an optimum BCS were incorrectly classified as overweight. This study provides preliminary evidence that the BW/DFL might be a useful indirect measure of adipose tissue mass in rabbits of medium breed size.

  19. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  20. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  1. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

  2. Body composition in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R N

    2000-05-01

    Health risks in elderly people cannot be evaluated simply in conventional terms of body fatness or fat distribution. Elderly people have less muscle and bone mass, expanded extracellular fluid volumes, and reduced body cell mass compared to younger adults. These nonfat components of body composition play critical roles, influencing cognitive and physical functional status, nutritional and endocrine status, quality of life, and comorbidity in elderly people. Different patterns of "disordered body composition" have different relationships to these outcomes and may require different, tailored approaches to treatment that combine various exercise regimens and dietary supplements with hormone replacement or appetite-stimulating drugs. Skeletal muscle atrophy, or "sarcopenia," is highly prevalent in the elderly population, increases with age, and is strongly associated with disability, independent of morbidity. Elders at greatest risk are those who are simultaneously sarcopenic and obese. The accurate identification of sarcopenic obesity requires precise methods of simultaneously measuring fat and lean components, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

  3. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  4. Beneficial effects of exercise on aerobic capacity and body composition in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K H; Hornak, J E

    1993-05-01

    Adults with Prader Willi syndrome were subdivided into an experimental group (n = 6) and a control group (n = 5) to determine the effects of an aerobic exercise program. Their resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, body weight, and somatotype were determined. Participants in a 6-month walking program showed statistically significant differences in all variables measuring aerobic capacity and a significant variation in weight loss over the 6-month program compared to the control group.

  5. Effect of placental restriction and neonatal exendin-4 treatment on postnatal growth, adult body composition, and in vivo glucose metabolism in the sheep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Schultz, Christopher G.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Peura, Anita M.; Heinemann, Gary K.; Harryanto, Himawan; Hunter, Damien S.; Wooldridge, Amy L.; Kind, Karen L.; Giles, Lynne C.; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Neonatal exendin-4 treatment can prevent diabetes in the IUGR rat, but whether this will be effective in a species where the pancreas is more mature at birth is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration after experimental restriction of placental and fetal growth on growth and adult metabolic outcomes in sheep. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in singleton-born adult sheep from control (CON; n = 6 females and 4 males) and placentally restricted pregnancies (PR; n = 13 females and 7 males) and in sheep from PR pregnancies that were treated with exendin-4 as neonates (daily sc injections of 1 nmol/kg exendin-4; PR + exendin-4; n = 11 females and 7 males). Placental restriction reduced birth weight (by 29%) and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult but did not affect adult adiposity, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Neonatal exendin-4 suppressed growth during treatment, followed by delayed catchup growth and unchanged adult adiposity. Neonatal exendin-4 partially restored glucose tolerance in PR progeny but did not affect insulin secretion or sensitivity. Although the effects on glucose tolerance are promising, the lack of effects on adult body composition, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity suggest that the neonatal period may be too late to fully reprogram the metabolic consequences of IUGR in species that are more mature at birth than rodents. PMID:26219868

  6. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Kathryn H.; Hornak, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Six adults with Prader Willi syndrome who participated in a six-month walking program showed significant differences in resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, and weight loss, compared to a control group of five nonparticipants. (Author/JDD)

  7. Effect of clothing type on body composition in adults across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP, using Bod Pod, is a popular method to assess body composition. For valid results, however, the manufacturer warrants tight-fitting clothing (swimsuit or spandex), which may be uncomfortable or impractical for overweight (O) and obese (OB) persons or those with negative body image. This study c...

  8. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete’s Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete’s eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete’s eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  9. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  10. Legacy effects of short-term intentional weight loss on total body and thigh composition in overweight and obese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chmelo, E A; Beavers, D P; Lyles, M F; Marsh, A P; Nicklas, B J; Beavers, K M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Weight regain following intentional weight loss may negatively impact body composition, accelerating fat regain and increasing risk of physical disability. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term changes in whole body and thigh composition in obese older adults who intentionally lost and then partially regained weight to obese older adults who remained weight stable. Subjects/Methods: This pilot study analyzed total body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and thigh (computed tomography (CT)) composition data collected from 24 older (65–79 years) adults 18 months after completion of a 5-month randomized trial that compared resistance training alone (RT) with RT plus caloric restriction (RT+CR). Results: Mean loss of body mass in the RT+CR group (n=13) was 7.1±2.4 kg during the 5-month intervention (74% fat mass; 26% lean mass; all P<0.01), whereas RT (n=11) remained weight stable (+0.3±1.8 kg; P=0.64). Differential group effects were observed for all DXA and CT body composition measures at 5 months (all P⩽0.01); however, by 23 months, group differences persisted only for total body (RT+CR: 81.6±10.0 kg vs RT: 88.5±14.9 kg; P=0.03) and lean (RT+CR: 50.8±9.3 kg vs RT: 54.4±12.0 kg; P<0.01) mass. All RT+CR participants regained weight from 5 to 23 months (mean gain=+4.8±2.6 kg; P<0.01). Total fat mass and all thigh fat volumes increased, whereas thigh muscle volume decreased, during the postintervention follow-up in RT+CR (all P⩽0.01). In the RT group, body mass did not change from 5 to 23 months (−0.2±0.9 kg; P=0.87). Decreased total thigh volume, driven by the loss of thigh muscle volume, were the only postintervention body composition changes observed in the RT group (both P<0.04). Conclusions: Short-term body composition benefits of an RT+CR intervention may be lost within 18 months after completion of the intervention. PMID:27043417

  11. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  12. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  13. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  14. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  15. Measurement of Body Composition in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Identification and treatment of obesity in children is believed to be an important factor in its control during the adult years. Laboratory and field methods for body composition measurement are described along with estimates of body fat content from anthropometric dimensions. (CJ)

  16. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Ayettey, Rockiy; Petraro, Paul; Treu, Judith A; Katz, David L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their energy density, walnuts can be included in the diet without adverse effects on weight or body composition. The effect of habitual walnut intake on total calorie intake is not well studied. Effects on overall diet quality have not been reported. Methods Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design study with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of the 2 possible sequence permutations to receive a walnut-included diet with 56 g (providing 366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants were assessed for diet quality, body composition, and cardiac risk measures. Results When compared with a walnut-excluded diet, a walnut-included diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (9.14±17.71 vs 0.40±15.13; p=0.02 and 7.02±15.89 vs -5.92±21.84; p=0.001, respectively). Endothelial function, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol improved significantly from baseline in the walnut-included diet. Body mass index, percent body fat, visceral fat, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and blood pressure did not change significantly. Conclusions The inclusion of walnuts in an ad libitum diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake, significantly improved diet quality, endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol, but had no effects on anthropometric measures, blood glucose level, and blood pressure. Trial registration number: NCT02330848 PMID:26688734

  17. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  18. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  19. Body Composition Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... more bone and muscle will weigh more in water than a person with less bone and muscle. The volume of the body is calculated and body density and body fat percentage are calculated. This technique ...

  20. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics.

  1. Body Composition Tools for Assessment of Adult Malnutrition at the Bedside: A Tutorial on Research Considerations and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Earthman, Carrie P

    2015-09-01

    Because of the key role played by the body's lean tissue reserves (of which skeletal muscle is a major component) in the response to injury and illness, its maintenance is of central importance to nutrition status. With the recent development of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition diagnostic framework for malnutrition, the loss of muscle mass has been recognized as one of the defining criteria. Objective methods to evaluate muscle loss in individuals with acute and chronic illness are needed. Bioimpedance and ultrasound techniques are currently the best options for the clinical setting; however, additional research is needed to investigate how best to optimize measurements and minimize error and to establish if these techniques (and which specific approaches) can uniquely contribute to the assessment of malnutrition, beyond more subjective evaluation methods. In this tutorial, key concepts and statistical methods used in the validation of bedside methods to assess lean tissue compartments are discussed. Body composition assessment methods that are most widely available for practice and research in the clinical setting are presented, and clinical cases are used to illustrate how the clinician might use bioimpedance and/or ultrasound as a tool to assess nutrition status at the bedside. Future research needs regarding malnutrition assessment are identified.

  2. Testosterone replacement therapy to improve secondary sexual characteristics and body composition without adverse behavioral problems in adult male patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kido, Yasuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru; Abe, Yoshiko; Oto, Yuji; Itabashi, Hisashi; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshino, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yuriko; Obata, Kazuo; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a complex genetic disorder, arises from suppressed expression of paternally inherited imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. Characteristics include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, hypogonadism, obesity, and reduced bone and muscle mass. Testosterone replacement (TR) remains controversial due to concerns regarding behavioral problems. To evaluate the effects of TR on secondary sexual characteristics, body composition, and behavior in adult males with PWS, 22 male PWS patients over the age of 16 with behavioral scores of less than grade 4 on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) underwent monthly intramuscular TR (125 mg). Pubertal change, body composition and behavior were evaluated before and after 24 months of therapy. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH did not change. Increased pubic hair was observed in 16 of 22 patients (72.7%). Percent body fat decreased from 47.55 ± 2.06% to 39.75 ± 1.60% (n = 18) (P = 0.018). Bone mineral density increased from 0.8505 ± 0.0426 g/cm(2) to 0.9035 ± 0.0465 g/cm(2) (n = 18) (P = 0.036), and lean body mass increased from 18093.4 ± 863.0 g to 20312.1 ± 1027.2 g (n = 18) (P = 0.009). The MOAS was unchanged, from 4.5 ± 2.0 at the beginning of the study to 3.0 ± 1.7 at the end of study indicating no increase in aggression. No behavioral problems were observed. Based on this pilot study, TR with 125 mg monthly is a potentially safe and useful intervention for adult males with PWS.

  3. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  4. Body composition in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice.

  5. Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Fitness in Adults with Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croce, Ronald V.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of an aerobic fitness program and dietary intervention with external control components on three obese adults with severe mental retardation. Results indicated severely retarded adults respond to a program of progressive aerobic exercise and caloric restriction much the same way as nonretarded persons. (Author/DB)

  6. Precursors to overnutrition: the effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane' adults in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rosinger, Asher; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition transitions are characterized by shifts in diet and activity levels that lead to changes in weight and body fatness over a relatively short time. Research has linked these nutritional shifts to socio-economic factors, including wealth and income. However, few studies have examined household spending patterns on market foods among subsistence populations, which may reveal food access, choice, and indicate household nutritional environment. This paper examines the relation between household monetary expenditures on "market" foods and measures of body composition among Tsimane', a forager-horticulturalist indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic and anthropometric surveys were conducted for adults (n = 1199) 16 years or older in 563 households in 40 Tsimane' villages in 2008. Results indicate that overweight status (19% of men and 24% of women) is more common than obesity (1% of men and 4% of women). Sixty-one percent (61%) of households reported purchasing market foods during the previous week. Multiple linear and logistic regressions suggest that men living in households in the top third of monetary expenditures on market foods had significantly higher BMI (0.69 kg/m(2); p = 0.027), weight (1.80 kg; p = 0.048), percent body fat (1.06%; p = 0.025), and probability of being overweight/obese (Odds ratio = 1.83; p = 0.042) than men in households that reported not spending money on market foods in the previous week. We discuss the possibility that the division of labor may help explain the differences between men and women in this sample. This research suggests household expenditures on market foods may mediate the relation between wealth and body composition.

  7. Gonadotropin excretion and body composition.

    PubMed

    Penny, R; Goldstein, I P; Frasier, S D

    1978-02-01

    Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) excretion was correlated with calculated total body water (TBW) and body fat (BF) in 140 normal girls and 142 normal boys, ages 3 to 16 years. In girls, there was a significant increase in gonadotropin excretion at the time of a significant increase in BF as a percent of body weight and decrease in TBW as a percent of body weight. Pubertal changes in body composition were seen in girls at the same chronological age and stage of puberty as increased gonadotropin excretion. Similar findings were observed in boys. Pubertal changes in body composition (an increase in TBW as a percent of body weight and decrease of BF as a percent of body weight) accompanied significantly increased gonadotropin excretion. Both developmental changes were seen at the same chronological age and stage of puberty. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that characteristic changes in body composition as well as the other hallmarks of puberty, including menarche in girls, result from increased gonadotropin and gonadal steroid secretion. They do not support the hypothesis that changes of body composition trigger increased hypothalamic function and hormone secretion leading to the subsequent events of puberty. PMID:634687

  8. The effects of physical activity interventions on preventing weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Harris, L; Hankey, C; Murray, H; Melville, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the literature on randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of physical activity interventions to prevent weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities.A systematic search of Medline, Emabse, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Cochrane library and ERIC was conducted from 1946 to September 2014. Eligibility criteria included; randomized controlled trials of a physical activity intervention: objective measure of body weight and body composition; young adults (age range 16-24 years) with intellectual disabilities. Six studies met the eligibility criteria. The interventions varied in their prescription of physical activity including aerobic and strength-based activities. The mean duration of the interventions was 15.3 (range 10-21 weeks). There was no significant effect of physical activity interventions on body weight (weighted mean difference: -0.17 kg, 95% confidence interval, -1.04 kg to 0.72 kg) and body composition outcomes. The meta-analysis showed that physical activity interventions did not prevent weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities. Published studies are inadequate to form firm conclusions. Future longer term studies of interventions specifically designed for this population group are required to elucidate the effects of physical activity interventions on body composition and the prevention of weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities.

  9. Regional, but not total, body composition changes in overweight and obese adults consuming a higher protein, energy-restricted diet are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-08-01

    Secondary analyses of data from 2 studies were used to assess the effects of protein intake and sex on diet-induced changes in body composition. The primary hypothesis was that the changes of body composition via energy restriction (ie, lean body mass [LBM], fat mass [FM], and bone) would be sex and diet specific. For 12 weeks, 43 male (study 1) and 45 female (study 2) overweight and obese adults consumed an energy-deficit diet (750 kcal/d less than energy needs) containing either 0.8 (normal protein [NP], 21 men and 23 women) or 1.4 g protein∙kg(-1)∙d(-1) (high protein [HP], 22 men and 22 women). Body composition measurements were performed at preintervention and postintervention. Over time, all research participants lost weight, LBM, and FM. Independent of protein intake, the men lost more LBM in the trunk (-0.9 vs -0.5 kg) and less in the legs (-1.5 vs -1.1 kg) compared with the women (P < .05). Independent of sex, the HP group lost less LBM in the trunk and legs than the NP group. These sex and protein intake responses resulted in the NP men losing the most LBM in the legs and the NP women losing the most LBM in the trunk. Over time, men lost more FM (-5.0 vs -3.9 kg) from the trunk and less from legs (-1.7 vs -2.1 kg) than women (P < .05), which resulted in a greater decrease of the android-to-gynoid fat ratio for the men. Protein intake did not influence these sex-specific responses or have any independent effects on changes in FM. In addition, protein intake did not influence bone mineral density responses over time; bone mineral density was reduced in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that higher protein intake during weight loss promotes the retention of LBM in both the trunk and legs despite the sex-specific changes in these body regions. PMID:23890352

  10. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit), liquid (grapefruit juice) and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9) were randomly assigned to (127 g) grapefruit (GF), grapefruit juice (GFJ) or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams) of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm). However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2%) and GFJ (+8.2%) preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%). Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF and GFJ preload

  11. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Company, Joe; Ball, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the DF50 (ImpediMed Ltd, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia) bioelectrical impedance analysis device using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as the criterion in two groups: endurance athletes and power athletes. The secondary purpose was to develop accurate body fat…

  12. Moderate Exercise during Pregnancy in Wistar Rats Alters Bone and Body Composition of the Adult Offspring in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Brielle V.; Blair, Hugh T.; Vickers, Mark H.; Dittmer, Keren E.; Morel, Patrick C. H.; Knight, Cameron G.; Firth, Elwyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  13. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  14. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SOURCE DURING WEIGHT LOSS ON BODY COMPOSITION, CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ABDOMINALLY OBESE, OLDER ADULTS: A PILOT FEEDING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    BEAVERS, K.M.; GORDON, M.M.; EASTER, L.; BEAVERS, D.P.; HAIRSTON, K.G.; NICKLAS, B.J.; VITOLINS, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to begin to examine the effect of dietary protein source (soy protein versus non-soy protein) during weight loss on body composition, and cardiometabolic and functional decline risk factors in older, abdominally obese adults. Design Two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC 27157, USA. Participants 25 older (68.4±5.5 years, 88% female), abdominally obese (BMI: 35.1±4.3 kg/m2; WC: 101.4±13.1 cm) men and women were randomized to participate in the study. Intervention A 12-week weight loss intervention, with participants randomized to consume soy protein-based meal replacements (S; n=12) or non-soy protein-based meal replacements (NS; n=12), in addition to prepared meals, and all participants targeted to receive an individualized caloric deficit of 500 kcal/day. Measurements Body weight and composition (assessed via DXA and CT), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and physical performance measures were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Additional endpoints of feasibility (accrual, participation, retention, compliance, and safety) are reported. Results A total of 24 participants (87% female) completed the study (96% retention) and lost an average of 7.8±3.0 kg over the 12-week period, with no difference seen between groups (p=0.83). Although nearly all measures of global and regional body composition were significantly reduced following the 12-week intervention, differences were not observed between groups. Among cardiometabolic risk factors and physical performance measures, only diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the NS group compared to the S group (66.7±2.7 mmHg vs 73.5±2.7 mmHg, respectively; p=0.04). Interestingly, in groups combined, despite significant reductions in body weight and lean mass, no significant changes in 400-meter walk time (+5.3±43.4 s), short physical performance battery score (+0.1±1

  15. Body composition of athletes in Bahrain.

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, A O; Ragheb, M A; al-Marzooq, G

    1994-01-01

    A total sample of 304 athletes was selected from first class clubs related to four common sports (football, handball, volleyball and basketball) and compared with 53 non-athlete adults. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skinfold thickness were measured to assess their body composition. The findings revealed that there were differences in body composition among athletes according to the type of sport. Basketballers and volleyballers were the tallest athletes, while handballers were the heaviest ones. Skinfold thickness measurements showed that basketball and handball players have more subcutaneous fat than other athletic groups. As compared with non-athletes, the Bahraini players had higher means for height, weight, subscapular, suprailliac thickness and mid-arm circumference. PMID:8000811

  16. Body composition of athletes in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; Ragheb, M A; al-Marzooq, G

    1994-09-01

    A total sample of 304 athletes was selected from first class clubs related to four common sports (football, handball, volleyball and basketball) and compared with 53 non-athlete adults. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference and skinfold thickness were measured to assess their body composition. The findings revealed that there were differences in body composition among athletes according to the type of sport. Basketballers and volleyballers were the tallest athletes, while handballers were the heaviest ones. Skinfold thickness measurements showed that basketball and handball players have more subcutaneous fat than other athletic groups. As compared with non-athletes, the Bahraini players had higher means for height, weight, subscapular, suprailliac thickness and mid-arm circumference.

  17. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  18. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  19. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA densitometer for the measurement of total body composition and fat distribution in adults.

    PubMed

    Hind, K; Oldroyd, B; Truscott, J G

    2011-01-01

    In vivo precision for body composition measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare, Bucks, UK) was evaluated in 52 men and women, aged 34.8 (s.d. 8.4; range 20.1-50.5) years, body mass index (25.8 kg/m(2); range 16.7-42.7 kg/m(2)). Two consecutive total body scans (with re-positioning) were conducted. Precision was excellent for all measurements, particularly for total body bone mineral content and lean tissue mass (root mean square 0.015 and 0.244 kg; coefficients of variation (CV) 0.6 and 0.5%, respectively). Precision error was CV 0.82% for total fat mass and 0.86% for percentage fat. Precision was better for gynoid (root mean square 0.397 kg; CV 0.96%) than for android fat distribution (root mean square 0.780 kg, CV 2.32%). There was good agreement between consecutive measurements for all measurements (slope (s.e.) 0.993-1.002; all R(2) = 0.99). The Lunar iDXA provided excellent precision for total body composition measurements. Research into the effect of body size on the precision of DXA body fat distribution measurements is required.

  20. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  1. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Atkinson, Hal H.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yaffe, Kristine; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Rubin, Susan M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Houston, Denise K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score ≥10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23–2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥30ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25326643

  2. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations.

  3. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  4. Gravitational effects on body composition in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Sanchez P., O.; Burton, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Gallinaceous birds, presenting a wide range of body size, were adapted physiologically to hyperdynamic environments, provided by chronic centrifugation. Chemical composition was measured directly on prepared carcasses, which were anatomically comparable, and more amenable to analysis than the intact body. Body mass and body fat decreased arithmetically with increasing field strength and also with increasing body mass. Water content of lean tissue increased in hyperdynamic environments, but irrespectively of body size.

  5. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes.

  6. Evaluation of Body Composition: Why and How?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of human body composition in vivo remains a critical component in the assessment of nutritional status of an individual.Whereas traditional measurements of standing height and body weight provide information on body mass index and, hence, the risk of some chronic diseases, advanced techno...

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of dried purple carrot on body mass, lipids, blood pressure, body composition, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese adults: the QUENCH trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, Olivia R L; Netzel, Gabriele A; Sakzewski, Amy R

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a significant health issue worldwide and is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation predisposing the individual to cardiovascular disease and impaired blood glucose homeostasis. Anthocyanins and phenolic acids from purple carrots are effective at reversing inflammation and metabolic alterations in animal models, potentially through inhibition of inflammatory pathways. The effects of dried purple carrot on body mass, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory markers, liver function tests, and appetite were investigated in 16 males (aged 53.1 ± 7.6 years and with a mean BMI of 32.8 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) with normal lipid and inflammatory markers. There was no evidence that 118.5 mg/day of anthocyanins and 259.2 mg/day of phenolic acids for 4 weeks resulted in statistically significant changes in body mass, body composition, appetite, dietary intake, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, blood pressure, or C-reactive protein in these obese participants at the dose and length of intervention used in this trial. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in the intervention group (p < 0.05). Aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase did not change, indicating that the intervention was safe. More studies are required to establish the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic effects of purple carrot anthocyanins and phenolic acids prior to further trials of efficacy with respect to treating inflammation and metabolic alterations.

  8. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart.

  9. Relationship between Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Early Adult Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Nested in Two Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM). FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables. Results A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively). Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was −33 mL (95% CI −38, −29) and −26 mL (95% CI −30, −22), and −30 mL (95% CI −35, −25) and −19 mL (95% CI −23, −14) at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (p<0.001 for all associations). Conclusions All measures that distinguish FM from FFM (skinfold thickness–FM estimation–BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures–FM and FFM proportions) showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF. PMID:27682232

  10. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  11. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614

  12. [Body composition and comorbidity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, Marc; Gilbert, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and excess in fat versus lean mass is well known to enhance the risk of mortality and morbidity. Several recent works have pointed the importance of analysing more precisely body composition for the assessment of prognosis of patients in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The body mass index (BMI), commonly used for defining obese patients, does not give sufficient indication on the body composition and distribution of fat mass. In the elderly population, relative excess in fat mass associated with a decrease in lean mass is frequently observed. In such situations of sarcopenic obesity, the relative weight stability can be misleading. Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging public health problem in the geriatric population. It appears to be the situation with the worst prognosis for cardiovascular risk. In addition, recent works have highlighted the major impact of visceral fat, clearly linked with cardiovascular events. Body composition has also an impact on other pathologic conditions such as dementia, sleep apnoea or cancer. The links between body composition and morbidity in the elderly population are presented in this review, with emphasis on adipokines and their interactions with other organs such as the heart, liver, skeletal muscle or bones. More precise measurements of body composition, rather than BMI alone, should be developed in the elderly population. PMID:26345585

  13. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Gamal E.; Chiu, Simon; Cernovsky, Zack Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate) related to this increase. Patients and Methods: Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women). Results: Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05) increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI), % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions: Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health. PMID:27162765

  14. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  15. Seven years of follow up of trabecular bone score, bone mineral density, body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency treated with rhGH replacement in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; Serraclara Plá, Alicia; Partida Muñoz, Myriam Lorena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by impaired physical activity, diminished quality of life (QoL), weight and fat mass gain, decreased muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment (7 years) with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), BMD, bone microarchitecture and QoL. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, BMD and BC were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone microarchitecture was assessed with the trabecular bone score (TBS). The QoL-AGHDA test was used to assess QoL. Results: A total of 18 AGHD patients (mean age, 37.39 ± 12.42) were included. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a significant increase after 7 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a significant tendency of body fat mass (BFM) (p = 0.028) and lean body mass (LBM) (p = 0.005) to increase during the 7 years of rhGH treatment. There was a significant increase in lumbar spine (LS) BMD (p = 0.01). TBS showed a nonsignificant decrease after 7 years of treatment, with a change of -0.86% ± 1.95. QoL showed a large and significant improvement (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Long-term rhGH treatment in AGHD patients induces a large and sustained improvement in QoL. Metabolic effects are variable with an increase in LBM as well as in BMI and BFM. There is a positive effect on BMD based on the increase in LS BMD, which stabilizes during long-term therapy and is not associated with a similar increase in bone microarchitecture. PMID:27293538

  16. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  17. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  18. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  19. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  20. Comparison of Some Secondary Body Composition Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Robert A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Body composition measurements vary greatly in degree of measurement difficulty and accuracy. Hydrostatic weighing, chemical dilution or their equivalents were the accepted "gold" standards for assessing fat mass. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is fast replacing these techniques as the preferred standard. However, these direct measurement…

  1. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  2. Effect of chronic centrifugation on body composition in the rat.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.

  3. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  4. Body composition in Mexican adults by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD and deuterium oxide dilution using infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD).

    PubMed

    Macías, Nayeli; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María; Bolaños, Adriana V; Alemán, Heliodoro; Esparza, Julián; Valencia, Mauro E

    2002-09-01

    Thirty four subjects (13 men and 21 women), 24 to 70 years old from northern Mexico, were measured for body density by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with the BOD-POD, and for total body water by deuterium oxide dilution and infrared spectroscopy (IRS-DOD). Subjects were given a 30 g dose of deuterium oxide. Saliva samples were filtered, sublimated, and deuterium was measured using a Miran 1 FF, IRS. Linear regression of the fat mass (FM) derived from both methods showed that the intercept (0.071) was not different from zero (p = .96) and the slope was 0.96 (p < .0001) demonstrating the techniques to be equivalent. Further, mean FM was 26.7 +/- 12.4 and 25.6 +/- 12.4 kg, for IRS-DOD and ADP techniques, respectively (p = .08). Precision analysis by the model R2 showed that 92.3% of the variability was explained (SEM = 3.4 kg). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias (r = 0.017; p = .93). Mean difference between methods was -1.08 (CI: -2.3 to + 0.13) kg FM.

  5. Physique and Body Composition in Soccer Players across Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Vassilios Karydis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although the contribution of physique and body composition in soccer performance was recognized, these parameters of physical fitness were not well-studied in adolescent players. Aim of this study was to investigate physique and body composition across adolescence. Methods Male adolescents (N=297 aged 12.01–20.98 y), classified into nine one-year age-groups, child (control group, N=16 aged 7.34–11.97 y) and adult players (control group, N=29 aged 21.01–31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed a series of anthropometric measures (body mass, height, skinfolds, circumferences and girths), from which body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and somatotype (Heath-Carter method) were calculated. Results Age had a positive association with FM (r=0.2, P<0.001) and FFM (r=0.68, P<0.001), and a negative association with BF (r=−0.12, P=0.047). Somatotype components changed across adolescence as well; age was linked to endomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.005), mesomorphy (r=0.14, P=0.019) and ectomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.004). Compared with age-matched general population, participants exhibited equal body mass, higher stature, lower body mass index and lower BF. Conclusion During adolescence, soccer players presented significant differences in terms of body composition and physique. Thus, these findings could be employed by coaches and fitness trainers engaged in soccer training in the context of physical fitness assessment and talent identification. PMID:22375222

  6. Skinfolds and body composition of sports participants.

    PubMed

    Gualdi Russo, E; Gruppioni, G; Gueresi, P; Belcastro, M G; Marchesini, V

    1992-09-01

    Body composition of 1815 North-Italian young sports participants in relation to sex, age, sport and level of performance was investigated. About thickness and anatomical distribution of subcutaneous fat females showed skinfolds thicker than males. Significant differences were observed in skinfold thicknesses means of different sport-groups. Subscapular and forearm skinfolds were the best discriminant variables for males and females respectively. Body density was estimated according to Katch and McArdle (1973) and Durnin and Womersley (1974) equations. Males showed higher body density and lower fat percentage values than females. The lowest value of body density and the highest fat percentage were in male martial art competitors and in females practising skating and athletics. The highest values of body density and the lowest of fat percentage were in males practising athletics and rowing and in female martial art competitors. Highest and lowest values of fat-free mass were in games players and in soccer players and gymnasts respectively. "High aptitude" subjects showed higher fat-free mass values than "middle aptitude" group, besides a tendency towards higher body density values and lower fat percentage than "middle aptitude" group. With aging body density decreased whereas fat percentage and fat-free mass increased.

  7. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks123

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Results: Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. Conclusions: In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. PMID:26246322

  8. Adult cranberry beverage consumers have healthier macronutrient intakes and measures of body composition compared to non-consumers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids, present in high levels in cranberries, are potent bioactives known for their health-promoting benefits, but cranberry beverages (CB) are not typically recommended as part of a healthy diet. We examine the association between CB consumption with macronutrient intake and weight status. Data for US adults (≥19 years, n = 10,891) were taken from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Survey 2005-2008. Total CB consumption was measured over two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Linear and logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were used to examine predicted differences between CB consumers and non-consumers on macronutrient and anthropometric outcomes. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. CB consumers (n = 581) were older (>50 year) non-Hispanic black females. They consumed an average 221 mL (7.5 oz) CB per day. In fully adjusted models CB consumers (vs. non-consumers) had higher carbohydrates and total sugars and lower percent energy from protein and total fat (all p < 0.001), but no difference in total energy. A significantly higher proportion of CB consumers were predicted to be normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2; p = 0.001) and had to have lower waist circumferences (p = 0.001). Although there was not a significant trend across level of CB intake, low and middle level CB consumers compared to non-consumers were more likely to be normal weight (p < 0.001) and less likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Despite having slightly higher daily macronutrient intakes, CB consumers have more desirable anthropometric measures compared to non-consumers.

  9. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  10. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  11. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  12. [Blood serum concentration of lipids and lipoproteins and body composition].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I; Vershubskaia, G G; Sanina, E D; Ateeva, Iu A; Potolitsina, N N; Kaneva, A M; Rogachevskaia, O V; Boĭko, E P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the analysis of the relationship of blood serum apolipoprotein E (apoE), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), with body mass index (BMI), relative body surface area (RBSA) and body muscle (BM) and body fat (BF). The subjects are males and females aged 14-16 (adolescent age group 1: n1M = 141, n1F = 151) and 18-25 (young adult group 2, n2M = 16, n2F = 46). Significant correlations of serum TG and HDL with somatometric indicators were not observed. In the female samples, TC content directly correlates (p < 0.05) with BF (r1 = 0.164; r2 = 0.418) and negatively correlates with BM (r1 = -0.165; r2 = -0.352). The blood serum concentration of apoE is significantly correlated with body composition in adolescent females (for BF r1 = -0.168; for BM r1 = 0.266; p < 0.05); in males 14-16 years old, the both correlations have a significance level p < 0.06. In young adult females TC and LDL content negatively correlates with RBSA (r2 = -0.386 and -0.377 respectively; p < 0.05) and positively correlates with BMI (r2 = 0.413 and 0.415 respectively; p < 0.05). Adolescent females and young adult females have opposite relationships between FC and apoE concentration. In females 14-15 years old apoE concentration decreases as FC increases. In females 16-17 the correlation disappears, and in older females apoE concentration and FC increase together. PMID:22830251

  13. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  14. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  15. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  16. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  17. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  18. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  19. Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Walter, Ashley A; Smith, Abbie E; Dalbo, Vincent J; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    Background Exercise and high-protein/reduced-carbohydrate and -fat diets have each been shown separately, or in combination with an energy-restricted diet to improve body composition and health in sedentary, overweight (BMI > 25) adults. The current study, instead, examined the physiological response to 10 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (EX) versus exercise + minimal nutrition intervention designed to alter the macronutrient profile, in the absence of energy restriction, using a commercially available high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement (EXFS); versus control (CON). Methods Thirty-eight previously sedentary, overweight subjects (female = 19; male = 19) were randomly assigned to either CON (n = 10), EX (n = 14) or EXFS (n = 14). EX and EXFS participated in supervised resistance and endurance training (2× and 3×/wk, respectively); EXFS consumed 1 shake/d (weeks 1 and 2) and 2 shakes/d (weeks 3–10). Results EXFS significantly decreased total energy, carbohydrate and fat intake (-14.4%, -27.2% and -26.7%, respectively; p < 0.017), and increased protein and fiber intake (+52.1% and +21.2%, respectively; p < 0.017). EX and EXFS significantly decreased fat mass (-4.6% and -9.3%, respectively; p < 0.017), with a greater (p < 0.05) decrease in EXFS than EX and CON. Muscle mass increase only reached significance in EXFS (+2.3%; p < 0.017), which was greater (p < 0.05) than CON but not EX (+1.1%). Relative VO2max improved in both exercise groups (EX = +5.0% and EXFS = +7.9%; p < 0.017); however, only EXFS significantly improved absolute VO2max (+6.2%; p = 0.001). Time-to-exhaustion during treadmill testing increased in EX (+9.8%) but was significantly less (p < 0.05) than in EXFS (+21.2%). Total cholesterol and LDL decreased only in the EXFS (-12.0% and -13.3%, respectively; p < 0.017). Total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, however, decreased significantly (p < 0.017) in both exercise groups. Conclusion Absent energy

  20. Adult Ocular Toxocariasis Mimicking Ciliary Body Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Abiad, Bachir; Boulos, Fouad I.; Alameddine, Ramzi; Maalouf, Fadi C.; Bu Ghannam, Alaa; Hamam, Rola N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To discuss an unusual presentation of ocular toxocariasis. Methods. Case report. Results. A 40-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in the left eye with a long history of recurrent red eye from uveitis. Eosinophilia and positive ELISA titers for Toxocara canis favored the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Over 3 months, an anterior scleral mass had a rapid growth raising the possibility of medulloepithelioma, which rarely can mimic uveitic syndromes. Surgical plan changed from local excision to enucleation. Histopathology demonstrated a large homogeneous mass of chronic inflammatory cells with inflammation of the overlying thinned out sclera, medial rectus insertion, and limbal cornea. The triad of peripheral granuloma, eosinophilia, and positive blood serology established the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. Conclusions. Ocular toxocariasis can mimic ocular malignancy such as medulloepithelioma in adults and rarely presents as an anterior scleral mass. PMID:25371681

  1. Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths.

    PubMed

    Lohman, T G

    1986-01-01

    This review has focused on the chemical immaturity of children and the implications for body composition estimates. Prepubescent and pubescent children deviate considerably in fat-free body composition from the adult reference male, and this has lead investigators to overestimate body fatness in this population using conventional body composition formulas. The use of multicomponent approaches to body composition to obtain more accurate estimates of body fatness in children has provided new information on the body composition of this population. Sex- and age-specific constants, to replace those derived from the reference male, are suggested for further testing and verification as well as for use in the clinical setting. The chemical immaturity in children has its greatest effect on estimating the extent of obesity in children 6 to 11 years of age and in estimating body fatness in the lean, athletic, prepubescent population. Previous estimates of the growth rate of fat and fat-free body are also affected by chemical immaturity. Further research is needed to study the impact of physical activity and inactivity on the composition of the fat-free body during growth, to develop constants for more accurate estimates of fatness in physically active samples of all ages and to validate the constants presented in the less active populations. Future research with multicomponent body composition systems in all populations of children and youth is essential for progress in this area. Results will have an important contribution to the estimation of childhood obesity, prediction of minimal weight in the athletic population and estimates of growth rate of fat and fat-free body mass. The development of body composition methodologies which more accurately measure the growth of muscle and bone as well as fat is a major challenge ahead.

  2. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  3. Rat body size, composition and growth at hypo- and hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hypergravity (centrifugation) on body composition were investigated. Hypogravitational and hypergravitational aspects were reflected in the research effort. A list of publications is provided.

  4. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  5. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  6. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  7. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A. Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight. (JMT)

  8. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    PubMed

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women.

  9. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  10. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  11. Body composition of piglets exhibiting different growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The growth and composition of the neonatal pig is of interest because of potential impact on subsequent growth and finally, composition at market weight. The purpose of this study was to compare at weaning the growth and body composition of the largest and smallest pigs (excluding runts) from each o...

  12. Body composition in ileostomy patients with and without ileal resection.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, J C; Laughland, A; Gunning, E J; Burkinshaw, L; Williams, N S

    1986-01-01

    Body composition was measured in 24 patients who had previously undergone proctocolectomy and ileostomy. One group (control group) had undergone resection of only small amounts of terminal ileum (median 4 cm), the other group of patients (resected group) had undergone resection of greater lengths of small bowel (median 54 cm). These values of body composition were then compared with predicted values in normal subjects. Proctocolectomy and ileostomy without ileal resection did not significantly affect body weight, or the body contents of fat or water, but led to a reduction in total body nitrogen and total body potassium, suggesting a reduction in fat free mass. A modest resection of the terminal ileum undertaken during the course of proctocolectomy decreased body weight largely because of a reduction in body fat. None of the ileostomy patients was found to be dehydrated. PMID:3721291

  13. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  14. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights.

  15. Use of Anthropometry for the Prediction of Regional Body Tissue Distribution in Adults: Benefits and Limitations in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Cattrysse, Erik; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Regional body composition changes with aging. Some of the changes in composition are considered major risk factors for developing obesity related chronic diseases which in turn may lead to increased mortality in adults. The role of anthropometry is well recognized in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of adults for risk classification, regardless of age. Regional body composition is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therapeutic measures recommended to lower cardiovascular disease risk include lifestyle changes. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize studies that assessed the relationships between anthropometry and regional body composition. The potential benefits and limitations of anthropometry for use in clinical practice are presented and suggestions for future research given. PMID:25489489

  16. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  17. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C-120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  18. Dose-Response Effects of a Web-Based Physical Activity Program on Body Composition and Metabolic Health in Inactive Older Adults: Additional Analyses of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vroege, David P; Wijsman, Carolien A; Broekhuizen, Karen; de Craen, Anton JM; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans JG; van Mechelen, Willem; Slagboom, P Eline; Catt, Michael; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert ALM

    2014-01-01

    Background Low physical activity is a major risk factor for several age-related diseases. Recently, we showed in a randomized controlled trial that a 12-week Web-based intervention (Philips DirectLife) to increase physical activity was effective in increasing physical activity levels and metabolic health in an inactive population aged 60-70 years. Objective The goal of this paper was to assess how many participants successfully reached the physical activity level as targeted by the intervention and what the effects of the intervention on body composition and metabolic health in these successful individuals were to provide insight in the maximum attainable effect of the intervention. Methods Among the 235 participants in a randomized controlled trial of the Actief en Gezond Oud (AGO) study, we assessed the effects of the intervention on metabolic parameters in those who had successfully reached their personalized physical activity target compared with the entire intervention group. Furthermore, we studied the dose-response effect of increase in physical activity on metabolic outcome within the intervention group. Results Of the intervention group, 50 of 119 (42.0%) participants successfully reached the physical activity target (corresponding to a 10% increased daily physical activity on average). This group showed markedly higher effects of the intervention compared to the entire intervention group, with greater decreases in body weight (2.74 vs 1.49 kg), waist circumference (3.74 vs 2.33 cm), insulin resistance (HOMA index: 0.23 vs 0.20), and in cholesterol/HDL ratio (0.39 vs 0.20) and Framingham risk score (0.90% vs 0.54%). We found that men compared to women were more likely to be successful. The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity and body weight loss, BMI reduction, waist circumference reduction, HDL cholesterol increasing, and cholesterol/HDL ratio lowering

  19. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. PMID:27048946

  20. Body composition and arsenic metabolism: a cross-sectional analysis in the Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between measures of body composition and patterns of urine arsenic metabolites in the 1989–1991 baseline visit of the Strong Heart Study, a cardiovascular disease cohort of adults recruited from rural communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, North Dakota and South Dakota. Methods We evaluated 3,663 Strong Heart Study participants with urine arsenic species above the limit of detection and no missing data on body mass index, % body fat and fat free mass measured by bioelectrical impedance, waist circumference and other variables. We summarized urine arsenic species patterns as the relative contribution of inorganic (iAs), methylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) species to their sum. We modeled the associations of % arsenic species biomarkers with body mass index, % body fat, fat free mass, and waist circumference categories in unadjusted regression models and in models including all measures of body composition. We also considered adjustment for arsenic exposure and demographics. Results Increasing body mass index was associated with higher mean % DMA and lower mean % MMA before and after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, arsenic exposure, and for other measures of body composition. In unadjusted linear regression models, % DMA was 2.4 (2.1, 2.6) % higher per increase in body mass index category (< 25, ≥25 & <30, ≥30 & <35, ≥35 kg/m2), and % MMA was 1.6 (1.4, 1.7) % lower. Similar patterns were observed for % body fat, fat free mass, and waist circumference measures in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for potential confounders, but the associations were largely attenuated or disappeared when adjusted for body mass index. Conclusion Measures of body size, especially body mass index, are associated with arsenic metabolism biomarkers. The association may be related to adiposity, fat free mass or body size. Future epidemiologic studies of arsenic should consider body mass

  1. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies. PMID:22111011

  2. Body-composition assessment in infancy: Air-displacement plethysmography compared with a reference 4-compartment model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Compositi...

  3. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.
METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.
RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ⩾30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.

 PMID:10212102

  4. Both developmental and adult vision shape body representations

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Elena; Steiger, Tineke; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Sense of body ownership and body representation are fundamental parts of human consciousness, but the contribution of the visual modality to their development remains unclear. We tested congenitally and late blind adults on a somatosensory version of the rubber hand illusion, and on the Aristotle illusion, in which sighted controls touching a single sphere with crossed fingers commonly report perceiving two. We found that congenitally and late blind individuals did not report subjectively experiencing the rubber hand illusion. However, in an objective measure, the congenitally blind did not show a recalibration of the position of their hand towards the rubber hand while late blind and sighted individuals did. By contrast, all groups experienced the Aristotle illusion. This pattern of results provides evidence for a dissociation of the concepts of body ownership and spatial recalibration and, furthermore, suggests different reference frames for hands (external space) and fingers (anatomical space). PMID:25338780

  5. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  6. Body Composition Assessment--Some Practical Answers to Teachers' Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David Q.; Whitehead, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents information about body composition assessment, including how useful the measurement is, how to conduct assessment, accurate skinfold measurement, body mass index versus skinfold results, interpreting results, standards for score interpretation, other types of measurement, how to approach skinfold assessment, and handling sensitivity and…

  7. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  8. Body composition of elite American athletes.

    PubMed

    Fleck, S J

    1983-01-01

    Five hundred twenty-eight male athletes participating in 26 Olympic events and 298 female athletes participating in 15 Olympic events underwent determination of body fat percentage (% fat) and lean body mass (LBM) via hydrostatic weighing and/or anthropometric methods. All groups of athletes were below the average values for % fat of college age men and women of 15% and 25%, respectively. In general, athletes involved in a sport where their body weight is supported, such as canoe and kayak (males, 13.0 +/- 2.5%; females, 22.2 +/- 4.6%) and swimming (males, 12.4 +/- 3.7%; females 19.5 +/- 2.8%), tended to have higher % fat values. Athletes involved in sports where a weight class has to be made to compete, such as boxing (males, 6.9 +/- 1.6%) and wrestling (male, Junior World Freestyle 7.9 +/- 2.7%), events such as the 100, 200, and 400 meters in athletes (male 100 and 200 meters, 6.5 +/- 1.2%; female 100, 200 and 400 meters, 13.7 +/- 3.6%) that are very anaerobic in nature and extremely aerobic events such as the marathon (males, 6.4 +/- 1.3%) demonstrated lower % fat values. Athletes involved in sports where body size is a definite advantage, such as basketball (males, 84.1 +/- 6.2 kg; females, 55.3 +/- 4.9 kg) and volleyball (males, 75.0 +/- 6.6 kg; females, 58.4 +/- 4.5 kg) tended to have a larger LBM.

  9. Application of standards and models in body composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making.

  10. Effect of intense military training on body composition.

    PubMed

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Dugoni, Manfredo; Bagni, Bruno; Bagni, Ilaria; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    Individuals in a structural physical training program can show beneficial changes in body composition, such as body fat reduction and muscle mass increase. This study measured body composition changes by using 3 different techniques-skinfold thickness (SF) measurements, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-during 9 months of intense training in healthy young men engaged in military training. Twenty-seven young men were recruited from a special faction of the Italian Navy. The program previewed three phases: ground combat, sea combat, and amphibious combat. Body composition was estimated at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the training. After the subjects performed the ground combat phase, body composition variables significantly decreased: body weight (P < 0.05), fat-free mass (FFM) (P < 0.001), and fat mass (FM) (P < 0.03). During the amphibious combat phase, body weight increased significantly (P < 0.01), mainly because of an increase in FFM (P < 0.001) and a smaller mean decrease in FM. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in circumferences and SF at various sites after starting the training course. Bland-Altman analysis did not show any systematic difference between FM and FFM measured with the 3 different techniques on any occasion. On any visit, FFM and FM correlation measured by BOD-POD (P = 0.90) and DXA was significantly greater than measured by SF. A significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) measured during the study. BOD-POD and SF, compared with DXA, provide valid and reliable measurement of changes in body composition in healthy young men engaged in military training. In conclusion, the findings suggest that for young men of normal weight, changes in body weight alone and in BMI are not a good measure to assess the effectiveness of intense physical training programs, because lean mass gain can masquerade fat weight loss.

  11. Using the Acoustic Emission Technique for Estimating Body Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Huerta-Franco, R.

    2003-09-01

    This work proposes a new technique for estimation of body composition by using acoustic emission. A simple apparatus for the acoustic emission is proposed.The estimation of the body composition is made by analyzing the correlation between a set of acoustic resonance and skinfold measurements. One device was designed to measure the position and width of the acoustic resonances and a caliper was used to measure the skinfolds. The results show the plausibility of application of the method to measurement the human body fat.

  12. The influence of body composition on youth throwing kinetics.

    PubMed

    Garner, John C; MacDonald, Chris; Wade, Chip; Johnson, Andrea; Ford, M Allison

    2011-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of segmental mass and body composition on the upper extremity biomechanics of overweight youth participating in baseball activities. The study used a regression framework to investigate the relationship between whole body, throwing arm segmental mass and body composition measures to kinetic variables about the shoulder and elbow. The multivariate regression results indicated a strong positive significant relationship between each of the mass variables to that of the moment variables about the shoulder and elbow. Participants who had a greater percentage of fat mass produced greater injury correlated moments about the shoulder and elbow.

  13. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  14. [Body composition in amenorrheic and eumenorrheic underweight patients].

    PubMed

    Mocanu, V; Colev, V; Vulpoi, C; Stoica, A R; Mironovici, D; Railean, R; Zbranca, E

    2000-01-01

    Relationship between weight and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis has been long time studied. Underweight female patients can have or not disturbances of gonadal system and the importance of the weight or body composition in the mechanisms of these abnormalities is not clear. In our study, we have investigated body composition in 15 underweight female patients. Five patients have had anorexia nervosa, with amenorrhea (group AN), and other 10 patients were eumenorrheic, but with low body weight (hypoanabolic syndrome--group HA). Bioelectrical impedance method was used to investigate body composition. Total body water (TBW), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) were determined. Nutritional status was also assessed using body mass index (BMI). The mean body weight was significantly decreased (p = 0.05, 36.6 +/- 4.68 Kg versus 44.1 +/- 4.67 Kg) in group AN as compared to group HA. Fat mass was very low in group AN (9.45% of body weight versus 11.3% of body weight in group HA), but there was not significant difference. Lean mass was significantly decreased in group AN (33.24 +/- 2.37 Kg) in comparison with group HA (39.3 +/- 4.06 Kg). Correlations between anthropometric indices were studied. Positive significant correlations were obtained between body weight and lean mass, total body water and basal metabolism in both groups. In conclusion, our study reveals that body weight has a relative importance in ovarian axis dysfunction, and the most important of body compartments seems to be lean mass.

  15. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  16. The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy's Coast to Coast” Trek

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Mommi, Antonella; Aiello, Cristina; Gatti, Michela; Romani, Giannermete; Buratta, Livia; Reginato, Elisa; Urbani, Lorena; Ferri, Carla; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the “Step by step…Italy's coast to coast”. The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects. PMID:25143947

  17. Skeletal and body composition evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry analysis of errors affecting single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques, cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals, studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis, organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement, and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  18. Veterans as Adult Learners in Composition Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarre Cleary, Michelle; Wozniak, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Considering veterans in the context of research on adult and nontraditional students in college writing classes, this article proposes Malcolm Knowles's six principles for adult learning as an asset-based heuristic for investigating how writing programs and writing teachers might build upon existing resources to support veteran students.

  19. The effects and underlying mechanism of interferon therapy on body weight and body composition.

    PubMed

    Alam, Ibrar; Ullah, Niamat; Alam, Iftikhar; Ali, Ijaz

    2013-11-01

    Body weight changes in HCV patients on interferon therapy are well documented. However, the underlying mechanism involved in these changes is poorly understood and rarely reported. The main objectives of this review are to 1) discuss changes in body weight and other compartments of body composition, particularly, body fat, and 2) to discuss the underlying mechanism for these changes. The literature review suggests weight loss (12-29%) as a function of interferon therapy is common, affecting up to 90% of HCV patients. Whilst, loss in weight means proportionate loss in other body compartments (lean body mass and body fat, in particular) data on changes in segmented body composition are fragmentary. The possible mechanisms underlying weight loss or changes in other body composition have been reported and these include suppressed appetite due to induction of TNF by IFN, a decrease in serum leptin level, and importantly mitochondrial damage induced by the therapy. It is, therefore, suggested that close monitoring of chronic HCV patients receiving PEG-IFN and/or ribavirin for side effects of these drugs, particularly those related to weight loss, is vitally important from clinical point of view.

  20. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  1. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  2. The Relationship between Pedometer-Determined and Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Composition Variables in College-Aged Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestek, Michael L.; Plaisance, Eric; Grandjean, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) is inversely related to body composition in middle-aged adults; however, researchers have not established such a relationship in college students. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors attempted to characterize PA and examine its relationship with body composition in undergraduate…

  3. Asymmetry in body composition in female hockey players.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Leszczyński, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a sport in which one side of the body is dominant, like field hockey, influences regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) distribution in particular body segments, and whether the sporting level is a determining factor. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method (Lunar Prodigy Advance; General Electric, Madison, USA) with the whole body scan was used to measure bone mineral density, fat mass and lean mass in 31 female field hockey players divided according to their sporting level. The morphological asymmetry level was assessed between two body sides and body segments in athletes from the National Team (n=17) and from the Youth Team (n=14) separately and between groups. Bone mineral density in the lower extremity and of the trunk was significantly asymmetric in favor of the left side in the National Team. In the case of the Youth Team, only the trunk BMD indicated clear left-right difference with left side dominance. Both the lean mass and fat mass values were relatively higher on the left side of all body segments and it related to both analyzed groups of athletes. The present study shows that playing field hockey contributes to laterality in body composition and BMD and that the sporting level is a determining factor. In most cases the left side dominated. A greater asymmetry level was observed in more experienced female field hockey players. PMID:26077573

  4. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  5. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women.

  6. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47%) and triacylglycerol (22%). Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range. PMID:25119752

  7. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  8. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  10. Body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We described the body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians and compared the data with that of omnivores in South Korea. Vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns, who adhered to a vegetarian diet in accordance with Buddhist teachings. We compared these finding with a group of 31 omnivore Catholic nuns who shared a similar lifestyle but different dietary pattern than those of the Buddhist nuns. All subjects completed the estimated three-day dietary record. Body composition was determined by a segmental multi-frequency-bioelectrical impedance analysis method. No height difference between the dietary groups existed but the vegetarians had a significantly higher body weight, fat free mass, body fat and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) than the omnivores. The median BMI of both vegetarians and omnivores fell in the normal range (22.6 vs. 20.7 kg/m2). In vegetarians, body fat was inversely correlated with the duration of vegetarianism (p for trend=0.043). The long duration group of the vegetarians had lower body fat than the short duration group (12.l vs. 15.0 kg, p=0.032). The status of the nutrient intake of Korean Buddhist vegetarians was comparable to that of omnivores, and the intake of some nutrients in vegetarians was more favorable than in the omnivores.

  11. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  12. Body size and composition of National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Torine, Jon C; Silvestre, Ricardo; French, Duncan N; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition of National Football League (NFL) players prior to the start of the regular season. Fifty-three members of the Indianapolis Colts professional football team were measured for height, body mass, and percentage body fat using the BOD POD air-displacement plethysmography system during summer camp of the 2003 football season. These data were categorized by position for comparison with previous studies of NFL football players. The relationships observed were as follows (= represents nonsignificant; > represents p < or = 0.05): Height: Offensive Line = Defensive Line = Quarterbacks/Kickers/Punters = Tight Ends > Linebackers > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Body Mass: Offensive Line = Defensive Line > Tight Ends = Linebackers > Running Backs = Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters > Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Percentage Body Fat: Offensive Line > Defensive Line > Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters = Linebackers = Tight Ends > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Comparisons to teams in the 1970s indicate that body mass has increased only for offensive and defensive linemen; however, height and body fat among player positions have not dramatically changed. Furthermore, the body mass index is not an accurate measure or representation of body fat or obesity in NFL players. These data provide a basic template for size profiles and differences among various positions and allow comparisons with other studies for changes in the NFL over the past 3 decades.

  13. Perceptions of Body Habitus and Cultural Health Among Hispanic Adults.

    PubMed

    Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether perceptions of health and health outcomes are impacted by acculturation level, nativity, and years in the United States (US) for Hispanic adults in the Nebraska Panhandle. Focus groups (n = 10), surveys (demographics, body image silhouettes, and acculturation), and anthropometric measurements were conducted. US-born (n = 36) had higher household incomes, education level, and acculturation scores compared to foreign-born (n = 23). Years in the US was positively correlated with acculturation and anthropometrics. No significant differences were detected between groups for rating infant and adolescent health, indicating mid-sized infants were considered healthy and heavier adolescents had increased health risks. However, qualitative data revealed misconceptions regarding obesity and chronic disease and a cultural preference for heavier infants. Despite differences between groups, qualitative data indicated cultural perceptions of health still persist. Data indicates a need for behavioral modification using culturally appropriate methods and for collecting quantitative and qualitative data.

  14. Assessment and Interpretation of Body Composition in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat; Hager, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The physical educator's role is evolving into that of a teacher who is well educated in the areas of teaching, skill acquisition and development, motor learning, exercise physiology, physical conditioning, weight management, health, and lifestyle management. In an era when childhood obesity is at an all-time high, body composition can be one…

  15. Design for manufacturability evaluation: Composite NIF Pockel Cell body

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, W.A.; Spellman, G.P.

    1994-04-01

    A survey of composite materials and processes for the NIF Optical Switch Body is described. Mechanical and physical criterion set upon the part are used as guidelines for the selection of materials and processes for manufacturing. Benefits, costs, and risks associated with selected processes, as well as a recommendation for prototype fabrication is presented.

  16. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Methods: Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. Results: The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m−2. The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m−2 than those with a BMI ⩽21 kg m−2. Conclusion: The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their

  17. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  18. Body composition comparison in two elite female wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Lussier, L; Knight, J; Bell, G; Lohman, T; Morris, A F

    1983-02-01

    It was the purpose of this study to determine body composition by two methods in two excellent female athletes. One sportswoman (SRH) was national wheelchair marathon champion in 1977 in 3 hours, 40 minutes on the Boston course. She still competes internationally and has won three gold medals and set three world records in the last Olympiad for the handicapped in 1980. The second woman athlete (LSJ) competes in wheelchair basketball and track on a national level. Body density was determined by the standard underwater weighing procedure and residual volume determination. A second method to calculate cellular body mass was the measure of potassium 40 (40K) activity by whole body scintillation counter. The characteristics of these athletes are listed as follows: (formula; see text) The results show that both methods of determining adiposity produce results differing by only one percentage point. It is important to determine body composition in these wheelchair athletes since their cellular body mass is decreased because of their disability.

  19. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  20. Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.

  1. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  2. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  3. Gamma resonance absorption. New approach in human body composition studies.

    PubMed

    Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, D; Pierson, R; Goldberg, M; Heymsfield, S; Yasumura, S; Melnychuk, S T; Sredniawski, J

    2000-05-01

    The main stream of body elemental analysis is based on the delayed, prompt, and inelastic neutron interactions with the main elements found in the human body, and subsequent analysis of the measured delayed or prompt gamma ray spectra. This methodology traditionally was, and still is, applied for whole body analysis and requires relatively high radiation doses. A new method, based on gamma nuclear resonance absorption (GNRA), is being established at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of its body composition program. The method is element specific with a high tomographic spatial-resolution capability, at a small fraction of the radiation dose used in the current system. The new system, with its components and capabilities, is described below. PMID:10865747

  4. Analysis of Relationship between the Body Mass Composition and Physical Activity with Body Posture in Children

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Joanna; Czenczek-Lewandowska, Ewelina; Leszczak, Justyna; Mazur, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children's body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys. Each study participant had the posture evaluated with the photogrammetric method using the projection moiré phenomenon. Moreover, body mass composition and the level of physical activity were evaluated. Results. Children with the lowest content of muscle tissue showed the highest difference in the height of the inferior angles of the scapulas in the coronal plane. Children with excessive body fat had less slope of the thoracic-lumbar spine, greater difference in the depth of the inferior angles of the scapula, and greater angle of the shoulder line. The individuals with higher level of physical activity have a smaller angle of body inclination. Conclusion. The content of muscle tissue, adipose tissue, and physical activity level determines the variability of the parameter characterizing the body posture. PMID:27761467

  5. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-05-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC.

  6. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC. PMID:25929363

  7. Effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreeger, T.J.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the effects of fasting and refeeding on body composition in 9 captive adult gray wolves, Canis lupus (6 males, 3 females), during May-June 1995. Body composition was estimated by the technique of tritiated water dilution. Wolves were immobilized and weighed, baseline blood samples were taken, tritiated water was injected, and additional blood samples were taken before fasting, after 10 d of fasting, and again after 2 d of refeeding. Male wolves lost 8% (P = 0.0001) and females lost 7% body mass (P = 0.01) during the 10 d. Males lost 54% of this mass in water, 28% in fat, and 18% in protein/ash; females lost 58% in water, 20% in fat, and 22% in protein/ash. Upon refeeding, male wolves consumed an average of 6.8 kg (15.3% body mass) of deer meat per day and females consumed 6.4 kg (18.7% body mass). All wolves regained their initial mass. Males regained 24% of this mass in water, 70% in fat, and 6% in protein/ash; females regained 35% in water, 51% in fat, and 14% in protein/ash. This study provided evidence that after prolonged fasting, captive wolves could quickly and efficiently regain lost body mass after refeeding.

  8. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  9. Inferences from other bodies for the earth's composition and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of the earth are considered in the light of the earth's presumed status as an end member of the class of predominantly silicate solar system bodies. Bulk composition data for the inner planets are presented and processes which may account for compositional variations are discussed. Problems posed by Viking findings on Mars and Pioneer findings on Venus are mentioned. Prominent evolutionary patterns of the inner planets are discussed, including the inverse correlation of lithospheric and crustal thickness with planetary size, and the thermotectonics of Venus, Mars, and earth are compared.

  10. Chemical compositions of the moon, earth, and eucrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Model compositions of the moon and earth were calculated on the assumption that these planets had experienced chondrite-like nebular fractionation processes. The model correctly predicts the abundance ratios of certain volatile/refractory element pairs (e.g., Cd/Ba, Ga/La, Sn/Th, and Pb/U), the density of the moon, and the major rock types. The model is also used to reconstruct the composition of the parent eucrite body, which resembles the moon except for a lower content of refractory elements.

  11. Influence of Serum Leptin on Weight and Body Fat Growth in Children at High Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Agarwal, Neha; Roberts, Mary D.; Han, Joan C.; Theim, Kelly R.; Vexler, Albert; Troendle, James; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine serum leptin prospectively as a predictor of weight and body fat growth in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that leptin measurements would be positively associated with increased growth of adipose tissue because children with high baseline leptin for their body fat mass have greater leptin resistance and thus would have greater susceptibility to weight gain. Methods Children ages 6–12 yr at high risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight were recruited from 1996–2004. Growth in body mass index (BMI) was studied in 197 children, and growth in total body fat mass was examined in 149 children over an average follow-up interval of 4.4 yr (range, 1–8 yr). Longitudinal analyses accounted for sex, race, socioeconomic status, initial body composition, age, skeletal age, and physical activity and included all available interim visits for each individual so that a total of 982 subject visits were included in the analysis. Results At baseline, 43% of children studied were overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile); during follow-up, an additional 14% became overweight. Independent of initial body composition, baseline leptin was a statistically significant positive predictor of increased BMI (P = 0.0147) and increased total body fat mass (P < 0.007). Conclusions High serum leptin, independent of body fat, may be an indicator of increased leptin resistance, which predisposes children at high risk for adult obesity to somewhat greater growth in weight and body fat during childhood. PMID:17179198

  12. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  13. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Bonilla, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB) are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation, and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis. PMID:24860588

  14. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  15. Body composition and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.): sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Paul B; Rodriguez, Perla J; Voruganti, V Saroja; Mattern, Vicki; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Rice, Karen; Raabe, Timothy; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.) exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in body size. Sexual dimorphism is also exhibited in a number of circulating factors associated with risk of cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether sexual dimorphism in body size and composition underlie these differences. We examined data from 28 male and 24 female outdoor group-housed young adult baboons enrolled in a longitudinal observational study of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Animals were sedated with ketamine HCl (10 mg/kg) before undergoing venous blood draws, basic body measurements, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition scans. Percentage glycated hemoglobin A1c (%HbA1c ) was measured in whole blood. Serum samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. Males were heavier and had greater body length and lean tissue mass than females. Females had a greater body fat percentage relative to males (10.8 ± 6.4 vs. 6.9 ± 4.0, P = 0.01). Although C-peptide, fasting glucose, and %HbA1c did not differ between the sexes, females had greater fasting insulin and triglyceride compared to their male counterparts. Insulin and percentage body fat were significantly correlated in males (r = 0.61, P = 0.001) and to a lesser extent in females (r = 0.43, P = 0.04). Overall, relations between adiposity and fasting insulin and fasting triglyceride were stronger in males. After accounting for differences in percentage body fat, fasting insulin and triglyceride were no longer statistically different between males and females. Despite stronger correlations between relative adiposity and insulin and triglyceride in males, the higher fasting insulin and triglyceride of female baboons may be underlain by their greater relative body fat masses.

  16. Compositions for depolluting fresh water and salt water bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, R.; Degen, L.; Robertiello, A.

    1983-11-08

    Compositions are disclosed, which are adapted to depollute fresh and sea water bodies from crude oil and petroleum product pollution by microbial action. The growth of micro-organisms capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons is exalted by certain combination of nutrients, such as lecithin as a phosphorus source, hydantoins, amides allophanates, polyamines, acyl-ureas and esters of the hydantoic and allantoic acids as the nitrogen sources. Ureido-derivatives of amides are also contemplated as additional nutrients.

  17. The relationship between social network body size and the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica; Wethington, Elaine; Wells, Martin; Devine, Carol M.; Peterson, Janey; Wansink, Brian; Ramos, Rosio; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and the body sizes of their social network members. Methods Egocentric network data were examined for 245 adults recruited from 2012–2013 in New York City. A multivariable regression model was used to examine the relationship between participants' perception of normal body size and the body sizes of their network members adjusted for participant age, education, race/ethnicity and network size. Participants' body size norms were also examined stratified by the following characteristics of obese network members: frequency of contact, living proximity, relationship, and importance of relationship. Results Index participants were 89% female with mean body mass index 33.5 kg/m2. There were 2571 network members identified (31% overweight, 10% obese). In the fully adjusted multivariable model, perception of normal body size increased as the number of network members with obesity increased (p < 0.01). Larger body size norms were associated with increased frequency of contact with obese network members (p = 0.04), and obese members living in the home (p = 0.049). Conclusions These findings support a relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and their social network body size. PMID:26705513

  18. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  19. Protein composition of oil bodies from mature Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Boulard, Céline; Bellamy, Annick; Larré, Colette; Barre, Marion; Rogniaux, Hélène; d'Andréa, Sabine; Chardot, Thierry; Nesi, Nathalie

    2009-06-01

    Seed oil bodies (OBs) are intracellular particles storing lipids as food or biofuel reserves in oleaginous plants. Since Brassica napus OBs could be easily contaminated with protein bodies and/or myrosin cells, they must be purified step by step using floatation technique in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. An exhaustive description of the protein composition of rapeseed OBs from two double-zero varieties was achieved by a combination of proteomic and genomic tools. Genomic analysis led to the identification of sequences coding for major seed oil body proteins, including 19 oleosins, 5 steroleosins and 9 caleosins. Most of these proteins were also identified through proteomic analysis and displayed a high level of sequence conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. Two rapeseed oleosin orthologs appeared acetylated on their N-terminal alanine residue and both caleosins and steroleosins displayed a low level of phosphorylation.

  20. Protein composition of oil bodies from mature Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Pascale; Boulard, Céline; Bellamy, Annick; Larré, Colette; Barre, Marion; Rogniaux, Hélène; d'Andréa, Sabine; Chardot, Thierry; Nesi, Nathalie

    2009-06-01

    Seed oil bodies (OBs) are intracellular particles storing lipids as food or biofuel reserves in oleaginous plants. Since Brassica napus OBs could be easily contaminated with protein bodies and/or myrosin cells, they must be purified step by step using floatation technique in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. An exhaustive description of the protein composition of rapeseed OBs from two double-zero varieties was achieved by a combination of proteomic and genomic tools. Genomic analysis led to the identification of sequences coding for major seed oil body proteins, including 19 oleosins, 5 steroleosins and 9 caleosins. Most of these proteins were also identified through proteomic analysis and displayed a high level of sequence conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. Two rapeseed oleosin orthologs appeared acetylated on their N-terminal alanine residue and both caleosins and steroleosins displayed a low level of phosphorylation. PMID:19562800

  1. Body composition and nutritional profile of male adolescent tennis players.

    PubMed

    Juzwiak, Claudia R; Amancio, Olga M S; Vitalle, Maria S S; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Szejnfeld, Vera L

    2008-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the body composition and dietary intake of 44 adolescent tennis players. After being divided into two groups (age 10-13 years and age 14-18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Food intake was obtained from a non-consecutive 4-day food record. The data were analysed using the Virtual Nutri v.1.0 software and compared with the present recommendations for adolescent athletes or dietary reference intakes. Body mass index and body fat for tennis practice were adequate for 89% and 71% of the tennis players respectively, regardless of age group. A calorie deficit greater than 10% of energy expenditure was observed in 32% of the sample. Fifty percent of the athletes consumed carbohydrates in accordance with recommended values. Protein and lipid intakes were above recommended values, while fibre, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and folic acid intakes were below recommendation for 98%, 80%, 100%, 100%, and 98% of the tennis players respectively. The observed nutritional deficiencies represent an additional barrier for adolescents engaged in competitive sports to achieve an optimum nutrition to maintain growth, health, and performance.

  2. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  3. Heterogeneous composite bodies with isolated lenticular shaped cermet regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Andrew J.

    2009-12-22

    A heterogeneous body having ceramic rich cermet regions in a more ductile metal matrix. The heterogeneous bodies are formed by thermal spray operations on metal substrates. The thermal spray operations apply heat to a cermet powder and project it onto a solid substrate. The cermet powder is composed of complex composite particles in which a complex ceramic-metallic core particle is coated with a matrix precursor. The cermet regions are generally comprised of complex ceramic-metallic composites that correspond approximately to the core particles. The cermet regions are approximately lenticular shaped with an average width that is at least approximately twice the average thickness. The cermet regions are imbedded within the matrix phase and generally isolated from one another. They have obverse and reverse surfaces. The matrix phase is formed from the matrix precursor coating on the core particles. The amount of heat applied during the formation of the heterogeneous body is controlled so that the core particles soften but do not become so fluid that they disperse throughout the matrix phase. The force of the impact on the surface of the substrate tends to flatten them. The flattened cermet regions tend to be approximately aligned with one another in the body.

  4. Bioimpedance measurements of human body composition: critical analysis and outlook.

    PubMed

    Matthie, James R

    2008-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy represents one of the largest emerging medical device technologies. The method is generally known as impedance spectroscopy and is an inexpensive, yet extremely powerful, analytical technique for studying the electrical properties of materials. Much of what we know about biological cells and tissues comes from use of this technique in vitro. Due to the high impedance of the cell membrane, current flow through the cell is frequency dependent and this allows the fluid volume inside versus outside the body's cells to be determined. The fluid outside the cells is primarily related to fluid volume status while the intracellular fluid also relates to the body's cellular mass. Technical advances have removed much of the method's basic complexities. The first commercial bioimpedance spectroscopy device for in vivo human body composition studies was introduced in 1990. Major strides have been made and the method is now poised to enter mainstream clinical medicine but the field is only in its infancy. This paper attempts to fully describe the current use of impedance in the body composition field.

  5. Evaluating patterns of weight and body composition change among college women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen.

  6. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817

  7. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ.

  8. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Asian adults constituted 4.9% of the U.S. population in 2012, corresponding to 15.4 million people (2). This group primarily comprises persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent. The prevalence of hypertension (defined as having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg or taking blood pressure-lowering medications) among non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over was 25.6%. As previously reported, this prevalence is similar to that of non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults but lower than that of non-Hispanic black adults (3). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of hypertension was higher among those who were older or had less education, similar to findings in U.S. adults overall (4,5). The prevalence of high total cholesterol (measured as cholesterol of at least 240 mg/dL) among non-Hispanic Asian adults was similar to that among adults of other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (measured as HDL less than 40 mg/dL) than Hispanic persons (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adult men were almost five times more likely than non-Hispanic Asian adult women to have low HDL cholesterol. While adult men in general are known to have a higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol than adult women (7), the sex difference was larger than in other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). The prevalence of high BMI among non-Hispanic Asian adults (38.6%) was much lower than that previously reported for non-Hispanic white adults (66.7%), non-Hispanic black adults (76.7%), and Hispanic adults (78.8%) (8). BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat. However, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. In particular, at a given BMI, Asian adults may have more body fat than white adults (9). Also, morbidity and mortality risk may be influenced by body composition and fat distribution in a manner that is

  9. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  10. Body composition in human infants at birth and postnatally.

    PubMed

    Koo, W W; Walters, J C; Hockman, E M

    2000-09-01

    The predictive values of anthropometric measurements, race, gender, gestational and postnatal ages, and season at birth and at study for the total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and fat mass as a percentage of body weight (%FM) were determined in 214 singleton appropriate birth weight for gestational age infants [101 Caucasian (60 boys, 41 girls) and 113 African American (55 boys, 58 girls)]. Gestational ages were 27-42 wk and the infants were studied between birth and 391 d, weighing between 851 and 13446 g. In addition, predictive value of body weight, LM and FM for DXA bone measurements was also determined. Scan acquisition used Hologic QDR 1000/W densitometer and infant platform and scans without significant movement artifacts were analyzed using software 5.64p. Body weight, length, gender and postnatal age were significant predictors of LM (adjusted R:(2) >0. 94) and FM (adjusted R:(2) >0.85). Physiologic variables had little predictive value for %FM except in the newborns (adjusted R:(2) 0. 69). Body weight was the dominant predictor of LM and FM, although length had similar predictive value for LM with increasing postnatal age. Female infants had less LM and more FM throughout infancy (P: < 0.01). LM or FM offered no advantage over body weight in the prediction of bone mass measurements. DXA is a useful means with which to determine body composition, and our data are important in the design and assessment of nutritional intervention studies.

  11. Computer technology to evaluate body composition, nutrition, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Katch, F I; Katch, V L

    1983-09-01

    The use of computer technology has made it possible to make accurate determinations of body composition, nutrition, and exercise. With the FITCOMP computer assessment system, detailed measurements of physique status have been made on a variety of world-class athletes, including professional football and baseball players, as well as on diverse groups of young and older men and women throughout the United States. The FITCOMP measurement system allows the user a choice of measurement techniques: fatfolds, girths, bone diameters, and hydrostatic weighing. Combined with body composition assessment is a nutrition and exercise plan. The nutrition plan is based on guidelines formulated by the American Dietetic Association. This application of computer technology is unique, because individuals can select the foods they will eat from a list of preferred choices from the basic food groups. Individual menu plans for breakfast, lunch, and dinner are generated to provide an optimal blend of nutrients aimed at achieving ideal body mass and fat percentage. This is coupled with an aerobic exercise program that is selected by the individual from nine different forms, including walking, jogging, running, swimming, cycling, and various sport activities. The caloric output is designed to reduce total body fat through reductions in body weight of 1.4 to 2.5 pounds per week, depending on the exercise selected and total weight loss necessary to achieve a weight goal (and ideal fat percentage). The aerobic exercise plan is based on the method of overload, where intensity and duration are periodically increased dependent on individual capabilities. The use of fitness-oriented computer technology makes it possible to prepare detailed reports about current status and progress as well as to systematize record keeping.

  12. Body Fat Composition Assessment Using Analytic Morphomics Predicts Infectious Complications After Bowel Resection in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Day, Nicholas M.; Bergmans, Carrie L.; Zahn, Katelin M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Su, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decisions between medical and surgical management of Crohn's disease (CD) incorporate risk assessments for potential complications of each therapy. Analytic morphomics is a novel method of image analysis providing quantifiable measurements of body tissue composition, characterizing body fat more comprehensively than body mass index alone. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative complications in CD, incorporating fat composition analysis using analytic morphomics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adults undergoing bowel resection for CD between 2004 and 2011 at a single center. Computed tomography obtained within 30 days prior to surgery underwent morphomic analysis for fat characterization. Postoperative infectious complications were defined as the need for a postoperative abdominal drain, intravenous antibiotics, or reoperation within 30 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to generate a prediction model of infectious complications. Results: A total of 269 subjects met selection criteria; 27% incurred postoperative infectious complications. Bivariate analysis showed hemoglobin, albumin, surgical urgency, high-dose prednisone use, and subcutaneous-to-visceral fat volume distribution as predictors of complications. Body mass index, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies, and immunomodulator use were not predictors of complication. Multivariate modeling demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.77 and a negative predictive value of 81.1% with surgical urgency (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–6.02; P = 0.004), subcutaneous-to-visceral fat distribution (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.19; P = 0.006), and hemoglobin (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.85; P = 0.001) as predictors of infectious complication. Conclusions: Fat subtype and distribution are predictive of postoperative infectious complications

  13. Nutritional Markers and Body Composition in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valtuille, Rodolfo; Casos, Maria Elisa; Fernandez, Elmer Andres; Guinsburg, Adrian; Marelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse body composition, to detect the presence of undernutrition, and to establish a relationship between undernutrition and the biological markers routinely used as indicators of nutritional status in hemodialysis (HD) patients (pts). We used a body composition monitor (BCM) that expresses body weight in terms of lean tissue mass (LTM) and fat tissue mass (FTM) independent of hydration status. From nine HD units, 934 pts were included. Undernutrition was defined as having a lean tissue index (LTI = LTM/height2) below the 10th percentile of a reference population. Biochemical markers and parameters delivered by BCM were used to compare low LTI and normal LTI groups. Undernutrition prevalence was 58.8% of the population studied. Low LTI pts were older, were significantly more frequently overhydrated, and had been on HD for a longer period of time than the normal LTI group. FTI (FTI = FTM/ height2) was significantly higher in low LTI pts and increased according to BMI. LTI was not influenced by different BMI levels. Albumin and C-reactive protein correlated inversely (r = −0.28). However neither of them was statistically different when considering undernourished and normal LTI pts. Our BCM study was able to show a high prevalence of undernutrition, as expressed by low LTI. In our study, BMI and other common markers, such as albumin, failed to predict malnutrition as determined by BCM. PMID:27347538

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  15. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    PubMed

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-12-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests.

  16. Measurement and Predition Errors in Body Composition Assessment and the Search for the Perfect Prediction Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; Katch, Victor L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of error in body composition assessment by laboratory and field methods can be found in hydrostatic weighing, residual air volume, skinfolds, and circumferences. Statistical analysis can and should be used in the measurement of body composition. (CJ)

  17. Efficiency of energy utilization: effects of diet composition on body composition and mammary neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Boissonneault, G.A.; Elson, C.E.; Pariza, M.W.

    1986-03-05

    Multiple interactions between the efficiency of utilization of dietary fat and carbohydrate energy, energy intake changes in body composition and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis were examined using female F-344 rats. The rats were fed ad libitum a semipurified diet containing 5% corn oil (LF) from weaning to 50 d of age at which each was given, by gavage, 65 mg DMBA/kg body weight. The rats were randomly assigned to diets containing 5% 17.5% (MF) and 30% (HF) corn oil. All diets were balanced with respect per unit of energy in terms of protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. For 28 d post-DMBA, the rats were fed 40 or 42 kcal daily and thereafter, diet was provided ad libitium. Daily energy intakes were recorded throughout the study. The mean energy intakes during the first 35 wk were: LF, 240 +/- 12.3 kcal/wk; MF, 237 +/- 11.7 kcal/wk; and HF, 237 +/- 11.1 kcal/wk. Body weight at 35 wk were: LF, 196 +/- 9.5 g; MF, 206 +/- 13.9 g; and HF, 210 +/- 20.6 g. No differences in tumor incidence (LF, 55%; MF, 46%; HF, 51%), tumors/group (LF, 24; MF, 28; HF, 25) and tumors/tumor-bearing rat (LF, 1.3 +/- 0.7; MF 1.6 +/- 1.0;p HF, 1.2 +/- 0.4) were noted. Within dietary groups tumor incidence was positively correlated with energy intake. However, there were no differences among the various parameters between dietary groups at any energy intake level. Body compositions were monitored during this study. The body fat mass and % carcass weight increased in parallel with the % dietary fat. Concomitantly, % lean body and, to a lesser extent lean body mass decreased. Both body size and body composition, influenced by energy intake and retention, affected the response to DMBA.

  18. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  19. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis; Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M; Butler, David M; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  20. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  1. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eichler Inwood, Sarah; Trakimas, Giedrius; Krams, Ronalds; Burghardt, Gordon M.; Butler, David M.; Luoto, Severi; Krama, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus), and the percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C), a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures. PMID:27602281

  2. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  3. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-02-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.

  4. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005

  5. Body mass index in young adults: Associations with parental body size and education in the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, K J; Liu, K; Dyer, A R; Kiefe, C I; Burke, G L; Yunis, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Associations of parental education, parental body size, and offspring's education with body mass index and 7-year change in body mass index were examined among participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS: CARDIA is a study of coronary artery disease risk factors in 5115 Black and White persons aged 18 to 30 at baseline. Analyses of covariance were carried out with body mass index and change in body mass index as the dependent variables, and with parental education, parental body size, and participant education as the major independent variables. RESULTS: Father's body size was positively associated with participant's baseline body mass index among Black men, White men, and White women. Mother's body size was positively associated with baseline body mass index among all race-sex groups, and with change in body mass index among White women. Father's education was inversely associated with baseline body mass index among Black men and White women, and with change among White women. CONCLUSIONS: Parental education may influence body mass index and changes in young adulthood, especially among White women. Such associations may be both genetic and environmental and may be important for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:8604777

  6. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature.

  7. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  8. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  9. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  10. Foreign body impact event damage formation in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses a methodology that can be used to assess the effect of foreign body impacts on composite structural integrity. The described effort focuses on modeling the effect of a central impact on a 5 3/4 inch filament wound test article. The discussion will commence with details of the material modeling that was used to establish the input properties for the analytical model. This discussion is followed by an overview of the impact assessment methodology. The progress on this effort to date is reviewed along with a discussion of tasks that have yet to be completed.

  11. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça, Rosa Maria Soares Costa; de Araújo Júnior, Adenilson Targino; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Fernandes, Helder Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years). The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG): practitioners of strength training (SG), dance (DG), hydrogymnastics (HG), and a control group (CG) with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ%) were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables “time”, “group” and the interaction between the two (time × group) were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52) = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22), fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01) = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13) and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66) = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36). The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions. PMID:25713646

  12. Determination of body composition in growing rats by total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Morbach, C A; Brans, Y W

    1992-04-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC), measured with an Em-Scan SA-1 analyzer, was evaluated as a means of estimating fat-free mass and total body water content noninvasively in small laboratory animals. Ninety-four rats whose weight ranged from 5.53 to 170.84 g at 0-50 days of age were studied. The animals were killed by intraperitoneal injection of a pentobarbital overdose. After weight, crown-rump length (CRL) and TOBEC were measured, and the animals were minced with scissors and desiccated to constant weight in a convection oven. Fat was extracted by multiple bathings in petroleum ether followed by Soxhlet extraction. Fifty-four rats were used to determine the relation between fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), and TOBEC# (E) by regression analysis. The best correlations were observed between FFM and (E x CRL)1/2 (r = 0.995, p less than 0.0001). Forty rats were used to determine the predictive value of TOBEC estimates. With this instrument, TOBEC tended to underestimate FFM by an average of 3.9% and TBW by 5.3%. Accuracy was questionable for animals smaller than 13 g and TOBEC did not provide useful estimates of total body fat. Subject to these limitations, TOBEC instruments should prove to be useful for sequential in vivo estimations of body composition during growth and development of small animals.

  13. Anorexic effect of peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) varies with age and body composition (short communication).

    PubMed

    Balaskó, Márta; Soós, Sz; Párniczky, A; Koncsecskó-Gáspár, M; Székely, M; Pétervári, E

    2012-06-01

    Obesity of middle-aged mammals is followed at old age by anorexia and cachexia leading to sarcopenia. Complex age- and body composition-related alterations in the regulation of energy homeostasis may be assumed in the background. We aimed to test the possible contribution of age- and body composition-related changes of satiety responses to catabolic brain-gut-axis peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) to these alterations in energy balance during aging. Male Wistar rats (6-8 animals/group) aged 2 months (juvenile), 3 months (young adult), 6 or 12 months (early or late middle-aged), and 24 months (old) were injected intraperitoneally with 5 μg CCK-8 prior to re-feeding after 48-h food-deprivation. CCK suppressed re-feeding in young adult (26.8%), early middle-aged (35.5%), and old (31.4%) animals, but not in juvenile or late middle-aged rats (one-way ANOVA). CCK-resistance of 12 months old rats was prevented by life-long calorie-restriction: CCK suppressed their re-feeding by 46.8%. Conversely, in highfat diet-induced obese 6 months old rats CCK failed to suppress re-feeding. In conclusion, age-related changes in satiety responsiveness to CCK may contribute to the age-related obesity of middle-aged as well as to the anorexia of old animals. CCK-responsiveness is also influenced by body composition: calorie-restriction prevents the resistance to CCK, pre-existing obesity enhances it.

  14. The influence of physical activity, body composition, and lower extremity strength on walking ability.

    PubMed

    Marques, Elisa; Carvalho, Joana; Pizarro, Andreia; Wanderlay, Flávia; Mota, Jorge

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relationship among objective measures of body composition, lower extremity strength, physical activity, and walking performance and determined whether this interaction differed according to walking ability. Participants were 126 adults ages 60-91 yr. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the 30-s chair stand test (30sCST), appendicular lean mass index (aLMI), body mass index, and age were independent contributors to walking performance, explaining 44.3% of the variance. For slower walkers, appendicular fat mass index (aFMI), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 30sCST, and aLMI (r2 = .49, p < .001) largely explained variance in walking performance. For faster walkers, aFMI and aLMI explained 31.4% (p < .001) of the variance. These data suggest that both fat and lean mass are associated with walking performance in higher- and lower-functioning older adults, whereas MPVA and muscle strength influence walking ability only among lower-functioning older adults. PMID:22113093

  15. A modeling approach for compounds affecting body composition.

    PubMed

    Gennemark, Peter; Jansson-Löfmark, Rasmus; Hyberg, Gina; Wigstrand, Maria; Kakol-Palm, Dorota; Håkansson, Pernilla; Hovdal, Daniel; Brodin, Peter; Fritsch-Fredin, Maria; Antonsson, Madeleine; Ploj, Karolina; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Body composition and body mass are pivotal clinical endpoints in studies of welfare diseases. We present a combined effort of established and new mathematical models based on rigorous monitoring of energy intake (EI) and body mass in mice. Specifically, we parameterize a mechanistic turnover model based on the law of energy conservation coupled to a drug mechanism model. Key model variables are fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), governed by EI and energy expenditure (EE). An empirical Forbes curve relating FFM to FM was derived experimentally for female C57BL/6 mice. The Forbes curve differs from a previously reported curve for male C57BL/6 mice, and we thoroughly analyse how the choice of Forbes curve impacts model predictions. The drug mechanism function acts on EI or EE, or both. Drug mechanism parameters (two to three parameters) and system parameters (up to six free parameters) could be estimated with good precision (coefficients of variation typically <20 % and not greater than 40 % in our analyses). Model simulations were done to predict the EE and FM change at different drug provocations in mice. In addition, we simulated body mass and FM changes at different drug provocations using a similar model for man. Surprisingly, model simulations indicate that an increase in EI (e.g. 10 %) was more efficient than an equal lowering of EI. Also, the relative change in body mass and FM is greater in man than in mouse at the same relative change in either EI or EE. We acknowledge that this assumes the same drug mechanism impact across the two species. A set of recommendations regarding the Forbes curve, vehicle control groups, dual action on EI and loss, and translational aspects are discussed. This quantitative approach significantly improves data interpretation, disease system understanding, safety assessment and translation across species.

  16. Dynamic body weight and body composition changes in response to subordination stress

    PubMed Central

    Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Hegeman, Maria A.; Nguyen, Mary M. N.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Ma, Li Yun; Woods, Stephen C.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    Social stress is prevalent in many facets of modern society. Epidemiological data suggest that stress is linked to the development of overweight, obesity and metabolic disease. Although there are strong associations between the incidence of obesity with stress and elevated levels of hormones such as cortisol, there are limited animal models to allow investigation of the etiology of increased adiposity resulting from exposure to stress. Perhaps more importantly, an animal model that mirrors the consequences of stress in humans will provide a vehicle to develop rational clinical therapy to treat or prevent adverse outcomes from exposure to chronic social stress. In the visible burrow system (VBS) model of chronic social stress mixed gender colonies are housed for 2 week periods during which male rats of the colony quickly develop a dominance hierarchy. We found that social stress has significant effects on body weight and body composition such that subordinate rats progressively develop characteristics of obesity that occurs, in part, through neuroendocrine alterations and changes in food intake amount. Although SUB are hyperphagic following social stress they do not increase their intake of sucrose solution as CON and DOM do suggesting that they are anhedonic. Consumption of a high fat diet does not appear to affect development of a social hierarchy and appears to enhance the effect that chronic stress has on body composition. The visible burrow system (VBS) model of social stress may be a potential laboratory model for studying stress-associated metabolic disease, including the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17512562

  17. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image.

  18. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  19. Effects of exercise modality on metabolic rate and body composition.

    PubMed

    Sale, J E; McCargar, L J; Crawford, S M; Taunton, J E

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise as a strategy for weight management in overweight women. Specifically, the effects of exercise modality on resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition [sum of skinfolds and fat-free mass (FFM)] were examined. Participants included 41 overweight, sedentary women aged 25-49 years who had a defined history of dieting. Experimental (n = 26) and control (n = 15) participants were recruited separately. Participants in the experimental group were randomly assigned to either an endurance- or a resistance-training exercise class. Exercise classes designed for a sedentary population were scheduled three times per week for a duration of 3 months. Results indicated that exercise modality had no effect on REE. Exercise, regardless of modality, had a significant effect on body composition (p = 0.0001) as shown by a significant decrease in the sum of skinfolds for the two exercise groups relative to the control group (p < 0.0001). No differences in fat-free mass were observed between groups. Regardless of modality, exercise also resulted in an increased estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), based on a 1-mile walking test (p = 0.012). The pattern of weight change of the groups was different (p = 0.029) over the 3-month period. Whereas the exercise groups maintained their weight, the control group gained weight (approximately 2.5 kg). Thus, although exercise modality had no effect, the benefits of exercise per se, such as decreased body fat, increased fitness level, and weight maintenance, were observed in this population.

  20. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888

  1. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  2. Bioengineering approach to non-invasive measurement of body composition.

    PubMed

    Dubin, S; Nissanov, J; Zietz, S; Schrope, B; Naim, A; Morano, R; Hanania, R

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of body fat percentage is essential for medical care and research. The "gold standard" method for humans is underwater weighing, which is clearly inappropriate for infants, sick people and non-human animals. The corresponding criterion method for animals is comminution of the carcass followed by extraction of the fat with a volatile solvent such as ether. Our goal has been to develop a method for body composition (fat percentage) for use in animals and humans which is non-invasive and minimally intrusive, independent of variation in body conformation and fat distribution, and reasonable in cost. In one variant, our approach to this problem has been to move Archimedes' principle "on to dry land." The subject's volume is determined by measuring the differential buoyancy in comfortably breathable light (low density) and heavy atmospheres. In another, we use "structured light," in which a pattern of illumination is cast on the patient. The image is acquired using a video camera and the geometrical spatial coordinates of a large number of points on the surface of the subject are acquired. This permits the computation of the surface area and volume of the subject; which, combined with the weight, determines the fat percentage. PMID:7948641

  3. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  4. New way of body composition analysis using total body electrical conductivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Wojciech; Koteja, Pawel; Weiner, January; Froncisz, Wojciech

    1995-04-01

    Traditional methods of measuring total body water and fat content of animals that require sacrificing specimens are generally unacceptable when endangered species, or large animal sizes, or humans are involved. These methods are also unsuitable for following changes of fat and water content in individuals. An alternative method, based on the nonresonant absorption of a rf electromagnetic field has been used for constructing a new body composition analyzer. As the electrical conductivity of lipids is approximately 20 times lower than that of lean tissues, the rf power absorbed by the animal provides information which enables one to calculate the lean body mass and total body water. The new instrument measures rf power absorbed by an animal by measuring the quality factor (Q) of the resonant circuit with an animal placed inside the coil. Numerical calculations of the rf power absorbed by a cylindrical object containing 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution have also been performed. Experimental values confirmed the calculated dependence of the absorbed power on the cylinder radius. The device built has been calibrated on 9 males and 11 females of laboratory mice. The amount of lipids was then measured by ether extraction. The relation between instrument reading, which is proportional to the power absorption, and lean body mass (LBM) or water mass (WM) was linear and highly significant: the simple regression coefficients of determination were 0.983 for LBM, and 0.990 for WM (p<0.001). It has been found that for an individual animal with a body mass ranging from 15.9 to 40.7 g, the accuracy of measurement was ±1.6 g for LBM and ±1 g for WM.

  5. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  6. The Body Esteem of Hmong and Caucasian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoi, Stephen L.; Chang, Zoua

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated race and gender differences among 73 Hmong American and 80 Caucasian American college students. Racial differences were found only among the women, with Hmong women holding more positive attitudes toward weight concern body items and expressing less interest in changing these body items than Caucasian women. There were no…

  7. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  8. Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Saba; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Kelly, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypothesis: lean body mass (LBM) is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is. Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF) youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z) were generated for CF and controls. (1) Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and (2) age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: Two hundred eight PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (p < 0.0001) in PI-CF. In females, LBMI-Z and BMI-Z were positively associated with FEV1%-predicted; this relationship did not persist for FMI-Z after adjustment for LBMI-Z. In males, only LBMI-Z and BMI-Z were associated with FEV1%-predicted. Conclusion: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth, this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. Lean body mass index is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the under-nourished child and adolescent with PI-CF. PMID:24783186

  9. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Aimé, Annie; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the potential effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition (weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference) among adults with an intellectual disability (ID) have been examined in various systematic reviews. Nevertheless, since the middle of the 1980s, the potential effects of these interventions for youth with an ID remain an open question. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an ID. This review will focus on changes in body weight and composition, healthy lifestyle, and secondary health conditions. A systematic review of English- and French-language studies, published between 1981 and 2013, was performed on Academic Search Complete, PsycARTICLES, Medline and Scopus. The nine studies included in this review focused mainly on: a sample with a wide age range (e.g., 7-22 years); males; overweight-obese youth having a mild-to-moderate ID with Down or Prader-Willi syndrome; physical activity interventions; cohort pre- and post-test designs with/without a control group; and changes in body weight and composition. Taken together, results from these studies suggest successful changes in weight, body mass index and fat mass. However, intervention effects on healthy lifestyle and secondary health conditions are scarce and inconclusive. Given the weaknesses of the reviewed studies, the present findings should be considered preliminary and indicative of the need for future research. PMID:24830882

  10. Precision Error in Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Measurements in Elite Male Rugby League Players.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Matthew J; Oldroyd, Brian; Smith, Debbie; Lees, Matthew J; Brightmore, Amy; Till, Kevin; Jones, Benjamin; Hind, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is becoming increasingly popular in both clinical and sports science settings. Obesity, characterized by high fat mass (FM), is associated with larger precision errors; however, precision error for athletic groups with high levels of lean mass (LM) are unclear. Total (TB) and regional (limbs and trunk) body composition were determined from 2 consecutive total body scans (GE Lunar iDXA) with re-positioning in 45 elite male rugby league players (age: 21.8 ± 5.4 yr; body mass index: 27.8 ± 2.5 kg m(-1)). The root mean squared standard deviation (percentage co-efficient of variation) were TB bone mineral content: 24g (1.7%), TB LM: 321 g (1.6%), and TB FM: 280 g (2.3%). Regional precision values were superior for measurements of bone mineral content: 4.7-16.3 g (1.7-2.1%) and LM: 137-402 g (2.0-2.4%), than for FM: 63-299 g (3.1-4.1%). Precision error of DXA body composition measurements in elite male rugby players is higher than those reported elsewhere for normal adult populations and similar to those reported in those who are obese. It is advised that caution is applied when interpreting longitudinal DXA-derived body composition measurements in male rugby players and population-specific least significant change should be adopted. PMID:26072358

  11. Body composition assessment of paddle and tennis adult male players.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Roche Collado, Enrique; Vicente-Salar, Néstor

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: los deportistas que practican disciplinas deportivas de raqueta necesitan mejorar constantemente sus cualidades físicas con el fin de competir al máximo nivel. Por lo tanto, es necesario conseguir y mantener en dichos jugadores una óptima composición corporal, pero no obstante, existen pocos estudios publicados relacionados con esta temática. Objetivo: el presente trabajo trata de ofrecer un perfil antropométrico completo, incluyendo el somatotipo y la composición corporal de jugadores varones adultos de pádel y tenis. Material y métodos: se realizaron diversas medidas antropométricas, incluyendo peso corporal total, estatura, pliegues cutáneos, perímetros y diámetros, en 21 jugadores de pádel y 26 jugadores de tenis. Los resultados obtenidos de cada grupo de jugadores se compararon entre ellos y frente a un grupo control que no practicaba deportes de raqueta. Resultados: no se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a las variables de composición corporal analizadas entre los grupos de jugadores de pádel y tenis, mostrando ambos grupos un somatotipo meso-endomófico. Los jugadores presentaron una menor masa muscular, y por tanto un menor componente mesomórfico, cuando se compararon con el grupo control. Conclusión: ya que la composición corporal es determinante en el rendimiento de los jugadores de deportes de raqueta, es imprescindible realizar un control de la grasa y masa muscular mediante herramientas dietético-nutricionales así como de programas de entrenamiento adecuados.

  12. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  13. Optimal body fat percentage cut-offs for obesity in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Chen; Bao, Yuqian; Peng, Liangpu; Gu, Huilin; Jia, Weiping

    2012-04-01

    Obesity results in an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Body fat percentage (BF%) is a common index of body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity to predict MetS and T2DM in Chinese adults. The baseline study group comprised 3916 Chinese adults (age 30-70 years of age); 2033 subjects without MetS or T2DM were followed up for a maximum of 5.5 years. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the association between obesity at baseline defined by BF% and newly developed MetS and T2DM. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (23.9 ± 6.1% vs 33.5 ± 7.1%, respectively; P < 0.01). For men, the optimal BF% cut-offs for the prediction of MetS and T2DM were 25.45% and 26.65%, respectively; for women, the corresponding values were 34.95% and 36.55%. Subjects with high BF% (≥ 25% in men; ≥ 35% in women) had higher risks of incident MetS or T2DM than those with low BF% (< 25% in men; < 35% in women). The relative risks were 3.43 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.59-4.54) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.85-4.60), respectively. The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of MetS and T2DM in Chinese men and women were around 25% and 35%, respectively.

  14. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  15. Redefining body composition: nutrients hormones, and genes in meat production.

    PubMed

    Wray-Cahen, C D; Kerr, D E; Evock-Clover, C M; Steele, N C

    1998-01-01

    Growth rate and body composition of livestock can be optimized to meet consumer needs for a leaner product and to improve the efficiency of meat-animal production. Optimization strategies have traditionally focused on genetic selection and cost-effective ration formulation to achieve the genetic potential. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of growth and its control have led to additional opportunities for its manipulation. These include nutritional manipulation,the use of growth promotants, and, more recently, the ability to change the genetic potential through genetic engineering. Selection of appropriate candidate genes for manipulation depends on understanding the mechanisms underlying differentiation and growth of embryonic muscle cells. Recent advances in genetic engineering techniques, including gene therapy and germline transgenesis, will likely hasten the genetic progress toward a leaner carcass in domestic livestock. Such strategies may prove to be more beneficial then the controlled enhancement of somatotropin expression.

  16. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  17. Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity.

    PubMed

    Debevec, Tadej; McDonnell, Adam C; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg·m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mm Hg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest. PMID:24552383

  18. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  20. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  1. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  2. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  3. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  4. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  5. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity.

  6. Unusual foreign body in the nasal cavity of an adult with repaired cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Nagabhairava; GunaShekhar, M; Prasad, S Raghavendra; Lalitha, N; Raju, P Ramanjaneya; Natesh, Y A

    2015-03-01

    Intranasal foreign bodies arising from dental clinical practice, especially in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) occur rarely and are very scarce in the literature. This article reports an unusual case of a dental impression material presenting as a foreign body in the nasal cavity of an adult with repaired CLP who presented for dental prosthetic rehabilitation. To our knowledge, this is only the second report presenting nasal foreign body in a cleft patient arising due to a dental impression procedure.

  7. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  8. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  9. Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nilesh M.; Raphael, Bram; Guteirrez, Ivan; Quinn, Nicolle; Mitchell, Paul D.; Litman, Heather J.; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the agreement of multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry with reference methods for body composition assessment in children with intestinal failure (IF). Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study in children 14 years of age or younger with IF resulting from either short bowel syndrome (SBS) or motility disorders. Bland Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between BIA and deuterium dilution in measuring total body water (TBW) and lean body mass (LBM); and between BIA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) techniques in measuring LBM and FM. Fat mass (FM) and percent body fat (%BF) measurements by BIA and anthropometry, were also compared in relation to those measured by deuterium dilution. Results Fifteen children with IF, median (IQR) age 7.2 (5.0, 10.0) years, 10 (67%) male, were studied. BIA and deuterium dilution were in good agreement with a mean bias (limits of agreement) of 0.9 (-3.2, 5.0) for TBW (L) and 0.1 (-5.4 to 5.6) for LBM (kg) measurements. The mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF measurements were 0.4 (-3.8, 4.6) kg and 1.7 (-16.9, 20.3)% respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 12/14 (86%) subjects for TBW and LBM, and in 11/14 (79%) for FM and %BF measurements. Mean bias (limits) for LBM (kg) and FM (kg) between BIA and DXA were 1.6 (-3.0 to 6.3) kg and -0.1 (-3.2 to 3.1) kg, respectively. Mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF between anthropometry and deuterium dilution were 0.2 (-4.2, 4.6) and -0.2 (-19.5 to 19.1), respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 10/14 (71%) subjects. Conclusions In children with intestinal failure, TBW and LBM measurements by multifrequency BIA method were in agreement with isotope dilution and DXA methods, with small mean bias. In comparison to deuterium dilution, BIA was comparable to anthropometry for FM and %BF assessments with small mean bias. However, the limits of agreement

  10. Effect of growth hormone treatment on hormonal parameters, body composition and strength in athletes.

    PubMed

    Deyssig, R; Frisch, H; Blum, W F; Waldhör, T

    1993-04-01

    The effect of recombinant GH on strength, body composition and endocrine parameters in power athletes was investigated in a controlled study. Twenty-two healthy, non-obese males (age 23.4 +/- 0.5 years; ideal body weight 122 +/- 3.1%, body fat 10.1 +/- 1.0%; mean +/- SEM) were included. Probands were assigned in a double-blind manner to either GH treatment (0.09U (kg BW)-1 day-1 sc) or placebo for a period of six weeks. To exclude concurrent treatment with androgenic-anabolic steroids urine specimens were tested at regular intervals for these substances. Serum was assayed for GH, IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins, insulin and thyroxine before the onset of the study and at two-weekly intervals thereafter. Maximal voluntary strength of the biceps and quadriceps muscles was measured on a strength training apparatus. Fat mass and lean body mass were derived from measurements of skinfolds at ten sites with a caliper. For final evaluation only data of those 8 and 10 subjects in the two groups who completed the study were analyzed. GH, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein were in the normal range before therapy and increased significantly in the GH-treated group. Fasting insulin concentrations increased insignificantly and thyroxine levels decreased significantly in the GH-treated probands. There was no effect of GH treatment on maximal strength during concentric contraction of the biceps and quadriceps muscles. Body weight and body fat were not changed significantly during treatment. We conclude that the anabolic, lipolytic effect of GH therapy in adults depends on the degree of fat mass and GH deficiency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  12. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes. PMID:26907839

  13. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes.

  14. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation.

  15. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  16. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    PubMed Central

    Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Bustamante, María Á.; Larretxi, Idoia; Simon, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 ± 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrient distribution of their diet was carried out. Their fulfillment of micronutrient intake recommendations was verified. Participants showed a Body Mass Index of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Energy Intake was slightly lower than the Dietary Reference Intakes. Excessive protein apart from over-consumption of fat was observed. More than three quarters of participants consumed meat in excess. Carbohydrate consumption along with that of fiber was below recommended levels. Vitamin D, iron, and iodine had a low percentage of recommendation compliance. In general, participants followed the recommendations of dairy products and fruit intake whereas vegetable consumption was not enough for the vast majority. We conclude that although the diet of celiac women does not differ much from the diet of general population, some considerations, such as reducing fat and protein consumption and increasing fiber intake, must be taken into account. PMID:26184289

  17. Impact of Resistance Circuit Training on Neuromuscular, Cardiorespiratory and Body Composition Adaptations in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Martínez-Pascual, Miryam; Alcaraz, Pedro E.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in maximal aerobic power and skeletal muscle force production with advancing age are examples of functional declines with aging, which can severely limit physical performance and independence, and are negatively correlated with all cause mortality. It is well known that both endurance exercise and resistance training can substantially improve physical fitness and health-related factors in older individuals. Circuit-based resistance training, where loads are lifted with minimal rest, may be a very effective strategy for increasing oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, strength, and functional capacity while improving body composition. In addition, circuit training is a time-efficient exercise modality that can elicit demonstrable improvements in health and physical fitness. Hence, it seems reasonable to identify the most effective combination of intensity, volume, work to rest ratio, weekly frequency and exercise sequence to promote neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Thus, the purpose of this review was to summarize and update knowledge about the effects of circuit weight training in older adults and elderly population, as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime. PMID:24124631

  18. Compositions of Oceans on Icy Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features [1] suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2] implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction [3]. Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters [3] are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in

  19. The association between abdominal body composition and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Criqui, Michael H; Wright, C Michael; Wassel, Christina L; Alcaraz, John E; Allison, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be associated with both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in the abdomen. Accordingly, we examined whether subcutaneous, intermuscular, and visceral adipose tissue, as well as abdominal lean muscle, were associated with the presence and extent of vascular calcification in multiple vascular beds. Three hundred and ninety four patients (58.1% men) underwent electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans as part of routine health maintenance screening. The coronary and carotid calcium scores were analyzed at the time of the scan, whereas the other calcium scores, as well as the body composition analyses, were analyzed retrospectively. Mean age was 55.2 ± 11.1 years and BMI was 26.9 ± 4.2. The prevalence of any calcification in the carotids, coronaries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and iliacs was 30.1, 60.1, 39.8, 55.7, and 56.8%, respectively. Compared to those with calcification in different vascular beds, those without vascular calcification generally had significantly more lean muscle and less adipose tissue. In separate multivariable logistic models, a 1 s.d. increment in the ratio of abdominal and visceral fat to total area of each corresponding compartments was significantly associated with an increased odds for the presence of thoracic aortic calcium (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 1.5, respectively; P = 0.01 for both). Conversely, increases in abdominal lean muscle were associated with significantly decreased odds of thoracic aortic calcification (OR = 0.34; P ≤ 0.01). A similar pattern of associations existed among the other vascular beds. Also, the association between lean muscle and vascular calcification was independent of visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, adipose tissue was positively and lean body mass inversely associated with prevalent aortic calcification. PMID:21475146

  20. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  1. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  2. Body composition and Basal metabolic rate in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (P value < 0.021) and Huang et al. (P value ≤ 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  3. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  4. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  5. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  6. History of the study of human body composition: A brief review.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    1999-01-01

    This review assembles a chronology of human body composition research with the goal of exposing historical roots and identifying future potential trends. Body composition research has emerged over the past several decades as a distinct field, and for many scientists body composition is their primary investigative focus. Technological advances will likely move the field forward and, ultimately, help to expand knowledge of human body composition variability in health and disease. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:157-165, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Mark D.; Kenny, Anne M.; Oncken, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain, but the effects of smoking cessation on measures of body composition (BC) have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 16 months of cigarette abstinence on areas of BC measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods One hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women participated in a smoking cessation study using the nicotine patch. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from 119 subjects (age 56 ± 7 years, range 41–78 years) who had had DXA scans at baseline and 16 months later. Participants were classified either as quitters (self-reported cigarette abstinence confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide [co] ≤8 ppm at 3 and 16 months after quit date) or as continued smokers. BC was assessed using a General Electric Lunar DXA IQ machine. Four areas of BC (kg) were measured: whole body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, and functional skeletal muscle mass in arms and legs (ASM/ht2). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed changes in BC in quitters vs. continued smokers between baseline and 16 months of follow-up. Increases in BC measures were evaluated as a function of increased calorie intake or change in physical activity, using linear regression. Results Quitters significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001), fat mass (p < 0.001), muscle mass (p = 0.04), and functional muscle mass (p = 0.004) over time, when baseline BC measures and other confounding factors were controlled. Regression analysis indicated change in BC could not be accounted for by calorie intake or physical activity. Conclusions Smoking cessation may be associated with increased fat and muscle mass in postmenopausal women. The novel finding of an increase in functional muscle mass suggests that smoking cessation could increase functional capacity. Further studies need to replicate these findings and examine mechanisms of these effects. PMID

  8. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  9. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  10. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  11. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  12. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  13. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  14. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Nadia M.; Rasheed, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II data were used for comparison. RESULTS: Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cut-off values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES II), arm muscularity was substantially lower. CONCLUSIONS: Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention programs is emphasized. PMID:19584585

  15. Dexa Body Composition Assessment in 10-11 Year Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Doodeman, H. J.; Struijf, E.; Houdijk, A. P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem associated with metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence links the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to these obesity related health risks in adults. Childhood obesity is associated with a lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and poses a serious challenge to future health care. In children, there is much less data on the prevalence and gender differences of visceral obesity than in adults. This study aims to provide reference values for VAT in children 10–11 years of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study performed in the north western part of theNetherlands, healthy children of 10–11 years of age, were recruited from primary schools. Anthropometric data consisting of height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI were measured. Body composition was measured using DXA, providing measures for bone mineral content, total fat mass (TFM), lean body mass (LBM) and VAT. Results 217 children were eligible for this study. Girls appeared to have a greater TFM (31.4% vs 27.5% of total body weight (TBW); P < .01) but lower VAT (0.3% vs 0.5% of TBW;P < .01) than boys, whereas boys had higher LBM (65.4% vs 69.3% TBW;P < .01). Median VAT area (cm2) was 41.1 for boys and 22.4 for girls (P < .01). Moderate to strong correlations were found for WC and BMI with VAT (boys: r = .664 and r = .630; Girls r = .699 and r = .546 respectively all P < .001). Discussion This study shows gender specific differences in VAT percentiles in healthy non-obese 10–11 year old children as measured by DXA that may serve as reference values in children. Independent of BMI and WC, girls tend to have more TFM but less VAT and LBM than boys. PMID:27788168

  16. Localization and regulation of PML bodies in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Małgorzata H; Magalska, Adriana; Malinowska, Monika; Ruszczycki, Błażej; Czaban, Iwona; Patel, Satyam; Ambrożek-Latecka, Magdalena; Zołocińska, Ewa; Broszkiewicz, Hanna; Parobczak, Kamil; Nair, Rajeevkumar R; Rylski, Marcin; Pawlak, Robert; Bramham, Clive R; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M

    2016-06-01

    PML is a tumor suppressor protein involved in the pathogenesis of promyelocytic leukemia. In non-neuronal cells, PML is a principal component of characteristic nuclear bodies. In the brain, PML has been implicated in the control of embryonic neurogenesis, and in certain physiological and pathological phenomena in the adult brain. Yet, the cellular and subcellular localization of the PML protein in the brain, including its presence in the nuclear bodies, has not been investigated comprehensively. Because the formation of PML bodies appears to be a key aspect in the function of the PML protein, we investigated the presence of these structures and their anatomical distribution, throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PML is broadly expressed across the gray matter, with the highest levels in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. In the cerebral cortex PML is present exclusively in neurons, in which it forms well-defined nuclear inclusions containing SUMO-1, SUMO 2/3, but not Daxx. At the ultrastructural level, the appearance of neuronal PML bodies differs from the classic one, i.e., the solitary structure with more or less distinctive capsule. Rather, neuronal PML bodies have the form of small PML protein aggregates located in the close vicinity of chromatin threads. The number, size, and signal intensity of neuronal PML bodies are dynamically influenced by immobilization stress and seizures. Our study indicates that PML bodies are broadly involved in activity-dependent nuclear phenomena in adult neurons.

  17. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition123

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Joseph P; Mulligan, Kathleen; Fan, Bo; Sherman, Jennifer L; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tai, Viva W; Powers, Cassidy L; Marquez, Lorena; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total body volume (TBV), with the exclusion of internal air voids, is necessary to quantify body composition in Lohman's 4-compartment (4C) model. Objective: This investigation sought to derive a novel, TBV measure with the use of only dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) attenuation values for use in Lohman's 4C body composition model. Design: Pixel-specific masses and volumes were calculated from low- and high-energy attenuation values with the use of first principle conversions of mass attenuation coefficients. Pixel masses and volumes were summed to derive body mass and total body volume. As proof of concept, 11 participants were recruited to have 4C measures taken: DXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and total body water (TBW). TBV measures with the use of only DXA (DXA-volume) and ADP-volume measures were compared for each participant. To see how body composition estimates were affected by these 2 methods, we used Lohman's 4C model to quantify percentage fat measures for each participant and compared them with conventional DXA measures. Results: DXA-volume and ADP-volume measures were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99) and showed no statistically significant bias. Percentage fat by DXA volume was highly correlated with ADP-volume percentage fat measures and DXA software-reported percentage fat measures (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.98, respectively) but were slightly biased. Conclusions: A novel method to calculate TBV with the use of a clinical DXA system was developed, compared against ADP as proof of principle, and used in Lohman's 4C body composition model. The DXA-volume approach eliminates many of the inherent inaccuracies associated with displacement measures for volume and, if validated in larger groups of participants, would simplify the acquisition of 4C body composition to a single DXA scan and TBW measure. PMID:22134952

  18. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Sawitsky, A.; Rai, K.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting. (JMT)

  19. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs. PMID:27699119

  20. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs.

  1. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  3. Body Composition Changes Resulting from Fluid Ingestion and Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girandola, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    It is recommended that when obtaining measures of body density by hydrostatic weighing, the subjects normal level of hydration be ascertained, since variance in body fat calculation from the hyperhydrated to the hydrated state can amount to twenty percent (two percent in actual body fat). (MB)

  4. Physical Best--Body Composition in the Assessment of Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott

    1988-01-01

    The article explains why body composition measurements are considered a necessary and important part of the "physical best" concept in the assessment of health-related physical fitness and presents evidence that the skinfold technique is both reliable and valid for estimating body composition in both children and youth. (CB)

  5. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  6. Relationship between Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI–BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18–83 years were grouped into young (18–39 years) middle aged (40–59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Results Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. Conclusions BMI strongly correlate with BF

  7. Does Upper Extremity Training Influence Body Composition after Spinal Cord Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Justin A.; McNelis, Meredith A.; Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Goetz, Lance L.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to serious body composition adaptations characterized by increasing whole body fat mass and decreased soft tissue lean mass (LM). These adaptations in body composition may lead to several cardio-metabolic disorders that reduce the quality of life, increase patients’ and caregivers’ burden and eventually leads to mortality. Exercise, an appropriate dietary regimen, and an active lifestyle may alleviate several of the negative effects on body composition after a SCI. Today however, there is no established consensus on the recommended dose, frequency or type of exercise to ameliorate several of the body composition sequelae after an acute SCI. Resistance training has been previously recommended as an effective strategy to restore soft tissue LM and decrease fat mass (FM). The strategy can be simply implemented as a routine home-based training program using free weights or resistance bands after a SCI. Additionally, upper extremity (UE) circuit resistance training has been previously used to improve cardiovascular and metabolic parameters after a SCI; however compared to the vast knowledge regarding the able-bodied (AB) population, the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition after a SCI is not well established. In summary, the available evidence does not support the rationale that UE circuit resistance training can lead to positive adaptations in body composition after a SCI. Further studies are suggested to examine the effects of UE circuit resistance training on body composition. PMID:26236549

  8. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  9. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P body density (1.0379 g/cm3) significantly higher (P body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P body moisture (0.08 kg; P Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate for the first time that increases in body heat and moisture result in an underestimation of body fat when using the BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  10. Symmetry considerations in the scattering of identical composite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies of the interactions between composite particles were extended to the case in which the composites are identical. The form of the total interaction potential matrix elements was obtained, and guidelines for their explicit evaluation were given. For the case of elastic scattering of identical composites, the matrix element approach was shown to be equivalent to the scattering amplitude method.

  11. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  12. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paddy D.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6–11) and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS), the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian (MVB) analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age. Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life. PMID:25484863

  13. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  14. The Composite Effect Is Face-Specific in Young but Not Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

    2016-01-01

    In studying holistic face processing across the life-span there are only few attempts to separate face-specific from general aging effects. Here we used the complete design of the composite paradigm (Cheung et al., 2008) with faces and novel non-face control objects (watches) to investigate composite effects in young (18-32 years) and older adults (63-78 years). We included cueing conditions to alert using a narrow or a wide attentional focus when comparing the composite objects, and used brief and relaxed exposure durations for stimulus presentation. Young adults showed large composite effects for faces, but none for watches. In contrast, older adults showed strong composite effects for faces and watches, albeit the effects were larger for faces. Moreover, composite effects for faces were larger for the wide attentional focus in both age groups, while the composite effects for watches of older adults were alike for both cueing conditions. Older adults showed low accuracy at the same levels for both types of stimuli when attended and non-attended halves were incongruent. Increasing presentation times improved performance strongly for congruent but not for incongruent composite objects. These findings suggest that the composite effects of older adults reflect substantial decline in the ability to control irrelevant stimuli, which takes effect both in non-face objects and in faces. In young adults, highly efficient attentional control mostly precludes interference of irrelevant features in novel objects, thus their composite effects reflect holistic integration specific for faces or objects of expertise.

  15. Reliability and validity of the lung volume measurement made by the BOD POD body composition system.

    PubMed

    Davis, James A; Dorado, Silvia; Keays, Kathleen A; Reigel, Kimberly A; Valencia, Kristoffer S; Pham, Patrick H

    2007-01-01

    The BOD POD Body Composition System uses air-displacement plethysmography to measure body volume. To correct the body volume measurement for the subject's lung volume, the BOD POD utilizes pulmonary plethysmography to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) at mid-exhalation as that is the subject's lung volume during the body volume measurement. Normally, FRC is measured at end-exhalation. The BOD POD FRC measurement can be corrected to an end-exhalation volume by subtracting approximately one-half of the measured tidal volume. Our purpose was to determine the reliability and validity of the BOD POD FRC measurement at end-exhalation. Ninety-two healthy adults (half female) underwent duplicate FRC measurements by the BOD POD and one FRC measurement by a traditional gas dilution technique. The latter method was used as the reference method for the validity component of the study. The order of the FRC measurements by the two methods was randomized. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the duplicate BOD POD FRC measurements for the male and female subjects were 0.966 and 0.948, respectively. The mean differences between the BOD POD FRC trial #1 measurement and gas dilution FRC measurement for the male and female subjects were -32 and -23 ml, respectively. Neither difference was statistically significant. The correlation coefficients for these two measurements in the male and female subjects were 0.925 and 0.917, respectively. Based on these results, we conclude that the BOD POD FRC measurement in healthy males and females is both reliable and valid.

  16. Changes in Body Composition in Anorexia Nervosa: Predictors of Recovery and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Arcelus, Jon; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; González-Gómez, Jana; Granero, Roser; Custal, Nuria; Montserrat-Gil de Bernabé, Monica; Tárrega, Salomé; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-García, José C.; Fernández-Real, José M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predictors of BC changes during treatment, as well as predictors of treatment outcome. The whole sample comprised 261 participants [118 adult females with AN (70 AN-R vs. 48 AN-BP), and 143 healthy controls]. BC was measured weekly during 15 weeks of day-hospital treatment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Assessment measures also included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2, as well as a number of other clinical indices. Overall, the results showed that AN-R and AN-BP patients statistically differed in all BC measures at admission. However, no significant time×group interaction was found for almost all BC parameters. Significant time×group interactions were only found for basal metabolic rate (p = .041) and body mass index (BMI) (p = .035). Multiple regression models showed that the best predictors of pre-post changes in BC parameters (namely fat-free mass, muscular mass, total body water and BMI) were the baseline values of BC parameters. Stepwise predictive logistic regressions showed that only BMI and age were significantly associated with outcome, but not with the percentage of body fat. In conclusion, these data suggest that although AN patients tended to restore all BC parameters during nutritional treatment, only AN-BP patients obtained the same fat mass values as healthy controls. Put succinctly, the best predictors of changes in BC were baseline BC values, which did not, however, seem to influence treatment outcome. PMID:26600309

  17. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  18. Body Composition, Lipid Profile, Adipokine Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity Changes during Interventions to Treat Overweight with Exercise Programme and Whole-Body Cryostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dudzińska, Wioleta; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Dołęgowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six-month-long physical exercise programme with a two-time exposure to whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) in 20 sessions on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid profile, and body composition changes in obese people (30 adult subjects; BMI = 30.39 ± 4.31 kg/m2). Blood samples were taken before the programme, one month following the exercise programme, before and after the first WBC treatment, six months following the exercise programme, after the second WBC treatment, and finally one month after the intervention. Six months of moderate aerobic activity combined with WBC did not change body mass or fat and lean body mass percentages, or circulating adiponectin, leptin, and resistin concentrations. In response to intervention a significant decrease in the level of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides was observed, with a slight increase in high-density lipoprotein concentration. The nature of changes in the activity of respective antioxidant enzymes was not identical. After one month of increased physical activity, a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities was observed (13%, 8%, and 70%, resp.). The SOD activity increased significantly after successive whole-body cryostimulation sessions. As regards catalase, a significant progressive decrease in its activity was observed. PMID:26171117

  19. Evaluation of body composition during low-dose estrogen oral contraceptives treatment.

    PubMed

    Franchini, M; Caruso, C; Nigrelli, S; Poggiali, C

    1995-01-01

    The effect of two low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs) on weight and body composition was evaluated in 80 family planning clinic outpatients 18-43 years of age. These women were randomly assigned to receive OCs containing either 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel or 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 75 mcg gestodene. 20 IUD users served as controls. Anthropometric measurements and body composition (estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis) were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of OC use. In all three groups, body weight, body mass index, total body water, and body cellular mass remained unchanged during the 12-month study period. These findings confirm that the new low-dose OCs have no significant effects on body weight or composition.

  20. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  1. Fraction of carbon-free body mass as oxygen is a constant body composition ratio in men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Deurenberg, P; Wang, W; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1998-06-01

    Although elements are the foundation of the human body, information concerning the atomic level of body composition is still limited. The aim of this study was to explore potentially constant relationships among elements found in vivo. Based on the known stoichiometries of relevant chemical components, a theoretical model was derived, suggesting the existence of a relatively constant ratio of total body oxygen to carbon-free body mass (TBO/CFM) in men. Eight elements (C, H, N, Ca, P, K, Na and Cl ) were measured in 22 healthy male subjects by using in vivo neutron activation-40K whole-body counting, and TBO was calculated as the difference between body mass and the sum of the eight measured elements. TBO (in kg) was significantly correlated with CFM (in kg): TBO = 0.829 x CFM - 1.8; r = 0.998, P < 0.001, standard error of estimate = 0.4 kg. The ratio of TBO to CFM was relatively constant, mean +/- SD at 0. 800 +/- 0.009 with a CV of 1.1%. Oxygen and carbon are the two most abundant elements in the human body. The discovery of a constant relationship between oxygen and carbon is not only helpful for understanding the atomic level of body composition, but also provides the possibility of estimating the content of specific elements in vivo.

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  3. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  4. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  5. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  6. Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

  7. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  8. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  9. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase. PMID:25958462

  10. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  11. Sibling composition during childhood and adult blood pressure among native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Parida, Sabita; Zycherman, Ariela; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan; Godoy, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    Sibling configuration, including birth order, or the number, age, and sex of siblings is associated with parental resource allocation between children and is thus associated with a person's well-being. Little is known about the association between specific types of siblings and adult health outcomes. Here we test several hypotheses about sibling composition (number of older brothers, older sisters, younger sisters, younger brothers) and adult blood pressure in a foraging-farming society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'). We collected data in 2007 from 374 adults (16-60years of age) from 196 households in 13 villages. Household random-effects multiple regressions were run using systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as outcomes; covariates included the four sibling categories and control variables (e.g., sex, age, education, body mass index [BMI]). Mean SBP and DBP were 114 (SD=14) and 66 (SD=11)mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 5.08%. Having an additional younger brother bore a small (3.3-5.9%) positive association with both SBP and DBP, with the effect weakening as people aged. Having an additional younger sister was associated with a small (3.8%) increase in SBP among women, with the magnitude shrinking as people aged. In a large family, the number of younger brothers may exert an impact on an individual's blood pressure.

  12. Functional body composition: insights into the regulation of energy metabolism and some clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A; Later, W; Haas, V; Heller, M

    2009-09-01

    The application of advanced methods and techniques and their continuous development enable detailed body composition analyses (BCAs) and modeling of body composition at different levels (e.g., at atomic, molecular, organ-tissue and whole body level). Functional body composition integrates body components into regulatory systems (e.g., on energy balance). Regulation of body weight is closely linked to the mass and function of individual body components. Fat mass is part of the energy intake regulatory feedback system. In addition, fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass are both determinants of resting energy expenditure (REE). Up to 80% of the variance in energy intake and energy expenditure is explained by body composition. A deviation from normal associations between body components and function suggests a metabolic disequilibrium (e.g., in the REE-FFM relationship or in the plasma leptin-fat mass association) that may occur in response to weight changes and diseases. The concept of functional body composition adds to a more sophisticated view on nutritional status and diseases, as well as to a characterization of biomedical traits that will provide functional evidence relating genetic variants.

  13. Examining body image discrepancies and perceived weight status in adult Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Smith, April R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    This study examined potential differences and similarities between attitudes about body shape and eating behaviors in Japan versus America. Discrepancies between various body ideals (e.g., own versus ideal; Japanese versus American) and perceived weight status were examined in a sample of adult Japanese women. Forty-five adult Japanese women rated various body ideals using the Stunkard Body Shape Questionnaire. They also answered questions about their perceived body weight and completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Participants rated the ideal body shape for Japanese women to be significantly thinner than for American women. Body image discrepancy predicted drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms as measured by the EDI-2. Furthermore, there was an interaction between perfectionism and perceived overweight status, such that among participants high on perceived weight status, perfectionism predicted greater bulimic symptomology. The relative importance of the internalization of the Western beauty ideal to the rise of eating disorders in Japan is discussed. Similarities between the findings of this study and studies conducted on American samples are highlighted, and areas for future research are proposed. PMID:18928918

  14. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes. PMID:25998010

  15. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture

    PubMed Central

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). Methods %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 ± 11, weight (kg) 64 ± 14, height (cm) 167 ± 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. Results BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.001) and body density (1.0379 g/cm3) significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6°C; P ≤ 0.001) and body moisture (0.08 kg; P ≤ 0.01) were observed between BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P < 0.05. Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that increases in body heat and moisture result in an underestimation of body fat when using the BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified. PMID:15059287

  16. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Kim, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP), age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition. PMID:27417630

  17. Association of Mid-Life Changes in Body Size, Body Composition and Obesity Status with the Menopausal Transition.

    PubMed

    Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Kim, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP), age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition. PMID:27417630

  18. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F

    1993-10-01

    Data on body weight and weight change collected from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults are reviewed. The body mass index (weight [kg]/height [m2]) has a low correlation with height and is used to compare body weights between persons of differing heights. The BMI varies to a greater degree in women than in men. Below the 75th percentile of the BMI distribution, women have lower BMIs than men, whereas at the 75th percentile and above, women have higher BMIs than men. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 27.8 or more in men and of 27.3 or more in women, corresponding to approximately 20% or more above desirable weight in the 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company tables. For persons of average height (men, 5'9"; women, 5'4") this definition is equivalent to a body weight above 85 kg (187 pounds) in men and above 72 kg (158 pounds) in women. Among adults 20 to 74 years of age, 24% of men and 27% of women are overweight, yielding an estimated total of 34 million persons in the United States. The prevalence of overweight increases with age, for both men and women but to a greater degree in women. Blacks and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of overweight than do whites, especially among women. Between 1960 and 1980, the prevalence of overweight among whites increased by 3% in women and by 6% in men. In blacks, however, the prevalence of overweight increased by 7% in women and by 28% in men. Longitudinal body weight measurements taken 10 years apart show that adults younger than 55 years tend to gain weight, whereas those 55 years and older tend to lose weight. The youngest adults gain the most weight, and the oldest adults lose the most weight. In all age groups, women have substantially greater variation in their 10-year weight change than do men.

  20. Adult Body Size, Hormone Receptor Status, and Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Phipps, Amanda I.; Koo, Jocelyn; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2011-01-01

    Large body size has been associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women. Data on other racial/ethnic populations are limited. The authors examined the association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and adult body size in 672 cases and 808 controls aged ≥35 years from a population-based case-control study conducted in 1995–2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (Hispanics: 375 cases, 483 controls; African Americans: 154 cases, 160 controls; non-Hispanic whites: 143 cases, 165 controls). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Height was associated with increased breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile: odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.53; Ptrend < 0.01); the association did not vary by hormone receptor status or race/ethnicity. Body mass index (measured as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared) was inversely associated with risk in all 3 racial/ethnic groups, but only for estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive tumors (body mass index ≥30 vs. <25: odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.61). Other body size measures (current weight, body build, adult weight gain, young adult weight and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) were similarly inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer but not estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–negative disease. Despite racial/ethnic differences in body size, inverse associations were similar across the 3 racial/ethnic groups when stratified by hormone receptor status. PMID:21084558

  1. Analysis of the body composition of Paralympic athletes: Comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-11-01

    Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.

  2. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  3. Subject Positioning in the BOD POD® Only Marginally Affects Measurement of Body Volume and Estimation of Percent Body Fat in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Methods Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m2) were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a ‘forward bent’ position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. Results Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05) higher in the ‘straight’ position compared to the ‘bent’ position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = −71±211 ml) was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05) and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05) lower than in the straight position respectively. Conclusion Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (in)precision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest.The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin. PMID:22461887

  4. Heterotopic synaptic bodies in the auditory hair cells of adult lizards.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R; Beck, J

    1987-07-01

    The auditory hair cells of adults of eight species of lizards (three gekkonids: Coleonyx variegatus, Gekko gecko, and Cosymbotus platyurus; two teiids: Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus tigris; one anguid: Celestus costatus; one lacertid: Podarcis (Lacerta) sicula; and one iguanid: Crotaphytus wislizeni) were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Heterotopic synaptic bodies were found in some of the auditory hair cells of all of the above species, occurring frequently in the gekkonids but infrequently in other species. The groups of heterotopic synaptic bodies occurred mainly in the infranuclear cytoplasm between the hair cell nucleus and the hair cell plasma membrane. The groups of synaptic bodies that were close to the hair cell nucleus were usually associated with specialized arrays of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The numbers of heterotopic synaptic bodies were greatest in the gekkonid species and were especially large in Coleonyx variegatus, where an average of 36.8 synaptic bodies occur in one group. The functional significance of the presence of heterotopic synaptic bodies in the auditory hair cells of adults animals is not known. PMID:2820267

  5. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal–specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.—Arik, A. J., Hun, L. V., Quicke, K., Piatt, M., Ziegler, R., Scaraffia, P. Y., Badgandi H., Riehle, M. A. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. PMID:25550465

  6. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  7. Iron Isotope Compositions of Achondritic Meteorites from Distinct Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybal, E. M. K.; Wadhwa, M.; Romaniello, S.; Hines, R.

    2016-08-01

    We report the Fe isotope compositions of primitive and differentiated achondrites. The goal was to study a variety of achondrites that formed on distinct planetesimals to gain insights into the effects of differentiation on Fe isotope fractionation.

  8. Infant and adult perceptions of possible and impossible body movements: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N=14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old infants and adults spent more time looking at the elbows during impossible compared with possible arm movements, irrespective of the appearance of the actor. These results suggest that by 12 months of age, infants recognize biomechanical constraints on how arms move, and they extend this knowledge to humanoid robots. Adults exhibited more pupil dilation in response to the human's impossible arm movements compared with the possible ones, but 9- and 12-month-old infants showed no differential pupil dilation to the same actions. This finding suggests that the processing of human body movements might still be immature in 12-month-olds, as they did not show an emotional response to biomechanically impossible body movements. We discuss these findings in relation to the hypothesis that perception of others' body movements relies upon the infant's own sensorimotor experience.

  9. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  10. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  11. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-04-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover.

  12. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Amanda Faith

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID) making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present) and PsycINFO (1990 to present) and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements. PMID:23762539

  13. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  14. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  15. The relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint ability of amputee soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ali; Kayıhan, Gürhan; Köklü, Yusuf; Ergun, Nevin; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects' height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) and somatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m was evaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ) tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobic performance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance in amputee soccer players.

  16. The Relationship Between Body Composition, Anaerobic Performance and Sprint Ability of Amputee Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Ali; Kayıhan, Gürhan; Köklü, Yusuf; Ergun, Nevin; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects’ height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) and somatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m was evaluated, whereas the counter movement jump (CMJ), relative CMJ (RCMJ), squat jump (SJ) and relative SJ (RSJ) tests were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. The results of the Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis indicated that body composition was significantly correlated with CMJ and SJ (p < 0.01), on the other hand, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the other component (p > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between CMJ, RCMJ, SJ, 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p < 0.05); whereas, in contrast, no measure of body composition was significantly related to the 10 m, 20 m and 30 m sprint performance (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that sprint performance was described as an essential factor in anaerobic performance whereas body composition and somatotype play a determinant role in anaerobic and sprint performance in amputee soccer players. PMID:23486067

  17. Effects of participation in a collegiate sport season on body composition.

    PubMed

    Siders, W A; Bolonchuk, W W; Lukaski, H C

    1991-12-01

    Fifty-three collegiate athletes (18 female and 35 male) were recruited from university varsity basketball, football, swim, and wrestling team rosters. Body composition was estimated before the beginning and before the end of sport seasons by using hydrodensitometry to determine the effect of participation in competitive sport seasons on the body composition of collegiate athletes. ANOVAs applied to the estimates of body composition indicated that the interaction of sport team by season was significant for body weight, F (5,47) = 3.2, p less than 0.05; fat weight, F (5,47) = 5.1, p less than 0.01; and fat-free weight, F (5,47) = 2.4, p less than 0.05. Only football players did not change in body composition. Wrestlers lost the greatest amount of body weight (3.4 kg). Female and male basketball players, female and male swimmers, and wrestlers lost significant amounts of body fat (2.6, 2.3, 1.8, 2.7, and 3.6 kg, respectively). Female and male basketball players and female and male swimmers gained significant amounts of fat-free weight (2.0, 1.6, 2.4, and 1.8 kg, respectively). It was concluded that participation in a collegiate sport season could affect changes in fat weight and fat-free weight components of body composition but that the nature of the changes are a function of the demands of the sport of participation.

  18. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P < 0.001; AA+ and AA-, respectively). At 35 kg of BW, AA intake restriction increased whole body lipid content (11.1 vs. 17.5% of empty BW; P < 0.05) and the whole body lipid to body protein ratio (0.65 vs. 1.20; P < 0.01) and reduced body protein content (17.1 vs. 14.6% of empty BW; P < 0.01) and body water content (68.2 vs. 63.9%; P < 0.05). The relationships between body protein vs. body water and body protein vs. body ash content were not altered by previous AA intake restriction or by feeding level during the re-alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows

  19. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  20. Genetic influences on growth and body composition in mice: multilocus interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ankra-Badu, Georgina A.; Pomp, Daniel; Shriner, Daniel; Allison, David B.; Yi, Nengjun

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic architecture of body weight and body composition is complex because these traits are normally influenced by multiple genes and their interactions, even after controlling for the environment. Bayesian methodology provides an efficient way of estimating these interactions. Subjects and measurements We used Bayesian model selection techniques to estimate the effect of epistatic interactions on age-related body weight (at 3, 6, and 10 weeks) and body composition (organ weights and fat-related traits) in an F2 sample obtained from a cross between high-growth (M16i) mice and low-growth (L6) mice. Results We observed epistatic and main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that controlled both body weight and body composition. Epistatic effects were generally more significant for WK3 and WK6 than WK10. Chromosomes 5 and 13 interacted strongly to control body weight at 3 weeks. A pleiotropic QTL on chromosome 2 was associated with body weight and some body composition phenotypes. Testis weight was regulated by a QTL on chromosome 13 with a significantly large main effect. Conclusion By analyzing epistatic interactions, we detected QTL not found in a previous analysis of this mouse population. Hence, the detection of gene-gene interactions may provide new information about the genetic architecture of complex obesity-related traits and may lead to the detection of additional obesity genes. PMID:18982013

  1. The Evaluation of a Circumference-based Prediction Equation to Assess Body Composition Changes in Men

    PubMed Central

    SCHUNA, JOHN M.; HILGERS, SARAH J.; MANIKOWSKE, TRISTA L.; TUCKER, JARED M.; LIGUORI, GARY

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the current U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) circumference-based prediction equation for males to detect body composition changes in comparison to air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Body composition was assessed using ADP and the DOD equation at the beginning and end of an academic school year among 21 male (18–29 years-old) Army ROTC cadets. Body mass significantly increased (+1.8 Kg) after 9 months. Significant method by time interactions for percent body fat (percent body fat), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass were found (p = 0.022, p = 0.023, p = 0.023, respectively) as body composition changes were not tracked equally by the two methods. Regression and Bland-Altman analyses indicated a lack of agreement between methods as the DOD equation underestimated percent body fat and FM changes in comparison to ADP. Results suggest the DOD equation for males cannot adequately detect body composition changes following a small body mass gain. PMID:27182395

  2. Clinical review: Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Childs, Charmaine; Lunn, Kueh Wern

    2013-04-22

    Surrogate or 'proxy' measures of brain temperature are used in the routine management of patients with brain damage. The prevailing view is that the brain is 'hotter' than the body. The polarity and magnitude of temperature differences between brain and body, however, remains unclear after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The focus of this systematic review is on the adult patient admitted to intensive/neurocritical care with a diagnosis of severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 8). The review considered studies that measured brain temperature and core body temperature. Articles published in English from the years 1980 to 2012 were searched in databases, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid SP, Mednar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database. For the review, publications of randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, before and after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and descriptive studies were considered for inclusion. Of 2,391 records identified via the search strategies, 37 were retrieved for detailed examination (including two via hand searching). Fifteen were reviewed and assessed for methodological quality. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review providing 15 brain-core body temperature comparisons. The direction of mean brain-body temperature differences was positive (brain higher than body temperature) and negative (brain lower than body temperature). Hypothermia is associated with large brain-body temperature differences. Brain temperature cannot be predicted reliably from core body temperature. Concurrent monitoring of brain and body temperature is recommended in patients where risk of temperature-related neuronal damage is a cause for clinical concern and when deliberate induction of below-normal body temperature is instituted.

  3. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Fuss, Paul; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Das, Sai Krupa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Methods Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets for 17 wk. Diets differed in percentage energy from carbohydrate (55% or 70%) and GI (low or high), but were matched for protein, fiber and energy. Body weight, body composition, RMR, and metabolic adaptation (measured RMR – predicted RMR) were measured during weight loss and subsequent weight stability. Results No effect of dietary carbohydrate content or GI on body weight loss or percentage of weight lost as fat mass was observed. Measured RMR was significantly lower (−226 kJ/d [95%CI: −314 kJ/d, −138 kJ/d] P < 0.001) than predicted RMR following weight loss, but this difference was attenuated after 5 wk weight stability. Metabolic adaptation did not differ by dietary carbohydrate content or GI, and was not associated with weight regain 12 mo later. Conclusion Moderate-carbohydrate and low-GI diets did not preferentially reduce fat mass, preserve lean mass, or attenuate metabolic adaptation during weight loss compared to high-carbohydrate and high-GI diets. PMID:26530933

  4. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  5. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  6. Effects on body size and composition of chronic exposure to altered gravity. [centrifuging stress in mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on body composition and growth of rats, mice, monkeys, and man are studied. The benefits of exercise and restraint during acceleration are investigated. Physiological regulation and energy balance are also discussed.

  7. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  8. Effect of nutritional supplements on immune function and body weight in malnourished adults.

    PubMed

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements.

  9. Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhaohui H; Gan, Ping

    2013-05-28

    The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm - 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

  10. A new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of Japanese body composition.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, N; Nonaka, K; Fujii, M

    1999-11-01

    A new device based on the plethysmographic measurement of body volume, named the BOD POD Body Composition System, was developed for the purpose of estimating body composition. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. The coefficient variation (CV:%) in same-day tests was 2.48, in three separate-day tests it was 2.27, and for independent operators it was 4.53, respectively. There was a clear correlation between the results from BOD POD and those from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (r = 0.910, p < 0.01). Finally, the fat body composition of 4489 subjects (1499 men, 2990 women) was clinically measured by BOD POD. The findings indicate that the BOD POD is a highly reliable and valid method for determining body fat percentage. This new method has several advantages, e.g. it is quick, simple to operate and may accommodate wide populations.

  11. [Anorexia nervosa: bioelectrical impedance analysis in body composition measurement during hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Van Leer, M; Leistedt, S J; Linkowski, P; Simon, Y

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring parameters for anorexia nervosa include clinical, biological and psychological factors. Many research groups are currently trying to identify parameters more likely to predict the severity or the evolution of the illness. Body composition has been proposed as one of those parameters. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that measures of body composition are more accurate and efficient than the use of body composition index (BMI). We also aim to show that body composition could be used as a prognostic factor in the long-term evolution of patients with anorexia nervosa. It's a retrospective study investigating body composition and BMI in 44 patients treated in a specialized unit for eating disorder. Measures of body composition and BMI were gathered at the time of admission and again 3 months after refeeding onset. Data was correlated to the EDI-2 questionnaire scores. BMI and %FM where found to be increased (P < 0.05) between admission and after 3 months refeeding. The double objective of reaching a BMI value > or = 20 kg/m2 and a %FM value > or = 2% was achieved by 22% of patients. No significant correlation was found between EDI-2 scores and measures of BMI and %FM either on admission or after the 3 months refeeding period. In conclusion, results of our study don't allow concluding for a prognostic superiority of %FM. Nonetheless, BMI currently used as a reference for the monitoring of eating disorders patients seems to lack sensitivity where measures of body composition seem more informative regarding nutritional status. Furthermore, fat mass plays an important role in other clinical manifestations. In addition, measures of body composition should allow more individualised therapeutic support.

  12. Validation of body composition models for high school wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Smith, J F; Mansfield, E R; Conerly, M D; Bishop, P A

    1986-04-01

    This study investigates the utility of two equations for predicting minimum wrestling weight and three equations for predicting body density for the population of high school wrestlers. A sample of 54 wrestlers was assessed for body density by underwater weighing, residual volume by helium dilution, and selected anthropometric measures. The differences between observed and predicted responses were analyzed for the five models. Four statistical tests were used to validate the equations, including tests for the mean of differences, proportion of positive differences, equality of standard errors from regression, and equivalence of regression coefficients between original and second sample data. The Michael and Katch equation and two Forsyth and Sinning equations (FS1 and FS21) for body density did not predict as well as expected. The Michael and Katch equation tends to overpredict body density while FS1 underpredicts. The FS2 equation, consisting of a constant adjustment to FS1, predicts well near the mean but not at the ends of the sample range. The two Tcheng and Tipton equations produce estimates which slightly but consistently overpredict minimum wrestling weight, the long form equation by 2.5 pounds and the short form by 3.8 pounds. As a result the proportion of positive differences is less than would be expected. But based on the tests for the standard errors and regression coefficients, the evidence does not uniformly reject these two equations.

  13. Effect of physical activity intervention on body composition in young children: influence of body mass index status and gender

    PubMed Central

    Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Rance, Mélanie; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Aim To fight overweight and obesity in childhood, this study proposes an additional physical activity (PA) in young children aged 6–10 years. The objective was to evaluate the effect of school-based PA on the body composition according to body mass index (BMI) categories (nonobese vs. obese) and gender. Methods This 6-month study examined the effect of this intervention on body composition in 425 children in 14 primary schools (2 weekly PA sessions of 1 h each) compared to 5 control schools. Adiposity indices were evaluated or calculated: BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds and fat-free mass. Results No difference in the prevalence of obesity and anthropometric characteristics was found between the intervention and control groups at baseline. In girls, PA intervention had significant effect on all anthropometric variables (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), except on BMI. In contrast, in boys only BMI z-score (p < 0.001) and fat-free mass (p < 0.001) were affected. Conclusions Six months of preventive PA intervention offer an effective means to improve body composition in obese children. The pattern of response related to PA was similar between girls and boys. In contrast, the pattern was different according to BMI category, with a higher response in obese than nonobese children. PMID:17718785

  14. Increasing body size among adult cook islanders between 1966 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    There is limited evidence of a secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region, although some populations have shown a clear rise in overweight and obesity across the past 30 years or so. Mean height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of adults surveyed in 1996 on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands, are reported by age group and compared with data collected in 1966 by Evans and Prior, to determine the extent to which a secular trend in increasing body size has taken place across this 30-year period. In addition, a comparison of these anthropometric variables between subjects born on the most modernized island of Rarotonga with those born on other less-modernized islands is made, to determine the extent to which adult body size differs according to place of origin. Comparing the sample of those born on Rarotonga, the most modernized island, with those born on other, less modernized islands shows those born on Rarotonga to be taller, but not relatively heavier than those born elsewhere in the Cook Islands. Both males and females of the 1996 sample of adults are significantly taller, heavier, with higher BMI compared with the 1966 sample, indicating a secular trend toward increased body size across this 30-year period. The mean BMIs of the younger age groups in 1996 are greater than those of the same age groups in 1966, indicating a secular trend toward greater body fatness. There has been a significant increase in obesity among both males and females. In 1966, 14% of males had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996, the proportion was 52%. Among females, 44% of those measured in 1966 had a BMI greater than 30, while in 1996 the proportion was 57%. The higher mean stature of younger adult males relative to older ones suggests that the secular trend toward increasing height may have been underway prior to 1966. The mean statures and weights of adults aged 60 years and older in the 1996 sample are more similar to values given for most age groups

  15. Body composition in elderly persons: a critical review of needs and methods.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R N

    1993-01-01

    Significant changes in body composition that have important health related effects are believed to occur in the elderly. Knowledge of these changes is important for diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment of health problems. Many health problems in the elderly could be prevented or alleviated by nutritional modulation, but better understanding of the nature, extent, and underlying physiology of body compositional changes is needed for such interventions to be successful. There are currently few data for body composition in the elderly, especially for those greater than 75 y in age, partly because conventional methods of assessing body composition are difficult to apply for technical and conceptual reasons. As a result, little is known regarding the relationships of body composition to nutritional, functional or health status in non-hospitalized, free-living elderly persons. Knowledge of the "natural history" of body compositional changes and their relationships to other nutritional and health factors could lead to new insights on prevention and treatment, the reduction of morbidity and extension of the quality of life of older persons. PMID:8234779

  16. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  17. Electrical acupoint stimulation changes body composition and the meridian systems in postmenopausal women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Min; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of electrical stimulation on body composition and the meridian system in postmenopausal women with obesity. Forty-one postmenopausal women were recruited in Taiwan. The body composition was used as a screening test for obesity (percentage of body fat: > 30%, waist circumference: > 80 cm). The experimental group (EG, n = 20) received modulated middle-frequency electrical stimulation treatment for 20 min twice a week for 12 consecutive weeks at the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints. The control group (CG, n = 21) did not receive any intervention. The measurements of body composition and the meridian system were recorded for both groups in the pre- and post-study. The results showed that the data of body composition (weight, waist and hip circumference, percentage of body fat, and percentage of lean muscle mass) changed considerably in the EG (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference was observed in the CG. The left triple burner meridian changed notably in both EG and CG throughout the study (p < 0.05), however there was no difference between the two groups in the overall mean value, up-down ratio, qi and blood ratio, and yin-yang ratio. Our findings suggest that modulated middle-frequency electrical stimulation could help to improve body composition in postmenopausal women with obesity, potentially providing them with better care and health by integrating Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine.

  18. Physical training improves body composition of black obese 7- to 11-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Gutin, B; Cucuzzo, N; Islam, S; Smith, C; Moffatt, R; Pargman, D

    1995-07-01

    We determined the effect of supervised physical training without dietary intervention, on body composition of obese girls. The subjects were 25 obese 7- to 11-year-old black girls, divided into physical training and lifestyle education groups which were comparable on baseline body composition; 22 girls finished all aspects of the study. Twelve girls engaged in aerobic training (10 weeks, 5 days/week) while 10 engaged in weekly lifestyle discussions without formal physical training. Total body and regional body composition were measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, skinfolds and circumferences. Aerobic fitness was measured by heart rate response to submaximal treadmill exercise. The physical training group attended 94% of scheduled sessions and kept their heart rates at an average of 163 bpm for 28 minutes/session. The lifestyle group attended 95% of their sessions; they remained stable in aerobic fitness and most body composition measurements. The physical training group showed a significant improvement in aerobic fitness and a significant decline of 1.4% body fat. Skinfold and circumference indices of fatness also declined significantly in the training group. We conclude that controlled physical training, without dietary intervention, improved the fitness and body composition of obese black girls.

  19. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  20. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  1. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  2. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  3. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  4. Holistic processing of human body postures: evidence from the composite effect.

    PubMed

    Willems, Sam; Vrancken, Leia; Germeys, Filip; Verfaillie, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The perception of socially relevant stimuli (e.g., faces and bodies) has received considerable attention in the vision science community. It is now widely accepted that human faces are processed holistically and not only analytically. One observation that has been taken as evidence for holistic face processing is the face composite effect: two identical top halves of a face tend to be perceived as being different when combined with different bottom halves. This supports the hypothesis that face processing proceeds holistically. Indeed, the interference effect disappears when the two face parts are misaligned (blocking holistic perception). In the present study, we investigated whether there is also a composite effect for the perception of body postures: are two identical body halves perceived as being in different poses when the irrelevant body halves differ from each other? Both a horizontal (i.e., top-bottom body halves; Experiment 1) and a vertical composite effect (i.e., left-right body halves; Experiment 2) were examined by means of a delayed matching-to-sample task. Results of both experiments indicate the existence of a body posture composite effect. This provides evidence for the hypothesis that body postures, as faces, are processed holistically.

  5. Body Composition and Aerobic Requirements of Male and Female Marathon Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Christine L.; And Others

    This study investigates the physical characteristics, body composition, cardiovascular and pulmonary functions, and aerobic capabilities of male and female long distance runners. Eleven runners volunteered to take tests to determine background information, body fat, oxygen uptake, and running time and pace. Conclusions made from this study…

  6. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  7. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  8. The phytoestrogen prunetin affects body composition and improves fitness and lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-01

    Dietary isoflavones, a group of secondary plant compounds that exhibit phytoestrogenic properties, are primarily found in soy. Prunetin, a representative isoflavone, was recently found to affect cell signaling in cultured cells; however, in vivo effects remain elusive. In this study, the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the effects of prunetin in vivo with respect to lifespan, locomotion, body composition, metabolism, and gut health. Adult flies were chronically administered a prunetin-supplemented diet. Prunetin improved median survival by 3 d, and climbing activity increased by 54% in males. In comparison with the females, male flies exhibited lower climbing activity, which was reversed by prunetin intake. Furthermore, prunetin-fed males exhibited increased expression of the longevity gene Sirtuin 1 (Sir2) (22%), as well as elevated AMPK activation (51%) and triglyceride levels (29%), whereas glucose levels decreased (36%). As females are long-lived compared with their male counterparts and exhibit higher triglyceride levels, prunetin apparently "feminizes" male flies via its estrogenicity. We conclude that the lifespan-prolonging effects of prunetin in the male fruit fly depend on changes in AMPK-regulated energy homeostasis via male "feminization." Collectively, we identified prunetin as a plant bioactive compound capable of improving health status and survival in male D. melanogaster. PMID:26538555

  9. COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR COATING A CERAMIC BODY

    DOEpatents

    Blanchard, M.K.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for protecting a beryllium carbide-graphite body. The method consists in providing a ceramic coating which must contain at least one basic oxide component, such as CaO, at least one amphoteric oxide component, such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and at least one acidic oxide component, such as SiO/ sub 2/. Various specific formulations for this ceramic coating are given and the coating is applied by conventional ceramic techniques.

  10. Body composition and physical self-concept in older women.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J M; Ebbeck, V; Snow, C M

    2000-01-01

    We sought to determine the performance and anthropometric correlates of physical self-concept and self-esteem and to observe whether long-term resistance training would alter these variables in postmenopausal women. Forty-four nonsmoking, community-dwelling, Caucasian women aged 50-75 years participated in the study. Half of the subjects participated in a 9-month regimen of weight-bearing exercises performed 3 times per week which emphasized lower body muscle strength and power development. At baseline, total body fat was negatively associated with physical self-concept and perception of physical appearance but not with self-esteem. Perception of physical appearance improved in both exercisers and controls after the 9-month trial but was most noticeable in exercisers who had low self-esteem at baseline. The only predictor of improvement in perception of physical appearance was a decrease in lower body fat mass. Minimal or nonsignificant change in psychological measures associated with the training may be due to high initial values. PMID:11151355

  11. Do Canadian collegiate hockey players accurately perceive body composition changes after unmonitored training and diet?

    PubMed

    Prokop, Neal W; Duncan, Lindsay R; Andersen, Ross E

    2015-10-01

    Collegiate athletes often use nutritional programs and supplements to elicit body composition changes in muscle or fat. It is unknown if athletes can accurately perceive their fluctuations in body composition, yet their understanding may help them make more accurate interpretations regarding the success of potential nutrition or exercise regimens. The purpose of this study was to investigate if collegiate hockey players could accurately perceive a change in body composition during a 3-month period within their regular season, in which no predetermined nutritional or exercise program was provided. Twenty-four male Canadian collegiate hockey players completed preseason and midseason body composition assessments using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Immediately before the midseason scan, players attempted to accurately match their perceived fluctuation in composition, with predetermined categorical ranges of relative body composition and strength. Two-thirds of players and one-half of players accurately perceived changes in arm-lean and arm-fat tissue, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of players did not accurately perceive gains or losses of lean or fat tissue within their leg and overall body. Although some athletes partially detected changes in the lean and fat tissue of particular regions, the vast majority of players cannot detect the type, or amount of tissue gained and lost across the overall body. Body composition assessments, rather than an athlete's perceptions, should be used to help interpret the success of a sport nutrition or exercise program. Athletes should be aware that physiologic adaptations might take place unnoticed, which could affect the acceptance and adherence of nutrition or exercise interventions. PMID:26394260

  12. The Composite Effect Is Face-Specific in Young but Not Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

    2016-01-01

    In studying holistic face processing across the life-span there are only few attempts to separate face-specific from general aging effects. Here we used the complete design of the composite paradigm (Cheung et al., 2008) with faces and novel non-face control objects (watches) to investigate composite effects in young (18–32 years) and older adults (63–78 years). We included cueing conditions to alert using a narrow or a wide attentional focus when comparing the composite objects, and used brief and relaxed exposure durations for stimulus presentation. Young adults showed large composite effects for faces, but none for watches. In contrast, older adults showed strong composite effects for faces and watches, albeit the effects were larger for faces. Moreover, composite effects for faces were larger for the wide attentional focus in both age groups, while the composite effects for watches of older adults were alike for both cueing conditions. Older adults showed low accuracy at the same levels for both types of stimuli when attended and non-attended halves were incongruent. Increasing presentation times improved performance strongly for congruent but not for incongruent composite objects. These findings suggest that the composite effects of older adults reflect substantial decline in the ability to control irrelevant stimuli, which takes effect both in non-face objects and in faces. In young adults, highly efficient attentional control mostly precludes interference of irrelevant features in novel objects, thus their composite effects reflect holistic integration specific for faces or objects of expertise. PMID:27547185

  13. Long-lived growth hormone receptor knockout mice show a delay in age-related changes of body composition and bone characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bonkowski, Michael S; Pamenter, Richard W; Rocha, Juliana S; Masternak, Michal M; Panici, Jacob A; Bartke, Andrzej

    2006-06-01

    There is conflicting information on the physiological role of growth hormone (GH) in the control of aging. This study reports dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of body composition and bone characteristics in young, adult, and aged long-lived GH receptor knockout (GHR-KO) and normal mice to determine the effects of GH resistance during aging. Compared to controls, GHR-KO mice showed an increased percentage of body fat. GHR-KO mice have reduced total-body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, and bone area, but these parameters increased with age. In addition, GHR-KO mice have decreased femur length, femur BMD, and lower lumbar BMD compared to controls in all age groups. These parameters also continued to increase with age. Our results indicate that GH resistance alters body composition, bone growth, and bone maintenance during aging in GHR-KO mice.

  14. Association Between Home Blood Pressure and Body Composition by Bioimpedance Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kurasawa, Naho; Mori, Takefumi; Naganuma, Eri; Sato, Emiko; Koizumi, Kenji; Sato, Shinichi; Oba, Ikuko; Tsuchikawa, Mihoko; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure (HBP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and renal function. However, no particular guidelines have been established for optimal HBP in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a beneficial tool for determining body composition. In the present study, we used BIA to determine body composition parameters that might play a role in the regulation of HBP in PD patients, and we compared HBP with office blood pressure (BP). Our study enrolled 15 patients (11 men, 4 women) receiving PD at Tohoku University Hospital, who, for 1 year, agreed to monitor HBP and to undergo body composition analysis. Patients were requested to measure HBP twice daily (morning, night) using a home BP device. A bioimpedance monitor was used to monitor body composition each month. Blood and urine samples were also analyzed each month. The relationships of average morning systolic HBP (sMHBP) with parameters of body composition and of blood and urine analyses were evaluated. The enrolledpatients were 66.3 ± 7.7 years of age and had a PD vintage of 28.3 ± 6.4 months. Overall, their sMHBP was 128 ± 13 mmHg and their office systolic BP was 126 ± 15 mmHg. Although office systolic BP and sMHBP both correlated with body fluid parameters [total body water (TBW)/height2], renal function (renal Kt/V serum creatinine), and heart function (left ventricular mass index), the correlation coefficient for sMHBP and TBW/height2 was highest, with sMHBP being the only independent predictor. Sodium intake was associated only with sMHBP. Our results suggest that body fluid status determined by BIA, heart and renal function, and sodium intake show better associations with sMHBP than with office systolic BP. Monitoring HBP and body composition by BIA are beneficial for the maintenance of volume status in PD patients.

  15. Comparison of body composition in persons with epilepsy on conventional & new antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Sudhir Chandra; Tripathi, Manjari; Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid (VPA) are known to affect body weight, and lipid profile. However, evidences regarding effects of AEDs on the body composition are deficient. This cross-sectional study compared the body composition and lipid profile among patients with epilepsy on newer and conventional AEDs. Methods: The patients with epilepsy (n=109) on treatment with conventional and newer AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine and clobazam) for > 6 months were enrolled. Of these, 70 were on monotherapy: levetiracetam (n=12), VPA (n=16), carbamazepine (n=20) and phenytoin (n=22) and the remaining on polytherapy. Their body composition [body fat mass, lean dry mass (LDM), total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results: Levetiracetam group had no significant difference with VPA, carbamazepine, phenytoin and control groups, except low LDM (17.8±2.4) than VPA groups (20.2±2.7, P<0.05). In comparison with control, AEDs monotherapy groups had no significant difference, except higher LDM and ECW in VPA group. Among groups based on conventional and newer AEDs, there was no significant difference in body composition parameters except for higher LDM (as % of BW) in conventional AEDs only treated group than control (P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: The alterations observed in body composition with valproic acid in contrast to other AEDs like levetiracetam, carbamazepine and phenytoin could affect treatment response in epilepsy especially in subjects with already altered body composition status like obese and thin frail patients, which needs to be established by prospective studies (CTRI/2013/05/003701). PMID:27241646

  16. Canine Body Composition Quantification using 3 Tesla Fat-Water MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Aliya; Kullberg, Joel; Berglund, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Coate, Katie C.; Williams, Phillip E.; Cherrington, Alan D.; Avison, Malcolm J.; Welch, E. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that a whole-body fat-water MRI (FWMRI) protocol acquired at 3 Tesla combined with semi-automated image analysis techniques enables precise volume and mass quantification of adipose, lean and bone tissue depots that agree with static scale mass and scale mass changes in the context of a longitudinal study of large-breed dogs placed on an obesogenic high-fat, high-fructose diet. Materials and Methods Six healthy adult male dogs were scanned twice, at weeks 0 (baseline) and 4, of the dietary regiment. FWMRI-derived volumes of adipose tissue (total, visceral, and subcutaneous), lean tissue, and cortical bone were quantified using a semi-automated approach. Volumes were converted to masses using published tissue densities. Results FWMRI-derived total mass corresponds with scale mass with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.931 (95% confidence interval = [0.813, 0.975]), and slope and intercept values of 1.12 and −2.23 kg respectively. Visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue masses increased significantly from weeks 0 to 4, while neither cortical bone nor lean tissue masses changed significantly. This is evidenced by a mean percent change of 70.2% for visceral, 67.0% for subcutaneous, and 67.1% for total adipose tissue. Conclusion FWMRI can precisely quantify and map body composition with respect to adipose, lean and bone tissue depots. The described approach provides a valuable tool to examine the role of distinct tissue depots in an established animal model of human metabolic disease. PMID:23596090

  17. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  18. Methodology for estimation of total body composition in laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A standardized dissection and chemical analysis procedure was developed for individual animals of several species in the size range mouse to monkey (15 g to 15 kg). The standardized procedure permits rigorous comparisons to be made both interspecifically and intraspecifically of organ weights and gross chemical composition in mammalian species series, and was applied successfully to laboratory mice, hamsters, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits, as well as to macaque monkeys. The procedure is described in detail.

  19. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements.

  20. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  1. How Accurate Are the Anthropometry Equations in in Iranian Military Men in Predicting Body Composition?

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Zeynab; Faradjzadeh, Shahram; Sobhani, Vahid; Asgari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The body composition varies according to different life styles (i.e. intake calories and caloric expenditure). Therefore, it is wise to record military personnel’s body composition periodically and encourage those who abide to the regulations. Different methods have been introduced for body composition assessment: invasive and non-invasive. Amongst them, the Jackson and Pollock equation is most popular. Objectives: The recommended anthropometric prediction equations for assessing men’s body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) gold standard to develop a modified equation to assess body composition and obesity quantitatively among Iranian military men. Patients and Methods: A total of 101 military men aged 23 - 52 years old with a mean age of 35.5 years were recruited and evaluated in the present study (average height, 173.9 cm and weight, 81.5 kg). The body-fat percentages of subjects were assessed both with anthropometric assessment and DEXA scan. The data obtained from these two methods were then compared using multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean and standard deviation of body fat percentage of the DEXA assessment was 21.2 ± 4.3 and body fat percentage obtained from three Jackson and Pollock 3-, 4- and 7-site equations were 21.1 ± 5.8, 22.2 ± 6.0 and 20.9 ± 5.7, respectively. There was a strong correlation between these three equations and DEXA (R² = 0.98). Conclusions: The mean percentage of body fat obtained from the three equations of Jackson and Pollock was very close to that of body fat obtained from DEXA; however, we suggest using a modified Jackson-Pollock 3-site equation for volunteer military men because the 3-site equation analysis method is simpler and faster than other methods. PMID:26715964

  2. Season of birth is associated with adult body mass index in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Soreca, Isabella; Cheng, Yu; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as abdominal obesity and obesity in general, are very prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Although long-term use of psychotropic medications is an important determinant of these risk factors, other evidence suggests that early development may interact with the mood disorder diathesis to exponentially increase the risk of obesity. The goal of our study was to test whether season of birth is associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity in individuals with bipolar disorder. We compared season of birth effects on BMI in 375 adult patients with bipolar disorder and 196 adult patients with unipolar major depression. We found a significant season of birth effect on BMI in patients with bipolar disorder, but not unipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, season of birth was also associated with waist circumference, with a stronger effect in males. Season of birth affects adult BMI and waist circumference in patients with bipolar disorder, but not in patients with unipolar depression. Our results suggest that early environmental factors, yet to be identified, interact with specific neurobiological features of bipolar disorder to determine stable traits and disease risk factors in adult life. PMID:23445513

  3. Body-related pride in young adults: an exploration of the triggers, contexts, outcomes and attributions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image.

  4. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  5. Relationship between endogenous 3-methylhistidine excretion and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-03-01

    Fourteen healthy men (aged 20-30 yr) consumed two isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets in the sequence of a 4-day meat diet (MD) followed by a 7-day meal-free diet (MFD). Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion during the MD (513 +/- 21 mumol . day-1, mean +/- SE) was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than day 3 of the MFD (230 +/- 10 mumol . day-1), after which the mean daily 3MH output was constant with a mean coefficient of variation of 4.5%. There was no change in fat-free body mass (FFBM) determined by densitometry at the start (62.3 +/- 1.8 kg) and the end (62.2 +/- 1.9 kg) of the 11-day dietary period. Mean muscle mass (MM) calculated from measurements of total-body potassium and nitrogen was 23.4 +/- 1.3 kg. Endogenous 3MH excretion was related more closely to MM (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001) than to FFBM measured by densitometry (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). Only a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) was observed between 3MH and the nonmuscle component of FFBM. Urinary creatinine output also was correlated significantly with 3MH (r = 0.87; P less than 0.001) and MM (r = 0.79; P less than 0.01). It is concluded that because endogenous 3MH is significantly related to MM in man, it can be used as a marker to study in vivo total-body muscle protein degradation provided that the necessary dietary restrictions are observed.

  6. State-of-the-art measurements in human body composition: A moving frontier of clinical importance

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, D.; Shaheen, I.; Zafar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of human body composition allows for the estimation of body tissues, organs, and their distributions in living persons without inflicting harm. From a nutritional perspective, the interest in body composition has increased multi-fold with the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and its complications. The latter has driven in part the need for improved measurement methods with greater sensitivity and precision. There is no single gold standard for body-composition measurements in-vivo. All methods incorporate assumptions that do not apply in all individuals and the more accurate models are derived by using a combination of measurements, thereby reducing the importance of each assumption. This review will discuss why the measurement of body composition or human phenotyping is important; discuss new areas where the measurement of body composition (human phenotyping) is recognized as having important application; and will summarize recent advances made in new methodology. Reference will also be made to areas we cannot yet measure due to the lack of appropriate measurement methodologies, most especially measurements methods that provide information on kinetic states (not just static state) and metabolic function. PMID:21234275

  7. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at P<0.05. The study results indicated no significant differences in nutritional in-take among dancer types. Despite no significant differences in body composition among dancer types, contemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were seen in bone mineral density and bone mineral contents among dancer types. No significant differences were found in isokinetic strength in right or left knee flexion and extension at 60°/sec (P<0.05). There were significant differences in body composition and isokinetic strength between dancer groups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  8. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition.

  9. Functional Body Composition and Related Aspects in Research on Obesity and Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Müller, M.J.; Baracos, V.; Bosy-Westphal, A.; Dulloo, A.; Eckel, J.; Fearon, K.C.H.; Hall, K.D.; Pietrobelli, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Speakman, J.; Trayhurn, P.; Visser, M.; Heymsfield, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of “functional body composition” integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus, an understanding of weight regulation involves an examination of organ-tissue regulation rather than of individual organ mass. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by cross-talk between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones, and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition, and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue cross-talk mediators are determinants of body composition and its’ change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks’ concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism. PMID:24835453

  10. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07–8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  11. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a

  12. The lifecycle effects of nutrition and body size on adult adiposity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yajnik, C S

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to review the links between maternal nutrition, offspring's birth weight and the propensity to early insulin resistance and high diabetes rates in Indian adults. Studies included a comparison of maternal size and nutrition with birth weights in Pune, India, and Southampton, UK. In Pune, the growth, insulin resistance and blood pressure of four-year-old children were assessed. Adults >40 years of age, who were resident in rural areas, were compared with adults living in urban areas for size, glucose handling, lipid status and blood pressure. Newly diagnosed diabetic adults living in urban areas were also monitored. Height, weight, head, waist and hip circumferences, skin-fold measurements and blood pressure were routinely measured. Fasting glucose, insulin, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were linked to the glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests. Cytokine levels were measured in plasma samples of urban and rural adults. Indian babies were lighter, thinner, shorter and had a relatively lower lean tissue mass than the Caucasian babies. However, the subcutaneous fat measurements of these babies were comparable to those of the white Caucasian babies. The Indian mothers were small, but relatively fat mothers produced larger babies. Maternal intake of green vegetables, fruit and milk, and their circulating folate and vitamin C levels, predicted larger fetal size. Rapid childhood growth promoted insulin resistance and higher blood pressure. Rural adults were thin, with a 4% prevalence of diabetes and a 14% prevalence of hypertension, but the risks increased within the normal body mass index (BMI) range. Type 2 diabetes was common in urban adults younger than 35 years of age. Although the average BMI was 23.9 kg m(-2), central obesity and thin limbs were noteworthy. Levels of interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-a were markedly increased in urban dwellers. Hence, there is evidence of a

  13. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents. PMID:22741211

  14. Bioimpedance as a tool for evaluating the body composition of suruvi (Steindachneridion scriptum).

    PubMed

    Zaniboni-Filho, E; Hermes-Silva, S; Weingartner, M; Jimenez, J E; Borba, M R; Fracalossi, D M

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is regarded as an important tool for evaluating the body composition of different animals in a rapid, non-destructive, and low-cost manner. A South American fish species, Steindachneridion scriptum, known as suruvi, was selected for study in this investigation. A protocol to produce fish with different body composition was used to allow BIA to adequately predict the body composition of suruvi. The fish were fed twice each day with two different diets; a low lipid diet (8.90%), and a high lipid diet (18.68%). These dietary differences allowed suruvi specimens with different body compositions to be produced. The BIA readings were determined using a Quantum X Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer. Two readings (dorsal and ventral) were obtained for each fish. After BIA readings were obtained, the proximate composition of the fish bodies for each individual was determined. All of the study data were used to establish correlation equations between proximate analyses and BIA values. Strong correlations were found for S. scriptum. The highest correlations were obtained for the following pairs of quantities, using BIA data from dorsal readings: moisture and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); protein and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); and ash and reactance in parallel (R2 = 0.82). We conclude that BIA is an effective method in determining the body composition of S. scriptum without sacrificing the fish. However, to expand the use of this new technology it is important to define strict BIA protocols to guarantee accurate estimates. PMID:26602350

  15. Bioimpedance as a tool for evaluating the body composition of suruvi (Steindachneridion scriptum).

    PubMed

    Zaniboni-Filho, E; Hermes-Silva, S; Weingartner, M; Jimenez, J E; Borba, M R; Fracalossi, D M

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is regarded as an important tool for evaluating the body composition of different animals in a rapid, non-destructive, and low-cost manner. A South American fish species, Steindachneridion scriptum, known as suruvi, was selected for study in this investigation. A protocol to produce fish with different body composition was used to allow BIA to adequately predict the body composition of suruvi. The fish were fed twice each day with two different diets; a low lipid diet (8.90%), and a high lipid diet (18.68%). These dietary differences allowed suruvi specimens with different body compositions to be produced. The BIA readings were determined using a Quantum X Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer. Two readings (dorsal and ventral) were obtained for each fish. After BIA readings were obtained, the proximate composition of the fish bodies for each individual was determined. All of the study data were used to establish correlation equations between proximate analyses and BIA values. Strong correlations were found for S. scriptum. The highest correlations were obtained for the following pairs of quantities, using BIA data from dorsal readings: moisture and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); protein and resistance in series (R2 = 0.87); and ash and reactance in parallel (R2 = 0.82). We conclude that BIA is an effective method in determining the body composition of S. scriptum without sacrificing the fish. However, to expand the use of this new technology it is important to define strict BIA protocols to guarantee accurate estimates.

  16. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  17. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  18. Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults - a population based study.

    PubMed

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Bergier, Barbara; Diatczyk, Julia; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Biliński, Przemysław; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nutritional behaviours shaped in childhood and during the period of adolescents are mostly continued in adult life, and on these patterns, to a great degree, depends the risk of development of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults. The study group covered 14,511 adolescents/young adults: 10,081 children attending high schools and secondary schools, and 4,428 university students. More than 87% of schoolchildren and students admitted that that they snacked between meals everyday, and 1/3 of them mentioned that they consumed meals at night. As many as 41.40% of schoolchildren, and 46.70% of students experienced the feeling of overeating at least several times a week. Analysis of the respondents BMI showed that in the group of students there were considerably more respondents obese or overweight, compared to the group of schoolchildren. Fear of gaining weight was mentioned by 9.90% of respondents, including 6.90% of those with normal body structure, 1.40% with underweight or overweight, and 0.40% of those obese. As many as 54.60% of the total number of respondents described their body structure as remaining within the normal, 23.7% - as slim, 13.9% reported that they were overweight, 6% - thin, while 1.7% considered themselves as obese. A comprehensive analysis of the data available, including attempts at dieting or gaining weight, indicated that approximately ¾ of obese respondents had undertaken attempts in the past to reduce their body weight. The importance of physical activity and healthy eating habits should be given due attention not only to prevent obesity but also other eating disorder.

  19. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV-associated wasting.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Stephan; Fischer, Harald; Rieger, Armin; Frühauf, Lukas; Staszewski, Schlomo; Althoff, Peter-Henning; Helm, Eilke Brigitte

    2005-04-01

    AIDS wasting syndrome results in loss of lean body mass and body cell mass. This 12-week, open-label study used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition changes in 24 patients with AIDS wasting syndrome receiving recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The primary endpoint was percentage monthly change in body weight before/after r-hGH. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), isometric strength and CD4+ count. Twenty patients completed the study: r-hGH resulted in mean weight gains (+2.7%, P = 0.146), and significant increases in mean body cell mass (+8.0%, P = 0.0211), lean body mass (+4.8%, P = 0.0373) and water (+5.5%, P < 0.023). Body fat decreased throughout, but not significantly. r-hGH was generally well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were fever (7.3%) and diarrhoea (6.3%). Thus, bioelectrical impedance analysis can detect improved body cell mass independent of changes in body weight resulting from r-hGH treatment in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

  20. Body composition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is not different than healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Akar, Servet; Sarı, İsmail; Çömlekci, Abdurrahman; Birlik, Merih; Önen, Fatoş; Göktay, Yiğit; Özaksoy, Dinc; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased body fat, particularly its central distribution, is a well-known risk factor for CVD. A change in body composition in RA has been described previously. However, in most of these studies, age- and sex- but not body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were used. The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition in RA patients and compare it with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched controls. Material and Methods Sixty-five RA patients (55 females and 10 males; mean age 54.9 ± 10.8) and 31 healthy controls (25 females, 6 males; 53.8±8.6) were included in this study. Mean disease duration was 9.2±9.6 years. Body composition was assessed by anthropometric methods (skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences), bioimpedance analysis, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was assessed with computed tomography. Results There were no significant differences for total body fatness, regional fat distribution, and total body water and fat-free mass between RA patients and control subjects. Bone mineral content (BMC), assessed by DXA, was significantly lower in RA patients (p=0.004). Clinical disease activity indices and steroid treatment do not affect soft tissue body composition or BMC. Conclusion At least some RA patients do not have soft tissue composition alterations and may have similar health risks in comparison with subjects with similar age, sex, and total adiposity.

  1. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Olivia S; Peterson, Karen E; Sanchez, Brisa N; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Mancuso, Peter; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2013-04-01

    The development of adult-onset diseases is influenced by perinatal exposure to altered environmental conditions. One such exposure, bisphenol A (BPA), has been associated with obesity and diabetes, and consequently labeled an obesogen. Using an isogenic murine model, we examined the effects of perinatal exposure through maternal diet to 50 ng (n=20), 50 μg (n=21), or 50 mg (n=18) BPA/kg diet, as well as controls (n=20) on offspring energy expenditure, spontaneous activity, and body composition at 3, 6, and 9 mo of age, and hormone levels at 9 and 10 mo of age. Overall, exposed females and males exhibited increased energy expenditure (P<0.001 and 0.001, respectively) throughout the life course. In females, horizontal and vertical activity increased (P=0.07 and 0.06, respectively) throughout the life course. Generally, body composition measures were not different throughout the life course in exposed females or males (all P>0.44), although body fat and weight decreased in exposed females at particular ages (all P<0.08). Milligram-exposed females had improved glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin profiles (all P<0.10). Thus, life-course analysis illustrates that BPA is associated with hyperactive and lean phenotypes. Variability across studies may be attributable to differential exposure duration and timing, dietary fat and phytoestrogen content, or lack of sophisticated phenotyping across the life course. PMID:23345456

  2. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes.

    PubMed

    Livolsi, J M; Adams, G M; Laguna, P L

    2001-05-01

    Fifteen women softball athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, the chromium treatment group (n = 8) and the placebo control group (n = 7) to examine the effect of chromium, in the form of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation, on muscular strength, body composition (body weight, percent body fat, and lean body mass), and urinary excretion. The CrPic supplementation consisted of a 500 ug dosage taken once per day. All participants trained 3 times per week with 2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) using variable resistance machines and free weights. No significant (p < 0.05) differences in muscular strength or body composition were found after 6 weeks of resistance training. In addition, chromium excretion (microg per 24 every hours) was examined and increased significantly with the treatment group after the 6-week period.

  3. The pristine nature of comets. [primeval composition of solar bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Abundance considerations suggest that comets are likely to be the most pristine minor bodies in the solar system. In proportion to solar abundances, the present scanty data suggest that cometary oxygen is not depleted, whereas carbon is by a factor of 4 and hydrogen, by a factor of 2000. This implies that comets are less depleted in H, C, N, O than CI chondrites, namely 10:1 in hydrogen, 4:1 in carbon and 3:1 in oxygen. These results have been obtained by using dust-to-gas ratios in comets to measure the relative abundance of silicon and metals to volatile material, and the spectra of atomic lines, mainly from the vacuum ultraviolet, to determine the H/O and C/O ratios of the mixture of volatile molecules.

  4. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, Eric L.; Chen, Ying; Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N.; Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W.; Shertzer, Howard G.

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  5. Anthropometry and Body Composition of Adolescents in Cracow, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Hołda, Mateusz K.; Piątek, Katarzyna; Wszołek, Karolina; Tyszka, Anna; Kmiotek, Elizabeth; Pliczko, Mateusz; Śliwińska, Aleksandra; Krauss, Klaudia; Miszczyk, Marcin; Walocha, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the level of adiposity and obesity in Polish adolescents and compare the results with earlier studies conducted in this population as well as those carried out in other populations. Methods The study group consisted of 456 boys and 514 girls aged 14-18 years living in Cracow chosen from randomly selected secondary schools. Weight, height, waist, and hip circumference (WC, HC) as well as triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio (STR), and percentage body fat were computed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity based on Polish children growth reference were calculated and age-dependent and gender-specific smoothed percentile curves for BMI and ROC curves were generated. Results Weight, height, WC, HC (up 16yr), WHtR (up 15yr), and WHR were considerably higher in males than females. Weight, height, and HC increased with age; WHtR remained the same. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 10.2% (boys 10.3%; girls 10.1%) and 4.2% (boys 5.3%; girls 3.3%). ROC analysis revealed that WHtR was the best tool for detection of obesity (AUC of 0.982±0.007) in males, whereas the sum of four SFTs (AUC: 0.968±0.011) and WHtR (AUC: 0.963±0.012) were the best predictors of obesity in females. Conclusions The level of adiposity in Cracow adolescents increased during the last decade. However, it is still lower than in other well-developed societies struggling with obesity epidemics. PMID:25815816

  6. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  7. Metabolic Programming: Effects of Early Nutrition on Growth, Metabolism and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Grathwohl, Dominik; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    High protein requirements of premature infants during the first weeks of postnatal life are a well-established fact. Those infants gain fat-free mass and protein rapidly during the first weeks of postnatal growth and require a much higher protein/energy ratio than term infants. Recommended protein intakes are 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day. For term infants, on the other hand, FAO and WHO have recently lowered recommended protein intakes to better reflect our current knowledge about the protein concentration in breast milk during the first 12 months of lactation. Longitudinal randomized clinical trials now confirm that term infants who are fed infant and follow-up formulas with protein concentrations >2.25 g/100 kcal (high protein formulas) during the first year of life grow faster than indicated by the WHO growth standards. Rapid weight gain during infancy is a predictor of childhood and adult obesity. Infants fed high protein quality formulas with protein concentrations of 1.6-2.2 g/100 kcal from 3 to 4 months onwards experience weight gain that is very close to that of breastfed infants. Biomarkers (insulin or IGF-1) of infants receiving low protein formulas differ from those of infants receiving high protein formulas. Six-year-old children who received low protein formulas in the first year of life had a lower risk of childhood obesity (BMI >95th percentile of WHO standards) compared with children who received high protein formulas as infants. BMI at 5 years of age is similar in children who were breastfed or received low protein formulas as infants. It is most important that the new low protein formulas are safe and adequate for all healthy term infants. Based on new protein technologies, the levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids in low protein formulas are now close to those in breast milk. Safety has been confirmed by following anthropometric parameters to 5-6 years of age and comparing these parameters with the WHO growth standards. Body composition

  8. Metabolic Programming: Effects of Early Nutrition on Growth, Metabolism and Body Composition.

    PubMed

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Grathwohl, Dominik; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    High protein requirements of premature infants during the first weeks of postnatal life are a well-established fact. Those infants gain fat-free mass and protein rapidly during the first weeks of postnatal growth and require a much higher protein/energy ratio than term infants. Recommended protein intakes are 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day. For term infants, on the other hand, FAO and WHO have recently lowered recommended protein intakes to better reflect our current knowledge about the protein concentration in breast milk during the first 12 months of lactation. Longitudinal randomized clinical trials now confirm that term infants who are fed infant and follow-up formulas with protein concentrations >2.25 g/100 kcal (high protein formulas) during the first year of life grow faster than indicated by the WHO growth standards. Rapid weight gain during infancy is a predictor of childhood and adult obesity. Infants fed high protein quality formulas with protein concentrations of 1.6-2.2 g/100 kcal from 3 to 4 months onwards experience weight gain that is very close to that of breastfed infants. Biomarkers (insulin or IGF-1) of infants receiving low protein formulas differ from those of infants receiving high protein formulas. Six-year-old children who received low protein formulas in the first year of life had a lower risk of childhood obesity (BMI >95th percentile of WHO standards) compared with children who received high protein formulas as infants. BMI at 5 years of age is similar in children who were breastfed or received low protein formulas as infants. It is most important that the new low protein formulas are safe and adequate for all healthy term infants. Based on new protein technologies, the levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids in low protein formulas are now close to those in breast milk. Safety has been confirmed by following anthropometric parameters to 5-6 years of age and comparing these parameters with the WHO growth standards. Body composition

  9. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45–53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  10. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45-53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  11. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Olivia S.; Peterson, Karen E.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Mancuso, Peter; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of adult-onset diseases is influenced by perinatal exposure to altered environmental conditions. One such exposure, bisphenol A (BPA), has been associated with obesity and diabetes, and consequently labeled an obesogen. Using an isogenic murine model, we examined the effects of perinatal exposure through maternal diet to 50 ng (n=20), 50 μg (n=21), or 50 mg (n=18) BPA/kg diet, as well as controls (n=20) on offspring energy expenditure, spontaneous activity, and body composition at 3, 6, and 9 mo of age, and hormone levels at 9 and 10 mo of age. Overall, exposed females and males exhibited increased energy expenditure (P<0.001 and 0.001, respectively) throughout the life course. In females, horizontal and vertical activity increased (P=0.07 and 0.06, respectively) throughout the life course. Generally, body composition measures were not different throughout the life course in exposed females or males (all P>0.44), although body fat and weight decreased in exposed females at particular ages (all P<0.08). Milligram-exposed females had improved glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin profiles (all P<0.10). Thus, life-course analysis illustrates that BPA is associated with hyperactive and lean phenotypes. Variability across studies may be attributable to differential exposure duration and timing, dietary fat and phytoestrogen content, or lack of sophisticated phenotyping across the life course.—Anderson, O.S., Peterson, K.E., Sanchez, B.N., Zhang, Z., Mancuso, P., Dolinoy, D.C. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course. PMID:23345456

  12. Impact of whole-body electromyostimulation on body composition in elderly women at risk for sarcopenia: the Training and ElectroStimulation Trial (TEST-III).

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Bebenek, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Most studies have confirmed the positive impact of resistance training on muscle mass and functional capacity in aging adults. However, due to physical limitation or a simple aversion against regular exercise, the majority of elderly subjects do not reach the exercise doses recommended for impacting strength or muscle mass. This led us to evaluate the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), a novel, time-efficient and smooth training technology, on body composition with special regard to sarcopenia. Seventy-six lean, non-sportive women (75 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (WB-EMS, n = 38) that performed 18 min of WB-EMS (bipolar, 85 Hz) 3 sessions in 14 days (1.5 sessions/week) or a semi-active control group (aCG, n = 38). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum strength was evaluated using isometric techniques for trunk and legs. After 54 weeks of intervention, significant inter-group differences were determined for appendicular skeletal muscle mass (WB-EMS, 0.4 ± 2.2 % vs. aCG, -1.5 ± 3.1 %; p = 0.009), lean body mass (WB-EMS, 0.8 ± 1.8 % vs. aCG, -0.8 ± 2.7 %; p = 0.008) and maximum isometric strength (leg extensors, 9.8 ± 12.9 % vs. 0.2 ± 10.4 %; p = 0.003; trunk extensors, 10.1 ± 12.7 vs. -1.6 ± 8.6 %; p = 0.001). Although borderline significant for abdominal fat mass (WB-EMS, -2.9 ± 8.3 vs. aCG, 1.5 ± 10.7 %; p = 0.069), differences did not reach statistically significant levels for body fat parameters. Considering the clinical effectiveness for impacting sarcopenia and the good acceptance of this technology by this non-sportive cohort of elderly women, we conclude that for elderly subjects unable or unwilling to perform dynamic strength exercises, electromyostimulation may be a less off-putting alternative to maintain lean body mass and strength.

  13. The Role of Body Size in Mate Selection among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377

  14. An exploration of adult body shape and limb proportions at Kellis 2, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bleuze, Michele M; Wheeler, Sandra M; Dupras, Tosha L; Williams, Lana J; El Molto, J

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that the human body generally conforms to the ecogeographical expectations of Bergmann's and Allen's rules; however, recent evidence suggests that these expectations may not hold completely for some populations. Egypt is located at the crossroads of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, and the Near East, and gene flow among groups in these regions may confound ecogeographical patterning. In this study, we test the fit of the adult physique of a large sample (N = 163) of females and males from the Kellis 2 cemetery (Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt) against ecogeographical predictions. Body shape (i.e., body mass relative to stature) was assessed by the femur head diameter to bicondylar femur length index (FHD/BFL), and brachial and crural indices were calculated to examine intralimb proportions. Body shape in the Kellis 2 sample is not significantly different from high-latitude groups and a Lower Nubian sample, and intralimb proportions are not significantly different from mid-latitude and other low-latitude groups. This study demonstrates the potential uniqueness of body shape and intralimb proportions in an ancient Egyptian sample, and further highlights the complex relationship between ecogeographic patterning and adaptation.

  15. Patterns and associations of body weight among older adults in two Asian societies.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Johnson, Nan E; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

    2007-03-01

    Body weight has important health implications across the lifespan. Most recent attention has focused on the obesity epidemic that is occurring in many parts of the world. However, underweight is also a concern, particularly in less developed countries. For most health outcomes there is a curvilinear association with body weight, with underweight and overweight (compared to normal weight) being associated with a higher prevalence of chronic debilitating and life-threatening conditions and ultimately mortality. This paper uses data from two nationally-representative surveys of older adults (aged 60 and older) in the Philippines (1996) and Taiwan (1999) to assess the prevalence of underweight and overweight and examine associations between body weight and demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in these populations. Older Filipinos have a modest prevalence of underweight (29.9%) and low prevalence of overweight (12.2%), whereas the reverse is observed in Taiwan (6.4 and 29.3%, respectively). Results show generally expected associations between body weight and demographic characteristics, health conditions and behaviors. We find little evidence of socioeconomic differences in body weight, except in the Philippines where higher SES is associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of healthy weight maintenance among critical subgroups to potentially reduce the prevalence of disease and improve quality of life.

  16. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  17. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  18. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  19. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1), and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001) of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006) associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001) associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001), but not of sons (p = 0.65) (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042). In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance. PMID:26184296

  20. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

  1. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  2. Indicators of Walking Speed in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relative Influence of Articular, Psychosocial, and Body Composition Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Amanda L; Amigues, Isabelle; Kramer, Henry R; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Giles, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the contributions from and interactions between articular swelling and damage, psychosocial factors, and body composition characteristics on walking speed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods RA patients underwent the timed 400 meter long-corridor walk. Demographics, self-reported levels of depressive symptoms and fatigue, RA characteristics, and body composition [using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal and thigh computed tomography (CT)] were assessed and their associations with walking speed explored. Results A total of 132 RA patients had data for the 400 meter walk, among whom 107 (81%) completed the full 400 meters. Significant multivariable indicators of slower walking speed were older age, higher depression scores, higher reported pain and fatigue, higher swollen and replaced joint counts, higher cumulative prednisone exposure, non-treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and worse body composition. These features accounted for 60% of the modeled variability in walking speed. Among specific articular features, slower walking speed was primarily correlated with large/medium lower-extremity joint involvement. However, these articular features accounted for only 21% of the explainable variability in walking speed. Having any relevant articular characteristics was associated with a 20% lower walking speed among those with worse body composition (p<0.001) compared with only a 6% lower speed among those with better body composition (p-value for interaction=0.010). Conclusions Psychosocial factors and body composition are potentially reversible contributors to walking speed in RA. Relative to articular disease activity and damage, non-articular indicators were collectively more potent indicators of an individual's mobility limitations. PMID:25155859

  3. Postnatal Anthropometric and Body Composition Profiles in Infants with Intrauterine Growth Restriction Identified by Prenatal Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Mazarico, E.; Martinez-Cumplido, R.; Díaz, M.; Sebastiani, G.; Ibáñez, L.; Gómez-Roig, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infant anthropometry and body composition have been previously assessed to gauge the impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at birth, but the interplay between prenatal Doppler measurements and postnatal development has not been studied in this setting. The present investigation was performed to assess the significance of prenatal Doppler findings relative to postnatal anthropometrics and body composition in IUGR newborns over the first 12 months of life. Patients and Methods Consecutive cases of singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR were prospectively enrolled over 12 months. Fetal biometry and prenatal Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed. Body composition was assessed by absorptiometry at ages 10 days, and at 4 and12 months. Results A total of 48 pregnancies qualifying as IUGR were studied. Doppler parameters were normal in 26 pregnancies. The remaining 22 deviated from normal, marked by an Umbilical Artery Pulsatility Index (UA-PI) >95th centil or Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) <5th centile. No significant differences emerged when comparing anthropometry and body composition at each time point, in relation to Doppler findings. Specifically, those IUGR newborns with and without abnormal Doppler findings had similar weight, length, body mass index, lean and fat mass, and bone mineral content throughout the first 12 months of life. In a separate analysis, when comparing IUGR newborns by Doppler (abnormal UA-PI vs. abnormal CPR), anthropometry and body composition did not differ significantly. Conclusions Infants with IUGR maintain a pattern of body composition during the first year of life that is independent of prenatal Doppler findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and correlating with hormonal status are warranted to further extend the phenotypic characterization of the various conditions now classified under the common label of IUGR. PMID:26938993

  4. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers after Remission of Cushing's Disease: A Prospective Study Using Whole-Body MRI

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Strohmayer, Erika; Post, Kalmon D.; Freda, Pamela U.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Cushing's Disease (CD) alters fat distribution, muscle mass, adipokine profile, and cardiovascular risk factors. It is not known whether remission entirely reverses these changes. Objectives: Our objective was to determine whether the adverse body composition and cardiovascular risk profile in CD change after remission. Design, Setting, and Patients: Fourteen CD patients were studied prospectively: before surgery (active disease) and again postoperatively 6 months after discontinuing oral glucocorticoids (remission). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine lean and fat tissue distributions. Outcome Measures: Body composition (skeletal muscle and fat in the visceral, bone marrow, sc, and inter-muscular compartments) and cardiovascular risk factors (serum insulin, glucose, leptin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile) were measured in active CD and remission (mean 20 months after surgery). Results: Remission decreased visceral, pelvic bone marrow, sc (including trunk and limb sc), and total fat; waist circumference; and weight (P < 0.05). Remission altered fat distribution, resulting in decreased visceral/total fat (P = 0.04) and visceral fat/skeletal muscle ratios (P = 0.006). Remission decreased the absolute muscle mass (P = 0.015). Cardiovascular risk factors changed: insulin resistance, leptin, and total cholesterol decreased (P < 0.05), but adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other lipid measures did not change. Conclusions: CD remission reduced nearly all fat depots and reverted fat to a distribution more consistent with favorable cardiovascular risk but decreased skeletal muscle. Remission improved some but not all cardiovascular risk markers. Remission from CD dramatically improves body composition abnormalities but may still be associated with persistent cardiovascular risk. PMID:22419708

  5. Altered body composition in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Heshka, Stanley; Ruggiero, Andrea; Bray, George A.; Foreyt, John; Kahn, Stephen E.; Lewis, Cora E.; Saad, Mohammed; Schwartz, Ann V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in amount and distribution of fat and lean soft tissue in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes and to determine whether any differences are affected by race/ethnicity or sex. Design Overweight and obese (body mass index, BMI≥25 kg/m2) Black, White and Hispanic men (490) and women (825) with type 2 diabetes ([mean±SD] age 58.5±6.6; BMI 35.3±5.3) who had a baseline dual energy x-ray absorptiometry whole body scan at the time of enrollment in the Look Ahead clinical trial, and 242 healthy controls, 91 males and 151 females (age 55.3±8.6 y, BMI 30.7±4.2 kg/m2) who were participating in unrelated research and were scanned on the same densitometers. Results Adjusted for covariates, total fat mass was smaller in persons with type 2 diabetes than in controls (−1.4±0.3[SE]; 34.5 vs 35.8 kg, p<0.001) while trunk fat was larger (1.3±0.2[SE]; 19.9 vs 18.6 kg, p<0.001) and leg fat was smaller (−1.5±0.2[SE]; 10.7 vs 12.3 kg, p<0.001). The arms of subjects with type 2 diabetes did not have significantly less fat compared to controls. Adjusted trunk lean mass was larger in type 2 diabetes by 0.6 kg (28.4 vs 27.8 kg, p<0.001) while leg lean was smaller by 0.5 kg (18.1 vs 18.6 kg, p<0.001). Conclusions Type 2 diabetes is associated with less total fat, leg fat and leg lean mass and more truncal fat and lean mass than controls. The physiological processes producing these deviations in tissue distribution and their metabolic significance warrant further investigation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00017953) PMID:18227843

  6. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:24269508

  7. Height and body composition determine arm propulsive force in youth swimmers independent of a maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner's stages of genital maturation (P1-5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013), arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042), sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009), % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016), lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015) and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026). Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22) of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat. PMID:25414760

  8. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    PubMed

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information.

  9. Socioeconomic status, body size and physical activity of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-01-01

    Much of the secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region has been attributed to the processes of economic modernization and socioeconomic change. The primary objective of the present analysis was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and stature, weight, body mass index and physical activity level of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernized lifestyle in the Pacific Region. In a cross-sectional study of physical activity, body size and socioeconomic status, a volunteer sample of 345 Cook Islanders aged 20-65 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga, and measured at six out-patient clinics. Stature, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level and age were calculated by sex and occupational category, years of education, island of birth and number of years lived on Rarotonga, respectively, using SPSSPC for Windows. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationships between stature, weight, BMI, PALweekday (a measure of physical activity level), age and non-linear functions of age, and the socioeconomic variables. These analyses indicate that the secular trend in stature is a function of the relative level of modernization on Rarotonga relative to other Cook Islands, and with level of education. These factors associate differently among males and females, the secular trend among males appearing to be a general phenomenon in response to lifestyle change associated with life on Rarotonga, while among females the trend is a function of lifestyle change associated with education and independent of island of origin. The trend toward increasing body fatness is also different for males and females. Weight declines with age for both men and women, in a linear way for the males, but in a non-linear fashion for the females. Body weight is also greater among those males in more skilled and professional occupations than among those with less-skilled professions. For

  10. Contrasting associations of body mass index and measles with asthma and rhinitis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hirokazu; Konno, Satoshi; Isada, Akira; Maeda, Yukiko; Musashi, Manabu; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis often coexist and are increasing worldwide, particularly among the younger generation. Although the prevalences of adult asthma and allergic rhinitis and their risk factors have been reported, there have been few studies focusing on young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalences of asthma and allergic rhinitis and their associated factors in Japanese young adults. A questionnaire survey of new students at Hokkaido University about the presence of current wheeze and rhinitis and a history of several viral infections during childhood was conducted in 2008 and 2010. The prevalences of wheeze and rhinitis and their associated factors were evaluated. Of 4076 nonsmoking subjects aged 18-25 years, 261 (6.4%) had current wheeze and 1373 (33.7%) had allergic rhinitis. On multivariate analyses, current wheeze was associated with high body mass index (BMI), atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and a history of measles infection. In contrast, allergic rhinitis was associated with low BMI, current wheeze, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and no history of measles. When subjects were classified into four groups by the presence or absence of wheeze and rhinitis, both high BMI and a history of measles were positively associated with wheeze without rhinitis but negatively associated with rhinitis without wheeze. High BMI and past measles infection showed contrasting associations with asthma and allergic rhinitis in nonsmoking young adults. It is important to not only recognize the common pathophysiological characteristics of asthma and allergic rhinitis but also to understand their differences.

  11. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  12. Association of maternal smoking with body composition of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G G; Branson, R S; Vaucher, Y E

    1983-11-01

    The relationship of maternal cigarette smoking to anthropometric measurements of the newborn was investigated in 285 full-term Caucasian infants. Mothers were classified as "smokers" if they reported smoking both before and during the pregnancy (n = 109) and "nonsmokers" (n = 176). Infants of smoking mothers were significantly lighter, shorter, and had smaller head circumferences, and arm circumferences than those of nonsmokers, consistent with previous findings of other investigators. Ponderal index was not different in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups in any of the skinfold measurements or in calculated cross-sectional fat area of the upper arm. Multiple regression analyses revealed independent effects of smoking on weight, length, and arm circumference, but no independent effect of smoking on any index of subcutaneous fat. These data suggest that the reduction in birth weight in infants whose mothers who smoke is primarily due to reduction in lean body mass of the newborn while deposition of subcutaneous fat is relatively unaffected.

  13. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  14. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  15. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  16. Sequence variants of BIEC2-808543 near LCORL are associated with body composition in Thoroughbreds under training

    PubMed Central

    TOZAKI, Teruaki; SATO, Fumio; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; KIKUCHI, Mio; KAKOI, Hironaga; HIROTA, Kei-ichi; NAGATA, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ligand-dependent nuclear receptor compressor-like (LCORL) encodes a transcription factor, and its polymorphisms are associated with measures of skeletal frame size and adult height in several species. Recently, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BIEC2-808543 located upstream of LCORL was identified as a genetic diagnostic marker associated with withers height in Thoroughbreds. In this study, 322 Thoroughbreds-in-training were genotyped for BIEC2-808543 to evaluate the association between genotype and body composition traits, including body weight, withers height, the ratio of body weight to withers height, chest circumference, and cannon circumference. Of these, withers height and cannon circumference were significantly associated with LCORL genotypes throughout almost the entire training period in males and females. Animals with a C/T genotype had higher withers height (maximum differences of 1.8 cm and 2.1 cm in males and females, respectively) and cannon circumstance (maximum differences of 0.65 cm and 0.48 cm in males and females, respectively) compared with animals with a T/T genotype. These results suggested that the regulation of LCORL expression influences the skeletal frame size in Thoroughbreds and thus, indirectly affects the body weight. Although LCORL and BIEC2-808543 would be useful for selective breeding in Thoroughbreds, the production of genetically modified animals and gene doping based on genetic information should be prohibited in order to maintain racing integrity. PMID:27703405

  17. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  18. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  19. Characterization of body weight and composition changes during the sophomore year of college

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Holly R; Morrow, Michelle L; Dinger, Mary K; Han, Jennifer L; Fields, David A

    2007-01-01

    Background Years spent in college represents a critical time for obesity development though little information is known regarding how body weight and composition changes beyond the first year of college. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in body weight and composition and the factors influencing those changes among sophomore females. Methods Body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was obtained in participants beginning during their freshman year and continued through their sophomore year. Results No difference was observed between sophomore year fall and spring visits for body weight (60.4 versus 60.6 kg) or fat mass (19.3 versus 18.7 kg). However, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease was observed for body fat (31.9 versus 30.9 %fat) and a significant increase was observed for fat-free mass (37.7 versus 38.4 kg). Participants living off campus significantly (P ≤ 0.05) declined in body fat (33.0 versus 31.0 %fat) and fat mass (19.4 versus 18.2 kg) and increased in fat-free mass (36.1 versus 37.2 kg) with no differences in those living on campus. Conclusion No change in body weight was observed in females during their sophomore year. However, an increase in fat-free mass accompanied with a decrease in fat mass resulted in a decrease in body fat. Participants living off campus had favorable changes in their body composition by means of decreasing %fat and fat mass while increasing fat-free mass. Participants living on campus did not demonstrate these favorable changes. PMID:18028546

  20. Education for Older Adults with Early-Stage Dementia: Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richeson, Nancy E.; Boyne, Sarah; Brady, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 13-week adult education class for older adults with early-stage dementia titled Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. The mixed method research design (N = 14) used a quasiexperimental one-group pretest/posttest and the qualitative methods of focus group and phone interview with…

  1. Biochemical composition of microfiliarial and adult stages of Setaria cervi.

    PubMed

    Rathaur, S; Anwar, N; Ghatak, S

    1980-01-01

    The microfilariae and adults of Setaria cervi, a filarial parasite of Indian water-buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linn.) and of other ruminants were analysed for various biochemical constituents. Both stages of the parasite were rich in protein, carbohydrate, and lipids while nucleic acids were detectable in only small amounts. Microfilariae and adults contained 10 and 25% dry matter, 57.4 and 63.0% protein, 8.9 and 14.8% carbohydrate, and 12.8 and 9.2% lipid, respectively. Reducing sugars accounted for 52 and 67% respectively of the total carbohydrate in these two stages. Glycogen accounted for 95% of total carbohydrate in the cold PCA soluble fraction of adult worms while its concentration in microfilariae was very low. Glucose was the main constituent of reducing sugars while concentrations of fructose were very low. Microfilariae contained more lipids, nucleic acids, mucopolysaccharides, and total phosphorus than adults. The phospholipid percentage was higher in microfilariae than in adults. The amino acid pattern of both stages was very similar.

  2. Effects of ingesting supplements designed to promote lean tissue accretion on body composition during resistance training.

    PubMed

    Kreider, R B; Klesges, R; Harmon, K; Grindstaff, P; Ramsey, L; Bullen, D; Wood, L; Li, Y; Almada, A

    1996-09-01

    This study examined the effects of ingesting nutritional supplements designed to promote lean tissue accretion on body composition alterations during resistance training. Twenty-eight resistance-trained males blindly supplemented their diets with maltodextrin (M), Gainers Fuel 1000 (GF), or Phosphagain (P). No significant differences were observed in absolute or relative total body water among groups. Energy intake and body weight significantly increased in all groups combined throughout the study with no group or interaction differences observed. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-determined body mass significantly increased in each group throughout the study with significantly greater gains observed in the GF and P groups. Lean tissue mass (excluding bone) gain was significantly greater in the P group, while fat mass and percent body fat were significantly increased in the GF group. Results indicate that total body weight significantly increased in each group and that P supplementation resulted in significantly greater gains in lean tissue mass during resistance training.

  3. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  4. Cell secretion from the adult lamprey supraneural body tissues possesses cytocidal activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yue; Wang, Shiyue; Ba, Wei; Li, Qingwei

    2015-01-01

    The supraneural body was identified in the adult lamprey, and its secretions induced the death of a variety of tumor cells but had no effect on normal cells. The cell secretions from different lamprey tissues were separated, and these secretions killed human tumor cells to varying degrees. The cell secretions induced remarkable cell morphological alterations such as cell blebbing, and the plasma membrane was destroyed by the secretions. In addition, the secretions induced morphological alterations of the mitochondria, cytoskeletal structure, and endoplasmic reticulum, eventually leading to cell death. These observations suggest the presence of a novel protein in the lamprey and the possibility of new applications for the protein in the medical field.

  5. Evaluation of Hand-to-Hand Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimating Percent Body Fat in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    WEAVER, AARON M.; HILL, ASHLEY C.; ANDREACCI, JOSEPH L.; DIXON, CURT B.

    2009-01-01

    Purposes were to (a) to examine the validity and precision of a hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analyzer (HBIA) and (b) to determine the effect of an acute sub-maximal aerobic exercise bout on HBIA percent body fat (%BF) measures. Forty-one young adults (21 women; 20 men) visited the laboratory for body composition assessment on two separate occasions. During the control session, %BF was assessed by HBIA twice, before and immediately after 30 min of rest, and once by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), using the BOD POD, which was considered the criterion method for comparison. During the exercise session, HBIA %BF measurements were determined prior-to and immediately after 30 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise. HBIA significantly underestimated %BF in the total sample (mean difference (MD) = 1.4 ± 4.3%) and, when examined by gender, in the women (MD = 2.4 ± 4.1%). The standard errors of estimate (range 4.1–4.3%) also exceeded the recommended range for accuracy (<3.5%). Following exercise, there was minimal, but statistically significant reduction in HBIA-measured %BF pre- to post-exercise for the total sample (19.6 ± 6.0 vs. 19.3 ± 6.0%; p = 0.011). HBIA underestimated %BF when compared to ADP and the individual prediction error exceeded current recommendations when assessing young adults. In addition, performing sub-maximal aerobic exercise prior to the assessment decreased the %BF estimate. When one factors the exercise-induced alterations with the currently observed tendency for HBIA to underestimate %BF, it is apparent that exercise may further reduce the accuracy of this method. PMID:27182319

  6. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  7. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects' body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  8. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects’ body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  9. Anthropometric, body composition and performance variables of young elite female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Bale, P

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the physique and body composition of young female basketball players and to examine these variables in relation to their playing position. Eighteen members of the under seventeen England Basketball squad were measured on twenty different anthropometric sites from which somatotype and body composition were calculated. Four performance measures, vertical jump, anaerobic power, right and left grip strength and laterality were also measured. The variables of the basketball players grouped according to playing position were then compared statistically using ANOVA. Centres had the largest measures of physique and body composition followed by the forwards and then the guards. These differences were significant, particularly between the centres and the guards. The centres were much taller, had longer limb lengths, hip widths and were more muscular.

  10. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  11. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    PubMed

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  12. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  13. GENERALIZED CYTOMEGALIC INCLUSION-BODY DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Symmers, W. St. C.

    1960-01-01

    Three cases of generalized cytomegalic inclusion-body disease (salivary virus disease) in adults are reported, bringing the number of published cases up to 34. The infection is very rare in adults although well known in infants. As is often found in infants with this disease, pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii was also present in each case. The first patient had Wegener's granulomatosis, which presented with acute otitis media: a review of histological material obtained at mastoidectomy eight weeks before death showed that inclusion-body cytomegaly was already present then. Various antibiotics and prednisolone were given, and the lesions in the respiratory organs and the arteritis healed to a considerable extent. Renal failure, however, was progressive and led to death. The second patient had thrombotic purpura and died after a few weeks' illness, during which oxytetracycline and hydrocortisone were given. Congenital absence of the spleen was found at laparotomy, which was performed with the object of doing a splenectomy. Focal cryptococcal pneumonia was present post mortem: six years before death a solitary cryptococcal granuloma of one lung had been treated by lobectomy. The third patient had had Hodgkin's disease for 18 years. During the first 12 years the disease had the characteristics of the so-called indolent form (“Hodgkin's paragranuloma”) and it then passed into the typical form. Deep x-ray therapy and cytotoxic drugs were used during the course of the disease at various times, and streptomycin and tuberculostatic drugs were given because of intercurrent tuberculous meningitis which developed three months before death. In all three cases it seems likely that the underlying disease, or the drugs used in its treatment, predisposed to cytomegalic inclusion-body disease and concomitant pneumocystis pneumonia by lowering the patients' resistance. Just as some unusual types of fungal and bacterial infections have become less rare since the introduction

  14. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  15. Relation between Lifestyle and Socio-Demographic Factors and Body Composition among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Samadi, Mehnoosh; Azam, Kamal; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging is accompanied by various changes that can cause changes in diet and body composition resulting sometimes in malnutrition and disability in the elderly. Changes in body composition among the elderly are mainly the result of physical inactivity and nutrition. This study was designed to examine the relationship betw