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Sample records for adult body mass

  1. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both p<0.001), and were inversely associated with body image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all p<0.05) and <5% for men (NS). Clinicians should be aware that as their clients' BMI and %FM increase, body image decreases, particularly in women.

  2. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-02-23

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation.

  3. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  4. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) < arms and trunk (∼1.8-2.3) < legs (∼2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) < BMC (∼2.1-2.4). Small sex and population differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Scaling of Adult Regional Body Mass and Body Composition as a Whole to Height: Relevance to Body Shape and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Schuna, John M.; Peterson, Courtney M.; Thomas, Diana M.; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht2), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht2? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index. Methods Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass (head [MH], trunk, arms, legs) and whole-body composition (fat, lean soft tissue [LST], and bone mineral content [BMC]) in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=17,126) and Korean NHANES (n=8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Results Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four race/ethnic groups: regional mass powers, head (~0.8-1) < arms and trunk (~1.8-2.3) < legs (~2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (~2.0-2.3) < BMC (~2.1-2.4). Small sex and race/ethnic differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and race/ethnic groups as Ht~2, tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., Mh/Mb ∝ Ht−~1) and composition. Conclusions Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as defined by stature, a finding that has important implications in multiple areas of biological research. PMID:25381999

  6. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  7. Body mass index in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Brida, Margarita; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kempny, Alexander; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Swan, Lorna; Uebing, Anselm; Baumgartner, Helmut; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher mortality in various cardiovascular cohorts. The prognostic implications of BMI in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are unknown. We aim to assess the distribution of BMI and its association with symptoms and survival in the ACHD population. We included 3069 ACHD patients (median age 32.6 years) under follow-up at our institution between 2001 and 2015. Patients were classified based on BMI as underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-25), overweight (25-30) or obese (>30), and symptoms, exercise capacity and mortality were assessed. Overall, 6.2% of patients were underweight, 51.1% had normal weight, 28.2% were overweight and 14.6% were obese. Higher BMI values were associated with lower all-cause and cardiac mortality on univariable Cox analysis, and this effect persisted after adjustment for age, defect complexity, cyanosis and objective exercise capacity. Higher BMI was especially associated with better prognosis in symptomatic ACHD patients (HR 0.94 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.98), p=0.002) and those with complex underlying cardiac defects (HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.997), p=0.048) In patients with a complex cardiac defect who had repeated weight measurements, weight loss was also associated with a worse survival (HR 1.82 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.24), p=0.04). ACHD patients with a higher BMI had a lower mortality. The association between BMI and mortality was especially pronounced in symptomatic patients with complex underlying cardiac defects, suggesting that cardiac cachexia may play a role. Indeed, weight loss in complex ACHD patients was linked to an even higher mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Body Mass Index and perceived weight status in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, J P; Melby, C L; Hyner, G C; Brown, A C; Femea, P L

    1991-06-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,123 university students who returned a questionnaire mailed to a 10 percent random sample of the entire undergraduate population of a large midwestern university. Seventeen percent of the females and 20 percent of the males were determined to be in excess of normal BMI standards. However, significantly more women (40%) considered themselves overweight in comparison to men (24%). Also, significantly more women (53%) than men (20%) reported experiencing discomfort due to excessive weight. Inaccurate perceptions of body image are common among individuals with eating disorders. There is a higher incidence of eating disorders among college-age women than among their male peers. A distorted body image as reflected by perceived overweight may serve as a marker for individuals at risk for eating disorders.

  9. Prevalence of low muscle mass according to body mass index in older adults.

    PubMed

    Graf, Christophe E; Pichard, Claude; Herrmann, François R; Sieber, Cornel C; Zekry, Dina; Genton, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    Low muscle mass has been associated with increased morbi-mortality and should be identified for optimizing preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study evaluates the prevalence of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)-derived low muscle mass in older persons using definitions found through a systematic literature search and determines the link between body mass index (BMI) and low muscle mass. We performed a systematic search of trials involving ≥100 persons that derived low muscle mass from BIA and reported cut-offs for low muscle mass normalized for body height or weight. These cut-offs were applied to all adults ≥65 y who underwent a BIA measurement at Geneva University Hospital between 1990 and 2011 (N = 3181). The association between BMI and low muscle mass was evaluated through multivariate logistic regressions. We identified 15 cut-offs based on the fat-free mass index (FFMI), skeletal muscle index (SMI), or skeletal muscle percentage (SMP). Depending on the definition, the prevalence of low muscle mass was 17% to 68% in women and 17% to 85% in men. The risk of low muscle mass increased with a BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) when using cut-offs based on FFMI (odds ratio [OR] ♀ 14.28-24.04/♂ 25.42-50.64) or SMI (OR ♀ 3.56-4.56/♂ 7.07-8.87) and decreased with a BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) (FFMI: OR ♀ 0.03-0.04/♂ 0.01-0.04; SMI: OR ♀ 0.18-0.25/♂ 0.14-0.18). The opposite association appeared between BMI and cut-offs based on SMP. The prevalence of low muscle mass varies widely depending on the definition, especially in persons with BMI <18.5 or ≥25 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep duration associated with body mass index among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Huang, Yuee; Wang, Zengzhen; Yu, Yaqin; Lau, Abby; Ali, Gholam; Huang, Ping; Geng, Yunlong; Xu, Tan; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and obesity among Chinese adults. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among Chinese adults in 2008. In total, 3225 participants were selected by a multistage cluster sampling method. Self-reported sleep duration was measured by a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals, CIs) of obesity with sleep duration, separated by gender, and adjusted for age, education, occupation, marriage, smoking, drinking, body pain, and health status. The mean sleep duration was 7.8 h. Among the 2962 participants, 7.2% had short sleep duration (≤6 h/day). There were 171 obese participants (5.7%) in this population. After adjustment for age, short sleep duration (<6 h) was significantly associated with obesity among men (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.193.90), but not among women; additional adjustment for potential confounders did not attenuate the association among men. Increasing sleep duration (a continuous variable) was significantly and negatively associated with obesity in women after adjustment for education level, occupation, marital status, smoking, drinking, body pain, and health status. The adjusted OR per-hour increase in sleep duration was 0.74 (0.56-0.97) for obesity, suggesting that for a 1-h increase in sleep duration among women, obesity risk decreased by 26%. Short sleep duration was associated with increasing obesity in Chinese men, and sleep duration was associated with obesity in Chinese women, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. This possible gender difference warrants further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Body mass and cognitive decline are indirectly associated via inflammation among aging adults.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle; Sbarra, David A

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory models of neurodegeneration suggest that higher circulating levels of inflammation can lead to cognitive decline. Despite established independent associations between greater body mass, increased inflammation, and cognitive decline, no prior research has explored whether markers of systemic inflammation might mediate the association between body mass and changes in cognitive functioning. To test such a model, we used two longitudinal subsamples (ns=9066; 12,561) of aging adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) study, which included two cognitive measures components of memory and executive functioning, as well as measurements of body mass and systemic inflammation, assessed via C-reactive protein (CRP). Greater body mass was indirectly associated with declines in memory and executive functioning over 6years via relatively higher levels of CRP. Our results suggest that systemic inflammation is one biologically plausible mechanism through which differences in body mass might influence changes in cognitive functioning among aging adults.

  12. Effects of Rapid or Slow Body Mass Reduction on Body Composition in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Shinji; Tsurumi, Yasukimi; Yokota, Yukari; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Okamura, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Whether the speed of body mass (BM) reduction influences the body composition is uncertain. To investigate the effects of rapid vs slow body mass reduction on body composition, rats were divided into three groups; fed ad libitum for 16-day (Control, C); received restricted food intake during 16-day to decrease BM slowly (Slow, S); or fed ad libitum for 13-days and fasted for the last 3 days to rapidly reach a BM comparable to that of S (Rapid, R). Drinking water was restricted for R on day 16 to rapidly decrease their BM. All rats trained during the study. Final BM and adipose tissues mass were similar for R and S, and both were lesser than C. The skeletal muscle mass did not decrease in R and S. The liver mass was lower in R and S than C, and the decrease tended to be greater in R than S. Both the stomach and small intestine masses were significantly lower in R than C, but did not differ between S and C. In conclusion, differences of the speed of BM reduction affect the splanchnic tissues, and the decrease in splanchnic tissue mass was greater with rapid than slow BM reduction. PMID:19794927

  13. Body Mass Index and Comorbidities in Adult Severe Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andreina; Pace, Elisabetta; Cibella, Fabio; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Both severe asthma and obesity are growing health problems. Severe asthma leads to a poor quality of life. The relationship among BMI, comorbidities, and severe asthma control in adults is still unclear. The aim of the study is to better understand the effect of the comorbidities as atopy, type II diabetes, OSAS, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, infections, and psychological factors with BMI on asthma control in a cohort of adult severe asthmatics. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study assessing asthma control, treatments, pulmonary function, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Patients were divided into 3 classes according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. We found that the optimal state of asthma control is lower. whereas the score of Asthma Control Questionnaire, the number of asthma exacerbations during last year, the oral corticosteroids requirement during the previous year, and the LABA treatments are higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight severe asthmatics. The number of subjects with type II diabetes and OSAS are higher among obese and overweight patients than in normal weight asthmatics. In conclusion, BMI represents per se a factor for the deterioration in disease control in severe asthma. PMID:24987694

  14. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  15. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  16. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  17. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  18. Body mass index knowledge of older adults and motivation to change.

    PubMed

    Wills, Teresa; Fehin, Patricia; Callen, Bonnie

    2011-03-01

    Worldwide, 1.6 billion adults are overweight and 400 million are obese. For older adults, being in these categories exacerbates multiple chronic diseases and leads to frailty. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge of older adults in Ireland and the USA about their body mass index (BMI) category and motivation to change. A quantitative descriptive research design was used in the study. Two convenience samples of community-dwelling older adults, one in Ireland (n=70) and one in the USA (n=70) participated in the study. Data was collected in the form of questionnaires and BMI was calculated. This study found that fewer Irish participants knew their BMI category. In both groups, measured BMI differed greatly from self-perceived BMI. These findings suggest that older adults are unaware of their weight status and therefore do not know that they are in a BMI category with multiple health consequences.

  19. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Bone-Free Lean Body Mass and Muscle Strength in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Oguma, Yuko; Onishi, Shohei

    2011-01-01

    Resistance training with whole-body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to conventional resistance training or as supplementary training. Despite its growing popularity, the specific effects of WBV training on muscle morphology, strength, and endurance are not well understood, particularly in young adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV training on bone-free lean body mass (BFLBM), and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy, untrained, young individuals. Eighteen healthy men and women (21-39 years) were randomly assigned to either a body-weight exercise with WBV (VT) group or a control exercise group without WBV (CON). Participants performed eight exercises per 40- min session on a vibration platform (VT group, frequency = 30-40 Hz; amplitude = 2 mm) twice weekly for 12 weeks. Anthropometry, total and regional BFLBM (trunks, legs, and arms) measured by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength and endurance measured by maximal isometric lumbar extension strength, maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, and the number of sit- ups performed were recorded and compared. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes between the groups in any of the measured variables. We conclude that 12 weeks of body weight vibration exercise compared to body weight exercise alone does not provide meaningful changes to BFLBM or muscle performance in healthy young adults. Key points A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of body-weight exercise combined with whole-body vibration on bone-free lean body mass and maximal muscle strength and endurance in healthy young individuals. Body-weight exercises for lower extremities and trunk muscles were performed twice weekly for 12 weeks. Participants in the exercise with whole-body vibration group increased the vibration frequency from 30, 35, to 40 Hz at a constant amplitude of 2 mm during the trial

  20. Associations between body mass index-related genetic variants and adult body composition: the Fenland cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Emma A D; Day, Felix R; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Forouhi, Nita G; Brage, Soren; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ong, Ken K

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective Body mass index (BMI) is a surrogate measure of adiposity but does not distinguish fat from lean or bone mass. The genetic determinants of BMI are thought to predominantly influence adiposity but this has not been confirmed. Here we characterise the association between BMI-related genetic variants and body composition in adults. Subjects/Methods Among 9667 adults aged 29-64 years from the Fenland study, a genetic risk score for BMI (BMI-GRS) was calculated for each individual as the weighted sum of BMI-increasing alleles across 96 reported BMI-related variants. Associations between the BMI-GRS and body composition, estimated by DXA scans, were examined using age-adjusted linear regression models, separately by sex. Results The BMI-GRS was positively associated with all fat, lean and bone variables. Across body regions, associations of the greatest magnitude were observed for adiposity variables e.g. for each standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI-GRS predicted BMI, we observed a 0.90 SD (95% CI: 0.71, 1.09) increase in total fat mass for men (P=3.75×10−21) and a 0.96 SD (95% CI: 0.77, 1.16) increase for women (P=6.12×10−22). Associations of intermediate magnitude were observed with lean variables e.g. total lean mass: men: 0.68 SD (95% CI: 0.49, 0.86) (P=1.91×10−12); women: 0.85 SD (95% CI: 0.65, 1.04) (P=2.66×10−17) and of a lower magnitude with bone variables e.g. total bone mass: men: 0.39 SD (95% CI: 0.20, 0.58) (P=5.69×10−5); women: 0.45 SD (95% CI: 0.26, 0.65) (P=3.96×10−6). Nominally significant associations with BMI were observed for 28 SNPs. All 28 were positively associated with fat mass and 13 showed adipose-specific effects. Conclusion In adults, genetic susceptibility to elevated BMI influences adiposity more than lean or bone mass. This mirrors the association between BMI and body composition. The BMI-GRS can be used to model the effects of measured BMI and adiposity on health and other outcomes. PMID:28096530

  1. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  2. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  3. Body mass index and the risk of injury in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chassé, M; Fergusson, D A; Chen, Y

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of nonfatal body injury. We analyzed data from 113,203 adults who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted in 2009-2010. Log-binomial models were used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks of the association between BMI and the risk of body injury for men and women. Of 113,203 adult participants, 15,194 had self-reported body injuries during the past 12 months, with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 13.7% (weighted to Canadian population). There was a significant interaction between gender and BMI in relation to the risk of body injury, and therefore, analyses were stratified by gender. For women, we found a significant association between BMI and an increased risk of body injury. Women with an increased BMI had a significant increased risk of body injuries as compared with those with normal weight (adjusted relative risk: 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.25 for BMI 30.0-34.9 kg m(-)(2); 1.17, 95% CI=1.00-1.37 for BMI 35.0-39.9 kg m(-)(2); 1.41, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 for BMI ⩾ 40 kg m(-)(2)). A reduced risk of injury was observed in underweight women. There was no significant association between BMI and the risk of body injury for men. Obese persons of both gender were more likely to suffer injuries to the knee and lower leg, and in less demanding activities such as household chores or using the stairs. We therefore conclude that increased BMI may be a risk factor for body injury in women, but not in men.

  4. Variability and rapid increase in body mass index during childhood are associated with adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Sun, Dianjianyi; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Jian; Kelly, Tanika; He, Jiang; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in childhood predicts obesity in adults, but it is unknown whether rapid increase and variability in BMI during childhood are independent predictors of adult obesity. The study cohort consisted of 1622 Bogalusa Heart Study participants (aged 20 to 51 years at follow-up) who had been screened at least four times during childhood (aged 4-19 years). BMI rate of change during childhood for each individual was assessed by mixed models; BMI residual standard deviation (RSD) during childhoodwas used as a measure of variability. The average follow-up period was 20.9 years. One standard deviation increase in rate of change in BMI during childhood was associated with 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.61] kg/m(2) increase in adult BMI and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.42-3.56) cm increase in adult waist circumference, independently of childhood mean BMI. Similarly, one standard deviation increase in RSD in BMI during childhood was associated with 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23-0.69) kg/m(2) increase in adult BMI and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.82-2.02) cm increase in adult waist circumference. Odds ratio for adult obesity progressively increased from the lowest to the highest quartile of BMI rate of change or RSD during childhood (P for trend < 0.05 for both). Rapid increase and greater variability in BMI during childhood appear to be independent risk factors for adult obesity. Our findings have implications for understanding body weight regulation and obesity development from childhood to adulthood. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Variability and rapid increase in body mass index during childhood are associated with adult obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxu; Chen, Wei; Sun, Dianjianyi; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Jian; Kelly, Tanika; He, Jiang; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Whelton, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) in childhood predicts obesity in adults, but it is unknown whether rapid increase and variability in BMI during childhood are independent predictors of adult obesity. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1622 Bogalusa Heart Study participants (aged 20 to 51 years at follow-up) who had been screened at least four times during childhood (aged 4–19 years). BMI rate of change during childhood for each individual was assessed by mixed models; BMI residual standard deviation (RSD) during childhoodwas used as a measure of variability. The average follow-up period was 20.9 years. Results: One standard deviation increase in rate of change in BMI during childhood was associated with 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.61] kg/m2 increase in adult BMI and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.42–3.56) cm increase in adult waist circumference, independently of childhood mean BMI. Similarly, one standard deviation increase in RSD in BMI during childhood was associated with 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23–0.69) kg/m2 increase in adult BMI and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.82–2.02) cm increase in adult waist circumference. Odds ratio for adult obesity progressively increased from the lowest to the highest quartile of BMI rate of change or RSD during childhood (P for trend < 0.05 for both). Conclusions: Rapid increase and greater variability in BMI during childhood appear to be independent risk factors for adult obesity. Our findings have implications for understanding body weight regulation and obesity development from childhood to adulthood. PMID:26452389

  6. [Body image satisfaction in Mexican adolescents and adults and its relation with body selfperception and real body mass index].

    PubMed

    Sámano, Reyna; Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana Lilia; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Godínez Martínez, Estela Ytelina; Noriega, Almudena; Zelonka, Rosa; Garza, Marien; Nieto, Javier

    2014-12-16

    Body Image (BI) perception could determine the nutritional care search, even though there is not always concordance between the real BMI and the self-perceived one. To determine the correlation between self-perceived and real BMI, and their relation with body image (BI) satisfaction in a sample of Mexican adolescents and adults. An cross-sectional and analytical study, conformed by 556 participants; of which 330 were adolescents and 217 were adults with anthropometric, self-perception and BI satisfaction assessment. The BMI was higher 23±6 vs 29.3±5 p<0.001 in adults, which doubled the level of overweight and obesity present in the adolescents 79% vs 43%. About 50% of participants had concordance between their real BMI and their perceived one (p<0.001). Of all adults with overweight and obesity 68% had satisfaction with their BI, whereas the prevalence of satisfaction with the BI in adolescents was 80%. The predictive variables of BI insatisfaction were being an adult, being a woman and having overweight/obesity (p=0.013). Those ones who referred a positive judgment about their BI, they also reported being satisfied with their BI and presented a real normal or overweight BMI. Half of the participants had concordance of their perceived BI with their real BMI. The satisfaction with BI was more frequent between the lower real and perceived BMI, but subjects with overweight and obesity also reported satisfaction with their BI even though it is considered a risk condition. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  8. The effects of childhood SNAP use and neighborhood conditions on adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Thomas P; Houser, Linda

    2012-08-01

    The disproportionate number of individuals who are obese or overweight in the low-income U.S. population has raised interest in the influence of neighborhood conditions and public assistance programs on weight and health. Generally, neighborhood effects and program participation effects have been explored in separate studies. We unite these two areas of inquiry, using the 1968-2005 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to examine the long-term effects of childhood Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation, neighborhood conditions, and the interaction of these two, on adult body mass index (BMI). Using sibling fixed-effects models to account for selection bias, we find that relative to children in other low-income families, children in SNAP-recipient households have higher average adult BMI values. However, the effects of childhood SNAP usage are sensitive to both residential neighborhood and age at receipt. For those growing up in advantaged neighborhoods, projected adult BMI is higher for children in SNAP-recipient households than for children in low-income, nonrecipient households. In contrast, for those growing up in less-advantaged areas, adult BMI differences between children in SNAP-recipient and those in low-income, nonrecipient households are small. SNAP usage during preschool years (0 to 4) has no impact on adult BMI scores. However, at later childhood ages, the time elapsed receiving SNAP income increases adult BMI values relative to a condition of low-income nonreceipt.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Body Mass Index to Identify Obesity in Older Adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Batsis, John A.; Mackenzie, Todd A.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Sahakyan, Karine R.; Somers, Virend K.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Body composition changes with aging lead to increased adiposity and decreased muscle mass, making the diagnosis of obesity challenging. Conventional anthropometry, including body mass index (BMI), while easy to use clinically may misrepresent adiposity. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of BMI using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in assessing the degree of obesity in older adults. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2004 were used to identify adults aged ≥60years with DEXA measures. They were categorized (yes/no) as having elevated body fat by gender (men≥25%; females ≥35%) and by body mass index (BMI) ≥25 and ≥30kg/m2. The diagnostic performance of BMI was assessed. Metabolic characteristics were compared in discordant cases of BMI/body fat. Weighting and analyses were performed per NHANES guidelines. Results We identified 4,984 subjects (men:2,453; female:2,531). Mean BMI and % body fat was 28.0kg/m2 and 30.8% in men, and 28.5kg/m2 and 42.1% in females. A BMI ≥30kg/m2 had a low sensitivity and moderately high specificity (men:32.9% and 80.8%, concordance index 0.66; females:38.5% and 78.5%, concordance 0.69) correctly classifying 41.0 and 45.1% of obese subjects. A BMI ≥25kg/m2 had a moderately high sensitivity and specificity (men:80.7% and 99.6%, concordance 0.81;females:76.9% and 98.8%, concordance 0.84) correctly classifying 80.8 and 78.5% of obese subjects. In subjects with BMI<30kg/m2 body fat was considered elevated in 67.1% and 61.5% of males and females, respectively. For a BMI≥30kg/m2, sensitivity drops from 40.3 to 14.5% and 44.5 to 23.4%, while specificity remains elevated (>98%),in males and females, respectively in those 60–69.9years to subjects aged ≥80years. Correct classification of obesity using a cutoff of 30kg/m2 drops from 48.1 to 23.9% and 49.0 to 19.6%, in males and females in these two age groups. Conclusions Traditional measures poorly identify obesity in the

  10. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  11. Body mass index is positively associated with bone mineral density in US older adults.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jennifer T; Alley, Dawn E; Hawkes, William G; Hochberg, Marc C; Waldstein, Shari R; Orwig, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Literature has been conflicting as to whether obesity is protective against osteoporosis. Understanding the relationship is particularly important in light of the increasing prevalence of obesity among older adults. Study results confirm a protective association between obesity and osteoporosis in a recent, nationally representative sample of US older adults. Currently, the majority of US older adults are either overweight or obese. Evidence regarding the relationship between body composition measures and bone mass is conflicting, possibly because different measures of obesity reflect multiple mechanisms. Additionally, there are important age, gender, and racial differences in a risk of osteoporosis and fat mass composition. The objective of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in a recent, nationally representative sample of US older adults as well as to see if this relationship differs by age, sex, and race. Data for this study were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) for adults ages 50 and older (n = 3,296). Linear regression models were used to predict BMD of the femoral neck (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) as a function of BMI (measured height and weight) and a range of study covariates. Every unit increase in BMI was associated with an increase of 0.0082 g/cm(2) in BMD (p < 0.001). Interaction terms for BMI and age (p = 0.345), BMI and sex (p = 0.413), and BMI and race (p = 0.725) were not statistically significant. Study results confirm the positive association between BMI and BMD, and this relationship does not differ by age, sex, or race. A 10-unit increase in BMI (e.g., from normal BMI to obese) would result in moving an individual from an osteoporotic BMD level to a normal BMD level. Results demonstrate a protective, cross-sectional association between obesity and osteoporosis in a recent sample of US older

  12. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2014-07-08

    Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, independently and adjusted for height, is positively associated with adult prostate cancer. Subjects were a cohort of 125208 boys formed from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at 7-13 years. Cases were identified through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.10) per BMI z-score at age 7, and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) per BMI z-score at age 13. Estimates were similar and significant at all other ages. However, adjustment for childhood height attenuated the associations at all but the youngest ages as most estimates became nonsignificant. These results suggest that at most childhood ages, BMI does not confer an additional risk for prostate cancer beyond that of height.

  13. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    PubMed Central

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m−2) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, independently and adjusted for height, is positively associated with adult prostate cancer. Methods: Subjects were a cohort of 125 208 boys formed from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930–1969 with height and weight measurements at 7–13 years. Cases were identified through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. Results: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–1.10) per BMI z-score at age 7, and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.10) per BMI z-score at age 13. Estimates were similar and significant at all other ages. However, adjustment for childhood height attenuated the associations at all but the youngest ages as most estimates became nonsignificant. Conclusions: These results suggest that at most childhood ages, BMI does not confer an additional risk for prostate cancer beyond that of height. PMID:24867696

  14. Socioeconomic status and misperception of body mass index among Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Arantxa Colchero, M; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the association between perceived body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic variables in adults in Mexico. We studied 32052 adults from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006. We estimated BMI misperception by comparing the respondent's weight perception (as categories of BMI) with the corresponding category according to measured weight and height. Misperception was defined as respondent's perception of a BMI category different from their actual category. Socioeconomic status was assessed using household assets. Logistic and multinomial regression models by gender and BMI category were estimated. Adult women and men highly underestimate their BMI category. We found that the probability of a correct classification was lower than the probability of getting a correct result by chance alone. Better educated and more affluent individuals are more likely to have a correct perception of their weight status, particularly among overweight adults. Given that a correct perception of weight has been associated with an increased search of weight control and that our results show that the studied population underestimated their BMI, interventions providing definitions and consequences of overweight and obesity and encouraging the population to monitor their weight could be beneficial.

  15. Contrasting associations of body mass index and measles with asthma and rhinitis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hirokazu; Konno, Satoshi; Isada, Akira; Maeda, Yukiko; Musashi, Manabu; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis often coexist and are increasing worldwide, particularly among the younger generation. Although the prevalences of adult asthma and allergic rhinitis and their risk factors have been reported, there have been few studies focusing on young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalences of asthma and allergic rhinitis and their associated factors in Japanese young adults. A questionnaire survey of new students at Hokkaido University about the presence of current wheeze and rhinitis and a history of several viral infections during childhood was conducted in 2008 and 2010. The prevalences of wheeze and rhinitis and their associated factors were evaluated. Of 4076 nonsmoking subjects aged 18-25 years, 261 (6.4%) had current wheeze and 1373 (33.7%) had allergic rhinitis. On multivariate analyses, current wheeze was associated with high body mass index (BMI), atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and a history of measles infection. In contrast, allergic rhinitis was associated with low BMI, current wheeze, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and no history of measles. When subjects were classified into four groups by the presence or absence of wheeze and rhinitis, both high BMI and a history of measles were positively associated with wheeze without rhinitis but negatively associated with rhinitis without wheeze. High BMI and past measles infection showed contrasting associations with asthma and allergic rhinitis in nonsmoking young adults. It is important to not only recognize the common pathophysiological characteristics of asthma and allergic rhinitis but also to understand their differences.

  16. Body mass index as an indicator of adiposity among adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Temple, Viviene A; Walkley, Jeff W; Greenway, Kate

    2010-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been identified as a key health indicator and determinant of health for people with intellectual disability. Our aim was to examine whether BMI is a useful indicator of adiposity among a sample of adults with intellectual disability. Participants were 46 ambulatory community-dwelling volunteers with mild to moderate intellectual disability. Age ranged from 19 to 60 years, 25 were male, and 17 had Down syndrome. Soft tissue composition was determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA) and height and weight were directly assessed. Regression equations revealed that BMI accounted for 68% of the variance in percent body fat and 83% of the variance in total body fat. Partial correlations of BMI with fat and lean masses determined by DXA were r = .91 and r = -.12, respectively. A BMI of >or= 30 had excellent specificity for obesity, but less than optimal sensitivity. BMI appears to be a reasonable indicator of adiposity, although a BMI >or= 30 may misclassify a proportion of individuals assessed by DXA as obese.

  17. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air-displacement plethysmography in adults.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kimberly J; Siders, William A; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lukaski, Henry C

    2008-02-01

    We determined the effect of clothing type on the validity of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) and ascertain if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). The %BF by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and %BF, density, and body volume by ADP were assessed in 132 healthy adults classified by normal (N; 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (OW; 25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (OB; 30-39.9 kg/m2) BMIs. Compared with DXA, ADP underestimated (P < 0.0001) %BF from scrubs (SC) and t-shirt/shorts (TS) in N (11.4%; 8.6%) and OW (6.8%; 4.9%) BMI groups, respectively. ADP compared with DXA overestimated (P < 0.0006) %BF in the OW group (1.2%), but underestimated (P < 0.0001) it in the N group (2.4%). ADP also overestimated (P < 0.006) %BF in the OB group wearing spandex (SP; 4.8%), but not in those wearing SC (0.7%; P = 0.10) and TS (0.5%; P = 0.22) versus DXA. All three clothing types showed significant error in estimating %BF with ADP compared with DXA in N and OW BMI. Use of spandex provided the least error and is the preferred attire to obtain valid body composition results when testing N and OW subjects. However, SP provided the greatest error in the OB group. Error in ADP %BF in OB was minimal in SC and TS and similar to the within-subject variability in %BF estimates with ADP. Thus, TS and SC are acceptable alternatives to SP in adults with excess body weight.

  18. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Staiano, A E; Reeder, B A; Elliott, S; Joffres, M R; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, S A; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2012-11-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18-74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986-2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P<0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. [corrected] BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI.

  19. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  20. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  1. Estimating disability prevalence among adults by body mass index: 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities; however, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of disability among obese adults in the United States. We analyzed pooled data from sample adult modules of the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type, and obesity by using 30 questions that screened for activity limitations, vision and hearing impairment, and cognitive, movement, and emotional difficulties. We stratified disability prevalence by category of body mass index (BMI, measured as kg/m(2)): underweight, less than 18.5; normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; and obese, 30.0 or higher. Among the 25.3% of adult men and 24.6% of women in our pooled sample who were obese, 35.2% and 46.9%, respectively, reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of men and 26.8% women of normal weight reported a disability. Disability was much higher among obese women than among obese men (46.9% vs 35.2%, P < .001). Movement difficulties were the most common disabilities among obese men and women, affecting 25.3% of men and 37.9% of women. This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in characterizing people by body mass index. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs.

  2. Estimating Disability Prevalence Among Adults by Body Mass Index: 2003–2009 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Campbell, Vincent A.; Wethington, Holly R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities; however, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of disability among obese adults in the United States. Methods We analyzed pooled data from sample adult modules of the 2003–2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type, and obesity by using 30 questions that screened for activity limitations, vision and hearing impairment, and cognitive, movement, and emotional difficulties. We stratified disability prevalence by category of body mass index (BMI, measured as kg/m2): underweight, less than 18.5; normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; and obese, 30.0 or higher. Results Among the 25.3% of adult men and 24.6% of women in our pooled sample who were obese, 35.2% and 46.9%, respectively, reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of men and 26.8% women of normal weight reported a disability. Disability was much higher among obese women than among obese men (46.9% vs 35.2%, P < .001). Movement difficulties were the most common disabilities among obese men and women, affecting 25.3% of men and 37.9% of women. Conclusion This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in characterizing people by body mass index. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs. PMID:23270667

  3. Reassessment of Phenylalanine Tolerance in Adults with Phenylketonuria is Needed as Body Mass Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Gleason, Sally T.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in 8 adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and 5 subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25–28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, 7 subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15–173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R2=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  4. Birth weight modifies the association between central nervous system gene variation and adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Haddad, Stephen A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-03-01

    Genome wide association studies have identified ~100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study, and were based on genotype data on 20 BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth weight, weight at age 18 and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1 and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient=-0.045 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and -0.055 (95% CI -0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth weight ⩾3200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient=0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction=0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction<0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1 and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low-birth weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation.

  5. Frailty status can predict further lean body mass decline in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Kim, Sun-Wook; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki-Woong; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Kwang-il

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether frailty is a risk factor for skeletal muscle mass decline in community-dwelling elderly people. Prospective observational cohort study. Seongnam, Gyeongi Province, Korea. Community-dwelling Koreans aged 65 and older (n = 341). Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to measure body composition at baseline and 5 years later. Laboratory examination and comprehensive geriatric assessment were performed at both times. Lean mass index (LMI) was defined as total body lean mass/height(2). A decrease of more than 5% in the LMI was considered to be significant. Frailty status was defined using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. LMI decline occurred in 196 (54.1%) subjects during the follow-up period (5.0 ± 0.7 years). Baseline LMI was highest in robust (17.6 ± 1.8 kg/m(2), n = 126), lower prefrail (17.0 ± 1.7 kg/m(2), n = 185), and lowest in frail (16.7 ± 1.3 kg/m(2), n = 30) subjects (P < .001). Frailty status was associated with LMI decline at 5-year follow-up (robust 0.81 ± 0.78 kg/m(2), prefrail 1.00 ± 0.92 kg/m(2), frail 1.35 ± 0.85 kg/m(2), P < .001). This effect of frailty on LMI decline persisted after adjusting for covariables (P = .02). The risk of significant LMI decline was 2.9 times as great in frail elderly adults as in those who were robust even after adjusting for covariates (95% confidence interval = 1.01-8.55). Frailty status was found to be independently associated with subsequent LMI decline in community-dwelling older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Body mass index through self-reported data and body image perception in Spanish adults attending dietary consultation.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Paula; López-Ejeda, Noemí; Alférez-García, Irene; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús R; Villarino, Antonio; Cabañas, M Dolores; Marrodán, M Dolores

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore, based on sex and age, knowledge regarding weight, height, and the perception of body shape in Spanish adults who attend dietary consultation. We also wanted to determine the participants' desired body shapes and what they considered their best health status. The sample consisted of 8100 women and 1220 men from Spain. They were between the ages of 18 and 75 y. Weight (kg) and height (cm) were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Participants were nutritionally classified following the cutoffs proposed by the World Health Organization. Each individual was asked about his or her weight and height and self-reported BMI was calculated. They also answered a test of body image perception through drawings of human silhouettes that corresponded to an exact BMI. With this, perceived BMI, desired BMI, and BMI considered healthy were estimated. Parametric statistic tests for contrast of mean and percentages were applied. Self-reported and perceived BMI underestimate the BMI obtained through anthropometry. Differences between measured and self-reported BMI are lower in women and increase with age in both sexes. The same result was obtained when comparing measured BMI with perceived BMI through silhouette test. On average, desired BMI and healthy BMI were in the limits of normal weight for all ages and both sexes. However, the difference between them was also lower in women. Age and sex influence the perception of excess weight and body image. This could condition the demand of dietary treatment to improve the nutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood.

  8. Physical activity, body mass index, and health-related quality of life in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Herman, Katya M; Hopman, Wilma M; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth G; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2012-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) positively influences health-related quality of life (HRQL), whereas obesity is associated with significant HRQL impairments. Active-obese persons often have similar or lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality than inactive-healthy weight persons; however, the combined PA-weight status effects on HRQL are unclear. The aim was to investigate the combined association of PA and body mass index (BMI) with HRQL in Canadian adults and older adults. Cross-sectional data included 110,986 participants ≥ 18 yr from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, representing an estimated 22,563,527 Canadians. HRQL indicators included: Self-Rated Health (SRH), Participation and Activity Limitation due to illness/injury (PAL), and Total Disability Days (physical + mental) during the past 14 d (TDD). Prevalence of adverse HRQL was estimated by BMI, PA, and combined BMI-PA categories. Adjusted logistic regression was used to assess the odds of adverse HRQL by BMI, PA, and BMI-PA. Analyses were stratified by sex and age (18-44, 45-64, ≥65 yr). In both men and women of all ages, inactive individuals had greater likelihood of fair/poor SRH, and sometimes/often PAL, at all BMI levels; conversely, in active individuals, being underweight, overweight, or obese had little effect on SRH and PAL. Associations were weaker for TDD, where the greatest influence was in older adults from inactivity combined with underweight. Overweight showed less association to HRQL in males and older adults, whereas underweight showed stronger association in males and older adults. When examining BMI-PA in combination, PA emerges as the more important correlate of HRQL, regardless of weight status. This reinforces the importance of PA to health outcomes over and above the benefits related to weight loss or maintenance.

  9. Cognitive Status, Body Mass Index and Hip Fracture in Hispanic Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro-Acha, Ana; Ostir, Glenn V.; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Poor cognition and low body weight are independent predictors of hip fracture in older persons. Objective Examine the interactive effect of cognition and body weight on hip fracture. Design A 7-year (1993 – 2000) prospective cohort study. Setting Five southwestern states (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and California). Participants Non-institutionalized Mexican Americans (n = 2,653) 65 years or older, hip fracture free at baseline interview. Measurements Incidence of hip fracture at 2-, 5- and 7-year follow-up interviews. Body weight and cognition were measured with the body mass index (BMI) and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), respectively. Covariates included sociodemographics, self-reported medical conditions, visual acuity and Short Physical Performance Battery. Results A significant interaction between BMI and hip fracture was found in persons with cognitive impairment (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.85 – 0.98; p = 0.02), after adjusting for covariates. In the lowest BMI category, the hip fracture rate in cognitively impaired subjects was more than four times the hip fracture rate for non-cognitively impaired subjects with the same BMI (34.6% vs. 8.7%). Hip fracture rates in the highest BMI category were similar in persons with and without cognitive impairment (9.3% versus 6.1%). Conclusion Low cognitive function increased the conditional association between BMI and hip fracture in Mexican American older adults. The relationship between BMI and cognition is potentially important in identifying persons at risk for hip fracture and support the need to include cognitive and anthropometric measures in the assessment of hip fracture risk into osteoporosis screening programs. PMID:16913994

  10. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-04-07

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations.

  11. Does maternal body mass index during pregnancy influence risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring?

    PubMed

    Khandaker, G M; Dibben, C R M; Jones, P B

    2012-06-01

    Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with several adverse outcomes in offspring including schizophrenia. The rising prevalence of obesity may contribute to an increase in the number of schizophrenia cases in the near future; therefore, it warrants further exploration. We reviewed current evidence regarding maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. We searched PubMed and Embase databases and included studies that were based on large and representative population-based datasets. A qualitative review was undertaken due to heterogeneity between studies. Four studies with 305 cases of schizophrenia and 24,442 controls were included. Maternal obesity (pre-pregnant BMI over 29 or 30 compared with mothers with low or average BMI) was associated with two- to threefold increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring in two birth cohorts. High maternal BMI at both early and late pregnancy also increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Discrepant findings from one study could be attributable to sample characteristics and other factors. The area needs more research. Future studies should take into account obstetric complications, diabetes, maternal infections and immune responses that might potentially mediate this association.

  12. Does maternal body mass index during pregnancy influence risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, G M; Dibben, C R M; Jones, P B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Maternal obesity in pregnancy has been linked with several adverse outcomes in offspring including schizophrenia. The rising prevalence of obesity may contribute to an increase in the number of schizophrenia cases in the near future; therefore, it warrants further exploration. We reviewed current evidence regarding maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. We searched PubMed and Embase databases and included studies that were based on large and representative population-based datasets. A qualitative review was undertaken due to heterogeneity between studies. Four studies with 305 cases of schizophrenia and 24,442 controls were included. Maternal obesity (pre-pregnant BMI over 29 or 30 compared with mothers with low or average BMI) was associated with two- to threefold increased risk of schizophrenia in the adult offspring in two birth cohorts. High maternal BMI at both early and late pregnancy also increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. Discrepant findings from one study could be attributable to sample characteristics and other factors. The area needs more research. Future studies should take into account obstetric complications, diabetes, maternal infections and immune responses that might potentially mediate this association. PMID:22188548

  13. Relationship between body mass index and mortality in adults on maintenance hemodialysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Herselman, Marietjie; Esau, Nazeema; Kruger, Jean-Marie; Labadarios, Demetre; Moosa, Mohammed Rafique

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Systematic review of primarily observational studies. Adult patients from all gender, race, or ethnic groups on maintenance hemodialysis. Medline, Science Citation Index, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Library, and Embase electronic databases covering the period 1966 to December 2008 were searched with the help of a qualified librarian. Reference lists of included papers and collections also were searched. Each study was reviewed by 2 independent reviewers who also performed the data extraction from full papers. Differences between reviewers were resolved by consensus or by a third reviewer in the case of disagreements. The quality of studies selected for inclusion in the systematic review was also assessed by 2 independent reviewers. BMI and mortality. Eighteen studies (60%) reported a significant inverse relationship between all-cause mortality and BMI. This inverse relationship was more prevalent in older patients, larger retrospective studies, and studies that did not adjust for inflammation. On the other hand, 57% of the 7 studies reporting on cardiovascular mortality found no significant relationship with BMI. This systematic review shows evidence of an inverse relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in adult patients on maintenance HD, especially in older patients, but the relationship with cardiovascular mortality is less clear. (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clusters of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors Are Associated With Body Mass Index Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Hargreaves, Margaret; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Schlundt, David; Wallston, Kenneth A; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-05-01

    To identify eating styles from 6 eating behaviors and test their association with body mass index (BMI) among adults. Cross-sectional analysis of self-report survey data. Twelve primary care and specialty clinics in 5 states. Of 11,776 adult patients who consented to participate, 9,977 completed survey questions. Frequency of eating healthy food, frequency of eating unhealthy food, breakfast frequency, frequency of snacking, overall diet quality, and problem eating behaviors. The primary dependent variable was BMI, calculated from self-reported height and weight data. k-Means cluster analysis of eating behaviors was used to determine eating styles. A categorical variable representing each eating style cluster was entered in a multivariate linear regression predicting BMI, controlling for covariates. Four eating styles were identified and defined by healthy vs unhealthy diet patterns and engagement in problem eating behaviors. Each group had significantly higher average BMI than the healthy eating style: healthy with problem eating behaviors (β = 1.9; P < .001), unhealthy (β = 2.5; P < .001), and unhealthy with problem eating behaviors (β = 5.1; P < .001). Future attempts to improve eating styles should address not only the consumption of healthy foods but also snacking behaviors and the emotional component of eating. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  16. Genome-wide association studies and heritability estimates of body mass index related phenotypes in Bangladeshi adults.

    PubMed

    Scannell Bryan, Molly; Argos, Maria; Pierce, Brandon; Tong, Lin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Islam, Tariqul; Yunus, Muhammad; Parvez, Faruque; Roy, Shantanu; Jasmine, Farzana; Baron, John A; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Many health outcomes are influenced by a person's body mass index, as well as by the trajectory of body mass index through a lifetime. Although previous research has established that body mass index related traits are influenced by genetics, the relationship between these traits and genetics has not been well characterized in people of South Asian ancestry. To begin to characterize this relationship, we analyzed the association between common genetic variation and five phenotypes related to body mass index in a population-based sample of 5,354 Bangladeshi adults. We discovered a significant association between SNV rs347313 (intron of NOS1AP) and change in body mass index in women over two years. In a linear mixed-model, the G allele was associated with an increase of 0.25 kg/m2 in body mass index over two years (p-value of 2.3·10-8). We also estimated the heritability of these phenotypes from our genotype data. We found significant estimates of heritability for all of the body mass index-related phenotypes. Our study evaluated the genetic determinants of body mass index related phenotypes for the first time in South Asians. The results suggest that these phenotypes are heritable and some of this heritability is driven by variation that differs from those previously reported. We also provide evidence that the genetic etiology of body mass index related traits may differ by ancestry, sex, and environment, and consequently that these factors should be considered when assessing the genetic determinants of the risk of body mass index-related disease.

  17. Psychosocial correlates of body mass index in four groups of Quebec adults.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Hugues; Nolin, Bertrand; Receveur, Olivier; Ledoux, Marielle

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present analysis was to study the associations between body weight psychosocial correlates and body mass index (BMI) among four groups of adults in the Quebec population. Data were taken from the Social Lifestyles and Health 1998 Survey performed by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The suggested guidelines of the ISQ were used to estimate the population's proportions and for statistical analysis. The groups studied were 25- to 44- and the 45- to 64-year-old men and women. In all groups, currently trying to lose weight increased the odds of reporting an excess weight. Better perceived eating habits was associated with lower BMI in most groups except in the 25- to 44-year-old women, where the trend was not significant. Higher number of physical activities related to transport and cigarette smoking were associated with lower BMI in both men groups. In both women groups, more frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages decreased significantly the odds of reporting excess body weight. A university degree was associated with a lower BMI only in the 25- to 44-year-old men. Regular practise of leisure time physical activity was associated with a lower BMI only in 45- to 64-year-old women. Opposite associations were observed between perceived health and BMI. In the 45- to 64-year-old men, better perceived health increased the odds of reporting an excess weight. Conversely, the odds of reporting excess weight decreased with better health in 25- to 44-year-old women. Many correlates differ between age group and sex. The identification of these factors illustrates the need to adapt obesity-related programmes toward specific sub-groups within the general population.

  18. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI.

  19. Childhood body mass index and adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L; Nguyen, Tuong L; Stone, Jennifer; Aujard, Kelly; Matheson, Melanie C; Abramson, Michael J; Burgess, John A; Walters, E Haydn; Dite, Gillian S; Bui, Minh; Evans, Christopher; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Ward, Gail; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Apicella, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with the breast cancer risk factor 'adult mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI'. In 1968, the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study studied every Tasmanian school child born in 1961. We obtained measured heights and weights from annual school medical records across ages 7-15 years and imputed missing values. Between 2009 and 2012, we administered to 490 women a questionnaire that asked current height and weight and digitised at least one mammogram per woman. Absolute and percent mammographic densities were measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS. We used linear regression and adjusted for age at interview and log current BMI. The mammographic density measures were negatively associated: with log BMI at each age from 7 to 15 years (all p < 0.05); with the average of standardised log BMIs across ages 7-15 years (p < 0.0005); and more strongly with standardised log BMI measures closer to age 15 years (p < 0.03). Childhood BMI measures explained 7 and 10 % of the variance in absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively, and 25 and 20 % of the association between current BMI and absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively. Associations were not altered by adjustment for age at menarche. There is a negative association between BMI in late childhood and the adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. This could explain, at least in part, why BMI in adolescence is negatively associated with breast cancer risk.

  20. Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mark D; Sen, Ananda; Gordon, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    sarcopenia plays a principal role in the pathogenesis of frailty and functional impairment that occur with aging. There are few published accounts that examine the overall benefit of resistance exercise (RE) for lean body mass (LBM) while considering a continuum of dosage schemes and/or age ranges. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of RE on LBM in older men and women while taking these factors into consideration. this study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Randomized controlled trials and randomized or nonrandomized studies among adults ≥ 50 yr were included. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and the I statistics, and publication bias was evaluated through physical inspection of funnel plots as well as formal rank-correlation statistics. Mixed-effects meta-regression was incorporated to assess the relationship between RE dosage and changes in LBM. data from 49 studies, representing a total of 1328 participants, were pooled using random-effect models. Results demonstrated a positive effect for LBM, and there was no evidence of publication bias. The Cochran Q statistic for heterogeneity was 497.8, which was significant (P < 0.01). Likewise, I was equal to 84%, representing rejection of the null hypothesis of homogeneity. The weighted pooled estimate of mean LBM change was 1.1 kg (95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.2 kg). Meta-regression revealed that higher-volume interventions were associated (β = 0.05, P < 0.01) with significantly greater increases in LBM, whereas older individuals experienced less increase (β = -0.03, P = 0.01). RE is effective for eliciting gains in LBM among aging adults, particularly with higher-volume programs. Findings suggest that RE participation earlier in life may provide superior effectiveness.

  1. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Michelle A; Covas, Maria Isabel; Marrugat, Jaume; Vila, Joan; Schröder, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Studies on obesity and glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) have had inconsistent results, perhaps in part because of underreporting or to heterogeneous dietary patterns across food cultures. We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and GI or GL in a Mediterranean population, accounting for underreporting. We also constructed dietary factors related to GI and GL to better understand food patterns related to these measures. Cross-sectional data on 8195 Spanish adults aged 35-74 y were analyzed. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to estimate GI and GL, with glucose as the reference value. Reduced-rank regression was used to construct dietary patterns that explained variation in GI and GL. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between BMI and GI, GL, and their respective diet factors with and without adjusting for energy, which may lie on the causal pathway between glycemic quality and obesity. Effects of excluding underreporters (ratio of energy intake:basal metabolic rate < 1.20) were examined. Food patterns underlying high GI differed substantially from those of high GL, with fruits, vegetables, and legumes related positively to GL but negatively to GI. After excluding underreporters, GL was negatively associated with BMI, adjusting for energy. GI was not associated with BMI in any model. After adjusting for energy, GL was associated with reduced BMI in this Mediterranean population. Underreporting did not explain this inverse relation, which was observed among subjects with plausible intakes.

  2. Social disparities in body mass index (BMI) trajectories among Chinese adults in 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Fang, Changchun; Liang, Ying

    2017-08-16

    Obesity is a serious public health problem in China. The relationship between obesity and socio-economic status (SES) is changing and affected by uncertainty, particularly, in developing countries. The sex-related differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories are controversial and require substantial empirical data for updating and enriching. This study examined the relationship between SES and BMI in Chinese adults from a dynamic perspective using longitudinal data (1991-2011) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Then, sex-related differences were determined. A hierarchical linear model was used. SES positively affected the male BMI changes, with faster BMI growth rates in the high-SES males over the past 20 years. By contrast, female BMI was only affected by BMI baseline and residential area. Specifically, greater BMI baseline led to greater BMI growth rate and earlier BMI decline. In the past 20 years, the BMI growth rate has been greater in the urban females than in the rural females. The relationship between SES and obesity is complex in China, and a substantial sex-related difference exists. We argue that this large sex-related difference is due to the rapid economic and social changes that have affected national health and increased the gender inequality and social role restrictions in females. We provide insights for further research and policy recommendations.

  3. Body Mass and Weight Change in Adults in Relation to Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kenneth F.; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50–71 years at entry in 1995–1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50–69 years. PMID:24173550

  4. Fat-free body mass is the most important body composition determinant of 10-yr longitudinal development of lumbar bone in adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ingrid; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the longitudinal relationship between body composition and lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) and lumbar bone mineral content (LBMC) in (young) adults over a 10-yr period. The data are from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Two hundred twenty-five men and 241 women were measured at 27, 32, and/or 36 yr of age. Nine body composition components were explored: total body weight, standing height, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, sum of four skinfolds, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Stratified analyses were performed by gender and adjustment was made for physical activity and calcium intake. Univariate multilevel analyses indicated that FFM was significantly positively related to the 10-yr development of both LBMD and LBMC in both sexes. Total body weight, standing height, and body mass index also showed a significant positive univariate relationships with LBMD and LBMC in both sexes, fat mass only with female LBMD. All best predictive multiple regression models included FFM, explaining 4-27% of the variation in bone mineral over this 10-yr period. Because FFM can be interpreted as a proxy for skeletal muscle mass, these results indicate the importance of muscle contractions on bone to increase bone strength in (young) adults.

  5. [Body mass index and all-cause mortality in Asian adults: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, You-qing; Ye, Ding; Li, Ying-jun; Chen, Kun

    2015-03-01

    To perform a systematic review between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI) in Asian adults. Relevant prospective studies that reported the relative risks (RRs) of all-cause mortality for community-based adults in Asia were identified by a literature search.PubMed and CNKI electronic databases were searched from inception through September 30, 2014, with language restrictions of English and Chinese. Data were extracted by 1 reviewer and then reviewed by 3 independent reviewers. The overall effect of varied levels of BMI and all-cause mortality were then pooled and analyzed.Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by stratification analyses and sensitivity analyses. Publication bias was detected by funnel plot, Egger's test and Begg's test. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria; these studies included 1 769 369 individuals with 104 888 deaths. Random-effects summary all-cause mortality RRs was calculated. With the use of a BMI (in kg/m²) of 18.5~22.9 as the reference, the summary RRs were 1.39(95% CI: 1.31~1.47) for BMI less than 18.5 kg/m² , 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85~0.92) for BMI of 23.0~29.9 kg/m² and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05~1.23) for BMI more than 30.0 kg/m². The RRs tended to be higher when weight and height were self-reported rather than measured. The RRs were higher when papers were published before the year 2005 rather than after the year 2006. Also, the RRs were higher when the quality scores were higher. Potential sources of heterogeneity were gender, the method of obtaining weight and height, geography, publication year and quality scores. There was no publication bias (P>0.05) in this meta-analysis. There was an increased risk of all-cause mortality for those both at the lower and higher level of BMI in Asian adults.

  6. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female.

  7. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  8. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  9. Body mass index and body adiposity index in relation to percent body fat: a study in adult men of three endogamous groups of South Bengal.

    PubMed

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Das, Subal

    2015-02-01

    Body adiposity index (BAI), based on height and hip circumference data from Mexican-Americans and African-Americans established its relation to body fat (BF). The aim of our study was to compare body mass index (BMI) and BAI in relation to BF%. Participants were adult men of three endogamous social groups (Brahmin, Muslim and Namasudra) in a village of South 24 Parganas district in West Bengal, India. Height, weight and hip circumference of 952 individuals (370 Brahmins, 307 Muslims and 275 Namasudras) were recorded. The BMI-based nutritional status and bioelectrical impedance-based BF% were evaluated. Namasudras (33.8%) and Muslims (33.6%) had high frequency undernutrition compared to Brahmins (7.3%). High prevalence (46.22%) of excess weight (overweight+obesity) was recorded only among Brahmins. There was significant social group difference in rates of nutritional status (χ(2) = 93.10, p < 0.0001). The BF% had higher correlation with BMI than BAI. A cut-off value of BAI (22%) was determined by binomial logistic regression analysis (BLRA). The value had best estimated relation to BF% and also coincided with WHO standard mean BF (22%) for overweight adults at BMI (≥ 25 kg/m(2)). However, greater area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, higher correct prediction rate, and other results of BLRA for the cut-off value of BMI-based overweight (≥ 25 kg/m(2)) showed its better relation to BF% than that observed for BAI cut-off at 22%. The BMI was observed to be a better indicator of adiposity compared to BAI in relation with body fat (%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Snacking behaviors, diet quality, and body mass index in a community sample of working adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; French, Simone A; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Wolfson, Julian

    2015-07-01

    Snacking behaviors have been linked with higher energy intake and excess weight. However, results have been inconsistent. In addition, few data are available on the extent to which snacking affects diet quality. This study describes snacking behaviors, including total snacking energy, frequency, time of day, and percentage of snacking energy intake by food groups, and their associations with diet quality and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)). Snacking behaviors and dietary intake were examined cross-sectionally among 233 adults participating in a community-based worksite nutrition intervention from September 2010 through February 2013. Three telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls were collected (2 weekdays; 1 weekend day). Diet quality was characterized by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 and BMI was computed using measured height and weight. The setting was a large metropolitan medical complex in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Outcome measures included diet quality and BMI. General linear regression models were used to examine associations between each of the snacking behaviors as independent variables, and diet quality and BMI as dependent variables. Percent of snacking energy from fruit and juice (β=.13; P=0.001) and nuts (β=.16; P=0.008) were significantly positively associated with diet quality. Percent of snacking energy from desserts and sweets (β=-.16; P<0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverages (β=-.22; P=0.024) were significantly inversely associated. Percent of snacking energy from vegetables (β=-.18; P=0.044) was significantly associated with lower BMI. Percent snacking energy from desserts and sweets was significantly associated with a higher BMI (β=.04; P=0.017). Snack food choices, but not total energy from snacks, frequency, or time of day, were significantly associated with diet quality and BMI. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Body mass trajectories, diabetes mellitus, and mortality in a large cohort of Austrian adults

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Keller, Ferdinand; Klenk, Jochen; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are only few studies on latent trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and their association with diabetes incidence and mortality in adults. We used data of the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program and included individuals (N=24,875) with BMI measurements over a 12-year period. Trajectory classes were identified using growth mixture modeling for predefined age groups (<50, 50–65, >65 years of age) and men, women separately. Poisson models were applied to estimate incidence and prevalence of diabetes for each trajectory class. Relative all-cause mortality and diabetes-related mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We identified 4 trajectory classes for the age groups <50 years and 50 to 65 years, and 3 for age groups >65 years. For all age groups, a stable BMI trajectory class was the largest, with about 90% of men and 70% to 80% of women. For the low stable BMI classes, the corresponding fasting glucose levels were the lowest. The highest diabetes prevalences were observed for decreasing trajectories. During subsequent follow-up of mean 8.1 (SD 2.0) years, 2741 individuals died. For men <50 years, highest mortality was observed for steady weight gainers. For all other age-sex groups, mortality was the highest for decreasing trajectories. We found considerably heterogeneity in BMI trajectories by sex and age. Stable weight, however, was the largest class over all age and sex groups, and was associated with the lowest diabetes incidence and mortality suggesting that maintaining weight at a moderate level is an important public health goal. PMID:27930587

  12. Body mass trajectories, diabetes mellitus, and mortality in a large cohort of Austrian adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Keller, Ferdinand; Klenk, Jochen; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    There are only few studies on latent trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and their association with diabetes incidence and mortality in adults.We used data of the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program and included individuals (N=24,875) with BMI measurements over a 12-year period. Trajectory classes were identified using growth mixture modeling for predefined age groups (<50, 50-65, >65 years of age) and men, women separately. Poisson models were applied to estimate incidence and prevalence of diabetes for each trajectory class. Relative all-cause mortality and diabetes-related mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression.We identified 4 trajectory classes for the age groups <50 years and 50 to 65 years, and 3 for age groups >65 years. For all age groups, a stable BMI trajectory class was the largest, with about 90% of men and 70% to 80% of women. For the low stable BMI classes, the corresponding fasting glucose levels were the lowest. The highest diabetes prevalences were observed for decreasing trajectories. During subsequent follow-up of mean 8.1 (SD 2.0) years, 2741 individuals died. For men <50 years, highest mortality was observed for steady weight gainers. For all other age-sex groups, mortality was the highest for decreasing trajectories.We found considerably heterogeneity in BMI trajectories by sex and age. Stable weight, however, was the largest class over all age and sex groups, and was associated with the lowest diabetes incidence and mortality suggesting that maintaining weight at a moderate level is an important public health goal.

  13. Steps per day, peak cadence, body mass index, and age in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather C; Fontenot, Stephanie L; Keller, Jeffrey N; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2013-05-01

    The relationships between demographic and anthropometric indices and older adults' quantity and quality of ambulatory activity are uncertain. We examined the relationship between accelerometer-determined steps per day (quantity) and peak 30-min cadence (quality; mean steps per minute recorded for the 30 highest, but not necessarily consecutive, minutes in a day) in community-dwelling older adults relative to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Minute-by-minute accelerometer-determined step data for 5.8 ± 0.9 d were available for 100 women and 43 men (58-92 yr, BMI = 26.6 ± 4.2 kg·m). Sex-specific Spearman correlations compared steps per day with peak 30-min cadence and both to age and BMI. Partial correlations were computed controlling for 1) age, 2) BMI, 3) steps per day and age, or 4) steps per day and BMI. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Participants averaged 5605 ± 2588 steps per day with a peak 30-min cadence of 63.6 ± 24.6 steps per minute (mean ± SD). Correlations between these two variables were r = 0.883 (women) and r = 0.820 (men). Steps per day and peak 30-min cadence were significantly correlated with age (r = -0.442 and r = -0.327, respectively) and BMI (r = -0.248 and r = -0.286, respectively) in women. For men, steps per day and peak 30-min cadence were only significantly related to age (r = -0.665 and r = -0.381, respectively). Controlling for steps per day weakened all relationships with peak 30-min cadence to a point of nonsignificance with one exception: the partial correlation of age with peak 30-min cadence was weakened but remained significant (r = 0.335) after controlling for steps per day and BMI in men. The usefulness of peak 30-min cadence beyond steps per day is not apparent, at least in terms of sex, age, and BMI, and needs to be evaluated in larger and more diverse samples and against other parameters of interest, including those more theoretically linked to intensity of effort.

  14. Body mass index and all-cause mortality among older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To examine the association between baseline body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and all-cause mortality in a well-characterized cohort of older persons. Methods: The association between BMI (both as a categorical and continuous variable) and all-cause mortality was investigated using 4,565 Geisi...

  15. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  16. Diet quality and body mass index are associated with healthcare resource use in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Health care resource consumption is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between diet quality and body mass index with health care resource use (HRU) in a cohort of advanced age. Participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (n=5,993) were mailed demographic and...

  17. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  18. Adolescent skinfold thickness is a better predictor of high body fatness in adults than is body mass index: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Koppes, Lando L J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Twisk, Jos W R; Kemper, Han C G; Schuit, A Jantine; van Mechelen, Willem; Seidell, Jacob C

    2007-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) during adolescence is predictive of BMI at adult age. However, BMI cannot distinguish between lean and fat body mass. Skinfold thickness may be a better predictor of body fatness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence and body fatness during adulthood. We included 168 men and 182 women from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, a prospective study that conducted 8 measurements of BMI and skinfold thickness between 1976 and 2000. BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence were analyzed in relation to adult body fatness measured at a mean age of 37 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. None of the boys and 1.7% of the girls were overweight at baseline, whereas the prevalence of high body fatness during adulthood was 29% in men and 32% in women. At the ages of 12-16 y, skinfold thickness was more strongly associated with adult body fatness than was BMI. Age-specific relative risks for a high level of adult body fatness varied between 2.3 and 4.0 in boys and between 2.1 and 4.3 in girls in the highest versus the lowest tertile of the sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses. For the highest tertile of BMI, the relative risk varied between 0.8 and 2.1 in boys and between 1.3 and 1.8 in girls. Skinfold thickness during adolescence is a better predictor of high body fatness during adulthood than is BMI during adolescence.

  19. Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H S; Tatham, L M; Rodriguez, C; Calle, E E; Thun, M J; Heath, C W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify behaviors associated with change in body mass index or with weight gain at the waist. METHODS: A cohort of 79236 White, non-Hispanic, healthy adults was questioned in 1982 and 1992 about diet and 10 physical activities. Estimates were made of the mean effects of stable behaviors on 10-year change in body mass index and on odds ratios for gain at the waist. RESULTS: Ten-year changes in body mass index was associated positively with meat consumption and smoking cessation and inversely with vegetable consumption, vitamin E supplementation, continued smoking, and some vigorous activities (e.g., jogging/running). Women's body mass index decreased with walking 4 or more hours per week and with regular alcohol intake, but these behaviors had a smaller effect on men's body mass index. weight gain was inversely associated with high vegetable consumption, walking 4 or more hours per week, and jogging/running 1 to 3 hours per week but not with less demanding physical activities. CONCLUSIONS: Simple derivation of behaviors associated with weight loss or reduced abdominal obesity may enhance programs designed to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:9184500

  20. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p < 0.00001) and BMI (r = 0.668; p < 0.00001). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen in 2119 (46.1%) and 536 (13.8%), respectively, according to World Health Organization definition and 64.0% and 31.1%, respectively, as per Indian guidelines. Percent total body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  1. Probiotic supplementation attenuates increases in body mass and fat mass during high-fat diet in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Kristin L; Boutagy, Nabil E; McMillan, Ryan P; Stevens, Joseph R; Frisard, Madlyn I; Kavanaugh, John W; Davy, Brenda M; Davy, Kevin P; Hulver, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of the probiotic, VSL#3, on body and fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle substrate oxidation following 4 weeks of a high-fat diet. Twenty non-obese males (18-30 years) participated in the study. Following a 2-week eucaloric control diet, participants underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test to determine insulin sensitivity, and a skeletal muscle biopsy for measurement of in vitro substrate oxidation. Subsequently, participants were randomized to receive either VSL#3 or placebo daily during 4 weeks of consuming a High-fat (55% fat), hypercaloric diet (+1,000 kcal day(-1) ). Participants repeated all measurements following the intervention. Body mass (1.42 ± 0.42 kg vs. 2.30 ± 0.28 kg) and fat mass (0.63 ± 0.09 kg vs. 1.29 ± 0.27 kg) increased less following the High-fat diet in the VSL#3 group compared with placebo. However, there were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity or in vitro skeletal muscle pyruvate and fat oxidation with the High-fat diet or VSL#3. VSL#3 supplementation appears to have provided some protection from body mass gain and fat accumulation in healthy young men consuming a High-fat and high-energy diet. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. The Relationship Between Smoking, Body Weight, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Intake Among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose–response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy. PMID:22186385

  3. The relationship between smoking, body weight, body mass index, and dietary intake among Thai adults: results of the national Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status. A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey using health and dietary questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used. Participants were 7858 Thai adults aged 18 years and older recruited from 17 provinces in Thailand. Results demonstrated that smoking is associated with lower weights and BMI. However, when smokers were stratified by smoking intensity, there was no dose-response relationship between smoking and body weight. There is no conclusive explanation for weight differences across smoking groups in this sample, and the results of the present study did not clearly support any of the purported mechanisms for the differences in body weight or BMI. In addition, because the substantial negative health consequences of smoking are far stronger than those associated with modest weight differences, smoking cannot be viewed as an appropriate weight management strategy.

  4. The individual and combined influence of the "quality" and "quantity" of family meals on adult body mass index.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wickel, Katharine; Doherty, William J

    2012-12-01

    Although there is a well-established literature showing a positive association between the frequency of family meals and child and adolescent healthful dietary intake and lower body mass index (BMI), little is known about the association between family meal frequency (quantity) and adult health outcomes and whether quality (distractions) of family meals influences adult BMI. This study investigates the association between the quantity and quality of family meals and adult BMI. Data were from a nationally representative sample of 4,885 adults ages 25 to 64 years (56% female), from which an analytic sample of 1,779 parents was drawn for the current study. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family meal frequency and quality of family meals and adult BMI, controlling for sociodemographics. Interactions between family meal quantity and quality were also examined. The quantity of family meals and the quality of family meals were both independently related to adult BMI. Specifically, the frequency of family meals was associated with lower adult BMI and lower quality of family meals was associated with higher adult BMI. The interaction between quantity and quality was not statistically significant. Results suggest that both the quantity and quality of family meals matter for adult BMI, but one is not dependent on the other. Health care providers who work with families may want to consider promoting the importance of the quality and quantity of family meals to benefit the entire family.

  5. Effect of BMI, Body Fat Percentage and Fat Free Mass on Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Himel; Mishra, Snigdha Prava

    2017-06-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is an important measure of cardiorespiratory capacity of an individual at a given degree of fitness and oxygen availability. Risk of cardiovascular diseases increases with increasing degree of obesity and a low level of VO2max has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. To determine VO2max in young adults and to find its correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Fat% and Fat Free Mass (FFM). Fifty four (male=30, female=24) healthy young adults of age group18-25 years after screening by Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) participated in the study. Height was measured by stadiometer. Weight was measured by digital weighing scale with 0.1 kg sensitivity. Body fat% was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) method. FFM was calculated by subtracting fat mass from the body weight. VO2max (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) was obtained by Submaximal Exercise Test (SET) by first two stages of Bruce Protocol with the basis of linear relationship between Heart Rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Data were analysed statistically in GraphPad Prism software version 6.01 for windows. VO2max (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) of male (43.25±7.25) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than female (31.65±2.10). BMI showed weak negative correlation (r= -0.3232, p=0.0171) with VO2max but Body Fat% showed strong negative correlation (r= -0.7505, p<0.001) with VO2max. FFM positively correlated (r=0.3727, p=0.0055) with VO2max. Increased body fat is associated with decreased level of VO2max in young adults. Obesity in terms of Fat% is a better parameter than BMI for prediction of low VO2max.

  6. Correlation of the body mass index and calcium nephrolithiasis in adult population.

    PubMed

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Krivokuca, Vladimir; Bojic, Mirjana; Popovic-Pejicic, Snjezana; Bojanic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-01

    Prevalence of the kidney stones (renal calculi) increase in several countries in parallel with the increase of overweight, diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and hypertension. The goal of our research was to evaluate the connection between the calcium nephrolithiasis and overweight, as quantified using the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the adult population, with a particular reflection on the age groups within it. The research was prospective and it was implemented at the Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Urology Clinic in the period from 1(st) April 2012 to 1(st) January 2013. The trial encompassed 120 patients with calcium nephrolithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract and 120 patients without nephrolithiasis. A group of patients with the calcium nephrolithiasis presented a working group, while a group of patients without nephrolithiasis presented a control group. The BMI obtained on the basis of bodily weight and height of the patient, where the age and sex of specific reference values of the BMI were developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were not used in the calculation of the BMI. Analyzing the values of the BMI in relation to age groups, where there was a statistically significant difference in the working group, whereas in the control group there was a statistically high significant difference, testing of statistical significance of the average value of the BMI was done by observed age groups of working and control group, as well as to the total sample of work and control group using the Chi-Square test and T-test for independent samples. Having observed the age group of 20-40 years, statistically significant differences have been noted at the level of risk of 10%, which confirms that there is a connection between the categories of the BMI and the group, which the patient comes from (Chi-Square test p-0.05), that is, T-test has shown that the values are different at the level of 10%, i.e. p<0.1 (p=0.073). Having observed the age

  7. Correlation of the Body Mass Index and Calcium Nephrolithiasis in Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Krivokuca, Vladimir; Bojic, Mirjana; Popovic-Pejicic, Snjezana; Bojanic, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prevalence of the kidney stones (renal calculi) increase in several countries in parallel with the increase of overweight, diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and hypertension. Goal: The goal of our research was to evaluate the connection between the calcium nephrolithiasis and overweight, as quantified using the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the adult population, with a particular reflection on the age groups within it. Material and methods: The research was prospective and it was implemented at the Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Urology Clinic in the period from 1st April 2012 to 1st January 2013. The trial encompassed 120 patients with calcium nephrolithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract and 120 patients without nephrolithiasis. A group of patients with the calcium nephrolithiasis presented a working group, while a group of patients without nephrolithiasis presented a control group. The BMI obtained on the basis of bodily weight and height of the patient, where the age and sex of specific reference values of the BMI were developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were not used in the calculation of the BMI. Results: Analyzing the values of the BMI in relation to age groups, where there was a statistically significant difference in the working group, whereas in the control group there was a statistically high significant difference, testing of statistical significance of the average value of the BMI was done by observed age groups of working and control group, as well as to the total sample of work and control group using the Chi-Square test and T-test for independent samples. Having observed the age group of 20-40 years, statistically significant differences have been noted at the level of risk of 10%, which confirms that there is a connection between the categories of the BMI and the group, which the patient comes from (Chi-Square test p-0.05), that is, T-test has shown that the values are different at the level

  8. Total Body Mass Estimation from Anthropometric Measurements in Modern Young Adult U.S. Populations with Healthy Body Fat Percentages (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    Schaffer, William C

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a method by which to estimate total body mass in modern young adult U.S. populations who self-identified as non-Hispanic U.S. White, non-Hispanic U.S. Black, and Mexican American with anthropometric measurements from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994 dataset (N = 2532). Correlations of stature and bi-iliac breadth with total body mass were stronger among males (r = 0.717-0.774) than among females (r = 0.549-0.661), yet these results were more accurate assessments of total body mass than existing techniques. This study also examined additional anthropometric measurements to estimate total body mass using an information-theoretic approach demonstrating that some error in the stature-bi-iliac breadth method is attributed to a nonsupported model with multimodel inference. The limitations of the current total body mass technique are discussed as well as the need for future studies to validate the method.

  9. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were <21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects >21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD <21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress. PMID:22314368

  10. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    PubMed

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  11. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  12. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J.; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctena quinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence (insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  13. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period.

  14. Accuracy of Body Mass Index to Diagnose Obesity In the US Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Thomas, Randal J.; Bailey, Kent R.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L; Allison, Thomas G.; Korinek, Josef; Batsis, John A.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used measure to diagnose obesity. However, the diagnostic accuracy of BMI to detect excess in body adiposity is largely unknown. Methods A cross-sectional design of 13,601 subjects (age 20–79.9 years; 48% men) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate body fat percent (BF %). We assessed the diagnostic performance of BMI using the World Health Organization reference standard for obesity of BF % > 25% in men and > 35% in women. We tested the correlation between BMI and both, BF % and lean mass by sex and age groups. Results BMI-defined obesity (≥ 30 kg/m2) was present in 21% of men and 31% of women, while BF %-defined obesity was present in 50% and 62%, respectively. A BMI ≥ 30 had a high specificity (95% in men and 99% in women), but a poor sensitivity (36% and 49 %, respectively) to detect BF %-defined obesity. The diagnostic performance of BMI diminished as age increased. BMI had a good correlation with BF % in men (R2 = 0.44) and women (R2 = 0.71), but also with lean mass (R2 = 0.50 and 0.55, respectively). Conclusions Despite the good correlation between BMI and BF %, the diagnostic accuracy of BMI to diagnose obesity is limited, particularly for individuals in the intermediate BMI ranges. A BMI cut-off of ≥ 30 kg/m2 has a good specificity but misses more than half of people with excess fat. These results help to explain the U and J-shape association between BMI and outcomes. PMID:18283284

  15. The Effect of Differing Patterns of Childhood Body Mass Index Gain on Adult Physiology in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S; Votruba, Susanne B; Piaggi, Paolo; Muller, Yunhua L.; Hanson, Robert L.; Baier, Leslie J; Knowler, William; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying groups of individuals with similar patterns of body mass index (BMI) change during childhood may increase understanding of the relationship between childhood BMI and adult health. Methods Discrete classes of BMI z-score change were determined in 1,920 American Indian children with at least four non-diabetic health exams between the ages of 2 and 18 years using latent class trajectory analysis. In subsets of subjects, data were available for melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) sequencing; in utero exposure to type 2 diabetes (T2D); or, as adults, oral glucose tolerance tests, onset of T2D, or body composition. Results Six separate groups were identified. Individuals with a more modern birth year, an MC4R mutation, or in utero exposure to T2D were clustered in the two groups with high increasing and chronic overweight z-scores (p<0.0001). The z-score classes predicted adult percent fat (p<0.0001, partial r2=0.18 adjusted for covariates). There was a greater risk for T2D, independent from adult BMI, in 3 classes (lean increasing to overweight, high increasing, and chronic overweight z-scores) compared to the two leanest groups (respectively: HRR= 3.2, p=0.01; 6.0, p=0.0003; 11.6, p<0.0001). Conclusions Distinct patterns of childhood BMI z-score change associate with adult adiposity, and may impact risk of T2D. PMID:26308479

  16. Impact of Body Mass Index on Immunogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, S. Todd; Wolff, Mark; Hill, Heather R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Keitel, Wendy; Atmar, Robert; Patel, Shital; Sahly, Hana El; Munoz, Flor; Paul Glezen, W.; Brady, Rebecca; Frenck, Robert; Bernstein, David; Harrison, Christopher; Jackson, Mary Anne; Swanson, Douglas; Newland, Jason; Myers, Angela; Livingston, Robyn A; Walter, Emmanuel; Dolor, Rowena; Schmader, Kenneth; Mulligan, Mark J.; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Rouphael, Nadine; Whitaker, Jennifer; Spearman, Paul; Keyserling, Harry; Shane, Andi; Eckard, Allison Ross; Jackson, Lisa A.; Frey, Sharon E.; Belshe, Robert B.; Graham, Irene; Anderson, Edwin; Englund, Janet A.; Healy, Sara; Winokur, Patricia; Stapleton, Jack; Meier, Jeffrey; Kotloff, Karen; Chen, Wilbur; Hutter, Julia; Stephens, Ina; Wooten, Susan; Wald, Anna; Johnston, Christine; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Buddy Creech, C.; Todd Callahan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity emerged as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection. However, few studies examine the immune responses to H1N1 vaccine among children and adults of various body mass indices (BMI). Pooling data from 3 trials of unadjuvanted split-virus H1N1 A/California/07/2009 influenza vaccines, we analyzed serologic responses of participants stratified by BMI grouping. A single vaccine dose produced higher hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers at day 21 in obese compared to nonobese adults, but there were no significant differences in responses to H1N1 vaccine among children or adults of various BMI following 2 doses. PMID:24795475

  17. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for assessing fat and lean body mass in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Kauffman, Tricia G; Cooney, Paula T; Ramseur, Keshia R; Brown, Lynda M

    2011-04-18

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples.

  18. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  19. Relationship of life style choices on body fat mass in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Rehana; ullah Shaikh, Saif; Syed, Sadiqa; Shakeel, Nayyab

    2010-01-01

    Healthy diets and regular, adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout entire life course. Accumulation of fat occurs whenever energy consumed by food and drinks exceeds that which can be utilised by an individual's metabolism and physical activity. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of lifestyle characteristics of a representative segment of medical students in terms of fast food preferences and participation in physical activity with respect to Body Mass Index (BMI). This cross-sectional study was carried out in Physiology Department, Bahria University Medical & Dental College, Karachi on 192 students of 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Body Mass index of students was calculated. They were classified into 4 groups with BMI < or = 18.5, 18.6-23, 23.1-25 and > or = 25 respectively. A life style questionnaire, based on preferences for healthy/unhealthy food, dietary habits and participation in physical activity was filled. Most of medical students (65%) had BMI less than 23. It was because of selection of healthy dietary pattern with nutritious food (p < 0.09) and participation in outdoor games (p < 0.03). Males who had high BMI showed a tendency to daily intake of fast food (p < 0.03). Walking in both the sexes had a positive impact in maintaining normal BMI (p = Males < 0.04, females < 0.001). Obesity can be prevented by innovative approaches, easiest of which is to promote active life styles with intake of healthy diet and involvement in physical activity.

  20. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  1. One size fits all? Race, gender and body mass index among U.S. adults.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.; Sims, Mario; Miller, Stephania; Elliott, Vanessa; Ladipo, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which factors presumed to be correlated with body mass index (BMI) vary across four race- and gender-specific groups. Data were drawn from the American Changing Lives Survey to estimate separate multivariate regression models for the total study sample that included African-American males, Caucasian males, African-American females and Caucasian females. The dependant variable of interest was BMI. Independent variables included age, human capital variables, relationship and support measures, health status and behavior measures, and stress and outlook measures. Results from the pooled model indicated that BMI was associated with a number of factors such as employment status, chronic illness, financial strain and religiosity. However, race- and gender-specific regression models revealed that predictors of BMI varied considerably for African-American men, Caucasian men, African-American women and Caucasian women. In other words, these models disentangled important correlations not observed in the pooled model. These findings suggest that addressing racial disparities in body weight-related outcomes requires health practitioners to modify obesity prevention and treatment efforts to incorporate a broader array of factors inherent to specific racial and gender populations. PMID:17987919

  2. Relationships between gray matter, body mass index, and waist circumference in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florian; Levitt, Jennifer G; Phillips, Owen R; Luders, Eileen; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are often defined by the body mass index (BMI), which associates with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and possibly with dementia as well as variations in brain volume. However, body fat distribution and abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference) is more strongly correlated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk than is BMI. While prior studies have revealed negative associations between gray matter tissue volumes and BMI, the relationship with respect to waist circumference remains largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effects of both BMI and waist circumference on local gray matter volumes in a group of 115 healthy subjects screened to exclude physical or mental disorders that might affect the central nervous system. Results revealed significant negative correlations for both BMI and waist circumference where regional gray matter effects were largest within the hypothalamus and further encompassed prefrontal, anterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum. However, associations were more widespread and pronounced for waist circumference than BMI. Follow-up analyses showed that these relationships differed significantly across gender. While associations were similar for both BMI and waist circumference for males, females showed more extensive correlations for waist circumference. Our observations suggest that waist circumference is a more sensitive indicator than BMI, particularly in females, for potentially determining the adverse effects of obesity and overweight on the brain and associated risks to health.

  3. Body mass index during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood in relation to adult overweight and adiposity: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Huang, C; Maynard, L M; Demerath, E; Towne, B; Chumlea, W C; Siervogel, R M

    2000-12-01

    Childhood overweight develops during 'critical periods', but the relationship of body mass index (BMI) patterns during 'critical periods' from childhood into adulthood with subsequent overweight and adiposity has not been previously investigated. BMI patterns during early childhood, pubescence and post-pubescence and their independent effects on overweight and body fatness at 35-45 y of age were examined along with birth weight and the effects of adult lifestyle factors. BMI parameters describing the timing, velocity minimum (min) and maximum (max) values from 2 to 25 y of age were related to adulthood BMI values and total and percentage body fat (TBF, %BF) at 35-45 y. These data were from 180 males and 158 females in the Fels Longitudinal Study. There was no sex difference in the timing of BMI rebound, but the age of BMI maximum velocity and maximum BMI were both earlier in girls. Children with an earlier BMI rebound had larger BMI values at rebound and at maximum velocity. Children who reached maximum BMI at later age had larger maximum BMI values. Maximum BMI was a strong predictor for adult BMI and in females, a strong predictor of adulthood TBF and %BF. Maximum BMI was closely related to maximum BMI velocity in females and in males, BMI at maximum velocity is a strong predictor of TBF and %BF. Changes in childhood BMI were related to adult overweight and adiposity more so in females than males. BMI rebound is a significant important period related to overweight at 35-45 y in females but not in males. However BMI patterns during and post-adolescence were more important than the BMI rebound for adulthood TBF and %BF status. There is marked tracking in BMI from approximately 20 y into 35-45 y. The pattern of BMI changes from 2 to 25 y had stronger effects on subsequent adult overweight than birth weight and adult lifestyle variables.

  4. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  5. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  6. Colorectal anatomy in adults at computed tomography colonography: normal distribution and the effect of age, sex, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Khashab, M A; Pickhardt, P J; Kim, D H; Rex, D K

    2009-08-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) is an accurate tool for assessing the large intestinal anatomy. Our aims were to determine the normal distribution of in vivo colorectal anatomy and to investigate the effect of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on colorectal length. Asymptomatic adults who underwent primary CTC examination at a single institution over an 8-month period were evaluated. The interactive three-dimensional map was used to determine total and segmental lengths and number of acute-angle flexures. The two-dimensional multiplanar display was used to measure luminal diameters. The effects of age, sex, and BMI on colorectal lengths were examined. The study cohort consisted of 505 consecutive adults (266 women, mean age 56.6 years). Mean total colorectal length was 189.5 +/- 26.3 cm and mean number of acute-angle flexures was 10.9 +/- 2.4. Total length for older adults (> 60 years) did not significantly differ from those who were younger than 60 years ( P = 0.22), although the transverse colon was significantly longer in older adults ( P = 0.04). Women had significantly longer colons than men (193.3 cm vs. 185.4 cm, P = 0.002), whereas overweight adults (BMI > 25) had significantly shorter colons compared with those with BMI adult cohort, and may help to facilitate both colonoscopy training efforts and design of novel endoscopic devices. The transverse colon was the major determinant in length differences according to age, sex, and BMI, and was significantly longer in older adults, women, and thinner adults, respectively.

  7. Body mass index, pain score and Alvarado score are useful predictors of appendix visualization at ultrasound in adults.

    PubMed

    Kaewlai, Rathachai; Lertlumsakulsub, Waraporn; Srichareon, Pungkava

    2015-06-01

    The study objective was to find factors predictive of ultrasound visualization of the appendix in patients with suspected appendicitis. A total of 238 consecutive adult patients (178 women, mean age 38.9 y, weight 58.2 kg, body mass index 22.7) who underwent appendiceal ultrasound from January to December 2011 were included. Appendicitis was confirmed in 171 patients (171/238, 71.9%). Ultrasound sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 64%, 90% and 71%, respectively. The appendix was visualized at ultrasound in 126 patients (group 1) and not visualized in 112 patients (group 2). Group 1 had a lower body mass index, higher pain score and higher Alvarado score. The chances of visualizing the appendix in patients with body mass indexes ≤22, pain scores ≥6, and Alvarado scores ≥6 were 2.3, 2.9, and 3.8 times higher than those of their counterparts, respectively. Therefore, in patients with these factors, the use of ultrasound may be beneficial in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

  8. Dietary variety predicts low body mass index and inadequate macronutrient and micronutrient intakes in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Susan B; Hajduk, Cheryl L; Howarth, Nancy C; Russell, Robert; McCrory, Megan A

    2005-05-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) and micronutrient deficiencies are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in old age. Whether adverse patterns of dietary variety predict both low BMI and low micronutrient intakes in older adults was investigated. A cross-sectional analysis of national survey data was conducted in 1174 healthy adult men and women (ages 21 to 90 years) who provided physiologically plausible dietary data in the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Measurements included reported energy intake, protein intake (percentage meeting Recommended Dietary Allowance), micronutrient intakes (percentage meeting Estimated Average Requirements for 14 micronutrients), and BMI. Adults who were 61 years or older consumed a greater total variety of foods, chose foods from a wider range of food groups, had a greater variety of micronutrient-dense foods and energy-weak foods, and had a lower variety of micronutrient-weak foods compared with adults ages 21 to 60 years (p < .05 to.001). However, older adults with low BMIs (< 22 kg/m2) consumed a lower variety of energy-dense foods compared with older adults with higher BMIs (p < .05). The variety of energy-dense foods predicted both energy intake and BMI at all ages in multiple regression models controlling for confounding variables (R2 = .124 for energy, R2 = .574 for BMI, p < .001). A higher percentage of older persons had inadequate micronutrient intakes compared with younger persons (p < .05), especially vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium, but consumption of a particularly wide variety of micronutrient-rich foods helped counterbalance these trends (p < .05). Older adults who had a low BMI and consumed a low variety of micronutrient-dense foods were particularly at nutritional risk, with only 65.4% consuming the Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein and none meeting the Estimated Average Requirements for all 14 micronutrients. In contrast to previous suggestions that older persons

  9. Comparison of body mass index and triceps skinfold at 5 years and young adult body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Karen; O'Callaghan, Michael; Mamun, Abdullah; Najman, Jake; Williams, Gail

    2012-05-01

    To examine which measure of obesity at 5 years, body mass index (BMI) or triceps skinfold thickness, is most strongly associated with 21-year risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Longitudinal birth cohort study with BMI and triceps skinfold measurements at age 5, and BMI, WC and blood pressure at 21 years. Overweight and obesity at 5 years were determined according to Cole-International Obesity Task Force standards, at 21, by World Health Organization definitions. Triceps skinfold thickness measurements were converted to a z-score, and cut-offs for overweight and obesity were chosen to reflect similar proportions to the BMI subgroups. BMI, WC, SBP and DBP were also measured at 21 years. Five-year BMI and triceps skinfold thickness were both significantly associated with the CVD risk measures at 21 years. For overweight/obesity at 5 years, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for 21-year overweight/obesity was 5.6 (4.2, 7.4), for 21-year WC was 1.5 (1.2, 2.0). Mean difference (95% CI) in BMI was 4.4 (3.9, 5.0), in WC 8.3 cm (6.8, 9.8), in SBP 2.4 mm Hg (0.5, 4.3), in DBP 1.1 mm Hg (0.1, 2.2). For skinfold, the similar findings were odds ratio 2.6 (2.0, 3.4) and 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) for 21-year BMI and WC, and mean differences of 2.6 (2.0, 3.2), WC 4.8 cm (3.3, 6.3), SBP 2.3 mm Hg (0.5, 4.2) and DBP 0.7 mm Hg (-0.4, 1.8). In children with overweight/obesity, BMI rather than triceps skinfold is the preferred epidemiological measure for identifying young adult CVD risk markers of BMI, WC and blood pressure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Influence of CRTC1 polymorphisms on body mass index and fat mass in psychiatric patients and the general adult population.

    PubMed

    Choong, Eva; Quteineh, Lina; Cardinaux, Jean-René; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Dobrinas, Maria; Bondolfi, Guido; Etter, Manuela; Holzer, Laurent; Magistretti, Pierre; von Gunten, Armin; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Beckmann, Jacques S; Pralong, François P; Waeber, Gerard; Kutalik, Zoltan; Conus, Philippe; Bochud, Murielle; Eap, Chin B

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of obesity in psychiatric patients, possibly leading to metabolic complications and reducing life expectancy. The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) gene is involved in energy balance and obesity in animal models, but its role in human obesity is unknown. To determine whether polymorphisms within the CRTC1 gene are associated with adiposity markers in psychiatric patients and the general population. Retrospective and prospective data analysis and population-based samples at Lausanne and Geneva university hospitals in Switzerland and a private clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland. The effect of 3 CRTC1 polymorphisms on body mass index (BMI) and/or fat mass was investigated in a discovery cohort of psychiatric outpatients taking weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs (sample 1, n = 152). The CRTC1 variant that was significantly associated with BMI and survived Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparison was then replicated in 2 independent psychiatric samples (sample 2, n = 174 and sample 3, n = 118) and 2 white population-based samples (sample 4, n = 5338 and sample 5, n = 123,865). Noninterventional studies. Difference in BMI and/or fat mass between CRTC1 genotype groups. Among the CRTC1 variants tested in the first psychiatric sample, only rs3746266A>G was associated with BMI (P(adjusted) = .003). In the 3 psychiatric samples, carriers of the rs3746266 G allele had a lower BMI than noncarriers (AA genotype) (sample 1, P = .001; sample 2, P = .05; and sample 3, P = .0003). In the combined analysis, excluding patients taking other weight gain-inducing drugs, G allele carriers (n = 98) had a 1.81-kg/m² lower BMI than noncarriers (n = 226; P < .0001). The strongest association was observed in women younger than 45 years, with a 3.87-kg/m² lower BMI in G allele carriers (n = 25) compared with noncarriers (n = 48; P < .0001), explaining 9% of BMI variance. In the population-based samples, the T allele of rs6510997C>T (a proxy

  11. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-08-26

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  12. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  13. Does body mass index outperform body weight as a surrogate parameter in the calculation of size-specific dose estimates in adult body CT?

    PubMed Central

    Lanzman, Rotem S; Heusch, Philipp; Aissa, Joel; Schleich, Christoph; Thomas, Christoph; Sawicki, Lino M; Antoch, Gerald; Kröpil, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body weight as a surrogate parameter for the calculation of size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) in thoracoabdominal CT. Methods: 401 CT examinations in 235 patients (196 chest, 205 abdomen; 95 females, 140 males; age 62.5 ± 15.0 years) were analysed in regard to weight, height and BMI (kg m−2). Effective diameter (Deff, cm) was assessed on axial CT images. The correlation between BMI, weight and Deff was calculated. SSDEs were calculated based on Deff, weight and BMI and lookup tables were developed. Results: Overall height, weight, BMI and Deff were 172.5 ± 9.9 cm, 79.5 ± 19.1 kg, 26.6 ± 5.6 kg m−2 and 30.1 ± 4.3 cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between Deff and BMI as well as weight (r = 0.85 and r = 0.84; p < 0.05, respectively). Correlation was significantly better for BMI in abdominal CT (r = 0.89 vs r = 0.84; p < 0.05), whereas it was better for weight in chest CT (r = 0.87 vs r = 0.81; p < 0.05). Surrogated SSDEs did not differ significantly from the reference standard with a median absolute relative difference of 4.2% per patient (interquartile range 25–75: 3.1–7.89, range 0–25.3%). Conclusion: BMI and weight exhibit a significant correlation with Deff in adult patients and can be used as surrogates in the calculation of SSDEs. Using the herein-developed lookup charts, SSDEs can be calculated based on patients' weight and BMI. Advances in knowledge: In abdominal CT, BMI has a superior correlation with effective diameter compared with weight, whereas weight is superior in chest CT. Patients' BMI and weight can be used as surrogates in the calculation of SSDEs. PMID:26693878

  14. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niedermaier, Tobias; Behrens, Gundula; Schmid, Daniela; Schlecht, Inga; Fischer, Beate; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-10-13

    Whether adiposity and lack of physical activity affect the risk for developing meningioma and glioma is poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize these associations in detail. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of adiposity and physical activity in relation to meningioma and glioma using cohort and case-control studies published through February 2015. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We identified 12 eligible studies of body mass index (BMI) and 6 studies of physical activity, comprising up to 2,982 meningioma cases and 3,057 glioma cases. Using normal weight as the reference group, overweight (summary relative risk [RR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.43) and obesity (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.79) were associated with increased risk of meningioma. In contrast, overweight (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.94-1.20) and obesity (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.98-1.27) were unrelated to glioma. Similarly, dose-response meta-analyses revealed a statistically significant positive association of BMI with meningioma, but not glioma. High vs low physical activity levels showed a modest inverse relation to meningioma (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.88) and a weak inverse association with glioma (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97). Relations persisted when the data were restricted to prospective studies, except for the association between physical activity and glioma, which was rendered statistically nonsignificant (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77-1.07). Adiposity is related to enhanced risk for meningioma but is unassociated with risk for glioma. Based on a limited body of evidence, physical activity is related to decreased risk of meningioma but shows little association with risk of glioma. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Body mass interacts with fat quality to determine the postprandial lipoprotein response in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Lozano, A; Perez-Martinez, P; Delgado-Lista, J; Marin, C; Cortes, B; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, F; Gomez-Luna, M J; Cruz-Teno, C; Perez-Jimenez, F; Lopez-Miranda, J

    2012-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia predicts the evolution of cardiovascular disease. Obesity is associated with an increase in the magnitude of postprandial lipemia. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the effects of acute ingestion of different types of fat on the postprandial lipemic response. Twenty-one healthy men followed a 4-week baseline diet and then consumed three fat-loaded meals that included 1g fat/kg body wt (65%fat) according to a randomized crossover design. The compositions of the three meals were olive oil meal (22% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 38% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 4% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)); butter meal (35% SFA, 22% MUFA, 4% PUFA); walnuts meal (20% SFA, 24% MUFA, 16% PUFA, and 4% α-linolenic acid). Higher-weight (HW) subjects (BMI greater than the median 26.18 kg/m(2), n = 11) presented higher incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for triglycerides (TG), both in large- and small-TG rich lipoproteins (TRL) than lower-weight (LW) subjects (BMI<26.18 kg/m(2), n = 10) (p<0.05), and a similar trend for plasma TG (p = 0.084). Moreover, HW subjects presented higher concentrations for small TRL-cholesterol and small TRL-TG in different timepoints of the postprandial lipemia after the intake of enriched walnuts or butter meals compared with the olive oil-enriched meal (p < 0.05) No significant differences were observed between the three types of meals in the postprandial response of LW subjects. HW subjects present a greater postprandial response than LW subjects, and they benefit from the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil, to lower their levels of TRL particles during the postprandial state. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Simons, Jon S.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18–35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what–where–when style episodic memory test: the “Treasure-Hunt Task”. This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what–where–when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  17. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  19. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species.

  20. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State.

    PubMed

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS(®) for Windows(®) ver. 16). In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State.

  1. Skeletal muscle mass and body fat in relation to successful ageing of older adults: The multi-national MEDIS study.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep-Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The determinants that promote successful ageing still remain unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the role of skeletal muscle mass and body fat percentage (BF%), in the level of successful ageing. during 2005-2011, 2663 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled in the study. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and BF% were calculated using population formulas. Dietary habits, energy intake, expenditure and energy balance were derived throughout standard procedures. A successful ageing index ranging from 0 to 10 was used. The mean ASM mass was 24±6.0kg, the SMI was 0.84±0.21 and the BF% was 44%. Females had lower SMI and higher BF% in comparison with males, respectively [(SMI: 0.66±0.09 vs. 1.03±0.11; BF%: 51% vs. 34%, (p<0.001)]. High successful agers had better rates in ASM (p=0.01), SMI (p<0.001) and BF% (p<0.001), compared with the medium and low successful ones. Changes in SMI [b-coefficient (95% CI):2.14 (1.57 to 2.71)] were positively associated with successful ageing, while changes in BF% [b-coefficient (95% CI): -0.04 (-0.05 to -0.03)] were inversely associated with successful ageing. Results from sensitivity analysis showed that the effects of variations on body composition were consistent, less pronounced in the positive energy balance group and more pronounced among the oldest old. Body composition changes seem to be associated with lower quality of life in the older adults, as measured through successful ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic modifiers of genetic and environmental influences on body mass index in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Dinescu, Diana; Horn, Erin E; Duncan, Glen; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Individual measures of socioeconomic status (SES) suppress genetic variance in body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to examine the influence of both individual-level (i.e., educational attainment, household income) and macrolevel (i.e., neighborhood socioeconomic advantage) SES indicators on genetic contributions to BMI. The study used education level data from 4,162 monozygotic (MZ) and 1,900 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twin pairs (64% female), income level data from 3,498 MZ and 1,534 DZ pairs (65% female), and neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation data from 2,327 MZ and 948 DZ pairs (65% female). Covariates included age (M = 40.4 ± 17.5 years), sex, and ethnicity. The cotwin control model was used to evaluate the mechanisms through which SES influences BMI (e.g., through genetic vs. environmental pathways), and a gene-by-environment interaction model was used to test whether residual variance in BMI, after controlling for the main effects of SES, was moderated by socioeconomic measures. SES significantly predicted BMI. The association was noncausal, however, and instead was driven primarily through a common underlying genetic background that tended to grow less influential as SES increased. After controlling for the main effect of SES, both genetic and nonshared environmental variance decreased with increasing SES. The impact of individual and macrolevel SES on BMI extends beyond its main effects. The influence of genes on BMI is moderated by individual and macrolevel measures of SES, such that when SES is higher, genetic factors become less influential. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Neighbourhood food environments and body mass index among New York City adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, James H; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina S; Konty, Kevin; Quinn, James; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Harris, Tiffany G; Weiss, Christopher C; Bader, Michael D M; Rundle, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of the neighbourhood food environment on obesity have summarised the density or proximity of individual food outlets. Though informative, there is a need to consider the role of the entire food environment; however, few measures of whole system attributes have been developed. New variables measuring the food environment were derived and used to study the association with body mass index (BMI). Individual data on BMI and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from 48 482 respondents of the 2002-2006 community health survey in New York City and linked to residential zip code-level characteristics. The food environment of each zip code was described in terms of the diversity of outlets (number of types of outlets present in a zip code), the density of outlets (outlets/km(2)) and the proportion of outlets classified as BMI-unhealthy (eg, fast food, bodegas). Results of the cross-sectional, multilevel analyses revealed an inverse association between BMI and food outlet density (-0.32 BMI units across the IQR, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.20), a positive association between BMI and the proportion of BMI-unhealthy food outlets (0.26 BMI units per IQR, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.43) and no association with outlet diversity. The association between BMI and the proportion of BMI-unhealthy food outlets was stronger in lower (

  4. Neighborhood Food Environments and Body Mass Index among New York City Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stark, James H.; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina S.; Konty, Kevin; Quinn, James; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Harris, Tiffany G.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Bader, Michael D. M.; Rundle, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating the impact of the neighborhood food environment on obesity have summarized the density or proximity of individual food outlets. Though informative, there is a need to consider the role of the entire food environment; however, few measures of whole system attributes have been developed. New variables measuring the food environment were derived and used to study the association with body mass index (BMI). Methods Individual data on BMI and socio-demographic characteristics was collected from 48,482 respondents of the 2002–2006 community health survey in New York City and linked to residential zip code level characteristics. The food environment of each zip code was described in terms of the diversity of outlets (number of types of outlets present in a zip code), the density of outlets (outlets per Km2) and the proportion of outlets classified as BMI-unhealthy (e.g. fast food, bodegas). Results Results of the cross-sectional, multi-level analyses revealed an inverse association between BMI and food outlet density (−0.32 BMI units across the inter-quartile range (IQR), 95% CI −0.45, −0.20), a positive association between BMI and the proportion of BMI-unhealthy food outlets (0.26 BMI units per IQR, 95% CI 0.09, 0.43) and no association with outlet diversity. The association between BMI and the proportion of BMI-unhealthy food outlets was stronger in lower (< median for % poverty) poverty zip codes than in high poverty zip codes. Conclusions These results support a more nuanced assessment of the impact of the food environment and its association with obesity. PMID:23851151

  5. U-shaped relationship between depression and body mass index in the Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Park, S K; Ryoo, J-H; Oh, C-M; Choi, J-M; McIntyre, R S; Mansur, R B; Kim, H; Hales, S; Jung, J Y

    2017-06-03

    Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30kg/m(2)). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D)≥16 and≥25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14-1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85-1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91-1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05-1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in women and 23kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in men. There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Body mass index trajectories and functional decline in older adults: Three-City Dijon cohort study.

    PubMed

    Artaud, Fanny; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dugravot, Aline; Tavernier, Béatrice; Tzourio, Christophe; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, whose prevalence is increasing, is associated with poor functional status at older ages. However, much of this evidence is cross-sectional with little known about longitudinal associations. We examined associations of body mass index (BMI), and change in BMI, with change in objective [walking speed (WS)] and self-reported (disability) measures of motor decline. Analyses included participants (65-85 years) from the Dijon center of the Three-City study (France) with up to five WS (N = 4007) and six disability assessments (N = 4478) over 11 years. Data were analyzed using regression models for repeated measures. Mean baseline WS was 153 cm/s. Compared to normal weight persons, obese participants at baseline walked slower and reported more disability; they also experienced 45% faster WS decline (-18.63 vs. -12.85 cm/s/10 years, P = 0.002). Participants who lost or gained weight had 47% (-18.85 cm/s/10 years, P < 0.001) and 33% (-17.08 cm/s/10 years, P = 0.002) respectively greater WS decline than participants in the normal BMI change category. 24% of participants reported disability at least once during the follow-up, those who lost or gained weight had a 1.63 and 1.34 respectively higher odds of disability than participants in the normal BMI change category (P = 0.001). Associations remained after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, obesity is associated with worse motor performances, a higher risk of disability, and faster motor decline. Our results underline the interest of repeated BMI and motor assessments to identify those at higher risk of disability.

  7. Adult body mass index and risk of ovarian cancer by subtype: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Suzanne C; Nagle, Christina M; Thrift, Aaron P; Pharoah, Paul Dp; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Zheng, Wei; Painter, Jodie N; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Dörk, Thilo; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Bogdanova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Leminen, Arto; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Heitz, Florian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Cunningham, Julie M; Winham, Stacey J; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen H; Liang, Dong; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; Salvesen, Helga B; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bjorge, Line; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Pejovic, Tanja; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E; Lubiński, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Menkiszak, Janusz; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Yang, Hannah; Lissowska, Jolanta; Høgdall, Claus K; Lundvall, Lene; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; Paul, James; Glasspool, Rosalind; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Whittemore, Alice S; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Risch, Harvey A; McLaughlin, John R; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Budzilowska, Agnieszka; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Webb, Penelope M

    2016-06-01

    Observational studies have reported a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and ovarian cancer risk. However, questions remain as to whether this represents a causal effect, or holds for all histological subtypes. The lack of association observed for serous cancers may, for instance, be due to disease-associated weight loss. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic markers as proxies for risk factors to overcome limitations of observational studies. We used MR to elucidate the relationship between BMI and ovarian cancer, hypothesizing that genetically predicted BMI would be associated with increased risk of non-high grade serous ovarian cancers (non-HGSC) but not HGSC. We pooled data from 39 studies (14 047 cases, 23 003 controls) in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We constructed a weighted genetic risk score (GRS, partial F-statistic = 172), summing alleles at 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with BMI, weighting by their published strength of association with BMI. Applying two-stage predictor-substitution MR, we used logistic regression to estimate study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted BMI and risk, and pooled these using random-effects meta-analysis. Higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with increased risk of non-HGSC (pooled OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.61 per 5 units BMI) but not HGSC (pooled OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.27). Secondary analyses stratified by behaviour/subtype suggested that, consistent with observational data, the association was strongest for low-grade/borderline serous cancers (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.33-2.81). Our data suggest that higher BMI increases risk of non-HGSC, but not the more common and aggressive HGSC subtype, confirming the observational evidence. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. The relationship between body mass index and uric acid: a study on Japanese adult twins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kentaro; Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA) using the twin study methodology to adjust for genetic factors. The association between BMI and UA was investigated in a cross-sectional study using data from both monozygotic and dizygotic twins registered at the Osaka University Center for Twin Research and the Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine. From January 2011 to March 2014, 422 individuals participated in the health examination. We measured height, weight, age, BMI, lifestyle habits (Breslow's Health Practice Index), serum UA, and serum creatinine. To investigate the association between UA and BMI with adjustment for the clustering of a twin within a pair, individual-level analyses were performed using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). To investigate an association with adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors, twin-pair difference values analyses were performed. In all analysis, BMI was associated with UA in men and women. Using the GLMMs, standardized regression coefficients were 0.194 (95 % confidence interval: 0.016-0.373) in men and 0.186 (95 % confidence interval: 0.071-0.302) in women. Considering twin-pair difference value analyses, standardized regression coefficients were 0.333 (95 % confidence interval: 0.072-0.594) in men and 0.314 (95 % confidence interval: 0.151-0.477) in women. The present study shows that BMI was significantly associated with UA, after adjusting for both genetic and familial environment factors in both men and women.

  9. Birth weight modifies the association between central-nervous-system gene variation and adult body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Haddad, Stephen A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth-weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth-weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women’s Health Study, and were based on genotype data on twenty BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth-weight, weight at age 18, and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual SNPs with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth-weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1, and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth-weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth-weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient = −0.045 (95% CI −0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and −0.055 (95% CI −0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth-weight ≥3,200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient = 0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction = 0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction < 0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1, and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low birth-weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation. PMID:26582267

  10. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  11. Temporal Relationship Between Childhood Body Mass Index and Insulin and Its Impact on Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P<0.001) from baseline BMI to follow-up insulin was significantly greater than the path coefficient (β=-0.02; P>0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with P<0.001 for the difference in βs. Blacks and whites showed similar patterns of the temporal relationship. The path coefficient (β=0.59; P<0.001) from BMI to insulin in the hypertensive group was significantly greater than that (β=0.24; P<0.001) in normotensive group, with P<0.001 for the difference in βs between these 2 groups. The mediation effect of childhood insulin on the childhood BMI-adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (P<0.001). These findings provide evidence that higher BMI levels precede hyperinsulinemia during childhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Oportunidades program participation and body mass index, blood pressure, and self-reported health in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Lia C H; Hou, Xiaohui; Gertler, Paul J

    2008-07-01

    Governments around the world are seeking to address the increasing prevalence of obesity and hypertension. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an incentive-based development program (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and self-reported health. An intervention group of low-income (below the 20th percentile nationally), rural, Mexican adults (aged 30-65 years) (n = 5280) received program benefits (cash transfers contingent on positive changes in health behavior such as regular health checkups) for 3.5 to 5.0 years. They were compared with a newly recruited control group of adults (n = 1063) who had not yet begun receiving benefits. Analyses were adjusted for almost 50 social and economic covariates. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI was lower in adults from intervention communities than in those from control communities (26.57 kg/m(2) vs 27.16 kg/m(2), P < .001), as was the prevalence of obesity (20.28% vs 25.31%, P < .001) and overweight (59.24% vs 63.04%, P = .03); these results were attenuated after covariates were included. Adults in intervention communities had a lower combined prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension (33.80% vs 34.52%, P = .008) when adjusting for all covariates. Mean systolic (beta = -2.60, P < .001) and diastolic (beta = -2.84, P < .001) blood pressures were significantly lower in the intervention communities after all covariates were included, and self-reported health outcomes were better. Participation in Oportunidades, a large-scale cash-transfer program, was associated with lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension and better self-reported health in adults in rural Mexico.

  13. A study of serum cholesterol level in young adults and its relation to body mass index and waist-circumference.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumitra; Jahan, Wasima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) level in young adults of Dibrugarh town of Assam and to find the association of serum cholesterol level with body mass index (BMI) and waist-circumference (WC). A cross-sectional study was done among 150 healthy young adults aged 20-30 years. TC was estimated by the enzymatic method. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 200 mg/dl. Cases were classified into different categories of BMI and WC according to the recommendations of WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000). The range of TC level in the study group was found to be (146-212) mg/dl. Mean cholesterol level in males and females were 169.5±3.6 and 172.3±15.09 mg/dl respectively. 7% of the cases had hypercholesterolemia. TC was significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.90, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.73, p<0.001 in males and r=0.86, p<0.001 in females). We conclude that young adults ≥20 years of age and especially who are overweight should be advised routine cholesterol testing so that preventive measures can be adopted to avoid hypercholesterolemia and it's complications in future life.

  14. Relationship between Body Mass Index Reference and All-Cause Mortality: Evidence from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Zhao, Jiaying; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI) reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: “normal” (≥18.5 to <23), “lower normal” (≥18.5 to <20.75), “upper normal” (≥20.75 to <23), and “narrow Western normal” (≥23 to <25). We report hazard ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35–65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30) were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01–5.70). For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26–7.22). However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25) were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34–0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28–0.84) when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23) and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23) as reference bands. Use of different “normal” reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data. PMID:25485146

  15. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  16. Mass spectral determination of phenylacetonitrile (PAN) levels in body tissues of adult desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Wings and legs of the gregarious desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria have been shown to be release sites of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major adult male-produced pheromone. However, there is limited information on the distribution of PAN within the locust. Here we show, using gas chromatograph...

  17. Association between body mass index and cause-specific mortality as well as hospitalization in frail Chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tuen-Ching; Luk, James Ka Hay; Chu, Leung-Wing; Chan, Felix Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A U-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality has been reported, but there are few studies examining the association between BMI and cause-specific mortality and hospitalization. We carried out a longitudinal study to examine these associations in Chinese older adults with multiple comorbidities, which could provide a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. From 2004 to 2013, a retrospective cohort of Chinese older adults was selected from a geriatric day hospital in Hong Kong. They were divided into groups according to their BMI: BMI <16; BMI 16-18; BMI 18.1-20; BMI 20.1-22; BMI 22.1-24; BMI 24.1-26; BMI 26.1-28; BMI 28.1-30 and BMI >30. Other assessments included medical, functional, cognitive, social and nutritional assessment. A total of 1747 older adults (mean age 80.8 ± 7.1 years, 44.1% male, 46.1% living in nursing homes, Charlson Comorbidity Index 2.0 ± 1.6) with a median follow up of 3.5 years were included. Older adults with BMI 24-28 had the lowest all-cause, infection-related and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between BMI and hazard ratio for all-cause and infection-related mortality in both nursing home and community-dwelling older adults. The rate of all-cause hospitalization was lower in older adults with BMI 22-28 (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that there was an inverted J-shaped association between the odds ratio of recurrent hospitalization and BMI. Chinese older adults with BMI 24-28 had lower all-cause mortality, infection-related mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality and all-cause hospitalization. This study provides a reference for the recommended BMI in this population. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. The role of muscle mass and body fat on disability among older adults: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Chatterji, Somnath; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity with disability among older adults (≥65years old) in nine high-, middle- and low-income countries from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. Data were available for 53,289 people aged ≥18years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) survey conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain, and the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) survey conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa, between 2007 and 2012. Skeletal muscle mass, skeletal muscle mass index, and percent body fat were calculated with specific population formulas. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were defined by specific cut-offs used in previous studies. Disability was assessed with the WHODAS 2.0 score (range 0-100) with higher scores corresponding to higher levels of disability. Multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted with disability as the outcome. The analytical sample consisted of 18,363 people (males; n=8116, females; n=10247) aged ≥65years with mean (SD) age 72.9 (11.1) years. In the fully-adjusted overall analysis, sarcopenic obesity was associated with greater levels of disability [b-coefficient 3.01 (95% CI 1.14-4.88)]. In terms of country-wise analyses, sarcopenia was associated with higher WHODAS 2.0 scores in China [b-coefficient 4.56 (95% CI: 3.25-5.87)], Poland [b-coefficient 6.66 (95% CI: 2.17-11.14)], Russia [b-coefficient 5.60 (95% CI: 2.03-9.16)], and South Africa [b-coefficient 7.75 (95% CI: 1.56-13.94)]. Prevention of muscle mass decline may contribute to reducing the global burden of disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23241359

  20. Effects of Gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Rasha; Merghani, Tarig H; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Badi, Rehab M; Lang, Florian; Saeed, Amal M

    2012-12-15

    Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Gamage, Prasanna; Katulanda, Prasad; Andraweera, Nalinda; Thilakarathne, Sithira; Tharanga, Praveen

    2013-09-03

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI-BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its' linearity or curvilinearity. A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18-83 years were grouped into young (18-39 years) middle aged (40-59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons' correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its' linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. BMI strongly correlate with BF % estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in this sub

  2. Beyond body mass index.

    PubMed

    Prentice, A M; Jebb, S A

    2001-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is the cornerstone of the current classification system for obesity and its advantages are widely exploited across disciplines ranging from international surveillance to individual patient assessment. However, like all anthropometric measurements, it is only a surrogate measure of body fatness. Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat, and it is the amount of this excess fat that correlates with ill-health. We propose therefore that much greater attention should be paid to the development of databases and standards based on the direct measurement of body fat in populations, rather than on surrogate measures. In support of this argument we illustrate a wide range of conditions in which surrogate anthropometric measures (especially BMI) provide misleading information about body fat content. These include: infancy and childhood; ageing; racial differences; athletes; military and civil forces personnel; weight loss with and without exercise; physical training; and special clinical circumstances. We argue that BMI continues to serve well for many purposes, but that the time is now right to initiate a gradual evolution beyond BMI towards standards based on actual measurements of body fat mass.

  3. Genome-Wide Interactions with Dairy Intake for Body Mass Index in Adults of European Descent.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Follis, Jack L; Dashti, Hassan S; Tanaka, Toshiko; Graff, Mariaelisa; Fretts, Amanda M; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Wojczynski, Mary K; Richardson, Kris; Nalls, Mike A; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Liu, Yongmei; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; van Eekelen, Esther; Wang, Carol; de Vries, Paul S; Mikkilä, Vera; Rohde, Rebecca; Psaty, Bruce M; Hansen, Torben; Feitosa, Mary F; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Houston, Denise K; Ferruci, Luigi; Ericson, Ulrika; Wang, Zhe; de Mutsert, Renée; Oddy, Wendy H; de Jonge, Ester A L; Seppälä, Ilkka; Justice, Anne E; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Province, Michael A; Parnell, Laurence D; Garcia, Melissa E; Bandinelli, Stefania; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; Pennell, Craig E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Kähönen, Mika; Young, Kristin L; Pedersen, Oluf; Aslibekyan, Stella; Rotter, Jerome I; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Zillikens, M Carola; Raitakari, Olli T; North, Kari E; Overvad, Kim; Arnett, Donna K; Hofman, Albert; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tjønneland, Anne; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Franco, Oscar H; German, J Bruce; Siscovick, David S; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovás, José M

    2017-09-21

    Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. We conducted a genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis. Data from 9 discovery studies (up to 25,513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (P-interaction <10(-7)) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17,675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (P-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (P-interaction = 7.36 × 10(-8)) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg/m(2) lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of body mass index on graft survival in adult recipients transplanted with single pediatric kidneys.

    PubMed

    Balamuthusamy, Saravanan; Paramesh, Anil; Zhang, Rubin; Florman, Sander; Shenava, Rajesh; Islam, Tareq; Wagner, Janis; Killackey, Mary; Alper, Brent; Simon, Eric E; Slakey, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    There is insufficient data on the impact of recipient body mass index (BMI) on the long-term graft survival of adult patients transplanted with single pediatric kidneys. We performed a retrospective analysis of adult patients transplanted with single pediatric kidneys at our center. The recipients were classified into 2 groups: group 1 (BMI > or =30) and group 2 (BMI <30). Donor/recipient demographics, postoperative outcomes and survival rates were compared between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in donor/recipient demographics between the 2 groups. In group 1, the death-censored graft survival (DCGS) at 1, 3 and 5 years was 90% at all 3 time points, and in group 2 it was 86, 68 and 60%, respectively (p = 0.05). The mean glomerular filtration rate (with standard deviation in parentheses) at 1, 3 and 5 years was, respectively, 55 (15), 59 (19) and 55 (28) ml/min for group 1, compared to 65 (28), 69 (23) and 67 (20) ml/min in group 2 (p = NS). Multivariate analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 5.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06-24.7; p = 0.04) for graft loss in nonobese patients when compared to obese patients. Obese patients had an increased risk for acute rejections within the first month of transplant (p = 0.02). Patients with a BMI > or =30 transplanted with single pediatric kidneys have better DCGS rates when compared to nonobese patients. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Mental distances and relationship to body mass index in young healthy Nigerian adults: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Jaja, B N; Fyneface-Ogan, S

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine normal ranges of sterno-mental distance (SMD) and thyromental distance (TMD) and to examine the relationship of these measurements to each other and the body mass index (BMI). The SMD, TMD and BMI were assessed in a total of 409 apparently healthy adult subjects comprising 218 male and 190 female participants who volunteered for the study. The parameters were measured by standard methods and the obtained data analysed for the degree of association using Pearson Correlation Statistics. Mean values of SMD and TMD were significantly higher in males than in females. The BMI was statistically same in both sexes. Sterno-mental distance correlated positively with TMD in both sexes (r = 0.86, p = 0.005) while BMI correlated negatively with SMD (r = -0.166, p = 0.108) as well as to the TMD (r = -0.147, p = 0.04) in both sexes. In young healthy adult populations the SMD and TMD are strongly related to each other but are unrelated to the BMI. Males tend to have on average longer SMD and TMD as compared to females. Our findings could be a useful tool during pre-anaesthetic airway assessment of patients.

  6. Population level differences in adult body mass emerge in infancy and early childhood: evidence from a global sample of low and lower-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Craig; Hruschka, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have linked measures of adult body shape and mass in ancient and contemporary populations to ecogeographical variables such as temperature and latitude. These results tend to support Bergmann's rule, which posits that bodies will be relatively less slender for their height in colder climates and more slender in warmer climates. Less well explored is the ontogeny of these population-level differences. Here we use data on infants and children from 46 low and lower income countries to test whether children's weight for height is associated with measures of temperature and latitude. We also test the hypothesis that children living in areas with greater pathogen prevalence will be lighter for their height because of life history trade-offs between investment in immune function and growth. Finally, we test whether population specific adult body mass predicts infant and child body mass, and whether this is independent of ecogeographical variables. Our results show that maximum monthly temperature explains 17% of children's weight for height while adult population-level body mass explains ∼44% (Table ). The measures of pathogen prevalence explain little of the variation in children's body shape (8%; P > 0.05). Our results suggest that population differences are consistent with Bergmann's rule but parental body shape explains more variance. Moreover, these population-level differences arise early in development, suggesting that any possible environmental influences occur in utero and/or result from epigenetic or population genetic differences.

  7. Central and peripheral fat body mass have a protective effect on osteopenia or osteoporosis in adults and elderly?

    PubMed

    Freitas, P M S S; Garcia Rosa, M L; Gomes, A M; Wahrlich, V; Di Luca, D G; da Cruz Filho, R A; da Silva Correia, D M; Faria, C A; Yokoo, E M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study involves randomly selected men aged 50 to 99 years and postmenopausal women. Either central fat mass or peripheral fat mass were associated to osteoporosis or osteopenia independently from fat-free body mass and other confounding factors. Obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems that probably share common pathophysiological mechanisms. The question if body fat mass, central or peripheral, is protective or harmful for osteoporosis or osteopenia is not completely resolved. This study aims to investigate the association between osteoporosis or osteopenia, and fat body mass (central and peripheral) independently from fat-free body mass, in men aged 50 to 99 years old and postmenopausal women randomly selected in the community. This is a cross-sectional investigation with a random sample of registered population in Niterói Family Doctor Program (FDP), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There was statistically significant bivariate association between bone loss with gender, age, skin color, alcohol consumption at risk dose, use of thiazide, fat-free body mass, and fat body mass (central and peripheral). In the multiple analysis of fat-free body mass, central and peripheral fat body mass showed an independent and protective effect on the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (p value <0.001). Since both obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems worldwide, strategies aimed at preventing both conditions should be encouraged during aging.

  8. Growth-Hormone Dynamics in Healthy Adults are Related to Age and Sex, and Strongly Dependent on Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2015-01-01

    Context Studies on 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion are rare. The influence of sex, age and adiposity are well recognized but generally derived from specific selected subject groups, not spanning sexes, many age decades, and a range of body weights. Objective The goal was to investigate GH dynamics in a group of 130 healthy adult subjects, both men and women, across 5 age decades, and a 2.5 fold range of body mass index (BMI). Methods GH was measured by a sensitive immunofluorometric assay. Secretion parameters were quantified by automated deconvolution and relative pattern randomness by approximate entropy (ApEn). Results Median age was 40, range 20–77 year. Median BMI was 26, range 18.3–49.8 kg/m2. Pulsatile 24-hour GH secretion was negatively correlated with age (P=0.002) and BMI (P<0.0001). Basal GH secretion negatively correlated with BMI (P=0.003) and not with age. The sex-dependent GH secretion (larger in women) was no longer detectable after 50 year. IGF-1 levels were lower in women after 50 year compared with men of similar age. ApEn showed age-related increase in both sexes and was higher in premenopausal and postmenopausal women than men of comparable age (P<0.0001). A single fasting GH measurement is non-informative of 24-hour GH secretion. Conclusion BMI dominates the negative regulation of 24-hour GH secretion across 5 decades of age in this till now largest cohort of healthy adults, who underwent 24-hour blood sampling. Sex also impacts GH secretion before age 50 yr and its regularity at all ages. Serum IGF-I differences partly depend on pre- or postmenopausal state. Finally, a single GH measurement is not informative of 24-hour GH secretion. PMID:26228064

  9. Height, weight and body mass index in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Camilla; Rinnström, Daniel; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Sörensson, Peder; Nielsen, Niels-Erik; Christersson, Christina; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    High BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, in contrast, low BMI is associated with worse prognosis in heart failure. The knowledge on BMI and the distribution in different BMI-classes in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited. Data on 2424 adult patients was extracted from the Swedish Registry on Congenital Heart Disease and compared to a reference population (n=4605). The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was lower in men with variants of the Fontan procedure, pulmonary atresia (PA)/double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and aortic valve disease (AVD) (Fontan 22.0% and PA/DORV 15.1% vs. 43.0%, p=0.048 and p<0.001) (AVD 37.5% vs. 49.3%, p<0.001). Overt obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was only more common in women with AVD (12.8% vs. 9.0%, p=0.005). Underweight (BMI<18.5) was generally more common in men with CHD (complex lesions 4.9% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001 and simple lesions 3.2% vs. 0.6%, <0.001). Men with complex lesions were shorter than controls in contrast to females that in general did not differ from controls. Higher prevalence of underweight in men with CHD combined with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in men with some complex lesions indicates that men with CHD in general has lower BMI compared to controls. In women, only limited differences between those with CHD and the controls were found. The complexity of the CHD had larger impact on height in men. The cause of these gender differences as well as possible significance for prognosis is unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A meta-analysis of body mass index of adolescent and adult survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nam, Gina E; Kaul, Sapna; Wu, Yelena P; Nelson, Richard E; Wright, Jennifer; Fluchel, Mark N; Hacking, Claire C; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of existing studies to examine body mass index (BMI) of adolescent and adult survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) compared to individuals without cancer. Studies were identified and reviewed using specific inclusion criteria. The effect size was odds ratio (OR) of the prevalence of overweight/obese BMI (≥ 25 kg/m(2)) in ALL survivors versus comparison groups. Study data were coded and validated. Fixed-effects (FE) and random-effects (RE) estimates of the effect size were estimated. A total of 9 studies met our inclusion criteria. Survivors were more likely to be overweight/obese compared to comparison groups (FE OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18 and RE OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.53). When limited to studies from North American samples, female survivors were overweight/obese more often than the comparison groups (FE OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.19-1.43). Adolescent and adult survivors of pediatric ALL, especially female survivors, may be at a higher risk of being overweight/obese compared to individuals without cancer. However, few studies provided detailed information on patient and treatment factors (e.g., cranial radiation) that can impact BMI. Standardized reporting of study content is vital for providing robust information on the risk of developing late effects among cancer survivors. Adolescent and adult survivors of pediatric ALL require additional weight management resources such as targeted counseling for physical activity and dietician support both early in treatment and after the end of their therapy. Female survivors may need additional guidance to develop healthy eating practices and to participate in exercise programs.

  11. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid adults in Newcastle, UK.

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, N; Harland, J; White, M; Bhopal, R; Winocour, P; Stephenson, P; Watson, W; Turner, C; Alberti, K G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes), and its relationship to body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne. SUBJECTS: These comprised Chinese and Europid men and women, aged 25-64 years, and resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two hour post load plasma glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. METHODS: Population based samples of Chinese and European adults were recruited. Each subject had a standard WHO oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 375 Chinese and 610 Europid subjects. The age adjusted prevalences of glucose intolerance in Chinese and Europid men were 13.0% (p = 0.04). Mean BMIs were lower in Chinese men (23.8 v 26.1) and women (23.5 v 26.1) than in the Europids (p values < 0.001), as were waist circumferences (men, 83.3 cm v 90.8, p < 0.001; women, 77.3 cm v 79.2, p < 0.05). Mean waist-hip ratios were lower in Chinese men (0.90 v 0.91, p = 0.02) but higher in Chinese women (0.84 v 0.78, p < 0.001) compared with Europids. In both Chinese and Europid adults, higher BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were associated with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese men and women, despite lower BMIs, is similar to or higher than that in local Europid men and women and intermediate between levels found in China and those in Mauritius. It is suggested that an increase in mean BMI to the levels in the Europid population will be associated with a substantial increase in glucose intolerance in Chinese people. PMID:9196645

  12. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  13. Maternal levels of dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) may increase weight and body mass index in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, W; Osuch, J R; Eneli, I; Mudd, L M; Zhang, J; Mikucki, D; Haan, P; Davis, S

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) on weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in adult female offspring of the Michigan fisheater cohort examined between 1973 and 1991. 259 mothers from the Michigan fisheater cohort were studied. Prenatal exposure to PCBs and DDE was estimated by extrapolating maternal measurements to the time that the women gave birth. 213 daughters aged 20-50 years in 2000 were identified and 83% of them participated in at least one of two repeated investigations in 2001/02 (n = 151) and 2006/07 (n = 129). To assess the effect of prenatal PCB and DDE exposure on anthropometric measurements, generalised estimating equations nested for repeated measurements (2001/02 and 2006/07) and for sharing the same mother were used. We controlled for maternal height and BMI and for daughters' age, birth weight, having been breastfed and number of pregnancies. Maternal height and BMI were significant predictors of the daughters' height, weight and BMI. Low birth weight (<2500 g) was significantly associated with reduced adult offspring weight and BMI. The weight and BMI of adult offspring were statistically significantly associated with the extrapolated prenatal DDE levels of their mothers. Controlling for confounders and compared to maternal DDE levels of <1.503 microg/l, offspring BMI was increased by 1.65 when prenatal DDE levels were 1.503-2.9 microg/l and by 2.88 if levels were >2.9 microg/l. Prenatal PCB levels showed no effect. Prenatal exposure to the oestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical DDE may contribute to the obesity epidemic in women.

  14. Diet quality and body mass index are associated with health care resource use in rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Ford, Dara W; Hartman, Terryl J; Still, Christopher; Wood, Craig; Mitchell, Diane C; Bailey, Regan; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Coffman, Donna L; Jensen, Gordon L

    2014-12-01

    Health care resource consumption is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between diet quality and body mass index with health care resource use (HRU) in a cohort of advanced age. Participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (n=5,993) were mailed demographic and dietary questionnaires in 2009. Of those eligible, 2,995 (50%; 1,267 male, 1,728 female; mean age 81.4±4.4 years) provided completed surveys. Multivariate negative binomial models were used to estimate relative risk and 95% CI of HRU outcomes with diet quality as assessed by the Dietary Screening Tool score and body mass index determined from self-reported height and weight. Poor diet quality was associated with a 20% increased risk for emergency room (ER) visits. Fruit and vegetable consumption was grouped into quintiles of intake, with the highest quintile serving as the reference group in analyses. The three lowest fruit and vegetable quintiles were associated with increased risk for ER visits (23% to 31%); the lowest quintile increased risk for inpatient visits (27%). Obesity increased risk of outpatient visits; however, individuals with class I obesity were less likely than normal-weight individuals to have ER visits (relative risk=0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99). Diets of greater quality, particularly with greater fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with favorable effects on HRU outcomes among older adults. Overweight and obesity are associated with increased outpatient HRU and, among obese individuals, with decreased ER visits. These findings suggest that BMI and diet quality beyond age 74 years continue to affect HRU measures. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body mass index, waist circumference and employment: evidence from older Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Irene

    2013-12-01

    Data from the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing are used to examine the relationship between fatness and obesity and employment status among older Irish adults. Employment status is regressed on one of the following measures of fatness: BMI and waist circumference entered linearly as continuous variables and obesity as a categorical variable defined using both BMI and waist circumference. Controls for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics in childhood and physical, mental and behavioural health are also included. The regression results for women indicate that all measures of fatness are negatively associated with the probability of being employed and that the employment elasticity associated with waist circumference is larger than the elasticity associated with BMI. The results for men indicate that employment is not significantly associated with BMI and waist circumference when these are entered linearly in the regression, but it is significantly and negatively associated with obesity defined either using BMI or waist circumference as categorical variables. The results also indicate that the negative association between obesity and employment status is larger among women. For example, the probability of being employed for the obese category defined using BMI is around 8 percentage points lower for women and 5 percentage points lower for men.

  16. International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity: IPEN adult study.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, D; Cerin, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Hinckson, E; Reis, R S; Davey, R; Sarmiento, O L; Mitas, J; Troelsen, J; MacFarlane, D; Salvo, D; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Owen, N; Cain, K L; Sallis, J F

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, whereas recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with body mass index (BMI) and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18-65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts per minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min per day) and higher counts per minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. On the basis of these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  17. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  18. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Asian adults constituted 4.9% of the U.S. population in 2012, corresponding to 15.4 million people (2). This group primarily comprises persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent. The prevalence of hypertension (defined as having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg or taking blood pressure-lowering medications) among non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over was 25.6%. As previously reported, this prevalence is similar to that of non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults but lower than that of non-Hispanic black adults (3). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of hypertension was higher among those who were older or had less education, similar to findings in U.S. adults overall (4,5). The prevalence of high total cholesterol (measured as cholesterol of at least 240 mg/dL) among non-Hispanic Asian adults was similar to that among adults of other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (measured as HDL less than 40 mg/dL) than Hispanic persons (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adult men were almost five times more likely than non-Hispanic Asian adult women to have low HDL cholesterol. While adult men in general are known to have a higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol than adult women (7), the sex difference was larger than in other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). The prevalence of high BMI among non-Hispanic Asian adults (38.6%) was much lower than that previously reported for non-Hispanic white adults (66.7%), non-Hispanic black adults (76.7%), and Hispanic adults (78.8%) (8). BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat. However, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. In particular, at a given BMI, Asian adults may have more body fat than white adults (9). Also, morbidity and mortality risk may be influenced by body composition and fat distribution in a manner that is

  19. Body mass index and mortality rate among Hispanic adults: a pooled analysis of multiple epidemiologic data sets.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, K R; McCubrey, R; Mehta, T; Pajewski, N M; Keith, S W; Bangalore, S S; Crespo, C J; Allison, D B

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI, kg m⁻²) and mortality rate among Hispanic adults. Analysis of five data sets (total N=16,798) identified after searching for publicly available, prospective cohort data sets containing relevant information for at least 500 Hispanic respondents (≥18 years at baseline), at least 5 years of mortality follow-up, and measured height and weight. Data sets included the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program (PRHHP), the Hispanic Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (HEPESE), the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for sex and smoking, were fit within three attained-age strata (18 to younger than 60 years, 60 to younger than 70 years, and 70 years and older). We found that underweight was associated with elevated mortality rate for all age groups in the PRHHP (hazard ratios [HRs]=1.38-1.60) and the SAHS (HRs=1.88-2.51). Overweight (HRs=0.38 and 0.84) and obesity grade 2-3 (HRs=0.75 and 0.60) associated with reduced mortality rate in the HEPESE dataset for those in the 60 to younger than 70 years, and 70 years and older attained-age strata. Weighted estimates combining the HRs across the data sets revealed a similar pattern. Among Hispanic adults, there was no clear evidence that overweight and obesity associate with elevated mortality rate.

  20. Factors underlying the association of body mass index with serum ALT in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Qin, Xian-hui; Li, Jian-ping; Cui, Yi-min; Liu, Ze-yuan; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Ge, Jun-bo; Guan, De-ming; Hu, Jian; Wang, Yan-ni; Zhang, Fu-min; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xi-ping; Huo, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: High body mass index (BMI) is considered as the most important risk factor for elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration. This study examined an array of factors, including waist circumference (WC) and folate deficiency, which may mediate the association of BMI with serum ALT concentration in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 378 patients with mild or moderate hypertension and without known hepatic diseases were recruited from five hospitals in Harbin, Shanghai, Beijing, Xi’an, and Nanjing. Results: Of the 360 hypertensive patients with complete data in our final analysis, 13.6% had high ALT concentrations (>40 IU/L). Factors including BMI, WC, triglyceride level, and folate concentration were associated with ALT concentration in univariate analysis. Consistently higher prevalence rates of elevated ALT were observed in subjects with lower folate concentrations (≥12 vs. <12 nmol/L, 9.9% vs. 17.8%, P=0.03), with higher BMI (≥28 vs. <28 kg/m2, 21.5% vs. 11.4%, P=0.02) or higher WC (≥90 vs. <90 cm, 18.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.02). However, in multivariate analysis, the association between BMI and ALT concentration disappeared (P=0.802 in males and 0.369 in females), while WC in females (P<0.001) and folate concentration (P=0.036 in males and 0.044 in females) remained as significant predictors for ALT concentration. Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated that WC and low folate concentration were important factors underlying the association between BMI and ALT concentrations in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. PMID:23897794

  1. Relationship between body mass index and perceived insufficient sleep among U.S. adults: an analysis of 2008 BRFSS data.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Croft, Janet B

    2011-05-10

    Over the past 50 years, the average sleep duration for adults in the United States has decreased while the prevalence of obesity and associated outcomes has increased. The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived insufficient sleep was associated with body mass index (BMI) in a national sample. We analyzed data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey (N=384,541) in which respondents were asked, "During the past 30 days, for about how many days have you felt you did not get enough rest or sleep?" We divided respondents into six BMI categories and used multivariable linear regression and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between BMI categories and days of insufficient sleep after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, smoking, physical activity, and frequent mental distress. Adjusted mean days of insufficient sleep ranged from 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8, 8.0) days for people of normal weight to 10.5 (95% CI: 10.2, 10.9) days for those in the highest weight category (BMI≥40). Days of perceived insufficient sleep followed a linear trend across BMI categories. The likelihood of reporting ≥14 days of insufficient sleep in the previous 30 days was higher for respondents in the highest weight category than for those who were normal weight (34.9% vs. 25.2%; adjusted odds ratio=1.7 (95% CI: 1.5, 1.8]). Among U.S. adults, days of insufficient rest or sleep strongly correlated with BMI. Sleep sufficiency should be an important consideration in the assessment of the health of overweight and obese people and should be considered by developers of weight-reduction programs.

  2. [Gender and age differences in social support and body mass index in adults in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    França-Santos, Debora; Oliveira, Aldair José de; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-06-05

    The objective was to investigate gender and age differences in the association between dimensions of social support and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 1,465 adults (20 to 59 years) in a population-based study in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anthropometry was conducted by trained evaluators and social support obtained by the Medical Outcomes Study, adapted and validated for the Brazilian population. The analyses were performed with multiple linear regressions, stratified by gender and age bracket, considering the sample's expansion factor and complex design. Obesity prevalence was 28% in women and 16.2% in men. After adjusting for confounders, a negative association was observed between social support and BMI in men 40-49 years of age, and in emotional support/information (β = -2.04), and positive social interaction (β = -2.40). There was a positive association for social support and BMI in men 50-59 years of age in emotional support/information (β = 1.84). The study indicates that social support can protect against obesity in men in some dimensions and age brackets. However, social support does not appear to be a protective factor in women.

  3. Gray and white matter structures in the midcingulate cortex region contribute to body mass index in Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly becoming a central public health challenge around the world. Previous studies have suggested that elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) might be associated with structural changes in both gray and white matter, but this association is still not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and brain structure with a relatively large sample of young adults (N = 336) in a small age range (20 ± 1 years). Voxel-based morphometry results showed significant negative correlations between BMI and gray-matter volumes in the midcingulate cortex (MCC), left orbital frontal cortex, and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. There was also a significant negative correlation between BMI and white matter integrity as indexed by fractional anisotropy in bilateral cingulum. Further tractography analysis showed a significant negative correlation between BMI and the number of fibers passing the MCC region. Regression analysis showed that gray matter and white matter in these regions both contributed to the variance of BMI. These results remained significant even when analysis was restricted to the subjects with normal weights. Finally, we found that decision-making ability (as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task) mediated the association between the structure of the MCC (a region responsible for impulse control and decision making) and BMI. These results shed light on the structural neural basis of weight variations.

  4. Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Other Measures of Adiposity in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, K. M.; Paiva, L. L.; Sanchez, S. E.; Revilla, L.; Lopez, T.; Yasuda, M. B.; Yanez, N. D.; Gelaye, B.; Williams, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the extent to which measures of adiposity can be used to predict selected components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. A total of 1,518 Peruvian adults were included in this study. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were examined. The prevalence of each MetS component was determined according to tertiles of each anthropometric measure. ROC curves were used to evaluate the extent to which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular risk. Results. All measures of adiposity had the strongest correlation with triglyceride concentrations (TG). For both genders, as adiposity increased, the prevalence of Mets components increased. Compared to individuals with low-BMI and low-WC, men and women with high-BMI and high- WC had higher odds of elevated fasting glucose, blood pressure, TG, and reduced HDL, while only men in this category had higher odds of elevated CRP. Overall, the ROCs showed VAI, WC, and WHtR to be the best predictors for individual MetS components. Conclusions. The results of our study showed that measures of adiposity are correlated with cardiovascular risk although no single adiposity measure was identified as the best predictor for MetS. PMID:21331161

  5. Association of Body Mass Index with the Tuberculosis Infection: a Population-based Study among 17796 Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haoran; Li, Xiangwei; Xin, Henan; Li, Hengjing; Li, Mufei; Lu, Wei; Bai, Liqiong; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Jianmin; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be associated with host susceptibility to several infections. However, the link between BMI and the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely studied in China and in worldwide. Based on the baseline survey of a population-based, prospective study in rural China, the association between BMI and TB infection among adults was estimated by means of cross-sectional analysis. TB infection status was tested using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT), a commercial of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). Totally, 17796 eligible participants aged ≥18 years from 4 study sites, were included in the analysis. 21.76% (3873/17796) were observed to be QFT positive. Age and gender standardized prevalence ranged from 16.49% to 23.81% across the study sites. 42.19% study participants were obese/overweight with BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2. BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2 was observed to be independently associated with QFT positivity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.33). The strength of the association was found to be geographically diversity, which might be explained, at least partly, by the varied local TB epidemic status. Our results suggest that individuals with obesity might be one important target population for TB infection control in rural China. PMID:28176883

  6. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa.

  7. Identifying built environmental patterns using cluster analysis and GIS: Relationships with walking, cycling and body mass index in French adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    accessibility to green areas and local facilities and by a high density of cycle paths were more likely to walk/cycle, after adjustment for individual and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.6). Body mass index did not differ across patterns. Conclusions Built environmental patterns were associated with walking and cycling among French adults. These analyses may be useful in determining urban and public health policies aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle. PMID:22620266

  8. Estimation of Total Body Skeletal Muscle Mass in Chinese Adults: Prediction Model by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyu; Wang, ZiMian; Zhang, Junyi; Hua, Jianming; He, Wei; Zhu, Shankuan

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few reports on total body skeletal muscle mass (SM) in Chinese. The objective of this study is to establish a prediction model of SM for Chinese adults. Methodology Appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and SM by magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 66 Chinese adults (52 men and 14 women). Images of MRI were segmented into compartments including intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and IMAT-free SM. Regression was used to fit the prediction model . Age and gender were adjusted in the fitted model. The piece-wise linear function was performed to further explore the effect of age on SM. ‘Leave-One-Out Cross Validation’ was utilized to evaluate the prediction performance. The significance of observed differences between predicted and actual SM was tested by t test and the level of agreement was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. Results Men had greater ALST and IMAT-free SM than women. ALST was the primary predictor and highly correlated with IMAT-free SM (R2 = 0.94, SEE = 1.11 kg, P<0.001). Age was an additional predictor (SM prediction model with age adjusted R2 = 0.95, SEE = 1.05 kg, P<0.001). There was a piece-wise linear relationship between age and IMAT-free SM: IMAT-free SM = 1.21×ALST−0.98, (Age <45 years) and IMAT-free SM = 1.21×ALST−0.98−0.04× (Age−45), (Age ≥45years). The prediction performance of this age-adjusted model was good due to ‘Leave-One-Out Cross Validation’. No significant difference between measured and predicted IMAT-free SM was detected. Conclusion Previous SM prediction model developed in multi-ethnic groups underestimated SM by 2.3% and 3.4% for Chinese men and women. A new prediction model by DXA has been established to predict SM in Chinese adults. PMID:23308254

  9. Body mass index, waist-circumference and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Iranian adults: Isfahan healthy heart program.

    PubMed

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Nazem, Masoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Nouri, Fatemeh; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Alikhasi, Hassan

    2013-09-01

    Considering the main effect of obesity on chronic non-communicable diseases, this study was performed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), cardio-metabolic risk factors and to corroborate whether either or both BMI and WC are independently associated with the risk factors in a sample of Iranian adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on data from baseline survey of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). The study was done on 12,514 randomly-selected adults in Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak counties in 2000-2001. Ages of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour post-load glucose (2hpp), serum lipids, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), BMI, WC, smoking status, and total daily physical activity were determined. Increase in BMI and WC had a significant positive relation with the mean of FBG, 2hpp, SBP, DBP, serum lipids, except for HDL-C (p<0.001 for all). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, socioeconomic status (SES), and BMI, the highest odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus (DM) according to WC was 3.13 (1.93-5.08) and 1.99 (1.15-3.44) in women and men respectively. Moreover, the highest ORs based on BMI with adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, SES, and WC were for dyslipidaemia (DLP) [1.97 (1.58-2.45) in women and 2.96 (2.41-3.63) in men]. The use of BMI or WC alone in the models caused to enhance all ORs. When both BMI and WC were entered in the model, the ORs for all risk factors, in men, according to BMI, were more compared to WC. However, in women, ORs for DM and hypertension (HTN) in WC quartiles were more than in BMI quartiles. BMI is the better predictor of DM, HTN, and DLP in men compared to WC. Conversely, in women, WC is a superior predictor than BMI, particularly for DM and HTN. Furthermore, the measurement of both WC and BMI in Iranian adults may be a better predictor of traditional risk factors of CVDs compared to BMI or WC

  10. Identifying built environmental patterns using cluster analysis and GIS: relationships with walking, cycling and body mass index in French adults.

    PubMed

    Charreire, Hélène; Weber, Christiane; Chaix, Basile; Salze, Paul; Casey, Romain; Banos, Arnaud; Badariotti, Dominique; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Simon, Chantal; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-23

    facilities and by a high density of cycle paths were more likely to walk/cycle, after adjustment for individual and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.6). Body mass index did not differ across patterns. Built environmental patterns were associated with walking and cycling among French adults. These analyses may be useful in determining urban and public health policies aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  11. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  12. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  13. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoffs for Categorization of Overweight and Central Adiposity among Uighur Adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Liu, Fen; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Chen, You; Chen, Bangdang; He, Chun-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current overweight and central adiposity guidelines based on Western populations were not consistent with many studied based on the Asian populations. Uighur people live in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region which is located in the center of Asia. Their overweight and central cutoffs were largely unknown. We aimed to identify cutoffs for body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and waist circumference (WC; in cm) for categorization of overweight and central adiposity among Uighur adults in Xinjiang. Methods 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. The age of the participants were from 35 to 101 years old with the mean age of 50.09 years. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and fasting glucose were documented. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each BMI and waist circumference values were calculated. Results The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were higher with higher BMI for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were higher with higher waist circumference for both men and women. In women, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was noticed to increase as the waist circumference increased. The shortest distance in the receiver operating characteristic curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥ 2 of these risk factors suggested a BMI cutoff of 26 and a waist circumference cutoff of 90 cm for both men and women. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for BMI and waist circumference are needed in the identification of Uighur patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24244645

  14. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-04-15

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  15. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O’Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu, Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-01-01

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency, however an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic, were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA); while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity. PMID:21320519

  16. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B; O'Rourke, Mary K; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Billheimer, Dean; Lu, Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T

    2011-04-15

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived stress, behavior, and body mass index among adults participating in a worksite obesity prevention program, Seattle, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Wendy E; Ceballos, Rachel M; Bishop, Sonia K; McGregor, Bonnie A; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2012-01-01

    Stress in numerous contexts may affect the risk for obesity through biobehavioral processes. Acute stress has been associated with diet and physical activity in some studies; the relationship between everyday stress and such behavior is not clear. The objective of this study was to examine associations between perceived stress, dietary behavior, physical activity, eating awareness, self-efficacy, and body mass index (BMI) among healthy working adults. Secondary objectives were to explore whether eating awareness modified the relationship between perceived stress and dietary behavior and perceived stress and BMI. Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating (PACE) was a group-randomized worksite intervention to prevent weight gain in the Seattle metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A subset of 621 participants at 33 worksites provided complete information on perceived stress at baseline. Linear mixed models evaluated cross-sectional associations. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) Perceived Stress Scale-10 score among all participants was 12.7 (6.4), and the mean (SD) BMI was 29.2 kg/m2 (6.3 kg/m2). Higher levels of perceived stress were associated with lower levels of eating awareness, physical activity, and walking. Among participants who had low levels of eating awareness, higher levels of perceived stress were associated with fewer servings of fruit and vegetables and greater consumption of fast food meals. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of workers may be associated with average levels of perceived stress. Longitudinal studies are needed, however, to support inclusion of stress management or mindfulness techniques in workplace obesity prevention efforts.

  18. Obstetric Outcomes in Adolescents Related to Body Mass Index and Compared with Low-Risk Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Ramö Isgren, Anna; Kjølhede, Preben; Blomberg, Marie

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate in adolescents the association between body mass index (BMI) and obstetric outcomes and to determine whether the outcomes in the BMI groups of adolescents differ from those of a low-risk population of adult women. This is a nationwide population-based register study. Obstetric outcomes of 31,386 singleton primiparous adolescents were evaluated in relation to BMI classes. Furthermore, the outcomes of the adolescents and 178,844 normal weight, nonsmoking, singleton primiparous women, 25-29 years old with no known comorbidity, defined as standard women, were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were used. Results are presented as crude odds ratios (ORs) or adjusted ORs and with a 95% confidence interval. Compared with normal weight adolescents, obese adolescents had a lower chance of a normal vaginal delivery (VD)-76% versus 85% [adjusted OR 0.61 (0.55-0.68)], a higher risk for acute cesarean section (CS)-8.9% versus 4.5% [adjusted OR 2.45 (2.08-2.88)], and stillbirth-0.7% versus 0.2% [adjusted OR 3.17 (1.74-5.77)]. Compared with standard women, overweight adolescents had a higher chance of a normal VD-82% versus 75% [crude OR 1.53 (1.44-1.64)] and a lower risk for acute CS-6.3% versus 7.1% [crude OR 0.85 (0.76-0.95)]. Obese adolescents had a lower risk for instrumental VD-8% versus 13% [crude OR 0.61 (0.53-0.71)] and obstetric anal sphincter injury-1% versus 3% [crude OR 0.38 (0.26-0.57)]. Several adverse obstetric outcomes were obesity related among adolescents. Overweight adolescents seemed to have better obstetric outcomes than standard women, something to consider when optimizing resources for women during pregnancy and delivery.

  19. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors.

  20. Anthropometric and body frame size characteristics in relation to body mass index and percentage body fat among adult Bengalee male brick-kiln workers from Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banik, Sudip Datta; Ghosh, Mihir; Bose, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Anthropometric and body frame size parameters (ABFSP) are used to interpret body mass and to evaluate nutritional status. Objective of the present study was to investigate the interrelationships between ABFSP, percentage body fat (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). The study was carried out in a sample of 141 adult Bengalee healthy male brick-kiln workers (age range 18-59 years) from Murshidabad district in West Bengal, India. Body weight was recorded; anthropometric measurements included height, breadth (elbow, wrist, hand, foot, ankle, knee), circumferences (mid-upper arm, chest, waist, hip, thigh, medial calf) and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac). Derived ABFSP included sum of breadth and circumferences, frame index, BMI, BF%, sum of skinfolds, ratio of central and peripheral skinfolds, arm muscle area, arm muscle circumference, arm fat area and brachial adipo-muscular ratio. Correlations (age-controlled) between ABFSP, BMI and BF% were highly significant (p < 0.001). The ABFSP and BF% varied significantly (p < 0.0001) in relation to BMI-based nutritional status (BNS). Multinomial logistic regression analysis (age-adjusted) showed ABFSP had statistically significant (p < 0.01) relationships with BNS. There were strong interrelationships between ABFSP, BMI and BF% independent of age. The ABFSP in individuals with normal BMI, suffering from undernutrition (low BMI) or overweight are different.

  1. Savings in Medical Expenditures Associated with Reductions in Body Mass Index Among US Adults with Obesity, by Diabetes Status.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Biener, Adam; Hammer, Mette; Wintfeld, Neil

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity has more than doubled in the USA in the past 30 years. Obesity is a significant risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other clinically significant co-morbidities. This paper estimates the medical care cost savings that can be achieved from a given amount of weight loss by people with different starting values of body mass index (BMI), for those with and without diabetes. This information is an important input into analyses of the cost effectiveness of obesity treatments and prevention programs. Two-part models of instrumental variables were estimated using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for 2000-2010. Models were estimated for all adults as well as separately for those with and without diabetes. We calculated the causal impact of changes in BMI on medical care expenditures, cost savings for specific changes in BMI (5, 10, 15, and 20 %) from starting BMI levels ranging from 30 to 45 kg/m(2), as well as the total excess medical care expenditures caused by obesity. In the USA, adult obesity raised annual medical care costs by $US3,508 per obese individual, for a nationwide total of $US315.8 billion (year 2010 values). However, the relationship of medical care costs over BMI is J-shaped; costs rise exponentially in the range of class 2 and 3 obesity (BMI ≥35). The heavier the obese individual, the greater the reduction in medical care costs associated with a given percent reduction in BMI. Medical care expenditures are higher, and rise more with BMI, among individuals with diabetes than among those without diabetes. The savings from a given percent reduction in BMI are greater the heavier the obese individual, and are greater for those with diabetes than for those without diabetes. The results provide health insurers, employers, government agencies, and health economists with accurate estimates of the change in medical care expenditures resulting from weight loss, which is important information for

  2. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  3. Body mass index, poor diet quality and health related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an aging population, potentially modifiable factors impacting mortality such as diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of interest. Surviving members of the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) (n = 5,993; aged =74 years) were contacted in the fall of 20...

  4. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  5. Occupational physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among Canadian adults: does physical activity at work help to explain the socio-economic patterning of body weight?

    PubMed

    Barberio, Amanda; McLaren, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The behavioural and socio-cultural processes underlying the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and body mass index (BMI) remain unclear. Occupational physical activity (OPA) is one plausible explanatory variable that has not been previously considered. 1) To examine the association between OPA and BMI, and 2) to examine whether OPA mediates the SEP-BMI association, in a Canadian population-based sample. This cross-sectional study was based on secondary analysis of the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey data, focusing on adults (age 25-64) working at a job or business (men, n = 1,036; women, n = 936). BMI was based on measured height and weight and we derived a novel indicator of OPA from the National Occupational Classification Career Handbook. Our analytic technique was ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for a range of socio-demographic, health and behavioural covariates. OPA was marginally associated with BMI in women, such that women with medium levels of OPA tended to be lighter than women with low levels of OPA, in adjusted models. No associations between OPA and BMI were detected for males. Baron and Kenny's (1986) three conditions for testing mediation were not satisfied, and thus we were unable to proceed with testing OPA as a mediator. Notwithstanding the small effects observed in women, overall the associations between OPA and BMI were neither clear nor strong, which could reflect conceptual and/or methodological reasons. Future research on this topic might incorporate other plausible explanatory variables (e.g., job-related psychosocial stress) and adopt a prospective design.

  6. Stem cell activation in adults can reverse detrimental changes in body composition to reduce fat and increase lean mass in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Wiren, Kristine M; Hashimoto, Joel G; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-12-01

    Detrimental changes in body composition are often associated with declining levels of testosterone. Here, we evaluated the notion that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, that give rise to both fat and muscle tissue, can play a significant role to alter existing body composition in the adult. Transgenic mice with targeted androgen receptor (AR) overexpression in stem cells were employed. Wild-type littermate and AR-transgenic male and female mice were gonadectomized and left untreated for 2 months. After the hypogonadal period, mice were then treated with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 6 weeks. After orchidectomy (ORX), wild-type males have reduced lean mass and increased fat mass compared to shams. DHT treatment was beneficial to partially restore body composition. In wild-type females, ovariectomy (OVX) produced a similar change but there was no improvement with DHT. In targeted AR transgenic mice, DHT treatment increased lean and reduced fat mass to sham levels. In contrast to wild-type females, DHT treatment in female transgenic mice significantly ameliorated the increased fat and decreased lean mass changes that result after OVX. Our results show that DHT administration reduces fat mass and increases lean mass in wild-type males but not females, indicating that wild-type females are not as sensitive to androgen treatment. Because both male and female transgenic mice are more responsive than wild-type, results suggest that body composition remains linked to stem cell fate in the adult and that targeted androgen signaling in stem cells can play a significant role to reverse detrimental changes in body composition in both sexes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Individual and Combined Influence of the ‘Quality’ and ‘Quantity’ of Family Meals on Adult Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wickel, Katharine; Doherty, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a well-established literature showing a positive association between the frequency of family meals and child and adolescent healthful dietary intake and lower body mass index (BMI), little is known about the association between family meal frequency (quantity) and adult health outcomes and whether quality (distractions) of family meals influences adult BMI. This study investigates the association between the ‘quantity’ and ‘quality’ of family meals and adult BMI. Data were from a nationally representative sample of 4,885 adults ages 25 to 64 years (56% female), from which an analytic sample of 1779 parents was drawn for the current study. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family meal frequency and quality of family meals and adult BMI, controlling for socio-demographics. Interactions between family meal quantity and quality were also examined. The quantity of family meals and the quality of family meals were both independently related to adult BMI. Specifically, the frequency of family meals was associated with lower adult BMI and lower quality of family meals was associated with higher adult BMI. The interaction between quantity and quality was not statistically significant. Results suggest that both the quantity and quality of family meals matter for adult BMI, but one is not dependent on the other. Health care providers who work with families may want to consider promoting the importance of the quality and quantity of family meals to benefit the entire family. PMID:23148980

  8. Body fat is associated with increased and lean mass with decreased knee cartilage loss in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ding, C; Stannus, O; Cicuttini, F; Antony, B; Jones, G

    2013-06-01

    To determine the associations between body composition at baseline and knee cartilage loss over 2.9 years in older adults. A total of 395 randomly selected subjects (mean 62 years, range 51-81, 50% female) were studied at baseline and 2.9 years later. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and tibial bone area at baseline and follow-up. Height, weight and radiographic osteoarthritis were measured by standard protocols at baseline. Fat mass and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Tibial cartilage volume decreased by 2.0-2.7% per annum. In multivariable analysis, annual change in medial cartilage volume was negatively and significantly associated with body mass index (β: -0.14% per kg m(-2), 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25%, -0.02%), percentage total body fat (β: -0.19% per %, 95% CI: -0.30%, -0.07%) and percentage trunk fat (β: -0.10% per %, 95% CI: -0.19%, -0.02%), and positively associated with percentage lean mass (β: 0.20% per %, 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.32%). Change in lateral tibial cartilage volume was also significantly associated with percentage total body fat (β: -0.11% per %, 95% CI: -0.21%, -0.001%) and total lean mass (β: 0.13% per kg, 95% CI: 0.04%, 0.22%). These were independent of sex and age even though both were also significant predictors. Body fat adversely affects tibial cartilage loss over time, whereas lean mass is protective. Strategies aimed at reducing body fat but increasing lean mass may reduce knee cartilage loss in older people.

  9. Cardiometabolic risk in young adults from northern Mexico: Revisiting body mass index and waist-circumference as predictors.

    PubMed

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Torres, Rosa P; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Tapia-Pancardo, Diana C; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Méndez-Cruz, A René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Gallardo-Ortíz, Itzell A; Urquídez-Romero, René

    2016-03-08

    A body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and a waist circumference (WC) ≥80 cm in women (WCF) or ≥90 cm in men (WCM) are reference cardiometabolic risk markers (CMM) for Mexicans adults. However, their reliability to predict other CMM (index tests) in young Mexicans has not been studied in depth. A cross-sectional descriptive study evaluating several anthropometric, physiological and biochemical CMM from 295 young Mexicans was performed. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and Youden's index (J) of reference BMI/WC cutoffs toward other CMM (n = 14) were obtained and their most reliable cutoffs were further calculated at Jmax. Prevalence, incidence and magnitude of most CMM increased along the BMI range (p < 0.01). BMI explained 81 % of WC's variance [Se (97 %), Sp (71 %), J (68 %), Jmax (86 %), BMI = 30 kg/m(2)] and 4-50 % of other CMM. The five most prevalent (≥71 %) CMM in obese subjects were high WC, low HDL-C, and three insulin-related CMM [Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI]. For a BMI = 30 kg/m(2), J ranged from 16 % (HDL-C/LDL-C) to 68 % (WC), being moderately reliable (Jmax = 61-67) to predict high uric acid (UA), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype (HTGW). Corrected WCM/WCF were moderate-highly reliable (Jmax = 66-90) to predict HTGW, MetS, fasting glucose and UA. Most CMM were moderate-highly predicted at 27 ± 3 kg/m(2) (CI 95 %, 25-28), 85 ± 5 cm (CI 95 %, 82-88) and 81 ± 6cm (CI 95 %, 75-87), for BMI, WCM and WCF, respectively. BMI and WC are good predictors of several CMM in the studied population, although at different cutoffs than current reference values.

  10. Body Mass Index and Mortality in Non-Hispanic Black Adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yikyung; Hartge, Patricia; Moore, Steven C.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; de Gonzalez, Amy Berrington

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, kg/m2, BMI ≥30) is higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites, the relation of BMI to total mortality in non-Hispanic blacks is not well defined. Purpose We investigated the association between BMI and total mortality in 16,471 non-Hispanic blacks in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort of adults aged 50–71 years. Methods During an average of 13 years of follow-up, 2,609 deaths were identified using the Social Security Administration Death Master File and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among individuals with no history of cancer or heart disease at baseline and had a BMI of 20 or greater, the relative risk for total death was 1.12 (95% CI:1.05, 1.19, for a 5-unit increase in BMI) in men and 1.09 (95% CI:1.03, 1.15) in women. Among never smokers with no history of cancer or heart disease at baseline, relative risks for total death for BMI 25–<30, 30–<35, 35–<40, and 40–50, compared with BMI 20–<25, were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.78), 1.56 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.28), 2.48 (95% CI: 1.53, 4.05), and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.46, 5.39), respectively, in men and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.04), 1.17 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.57), 1.35 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.90), and 1.93 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.81), respectively, in women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that overweight is related to an increased risk of death in black men, but not in black women, while obesity is related to an increased risk of death in both black men and women. A large pooled analysis of existing studies is needed to systematically evaluate the association between a wide range of BMIs and total mortality in blacks. PMID:23209650

  11. Trends in body mass index according to educational attainment for urban Australian adults between 1980 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Gearon, E; Backholer, K; Stevenson, C; Magliano, D J; Keating, C; Ball, K; Beauchamp, A; Peeters, A

    2015-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that between the years 1980 and 2000, the mean body mass index (BMI) of the urban Australian population increased, with greater increases observed with increasing BMI. The current study aimed to quantify trends over time in BMI according to level of education between 1980 and 2007. We compared data from the 1980, 1983 and 1989 National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Studies, 1995 National Nutrition Survey, 2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study and the 2007 National Health Survey. For survey comparability, analyses were restricted to urban Australian residents aged 25-64 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. The education variable was dichotomised at completion of secondary school. Four age-standardised BMI indicators were compared over time by sex and education: mean BMI, mean BMI of the top 5% of the BMI distribution, prevalence of obesity (BMI⩾30 kg m(-)(2)), prevalence of class II(+) obesity (BMI⩾35 kg m(-)(2)). Between 1980 and 2007, the mean BMI among men increased by 2.5 and 1.7 kg m(-)(2) for those with low and high education levels, respectively, corresponding to increases in obesity prevalence of 20 (from 12-32%) and 11 (10-21%) %-points. Among women, mean BMI increased by 2.9 and 2.4 kg m(-)(2) for those with low and high education levels, respectively, corresponding to increases in obesity prevalence of 16 (12-28%) and 12 (7-19%) %-points. The prevalence of class II(+) obesity among men increased by 9 (1-10%) and 4 (1-5%) %-points for those with low and high education levels, and among women increased by 8 (4-12%) and 4 (2-6%) %-points. Absolute and relative differences between education groups generally increased over time. Educational differences in BMI have persisted among urban Australian adults since 1980 without improvement. Obesity prevention policies will need to be effective in those with greatest socio-economic disadvantage if we are to equitably and

  12. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus -0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (-1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus -0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (-0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by this nonsportive elderly cohort at risk for

  13. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  14. Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study.

    PubMed

    Fernberg, Ulrika; Fernström, Maria; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Background Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults. Design This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample. Methods The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation. Results Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses. Conclusions The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.

  15. Sex differences in whole body skeletal muscle mass measured by magnetic resonance imaging and its distribution in young Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, T; Kearns, C; Fukunaga, T

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sex differences in the distribution of regional and total skeletal muscle (SM) using contiguous whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to examine the relations between fat free mass (FFM) and total and regional SM masses. Methods: A total of 20 Japanese college students (10 women and 10 men) volunteered for the study. FFM was measured by two compartment densitometry. Whole body MRI images were prepared using a 1.5 T scanner. Contiguous transverse images with 1.0 cm slice thickness were obtained from the first cervical vertebra to the ankle joints. All MRI scans were segmented into four components (SM, subcutaneous adipose tissue, bone, and residual tissues). In each slice, the SM tissue cross sectional areas (CSAs) were digitised, and the muscle tissue volume per slice was calculated by multiplying muscle CSA by slice thickness. SM volume units (litres) were converted into mass units (kg) by multiplying the volumes by the assumed constant density (1.041 mg/ml) for SM. Results: The SM distribution pattern (shape of curve) from the contiguous whole body slices was essentially similar for the two sexes, with two large peaks and three smaller peaks (arms excluded). However, the largest peak was observed at the upper portion of the thigh for women and at the level of the shoulder for men. Men had larger (p<0.01) total and regional SM mass than women. All regional SM masses correlated highly (r = 0.90–0.99, p<0.01) with total SM mass. A strong positive correlation was observed between FFM and total and regional SM masses in both sexes (women, r = 0.95; men, r = 0.90; all p<0.01). As FFM increased, there was a corresponding increase in SM/FFM ratio for all subjects (r = 0.86, p<0.01). Conclusions: Sex differences in total SM/FFM ratio and regional SM distributions are associated with the degree of absolute FFM accumulation in men and women. PMID:14514537

  16. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-04-01

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  17. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA for the measurement of visceral adipose tissue in adults: the influence of body mass index.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Oldroyd, B; Hind, K

    2014-12-01

    CoreScan is a new software for the GE Lunar iDXA, which provides a quantification of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The objective of this study was to determine the in vivo precision of CoreScan for the measurement of VAT mass in a heterogeneous group of adults. Forty-five adults (aged 34.6 (8.6) years), ranging widely in body mass index (BMI 26.0 (5.2)  kg/m(2); 16.7-42.4 kg/m(2)), received two consecutive total body scans with repositioning. The sample was divided into two subgroups based on BMI, normal-weight and overweight/obese, for precision analyses. Subgroup analyses revealed that precision errors (RMSSD:%CV; root mean square standard deviation:% coefficient of variation) for VAT mass were 20.9 g:17.0% in the normal-weight group and 43.7 g:5.4% in overweight/obese groups. Our findings indicate that precision for DXA-VAT mass measurements increases with BMI, but caution should be used with %CV-derived precision error in normal BMI subjects.

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  19. BODY VOLUME OF ADULT MEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ideal weight given on the USAF standard weight table was found to have a correlation coefficient of only .672 with calculated percent body fat....volume from height and weight revealed the chart to be biased for adult men. Body volume was found to correlate well with body weight ( correlation ... coefficient of .996). Body volume of men in liters, V, may be estimated from body weight in kilograms, W, by using the formula: V = -4.7573 + 1.0153 W

  20. The independent roles of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary time on chronic conditions and Body Mass Index in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, L; Dogra, S; Paterson, D H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the independent influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior on chronic disease incidence and body composition in older adults. A sample of 292 community dwelling men and women (mean 69.3±8.1 years) underwent maximal treadmill testing and completed questionnaires relating to their leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time, and health. The average V O2 of the sample was approximately 21 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with the average sedentary time being over 3 hours per day. Cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of number of chronic conditions and BMI than total physical activity and sedentary. Those with a higher cardiorespiratory fitness had fewer chronic conditions and a lower BMI. No such associations were seen for either total physical activity levels or sedentary time. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger predictor of health among older adults and further highlights the importance of promoting public health guidelines for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  1. Maximal bite force and its association with signs and symptoms of TMD, occlusion, and body mass index in a cohort of young adults.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Jari P; Kovero, Outi A; Hurmerinta, Kirsti A; Zepa, Inta; Nissinen, Maunu J; Könönen, Mauno H

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this population-based cohort was to measure maximal bite force (MBF) in the molar and incisal regions and to examine whether MBF was associated with TMD, gender, occlusion (in terms of overjet, overbite, and total number of occluding contacts), and body mass index (BMI). MBF in the molar and incisal regions was measured using a calibrated method in 384 (196 males, 188 females) and 357 (181 males, 176 females) subjects, respectively. Two attempts in each region (right molar, left molar, and incisal) were made in random order. The subjects completed a multiple-choice questionnaire including subjective symptoms of TMD and were subsequently clinically examined. Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index and BMI were calculated. The mean MBF value in the molar region was significantly higher in males (878 N, SD 194) than in females (690 N, SD 175) (p < 0.001). The incisal forces were 283 N (SD 95) and 226 N (SD 86) (p < 0.001), respectively. According to multiple linear regression, TMJ discomfort was significantly negatively associated with MBF in the molar region (p < 0.05) and overjet was significantly negatively associated with maximal incisal bite force (p < 0.05). No significant associations between MBFs and body mass were found. The results demonstrate that in a population-based cohort of young adults signs, and symptoms of TMD and studied occlusal factors, unlike body mass, associate independently with MBF.

  2. Food Shopping Venues, Neighborhood Food Environment, and Body Mass Index Among Guyanese, Black, and White Adults in an Urban Community in the US.

    PubMed

    Hosler, Akiko S; Michaels, Isaac H; Buckenmeyer, Erin M

    2016-06-01

    To investigate relationships among food shopping venues, food environment, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional survey data and directly assessed food environment data were linked at the neighborhood level. Schenectady, NY. A sample of Guyanese, black, and white adults (n = 226, 485, and 908, respectively). BMI. Linear regression models were constructed with 10 food shopping venues and neighborhood food environment as explanatory variables, controlling for sociodemographics, dietary behavior, physical activity, and perception of healthy food access. On average, respondents used 3.5 different food shopping venues. Supermarkets and ethnic markets were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Among black adults, farmers' markets were associated with a lower BMI, whereas supermarkets, wholesale clubs, and food pantries were associated with a higher BMI. Among white adults, food coops and supermarkets were associated with a lower BMI and wholesale clubs were associated with a higher BMI. Neighborhoods with less a favorable food environment (longer travel distance to a supermarket) were associated with a lower BMI in Guyanese adults. Both primary (ie, supermarkets) and secondary food shopping venues could be independent determinants of BMI. The observed variations by race and ethnicity provided insights into a culturally tailored approach to address obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gravity and body mass regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  4. Body Mass Index in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Distribution, Associations and Service Implications--A Population-Based Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Thorp, C. F.; Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of weight problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID) have generally been small or selective and given conflicting results. The objectives of our large-scale study were to identify inequalities in weight problems between adults with ID and the general adult population, and to investigate factors associated…

  5. Body Mass Index in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Distribution, Associations and Service Implications--A Population-Based Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Thorp, C. F.; Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of weight problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID) have generally been small or selective and given conflicting results. The objectives of our large-scale study were to identify inequalities in weight problems between adults with ID and the general adult population, and to investigate factors associated…

  6. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults.

    PubMed

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/-2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. Using 2007-2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non-continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI. Data were analysed in 2011. After excluding the clinically underweight and morbidly obese, consumption incidence of fast food, soft drinks or candy was not positively correlated with measures of BMI. This was true for sweet snacks (r = 0.005, p = <0.001) and salty snacks (r = 0.001, p = 0.040). No significant variation was found between BMI subcategories in weekly consumption frequency of fast food meals. For 95% of this study's sample, the association between the intake frequency of fast food, soft drinks and candy and BMI was negative. This result suggests that a strategy that focuses solely on these problem foods may be ineffective in reducing weight. Reducing the total calories of food eaten at home and the frequency of snacking may be more successful dieting advice for the majority of individuals.

  7. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES).

    PubMed

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Kondo, Katsunori; Nakaya, Tomoki; Nakade, Miyo; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-07-21

    The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders.

  8. Neighborhood food environment and body mass index among Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of studies of the local food environment in relation to obesity risk have been conducted in the US, UK, and Australia. The evidence remains limited to western societies. The aim of this paper is to examine the association of local food environment to body mass index (BMI) in a study of older Japanese individuals. Methods The analysis was based on 12,595 respondents from cross-sectional data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2006 and 2007. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we mapped respondents' access to supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food outlets, based on a street network (both the distance to the nearest stores and the number of stores within 500 m of the respondents' home). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food environment and BMI. Results In contrast to previous reports, we found that better access to supermarkets was related to higher BMI. Better access to fast food outlets or convenience stores was also associated with higher BMI, but only among those living alone. The logistic regression analysis, using categorized BMI, showed that the access to supermarkets was only related to being overweight or obese, but not related to being underweight. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the types of food environment measures previously used in western settings. Importantly, our results suggest the need to develop culture-specific approaches to characterizing neighborhood contexts when hypotheses are extrapolated across national borders. PMID:21777439

  9. Fast food, soft drink and candy intake is unrelated to body mass index for 95% of American adults

    PubMed Central

    Just, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/−2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. Methods Using 2007–2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non‐continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI. Data were analysed in 2011. Results After excluding the clinically underweight and morbidly obese, consumption incidence of fast food, soft drinks or candy was not positively correlated with measures of BMI. This was true for sweet snacks (r = 0.005, p = <0.001) and salty snacks (r = 0.001, p = 0.040). No significant variation was found between BMI subcategories in weekly consumption frequency of fast food meals. Conclusions For 95% of this study's sample, the association between the intake frequency of fast food, soft drinks and candy and BMI was negative. This result suggests that a strategy that focuses solely on these problem foods may be ineffective in reducing weight. Reducing the total calories of food eaten at home and the frequency of snacking may be more successful dieting advice for the majority of individuals. PMID:27774255

  10. Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Pereira, Suzette L; Hays, Nicholas P; Oliver, Jeffery S; Edens, Neile K; Evans, Chris M; Wolfe, Robert R

    2013-10-01

    Loss of muscle mass due to prolonged bed rest decreases functional capacity and increases hospital morbidity and mortality in older adults. To determine if HMB, a leucine metabolite, is capable of attenuating muscle decline in healthy older adults during complete bed rest. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group design study was carried out in 24 healthy (SPPB ≥ 9) older adult subjects (20 women, 4 men), confined to complete bed rest for ten days, followed by resistance training rehabilitation for eight weeks. Subjects in the experimental group were treated with HMB (calcium salt, 1.5 g twice daily - total 3 g/day). Control subjects were treated with an inactive placebo powder. Treatments were provided starting 5 days prior to bed rest till the end rehabilitation phase. DXA was used to measure body composition. Nineteen eligible older adults (BMI: 21-33; age: 60-76 year) were evaluable at the end of the bed rest period (Control n = 8; Ca-HMB n = 11). Bed rest caused a significant decrease in total lean body mass (LBM) (2.05 ± 0.66 kg; p = 0.02, paired t-test) in the Control group. With the exclusion of one subject, treatment with HMB prevented the decline in LBM over bed rest -0.17 ± 0.19 kg; p = 0.23, paired t-test). There was a statistically significant difference between treatment groups for change in LBM over bed rest (p = 0.02, ANOVA). Sub-analysis on female subjects (Control = 7, HMB = 8) also revealed a significant difference in change in LBM over bed rest between treatment groups (p = 0.04, ANOVA). However, differences in function parameters could not be observed, probably due to the sample size of the study. In healthy older adults, HMB supplementation preserves muscle mass during 10 days of bed rest. These results need to be confirmed in a larger trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. The relation between body mass index and self-rated mental health among older adults: do racial/ethnic differences exist?

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Parmelee, Patricia; DeCoster, Jamie; Bryant, Ami N; Chiriboga, David A

    2014-07-01

    To examine racial and ethnic differences in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. In-person household interviews. Older adults aged 60 and older (N = 2,017), including non-Hispanic white (N = 547), black (N = 814), Hispanic (N = 401), and Asian (N = 255) patients. SRMH was measured with a single item, "How would you rate your own mental health?" BMI categories were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), healthy weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m(2)). A two-way analysis of covariance showed that after controlling for covariates, there was a significant main effect of race/ethnicity on SRMH, but the main effect of BMI was not significant. A significant interaction between BMI and race/ethnicity on SRMH was also found. The linear contrasts showed that white adults had a significant trend showing that SRMH decreased with increases in BMI, whereas black adults had a significant trend showing that SRMH increased with increases in BMI. The linear trends for Hispanic and Asian adults were not significant. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in the relation between BMI and SRMH. Understanding the role of race/ethnicity as a moderator of the relation between BMI and mental health may help improve treatment for older adults with unhealthy weights. Clinical implications are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations Among Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Indicators in American Indian and Alaska Native Adults

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Edwards, Sandra; Ma, Khe-Ni; Etzel, Ruth A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about obesity-related health issues among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations. Approach A large cohort of AIAN people was assembled to evaluate factors associated with health. Setting The study was conducted in Alaska and on the Navajo Nation. Participants A total of 11,293 AIAN people were included. Methods We present data for body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (cm) to evaluate obesity-related health factors. Results Overall, 32.4% of the population were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), 47.1% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and 21.4% were very obese (BMI, ≥ 35 kg/m2). A waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men and greater than 88 cm for women was observed for 41.7% of men and 78.3% of women. Obese people were more likely to perceive their health as fair/poor than nonobese participants (prevalence ratio [PR]), 1.91; 95% CI, 1.71–2.14). Participants younger than 30 years were three times more likely to perceive their health as being fair or poor when their BMI results were 35 or greater compared with those whose BMI results were less than 25 kg/m2. A larger BMI was associated with having multiple medical conditions, fewer hours of vigorous activity, and more hours of television watching. Conclusions Given the high rates of obesity in AIAN populations and the association of obesity with other health conditions, it is important to reduce obesity among AIAN people. PMID:20232606

  13. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-02-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  14. Associations between food insecurity, supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP) benefits, and body mass index among adult females.

    PubMed

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth D; Burke, Sloane C; Moore, Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects low-income and minority individuals and has been linked with food insecurity, particularly among women. More research is needed to examine potential mechanisms linking obesity and food insecurity. Therefore, this study's purpose was to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits per household member, perceived stress, and body mass index (BMI) among female SNAP participants in eastern North Carolina (n=202). Women were recruited from the Pitt County Department of Social Services between October 2009 and April 2010. Household food insecurity was measured using the validated US Department of Agriculture 18-item food security survey module. Perceived stress was measured using the 14-item Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. SNAP benefits and number of children in the household were self-reported and used to calculate benefits per household member. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight (as kg/m(2)). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine associations between BMI, SNAP benefits, stress, and food insecurity while adjusting for age and physical activity. In adjusted linear regression analyses, perceived stress was positively related to food insecurity (P<0.0001), even when SNAP benefits were included in the model. BMI was positively associated with food insecurity (P=0.04). Mean BMI was significantly greater among women receiving <$150 in SNAP benefits per household member vs those receiving ≥$150 in benefits per household member (35.8 vs 33.1; P=0.04). Results suggest that provision of adequate SNAP benefits per household member might partially ameliorate the negative effects of food insecurity on BMI.

  15. Sex and ethnic differences in validity of self-reported adult height, weight and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Describe self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) stratified by sex and ethnicity in the United States, explore ethnic variations in the likelihood of under-reporting BMI, and investigate pathways linking race/ethnicity to the underassessment of BMI. An observational study. The entire United States. Data were from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian Americans. Objectively measured and subjectively reported BMI. Independent variables include race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and others), sex, age groups (age 20-29, 30-49, 50-69, and > or =70), marital status (currently married vs other marital categories), education (less than high school, high school graduate or equivalent, some college, college graduate or above), and poverty income ratio (PIR). This study confirmed that the use of reported BMI led to underestimates of the population prevalence of overweight and obesity due to the general tendency towards over-reporting height and under-reporting weight. Women were more likely than men to under-report BMI. And whites were more likely than Blacks and Hispanics to under-report BMI. Other factors positively associated with higher likelihood of under-reporting of BMI included overweight and obese weight status, aged > or =60 years, and college education. Among women, family income was an additional positive covariate. The results from this study underscore the need for frequently monitoring ethnic differences in validity of reported BMI and highlight the care which needs to be taken in making comparisons across sociodemographic groups based on reported BMI.

  16. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    PubMed Central

    Yalçın, Tuba; Al, Ayhan; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively). Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05). The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people. PMID:28217501

  17. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  18. Comparison of Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, Percent Body Fat and Other Measure of Adiposity in Identifying Cardiovascular Disease Risks among Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Linda; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the abilities of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) to identify cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional study is comprised of 1,391 Thai participants (451 men and 940 women) receiving annual health check-ups. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to determine the association of the five anthropometric indices with metabolic parameters including fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and blood pressure. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was determined according to tertile of each anthropometric measure. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to compare anthropometric measure as predictors of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Metabolic parameters were more strongly associated with %BF and WHR and least correlated with BMI in men. Among women, BMI was most strongly correlated with metabolic parameters. In both genders, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased across successive tertiles for each anthropometric measure. Review of ROC curves indicated that %BF and WHR performed slightly better than other measures in identifying differences in CVD risk factors among men. BMI performed at least as well or better than other measures of adiposity among women. Conclusions These findings confirm high correlations between anthropometric measures and metabolic parameters. BMI, WC and other measures were not materially different in identifying cardiovascular disease risk factors. Although small differences were observed, the magnitudes of those differences are not likely to be of public health or clinical significance. PMID:23599834

  19. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  20. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  1. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoff for Overweight and Central Obesity among Adults in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    An, Yom; Yi, Siyan; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gupta, Vinay; Prak, Piseth Raingsey; Oum, Sophal; LoGerfo, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786) were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229) were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years) and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years) for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001) when BMI of 23.0 kg/m2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001) when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥94.0 cm in men). Conclusion Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years. PMID:24205019

  2. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7–13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968–2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13 (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These results suggest that exposures associated with higher birth weight and, in boys, greater height during childhood may contribute to the etiology of adult glioma. PMID:25205831

  3. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  4. The associations of month of birth with body mass index, waist circumference, and leg length: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million adults.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2). A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March-July for BMI and March-June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m(2) for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February-August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena.

  5. Impact of birth weight on adult-onset diabetes mellitus in relation to current body mass index: The Japan Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Katanoda, Kota; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Goto, Atsushi; Mizunuma, Hideki; Lee, Jung Su; Hayashi, Kunihiko

    2017-09-01

    Although birth weight is considered as a fetal determinant of the development of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), its public health importance relative to adult body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between adult-onset DM and birth weight in relation to adult BMI. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire as a baseline survey of the Japanese Nurses' Health Study cohort between 2001 and 2007. Exclusion criteria were applied to the volunteer sample of 49,927 female nurses (age <30 years or unknown, current pregnancy, development of DM before the age of 30 years, unknown core variables), and data from 26,949 female nurses aged 30 years or older were used. The association between history of DM diagnosis and birth weight was analyzed using logistic regression. A linear inverse association was observed between birth weight and DM, after adjustment for age, BMI, and parental history of DM. The odds ratio for developing DM per 100 g increase in birth weight was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.96). The association was unchanged when birth weight was converted to percentile for gestational age. In the BMI-stratified analysis, the odds ratio for DM in the <2500 g birth weight group reached 4.75 (95% CI, 1.22-18.44, compared to the reference 3000-3499 g group) among women with normal low BMI (18.5-20.9). Birth weight and its percentile for gestational age were associated with adult-onset DM. Attention should be paid to the risk of DM among women born with low weight, even when their current BMI is normal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein Supplementation at Breakfast and Lunch for 24 Weeks beyond Habitual Intakes Increases Whole-Body Lean Tissue Mass in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Norton, Catherine; Toomey, Clodagh; McCormack, William G; Francis, Peter; Saunders, Jean; Kerin, Emmet; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Key areas of research on the preservation of lean tissue mass (LTM) during aging are determinations of the protein requirement and optimal protein intake at meals. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of protein supplementation at breakfast and lunch for 24 wk beyond habitual intakes on whole-body LTM in healthy adults aged 50-70 y. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 60 healthy older men and women (aged 61 ± 5 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 25.8 ± 3.6 consumed either 0.165 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) or an isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin control (CON) at breakfast and midday meals, the lower protein-containing meals of the day, for 24 wk. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the change in LTM. After the intervention, protein intake in the PRO group increased from 0.23 ± 0.1 to 0.40 ± 0.1 g/kg for breakfast and from 0.31 ± 0.2 to 0.47 ± 2 g/kg for the midday meal. In response, LTM increased by 0.45 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.83) kg in the PRO group compared with a decrease of 0.16 (95% CI: -0.49, 0.17) kg in the CON group (P = 0.006). Appendicular LTM accounted for the majority of the difference in LTM, increasing by 0.27 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.48) kg in the PRO group compared with no change in the CON group (P = 0.002). Protein supplementation at breakfast and lunch for 24 wk in healthy older adults resulted in a positive (+0.6 kg) difference in LTM compared with an isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin control. These observations suggest that an optimized and balanced distribution of meal protein intakes could be beneficial in the preservation of lean tissue mass in the elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02529124. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  8. Waist circumference, body mass index and waist-height ratio: Are two indices better than one for identifying hypertension risk in older adults?

    PubMed

    Luz, Rafaela Haeger; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if the combination of Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) or Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and BMI measures is superior to the separate indicators in identifying hypertension risk in older adults from southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave (2013/14) of a population- and household-based survey carried out with 1197 older adults (778 women). Hypertension (i.e., outcome) was identified by self-report. The independent variables were body mass index (BMI≥27kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men), waist/height ratio (WHtR≥0.5), and the combined indexes BMI+WC (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men) and BMI+WHtR (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WHtR≥0.5). The associations were explored using binary logistic regression. The results showed sex differences in all study characteristics. In women, all indicators were associated with the outcome, after adjustments (age, race/color, marital status, schooling, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diabetes). WHtR was the indicator most strongly associated with hypertension (OR=2.97; 95% CI 1.58 to 5.59). For men, only BMI and the combined indicators were associated with hypertension. Combined measures of BMI+WHtR showed a stronger association with the outcome (OR=2.68; IC95% 1.62 to 4.44). The associated indicators differed between the sexes. The combination of BMI+WC and BMI+WHtR using current cut-off points may provide an improved measure of hypertension risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Mass Index and Mortality Among Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Nationwide Study With a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mariscalco, Giovanni; Wozniak, Marcin J; Dawson, Alan G; Serraino, Giuseppe F; Porter, Richard; Nath, Mintu; Klersy, Catherine; Kumar, Tracy; Murphy, Gavin J

    2017-02-28

    In an apparent paradox, morbidity and mortality are lower in obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery, although the nature of this association is unclear. We sought to determine whether the obesity paradox observed in cardiac surgery is attributable to reverse epidemiology, bias, or confounding. Data from the National Adult Cardiac Surgery registry for all cardiac surgical procedures performed between April 2002 and March 2013 were extracted. A parallel systematic review and meta-analysis (MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library) through June 2015 were also accomplished. Exposure of interest was body mass index categorized into 6 groups according to the World Health Organization classification. A total of 401 227 adult patients in the cohort study and 557 720 patients in the systematic review were included. A U-shaped association between mortality and body mass index classes was observed in both studies, with lower mortality in overweight (adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.83) and obese class I and II (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.86; and odds ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.94) patients relative to normal-weight patients and increased mortality in underweight individuals (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-1.62). In the cohort study, a U-shaped relationship was observed for stroke and low cardiac output syndrome but not for renal replacement therapy or deep sternal wound infection. Counter to the reverse epidemiology hypotheses, the protective effects of obesity were less in patients with severe chronic renal, lung, or cardiac disease and greater in older patients and in those with complications of obesity, including the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Adjustments for important confounders did not alter our results. Obesity is associated with lower risks after cardiac surgery, with consistent effects noted in multiple analyses attempting to address residual confounding and

  10. The association between early life and adult body mass index and physical activity with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: impact of gender.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jennifer L; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Liebow, Mark; Shanafelt, Tait D; Thompson, Carrie A; Call, Timothy G; Habermann, Thomas M; Macon, William R; Wang, Alice H; Slager, Susan L; Cerhan, James R

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) during adulthood and at the age of 18 years with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We enrolled 950 newly diagnosed NHL patients and 1146 frequency-matched clinic-based controls. Height, weight, and PA (recent adult and at the age of 18 years) were self-reported. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals, and tests for trend were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and residence. BMI at the age of 18 years was associated with an increased NHL risk (OR, 1.38 for highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = .0012), which on stratified analysis was specific to females (OR, 1.90; p-trend = .00025). There was no association of adult BMI with NHL risk. Higher PA in adulthood (OR, 1.03; p-trend = .85) or at the age of 18 years (OR, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.07) was not associated with risk, but there was an inverse association for adult PA that was specific to females (OR, 0.71; p-trend = .039). Only BMI at the age of 18 years remained significantly associated with NHL risk when modeled together with PA in adulthood or at the age of 18 years. There was little evidence for heterogeneity in these results for the common NHL subtypes. Early adult BMI may be of greatest relevance to NHL risk, particularly in females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of under nutrition of Bangladeshi adults using anthropometry: can body mass index be replaced by mid-upper-arm-circumference?

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tania; Karim, Md Nazmul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Body-mass-index (BMI) is widely accepted as an indicator of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric-measure used primarily among children. The present study attempted to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition, and thus to suggest a suitable cut-off value. A cross-sectional study in 650 adult attendants of the patients of Dhaka-Hospital, of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) was conducted during 2012. Height, weight and MUAC of 260 male and 390 female aged 19-60 years were measured. Curve estimation was done to assess the linearity and correlation of BMI and MUAC. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC against BMI<18.5 was determined. Separate Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for male and female. Area under ROC curve and Youden's index were generated to aid selection of the most suitable cut-off value of MUAC for undernutrition. A value with highest Youden's index was chosen for cut-off. Our data shows strong significant positive correlation (linear) between MUAC and BMI, for males r = 0.81, (p<0.001) and for females r = 0.828, (p<0.001). MUAC cut-off <25.1 cm in males (AUC 0.930) and <23.9 cm in females (AUC 0.930) were chosen separately based on highest corresponding Youden's index. These values best correspond with BMI cut-off for under nutrition (BMI <18.5) in either gender. MUAC correlates closely with BMI. For the simplicity and easy to remember MUAC <25 cm for male and <24 cm for female may be considered as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition.

  12. Meta-analysis of the association between body mass index and health-related quality of life among adults, assessed by the SF-36.

    PubMed

    Ul-Haq, Zia; Mackay, Daniel F; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Pell, Jill P

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired overall health-related quality of life but individual studies suggest the relationship may differ for mental and physical quality of life. A systematic review using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Knowledge, and random effects meta-analysis was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they were conducted on adults (defined as age >16 years), reported an overall physical and mental component score of the SF-36, and, or both. Heterogeneity was assessed using I(2) statistics and publication and small study biases using funnel plots and Egger's test. Between-study heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression. Eight eligible studies provided 42 estimates of effect size, based on 43,086 study participants. Adults with higher than normal body mass index had significantly reduced physical quality of life with a clear dose-response relationship across all categories. Among class III obese adults, the score was reduced by 9.72 points (95% Confidence Interval 7.24, 12.20, P < 0.001). Mental quality of life was also significantly reduced among class III obese (-1.75, 95% confidence interval -3.33, -0.16, P = 0.031), but was not significantly different among obese (class I and class II) individuals, and was significantly increased among overweight adults (0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.17, 0.67, P = 0.001), compared to normal weight individuals. Heterogeneity was high in some categories, but there was no significant publication or small study bias. Different patterns were observed for physical and mental HRQoL, but both were impaired in obese individuals. This meta-analysis provides further evidence on the impact of obesity on both aspects of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Dietary patterns throughout adult life are associated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and red cell folate.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Stephen, Alison M; Wadsworth, Mike E J

    2007-01-01

    Dietary patterns are important in the prevention of chronic disease; however, there are few studies that include repeat measures of dietary patterns. The objective of this study was to assess the relations between dietary patterns during adult life (at ages 36, 43, and 53 y) and risk factors for chronic disease at age 53 y. Participants of a longitudinal study of health completed a 5-d food diary at 3 occasions during adult life (n = 1265). Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and a pattern score was calculated from the consumption of the food items in each dietary pattern. Means and 95% CI for dietary pattern scores were calculated for each risk factor category using random effects models adjusted for socio-demographic and health-related behaviors. In women, the fruit, vegetables, and dairy pattern was inversely associated with BMI (P < 0.004), waist circumference (P = 0.0007), blood pressure (P = 0.02), and was positively associated with red cell folate (P < 0.03). The ethnic foods and alcohol pattern was also inversely associated with blood pressure (P = 0.008), whereas the meat, potatoes and sweet foods pattern was positively associated with glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.01). In men, a mixed pattern was inversely associated with waist circumference (P = 0.02) and blood pressure (P = 0.01), whereas there were no significant associations with the ethnic foods and alcohol pattern. Specific dietary patterns throughout adult life were associated with chronic disease risk factors.

  14. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  15. Utility of the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index in the screening of metabolic syndrome in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of macrovascular complications and morbidities associated to metabolic syndrome are increasing in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The combination of T1DM with features of insulin resistance similar to that of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), sometimes called “double diabetes”, has been associated with central obesity. Since the most methods to accurately detect body fat and insulin resistance are not readily available, we propose that certain indirect indexes for detecting obesity as waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body mass index, may be useful when screening for metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM. Methods We performed a transversal evaluation (clinical and biochemical) in all the patients of the T1DM Clinic (n = 120). We determined the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Statement Criteria by the American Heart Association/ National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation and the utility of certain anthropometric indexes for predicting double diabetes was evaluated. Results Thirty seven percent of the patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome using these criteria (n = 30). These patients were significantly older (p = 0.002), have a higher glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.036), cholesterol (p < 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (p < 0.01) as well as body mass index (p = 0.004), waist circumference (p = 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.01) than the group without metabolic syndrome. Also their c-HDL is lower (p < 0.01). A value of 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio correctly classified the largest number of patients (68% of correctly classified) well as the waist circumference (66% of correctly classified) with an adequate specificity and sensibility. Meanwhile the most precise body mass index value only classified correctly to 61% of patients. Conclusion Our data show that waist circumference and waist

  16. Cash component of conditional cash transfer program is associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in adults.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gertler, Paul J; Hou, Xiaohui

    2008-11-01

    The cash component of Oportunidades, a large conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Mexico, has previously been shown to be associated with better outcomes for child growth and development. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the cash transfers were also associated with positive outcomes for adult health. Oportunidades was originally randomized across 506 rural (<2500 inhabitants) communities assigned to immediate incorporation into the program in 1997 or incorporation 18 mo later. Adults (n = 1649 early, n = 2039 late intervention) aged 18-65 y were then assessed in 2003. All of the households included in the analysis reported here complied with Oportunidades's requirements for the entire period, but some received higher cumulative cash transfers because they were living in communities randomized to begin receiving transfers earlier and/or they accumulated cash at a faster rate because they had more school-aged children at baseline. Our primary findings were that a doubling of cumulative cash transfers to the household was associated with higher BMI (beta = +0.83, 95% CI 0.46, 1.20; P < 0.0001), higher diastolic blood pressure (beta = +1.19, 95% CI 0.09, 2.29; P = 0.03), and higher prevalence of overweight [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.67; P < 0.0001), grade I obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.14, 1.75; P = 0.002), and grade II obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.05, 2.36; P = 0.03), while controlling for a wide range of covariates, including household composition at baseline. Oportunidades has been portrayed as a model for CCT programs worldwide, but the results reported here support the notion that the cash component of Oportunidades may be negatively associated with some adult health outcomes.

  17. Cash Component of Conditional Cash Transfer Program Is Associated with Higher Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure in Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Gertler, Paul J.; Hou, Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    The cash component of Oportunidades, a large conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Mexico, has previously been shown to be associated with better outcomes for child growth and development. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the cash transfers were also associated with positive outcomes for adult health. Oportunidades was originally randomized across 506 rural (<2500 inhabitants) communities assigned to immediate incorporation into the program in 1997 or incorporation 18 mo later. Adults (n = 1649 early, n = 2039 late intervention) aged 18–65 y were then assessed in 2003. All of the households included in the analysis reported here complied with Oportunidades's requirements for the entire period, but some received higher cumulative cash transfers because they were living in communities randomized to begin receiving transfers earlier and/or they accumulated cash at a faster rate because they had more school-aged children at baseline. Our primary findings were that a doubling of cumulative cash transfers to the household was associated with higher BMI (β = +0.83, 95% CI 0.46, 1.20; P < 0.0001), higher diastolic blood pressure (β = +1.19, 95% CI 0.09, 2.29; P = 0.03), and higher prevalence of overweight [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18, 1.67; P < 0.0001), grade I obesity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.14, 1.75; P = 0.002), and grade II obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.05, 2.36; P = 0.03), while controlling for a wide range of covariates, including household composition at baseline. Oportunidades has been portrayed as a model for CCT programs worldwide, but the results reported here support the notion that the cash component of Oportunidades may be negatively associated with some adult health outcomes. PMID:18936227

  18. Food neophobia in young adults: genetic architecture and relation to personality, pleasantness and use frequency of foods, and body mass index--a twin study.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, Antti; Silventoinen, Karri; Broms, Ulla; Rose, Richard J; Perola, Markus; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tuorila, Hely M

    2011-07-01

    Food neophobia has been studied extensively in children, but its causal origins and relationship to eating behavior in adults are not well understood. We studied genetic and environmental effects on variation in food neophobia, measured using the Food Neophobia Scale, and explored associations between food neophobia and personality, pleasantness and use frequency of food groups, and body mass index in young adult twins (N = 1175, aged 20-25 years, 54.7% women). In women, additive genetic effects (heritability) accounted for 61% of variation in food neophobia, whereas in men, shared environmental effects explained 45% of the variation. Food neophobia negatively correlated with the personality trait Openness, corrected for the structural overlap (r = -0.23), and in women, these two traits had a genetic correlation (r (g) = -0.39). In addition, food neophobia negatively correlated with pleasantness and use frequency of fruits and vegetables and of fish and with mean pleasantness of foods. Once evolutionarily important, food neophobia should at present be considered in nutrition counseling as a possible barrier to a balanced diet.

  19. Change in Body Mass Index and Its Impact on Incidence of Hypertension in 18-65-Year-Old Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing

    2016-02-25

    This study assessed change in body mass index (BMI) and its impact on the incidence of hypertension in 18- to 65-year-old Chinese adults. Two waves of data were collected in 2006 and 2011 by the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with samples drawn from nine provinces in China. The logistic regression model was used to examine the association between change in BMI and the incidence of hypertension, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confident interval (95% CI) were calculated. The risk of incident hypertension increased as the quartile of the BMI difference value (D-value) increased in men (OR and 95% CI for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile: 2.303, 1.560-3.401, respectively, p for trend < 0.001) and women (OR and 95% CI for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile: 1.745, 1.199-2.540, respectively, p for trend = 0.004). Compared with non-overweight subjects in 2011, the ORs of incident hypertension were all significantly higher for overweight subjects, regardless of their overweight status at baseline (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results from this study provide unequivocal evidence that prevention of weight gain is likely to have a great impact on the incidence of hypertension in Chinese adults.

  20. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  1. Body dissatisfaction in older adults with a disabling health condition.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Holland, Jason M

    2017-02-01

    Existing findings on body dissatisfaction in older adults are sparse. In addition, research suggests that chronic illness may elevate risk for body dissatisfaction. Accordingly, this study examined predictors of body dissatisfaction in 274 older adults with a disabling health condition. Most participants reported dissatisfaction with their weight, shape, and/or appearance. Higher body mass index and negative impact of health on appearance predicted body dissatisfaction. Gender comparisons revealed that depressed mood may fuel body dissatisfaction in women. Somatic symptoms predicted body dissatisfaction in men, despite men reporting lower somatic symptoms. Overall, results indicate substantial incidence of and unique risk factors for body dissatisfaction in this population.

  2. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  3. Oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality and lower body mass index in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Chu, YiFang; O'Shea, Marianne; Slavin, Joanne L; DiRienzo, Maureen A

    2015-12-01

    Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period. Multiple regression analysis, after transforming variables to normality and using appropriate sample weights to ensure national representation, was used to assess differences between oatmeal consumers and nonconsumers in terms of demographics, and covariate-adjusted analysis of variance was used to assess differences between consumers and nonconsumers in nutrient intakes, diet quality (calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010), and physiological measures. Our results show that oatmeal consumers were older than nonconsumers and more likely to be female; they also were less likely to smoke and consumed less alcohol. Consumers had higher intakes of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, selenium, and potassium and lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and saturated fats; cholesterol; and vitamin B12. Oatmeal consumers had higher Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and lower body weights, waist circumferences, and body mass indices. To conclude, our results suggest that consuming oatmeal is consistent with better nutrient intakes and a higher diet quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole grain consumption and body mass index in adult women: an analysis of NHANES 1999-2000 and the USDA pyramid servings database.

    PubMed

    Good, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton; Albertson, Ann M; Eldridge, Alison L

    2008-02-01

    To examine the relationship between whole grain consumption and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of American adult women. Dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 were linked to the USDA Pyramid Servings Database. Women 19 years of age and older (n = 2,092) were classified into groups based on their average whole grain (WG) intake: 0 servings, more than 0 but less than 1 serving, and > or =1 servings per day. Within these classifications, mean BMI, mean waist circumference and percent overweight/obese (BMI > or = 25) were identified as primary dependent variables. Regression and logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between BMI, waist circumference and percent of the population overweight/obese (BMI > or =25) and WG consumption. Women consuming at least one serving of WG had a significantly lower mean BMI and waist circumference than women with no WG consumption (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant inverse relationship between BMI and whole grain intake after adjustment for age, energy intake, dietary fiber and alcohol intake (p = 0.004). This effect was mildly attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for level of physical activity, smoking status, ethnicity and education (p = 0.018). The odds ratio for having a BMI > or = 25 was 1.47 (95% CI 1.12-1.94; p for trend 0.013) for women consuming no WG compared to those consuming at least one serving, after adjustment for all covariates. These data support other research suggesting increased WG intake may contribute to a healthy body weight in adult women.

  5. Analysis of the Human Adult Urinary Metabolome Variations with Age, Body Mass Index, and Gender by Implementing a Comprehensive Workflow for Univariate and OPLS Statistical Analyses.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, Etienne A; Roux, Aurélie; Xu, Ying; Ezan, Eric; Junot, Christophe

    2015-08-07

    Urine metabolomics is widely used for biomarker research in the fields of medicine and toxicology. As a consequence, characterization of the variations of the urine metabolome under basal conditions becomes critical in order to avoid confounding effects in cohort studies. Such physiological information is however very scarce in the literature and in metabolomics databases so far. Here we studied the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), and gender on metabolite concentrations in a large cohort of 183 adults by using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). We implemented a comprehensive statistical workflow for univariate hypothesis testing and modeling by orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS), which we made available to the metabolomics community within the online Workflow4Metabolomics.org resource. We found 108 urine metabolites displaying concentration variations with either age, BMI, or gender, by integrating the results from univariate p-values and multivariate variable importance in projection (VIP). Several metabolite clusters were further evidenced by correlation analysis, and they allowed stratification of the cohort. In conclusion, our study highlights the impact of gender and age on the urinary metabolome, and thus it indicates that these factors should be taken into account for the design of metabolomics studies.

  6. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults (18-25 years) with severe obesity compared with population controls of different body mass index levels: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dreber, H; Reynisdottir, S; Angelin, B; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F; Hemmingsson, E

    2017-02-01

    Young adults (18-25) with severe obesity constitute a challenging patient group, and there is limited evidence about their mental health status compared to population controls. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults with severe obesity (n = 121, mean body mass index [BMI] = 39.8 kg m(-2) ) was compared with matched (1:3 for age, gender and socioeconomic status) population controls of normal weight (n = 363, mean BMI = 22.4 kg m(-2) ), as well as unmatched population controls with class I obesity (n = 105, mean BMI = 32.1 kg m(-2) ) or severe obesity (n = 41, mean BMI = 39.7 kg m(-2) ). Mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and we quantified physician-diagnosed depression, present anxiety and suicide attempts. Poisson regression and linear regression analysis were used for analysing differences in mental distress between groups. Treatment seekers experienced more mental distress than normal weight controls as measured by continuous (adjusted mean: 3.9 vs. 2.2 points, P <0.001) and categorical (cut-off for mental distress ≥3 points, RR: 1.76, P <0.001) GHQ-12 scores, depression (RR: 2.18, P < 0.001), anxiety (RR: 1.97, P < 0.001) and suicide attempts (RR: 2.04; P = 0.034). Treatment seekers also experienced more mental distress as measured by continuous GHQ-12 than controls with class I obesity (adjusted mean: 2.3 points) or severe obesity (adjusted mean: 2.1; both, P < 0.001). Young adult treatment seekers with severe obesity constitute a risk group for mental distress compared to population controls of different BMI levels. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke M; Delhanty, Patric J D; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2012-01-01

    Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI), is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21) and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6). BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors). Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS). BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001). Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT) (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001). Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001). Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  8. International study of perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes and Body Mass Index: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien; Salvo, Deborah; Davey, Rachel; Reis, Rodrigo S; Schofield, Grant; Sarmiento, Olga L; Mitas, Josef; Christiansen, Lars Breum; MacFarlane, Duncan; Sugiyama, Takemi; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Conway, Terry L; Sallis, James F; Cerin, Ester

    2015-05-16

    Ecological models of health behaviour are an important conceptual framework to address the multiple correlates of obesity. Several single-country studies previously examined the relationship between the built environment and obesity in adults, but results are very diverse. An important reason for these mixed results is the limited variability in built environments in these single-country studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighbourhood built environmental attributes and BMI/weight status in a multi-country study including 12 environmentally and culturally diverse countries. A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted in 17 cities (study sites) across 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, the UK and USA). Participants (n = 14222, 18-66 years) self-reported perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes. Height and weight were self-reported in eight countries, and measured in person in four countries. Three environmental attributes were associated with BMI or weight status in pooled data from 12 countries. Safety from traffic was the most robust correlate, suggesting that creating safe routes for walking/cycling by reducing the speed and volume of traffic might have a positive impact upon weight status/BMI across various geographical locations. Close proximity to several local destinations was associated with BMI across all countries, suggesting compact neighbourhoods with more places to walk related to lower BMI. Safety from crime showed a curvilinear relationship with BMI, with especially poor crime safety being related to higher BMI. Environmental interventions involving these three attributes appear to have international relevance and focusing on these might have implications for tackling overweight/obesity.

  9. Body Mass Measurement Chair - Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Skylab's Body Mass Measurement chair, the facility of the Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172), is shown here in this 1970 photograph. The M172 experiment determined the body mass of each crew member and observed changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight in significantly aided in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  10. Body Mass Measurement Chair - Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Skylab's Body Mass Measurement chair, the facility of the Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172), is shown here in this 1970 photograph. The M172 experiment determined the body mass of each crew member and observed changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight in significantly aided in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  11. Longitudinal associations between body mass index, physical activity, and healthy dietary behaviors in adults: A parallel latent growth curve modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngdeok; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Jungyoon; Dhurandhar, Emily; Soliman, Ghada; Wehbi, Nizar K.; Canedy, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and healthy dietary behaviors (HDB) are two well-documented lifestyle factors influencing body mass index (BMI). This study examined 7-year longitudinal associations between changes in PA, HDB, and BMI among adults using a parallel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM). Methods We used prospective cohort data collected by a private company (SimplyWell LLC, Omaha, NE, USA) implementing a workplace health screening program. Data from a total of 2,579 adults who provided valid BMI, PA, and HDB information for at least 5 out of 7 follow-up years from the time they entered the program were analyzed. PA and HDB were subjectively measured during an annual online health survey. Height and weight measured during an annual onsite health screening were used to calculate BMI (kg·m2). The parallel LGCMs stratified by gender and baseline weight status (normal: BMI<25, overweight BMI 25–29.9, and obese: BMI>30) were fitted to examine the longitudinal associations of changes in PA and HDB with change in BMI over years. Results On average, BMI gradually increased over years, at rates ranging from 0.06 to 0.20 kg·m2·year, with larger increases observed among those of normal baseline weight status across genders. The increases in PA and HDB were independently associated with a smaller increase in BMI for obese males (b = -1.70 and -1.98, respectively), and overweight females (b = -1.85 and -2.46, respectively) and obese females (b = -2.78 and -3.08, respectively). However, no significant associations of baseline PA and HDB with changes in BMI were observed. Conclusions Our study suggests that gradual increases in PA and HDB are independently associated with smaller increases in BMI in overweight and obese adults, but not in normal weight individuals. Further study is warranted to address factors that check increases in BMI in normal weight adults. PMID:28296945

  12. Association of breakfast consumption with body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a nationally-representative survey of Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-03-31

    This study examined the association of breakfast consumption, and the type of breakfast consumed, with body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and prevalence rates and odds ratios (OR) of overweight/obesity among Canadian adults. These associations were examined by age group and sex. We used data from non-pregnant, non-lactating participants aged ≥ 18 years (n = 12,377) in the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2, a population-based, nationally-representative, cross-sectional study. Height and weight were measured, and BMI was calculated. Breakfast consumption was self-reported during a standardized 24-h recall; individuals were classified as breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts that included ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) or as other breakfast consumers. Mean BMI and prevalence and OR of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) were compared among breakfast groups, with adjustment for sociodemographic variables (including age, sex, race, marital status, food security, language spoken at home, physical activity category, smoking, education level and supplement use). For the entire sample, mean BMI was significantly lower among RTEC-breakfast consumers than other breakfast consumers (mean ± SE 26.5 ± 0.2 vs. 27.1 ± 0.1 kg/m(2)), but neither group differed significantly from breakfast non-consumers (27.1 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)). Similar results were seen in women only, but BMI of men did not differ by breakfast category. Overweight/obesity prevalence and OR did not differ among breakfast groups for the entire sample or for all men and women separately. When examined by sex and age group, differences were inconsistent, but tended to be more apparent in women than men. Among Canadian adults, breakfast consumption was not consistently associated with differences in BMI or overweight/obesity prevalence.

  13. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram Nv; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, M L; Reddy, Yogesh Nv

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft-Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2), 25-29.99 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2) were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.

  14. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram NV; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, ML; Reddy, Yogesh NV

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. PMID:27729810

  15. Association between Body Mass Index and Health-Related Quality of Life: The "Obesity Paradox" in 21,218 Adults of the Chinese General Population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbo; Wang, Qi; Pang, Guoming; Lin, Lin; Origasa, Hideki; Wang, Yangyang; Di, Jie; Shi, Mai; Fan, Chunpok; Shi, Huimei

    2015-01-01

    There was no consistent recognition of the association between high or low body mass index (BMI) and health related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this research was to study the association between BMI and HRQL in Chinese adults, and to further explore the stability of that association in the subgroup analysis stratified by status of chronic conditions. A total of 21,218 adults aged 18 and older were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, class I obese, and class II obese based on their BMI. HRQL was measured by the SF-36 Health Survey. The independent impact of each BMI category on HRQL was examined through standard least squares regression by comparing the difference of SF-36 scores and the minimum clinically important differences (MCID), which was defined as 3 points. Compared to the normal weight, the class I obese was significantly associated with better HRQL scores in the mental component summary (MCS) (75.1 vs. 73.4, P<0.001). The underweight had the lowest score in both the physical components summary (PCS) (75.4 vs. 77.5, P<0.001) and mental components summary (MCS) (71.8 vs. 73.4, P<0.001). For the MCID, the HRQL score was reduced by more than 3 points in the physical functioning for the class II obese (D=-3.43) and the general health for the underweight (D=-3.71). Stratified analyses showed a similar result in the health subjects and chronic conditions, and it was significant in the chronic conditions. The class I obese showed the best HRQL, especially in the mental domain. The worst HRQL was found in the underweight. The class II obese reduced HRQL in the physical functioning only. "Obesity paradox" was more obvious in the participants with chronic conditions.

  16. Childhood body composition in relation to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Maynard, L M; Wisemandle, W; Roche, A F; Chumlea, W C; Guo, S S; Siervogel, R M

    2001-02-01

    The aim is to describe body composition in relation to body mass index (BMI; body weight/stature(2)) to provide health care professionals insight into the meaning, significance, and limitations of BMI as an index of adiposity during childhood. Data from 387 healthy, white children 8 to 18 years of age from the Fels Longitudinal Study were analyzed. Measurements were scheduled annually and each child was examined 1 to 11 times, totaling 1748 observations. Total body fat (TBF) and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined from hydrodensitometry. Stature and weight were measured using standard methods and BMI and the components of BMI, TBF/stature(2), and FFM/stature(2) were calculated. Analyses included correlations between BMI and body composition variables; age-related patterns of BMI, TBF/stature(2), and FFM/stature(2); and annual changes in BMI, TBF/stature(2), and FFM/stature(2). Generally, correlations between BMI and body composition variables were strong and significantly different from zero. Means for BMI throughout childhood were similar for boys and girls, although significantly larger values were observed for girls at ages 12 to 13 years. Age-related patterns of TBF/stature(2) and FFM/stature(2) differed between sexes. In each sex, annual increases in BMI were driven primarily by increases in FFM/stature(2) until late adolescence, with increases in TBF/stature(2) contributing to a larger proportion of the BMI increases in girls than in boys. Unlike adults, annual increases in BMI during childhood are generally attributed to the lean rather than to the fat component of BMI. Because the properties of BMI vary during childhood, health care professionals must consider factors such as age and sex when interpreting BMI.

  17. Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Hankinson, Arlene L; Liu, Kiang; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Loria, Catherine M; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation.

  18. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) change in a follow-up study of 325 women (aged 15-49 years) in Delhi, systematically selected from the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey samples who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information was collected on height, weight, dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyle through face-to-face interviews. Overall, a 2.0-point increase in mean BMI was found among women in just 4 years. Every second normal-BMI woman, two in five overweight women, and every fourth obese woman experienced a > 2.0-point increase in her mean BMI. High sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.29-5.35) emerged as the main predictor of a > 2.0-point increase in mean BMI in adjusted analysis, but there was weak evidence of association with the dietary covariates. Our findings suggest that a high sedentary lifestyle is a determinant of weight gain among adult women in urban India.

  19. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Body Mass Index Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Stinson, Frederick S.; June Ruan, W.; Patricia Chou, S.; Pickering, Roger P.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of antisocial behavioral syndromes, including DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a codable DSM-IV disorder), with body mass index (BMI) status in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome, and on current BMI status based on self-reported height and weight. Associations of antisocial syndromes with BMI status were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Among men, antisociality was not associated with BMI. Among women, ASPD was significantly associated with overweight and extreme obesity; AABS was associated with obesity and extreme obesity; and “CD only” was significantly associated with overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity. Conclusions Assessment of antisocial features appears warranted in overweight, obese, and extremely obese women, and assessment of BMI status appears indicated in antisocial women. Prevention and treatment guidelines for overweight and obesity may need revision to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to include attention to weight concerns. PMID:18396181

  20. Depression and body mass index, differences by education: Evidence from a population-based study of adult women in the U.S. Buffalo-Niagara region.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell; Nie, Jing; Trevisan, Maurizio; Freudenheim, Jo L

    The relationship between obesity and depression is well described. However, the evidence linking depression and body mass index (BMI) across the broad range of body size is less consistent. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and BMI in a sample of adult women in the Buffalo-Niagara region between 1997 and 2001. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether increased weight status beyond normal-weight was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, and if educational attainment modified the association between obesity and depression. There was a trend for increased weight status to be associated with higher depressive symptoms (obese II/III, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.41), whereas higher education was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, in an adjusted model including BMI (more than 12 but less than 16 years, OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.98; 16 or more years of education, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.93). The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more educated (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.27-3.62) compared to less educated women (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62); the sample was larger for the more educated women and reached statistical significance. There were no differences in the association for obese II/III women in strata of education. There was evidence of risk-difference heterogeneity (0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.93). In this population-based sample of women in western New York state, increased weight was negligibly associated with depressive symptoms. The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more compared to less educated women. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  2. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20’s

    PubMed Central

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index. PMID:28878460

  3. Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk. PMID:23520466

  4. The association of smoking and demographic characteristics on body mass index and obesity among adults in the U.S., 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Plurphanswat, Nantaporn; Rodu, Brad

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) are an exceptional data source for studies of smoking and body weight because they are the only federal survey series collecting relevant information through detailed interviews and medical examinations. The associations of smoking status and demographic factors with body weight have not been evaluated fully in recent NHANES. Using NHANES datasets from 1999 to 2012, this study uses ordinary-least squares and ordered probit models to investigate the association of smoking and selected demographic variables with body mass index (BMI) and the probability of being in BMI categories among adults aged 25-64 years, and it uses quantile regression to examine whether these factors affect individuals differently depending on where they are located across the BMI distribution. The sample consisted of 11,123 men and 10,949 women. Current smokers had significantly lower BMI than never smokers (1.97 unit for men and 1.46 unit for women), and there was modest variation across the BMI distribution. Among former smokers, only women had a slightly higher BMI compared to never smokers (0.46 unit). Both men and women current smokers were more likely to be underweight and normal weight compared to never smokers and were less likely to be obese. Among men a one-year age increase elevated BMI by 0.2 unit throughout the BMI distribution, while for women an extra year of age increased BMI at the upper tail of the distribution more than at the lower tail. Education beyond high school was associated with a significant decrease in BMI among women, but much less so among men. Married men had higher BMI, but married women had significantly lower BMI, and this difference became larger at the upper tail. Compared to never smokers, men and women current smokers had lower BMI and lower probability of obesity, while only women former smokers had elevated BMIs and increased probability of obesity. In addition, we found that age, education

  5. Body Mass Measurement - Skylab Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart provides details on Skylab's Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172). The M172 experiment was a medical study to determine the body mass of each crew member and observe changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight aided significantly in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  6. Body Mass Measurement - Skylab Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart provides details on Skylab's Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172). The M172 experiment was a medical study to determine the body mass of each crew member and observe changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight aided significantly in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  7. Ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin do not predict long-term changes in weight and body mass index in older adults: longitudinal analysis of the Rancho Bernardo cohort.

    PubMed

    Langenberg, Claudia; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Laughlin, Gail A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2005-12-15

    Ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin are associated with body size in cross-sectional studies; it is unknown whether these hormones predict long-term changes in body size. Multilevel models were used to study associations between fasting serum hormones, measured in 698 men and 619 women (60-91 years) in samples collected at baseline (1984-1987), and changes in weight and body mass index, assessed repeatedly over a follow-up period of up to 18 years (median, 4.7 years). Baseline weight was -1.5 kg lower for a one-standard-deviation increment in ghrelin and -3.3 kg lower for a one-standard-deviation increment in adiponectin, similar in men and women. For leptin, baseline weight was 12.1 kg higher for a one-standard-deviation increment in men, compared with 5.7 kg in women (sex-interaction p < or = 0.0001). Ghrelin and adiponectin did not affect weight change; their associations with weight were constant over time, indicated by nonsignificant hormone-by-time interactions. The positive association between leptin and weight became slightly weaker over time. Results were similar when investigating repeated measures of body mass index. From this analysis of Rancho Bernardo Study data, the authors conclude that ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin do not predict weight gain beyond reflecting the influence of attained body size on future changes in weight or body mass index.

  8. Instrumental-Variables Simultaneous Equations Model of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Guilkey, David K; Tien, Hsiao-Chuen; Kiefe, Catarina I; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-15

    We used full-system-estimation instrumental-variables simultaneous equations modeling (IV-SEM) to examine physical activity relative to body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) using 25 years of data (1985/1986 to 2010/2011) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (n = 5,115; ages 18-30 years at enrollment). Neighborhood environment and sociodemographic instruments were used to characterize physical activity, fast-food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, and childbearing (women) and to predict BMI using semiparametric full-information maximum likelihood estimation to control for unobserved time-invariant and time-varying residual confounding and differential measurement error through model-derived discrete random effects. Comparing robust-variance ordinary least squares, random-effects regression, fixed-effects regression, single-equation-estimation IV-SEM, and full-system-estimation IV-SEM, estimates from random- and fixed-effects models and the full-system-estimation IV-SEM were unexpectedly similar, despite the lack of control for residual confounding with the random-effects estimator. Ordinary least squares tended to overstate the significance of health behaviors in BMI, while results from single-equation-estimation IV-SEM were notably different, revealing the impact of weak instruments in standard instrumental-variable methods. Our robust findings for fixed effects (which does not require instruments but has a high cost in lost degrees of freedom) and full-system-estimation IV-SEM (vs. standard IV-SEM) demonstrate potential for a full-system-estimation IV-SEM method even with weak instruments.

  9. Modifiable health-related factors (smoking, physical activity and body mass index) and health care use and costs among adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sapna; Avila, Jaqueline C; Jupiter, Daniel; Rodriguez, Ana M; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2017-08-22

    To examine the associations between modifiable health-related factors, such as smoking, low physical activity and higher body mass index (BMI), and annual health care visits and expenditures among adult cancer survivors in the United States. Using data from the 2010-2014 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, we identified 4920 cancer survivors (aged 18-64 years) and a matched comparison group. Our outcomes were number of annual health care visits [i.e., outpatient/office-based, hospital discharges and emergency department (ED) visits] and total health care expenditures. We examined health-related factors, demographics, insurance and health status (i.e., comorbidity and mental distress). Bivariate and multivariable analyses examined the associations between outcomes and health-related factors. Of survivors, approximately 21% were current smokers, 52% reported low physical activity and 35% were obese, vs. 19.6, 49.5 and 36.7%, respectively, of the comparison group. These factors were associated with greater comorbidity and mental distress in both groups. Current smokers among survivors were less likely to have outpatient visits [marginal effect on the number of visits (ME) = -3.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.02 to -1.86, P < 0.001] but more likely to have ED visits (ME = 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.18, P = 0.001) than non-smokers. Physically active individuals in both groups had fewer ED visits, and lower total expenditures than those who reported low physical activity. Regular assessments of health-related factors should be incorporated in survivorship care to reduce the burden of cancer. Modification of survivors' health-related factors (e.g., low physical activity) may help improve their health outcomes and reduce financial burden.

  10. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m² (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m² (overweight), and >25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  11. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. Results When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Conclusion Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI. PMID:28029026

  12. Solid renal masses in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Sureka, Binit

    2016-01-01

    With the ever increasing trend of using cross-section imaging in today's era, incidental detection of small solid renal masses has dramatically multiplied. Coincidentally, the number of asymptomatic benign lesions being detected has also increased. The role of radiologists is not only to identify these lesions, but also go a one step further and accurately characterize various renal masses. Earlier detection of small renal cell carcinomas means identifying at the initial stage which has an impact on prognosis, patient management and healthcare costs. In this review article we share our experience with the typical and atypical solid renal masses encountered in adults in routine daily practice. PMID:28104933

  13. Sex differences independent of other psycho-sociodemographic factors as a predictor of body mass index in black South African adults.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Annamarie; Wissing, Maria P; Towers, Gordon W; Doak, Colleen M

    2012-03-01

    To better understand the sex differences in body mass index (BMI) observed in black South African adults in the Transition and Health during Urbanization of South Africans Study, the present study investigated whether these differences can be explained by the psycho-sociodemographic factors and/or health-related behaviours. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 1,842 black South African individuals from 37 study sites that represented five levels of urbanization. The behavioural factors that possibly could have an influence on the outcome of body-weight and that were explored included: diet, smoking, level of education, HIV infection, employment status, level of urbanization, intake of alcohol, physical activity, and neuroticism. The biological factors explored were age and sex. The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight among men and women was separately determined. The means of the variables were compared by performing Student's t-test for normally-distributed variables and Mann-Whitney U-test for non-normally-distributed variables. The means for the underweight and overweight groups were tested for significant differences upon comparison with normal-weight individuals stratified separately for sex. The differences in prevalence were tested using chi-square tests (p<0.05). All the variables with a large number of missing values were tested for potential bias. The association between sex and underweight or overweight was tested using the Mantel-Haenszel method of odds ratio (OR) and calculation of 95% confidence interval (CI), with statistical significance set at p<0.05 level. Logistic regression was used for controlling for confounders and for testing for effect modification. Females were more likely to be overweight/obese (crude OR=5.1; CI 3.8-6.8). The association was attenuated but remained strong and significant even after controlling for the psycho-sociodemographic confounders. In this survey, the risk for overweight/obesity was

  14. Waist circumference values equivalent to body mass index points for predicting absolute cardiovascular disease risks among adults in an Aboriginal community: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-13

    There have been suggestions that currently recommended waist circumference (WC) cut-off points for Australians of European origin may not be applicable to Aboriginal people who have different body habitus profiles. We aimed to generate equivalent WC values that correspond to body mass index (BMI) points for identifying absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Prospective cohort study. An Aboriginal community in Australia's Northern Territory. From 1992 to 1998, 920 adults without CVD, with age, WC and BMI measurements were followed-up for up to 20 years. Incident CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) events during the follow-up period ascertained from hospitalisation data. We generated WC values with 10-year absolute risks equivalent for the development of CVD as BMI values (20-34 kg/m(2)) using the Weibull accelerated time-failure model. There were 211 incident cases of CVD over 13,669 person-years of follow-up. At the average age of 35 years, WC values with absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks equivalent to BMI of 25 kg/m(2) were 91.5, 91.8 and 91.7 cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding WC values were 92.5, 92.7 and 93 cm for females. WC values with equal absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks to BMI of 30 kg/m(2) were 101.7, 103.1 and 102.6 cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding values were 99.2, 101.6 and 101.5 cm for females. Association between WC and CVD did not depend on gender (p=0.54). WC ranging from 91 to 93 cm was equivalent to BMI 25 kg/m(2) for overweight, and 99 to 103 cm was equivalent to BMI of 30 kg/m(2) for obesity in terms of predicting 10-year absolute CVD risk. Replicating the absolute risk method in other Aboriginal communities will further validate the WC values generated for future development of WC cut-off points for Aboriginal people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Waist circumference values equivalent to body mass index points for predicting absolute cardiovascular disease risks among adults in an Aboriginal community: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There have been suggestions that currently recommended waist circumference (WC) cut-off points for Australians of European origin may not be applicable to Aboriginal people who have different body habitus profiles. We aimed to generate equivalent WC values that correspond to body mass index (BMI) points for identifying absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting An Aboriginal community in Australia's Northern Territory. Participants From 1992 to 1998, 920 adults without CVD, with age, WC and BMI measurements were followed-up for up to 20 years. Outcome measures Incident CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF) events during the follow-up period ascertained from hospitalisation data. We generated WC values with 10-year absolute risks equivalent for the development of CVD as BMI values (20–34 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated time-failure model. Results There were 211 incident cases of CVD over 13 669 person-years of follow-up. At the average age of 35 years, WC values with absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks equivalent to BMI of 25 kg/m2 were 91.5, 91.8 and 91.7 cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding WC values were 92.5, 92.7 and 93 cm for females. WC values with equal absolute CVD, CAD and HF risks to BMI of 30 kg/m2 were 101.7, 103.1 and 102.6 cm, respectively, for males, and corresponding values were 99.2, 101.6 and 101.5 cm for females. Association between WC and CVD did not depend on gender (p=0.54). Conclusions WC ranging from 91 to 93 cm was equivalent to BMI 25 kg/m2 for overweight, and 99 to 103 cm was equivalent to BMI of 30 kg/m2 for obesity in terms of predicting 10-year absolute CVD risk. Replicating the absolute risk method in other Aboriginal communities will further validate the WC values generated for future development of WC cut-off points for Aboriginal people. PMID:26567258

  16. The relationship between body mass and survival of wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Mass and recapture histories of 6,000 Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) banded in upper Chesapeake Bay were used to test two hypotheses: (1) early-winter body mass is associated with the probability of surviving the winter, and (2) early-winter body mass is associated with annual survival probability. Data were analyzed by a binary regression method that treated mass as a continuous variable and estimated parameters to describe a general relationship between body mass and survival probability. Results for adult males, which provided our largest data sets, presented strong evidence that birds with high relative early-winter masses had both greater overwinter and annual survival probabilities. Results of overwinter analyses necessarily are qualified by the alternative explanation of mass-dependent emigration, i.e. the possibility that lighter birds move south in response to cold weather and leave only heavy birds for recapture. Such a phenomenon remains to be documented. Results concerning annual survival probabilities are not vulnerable to this alternative explanation because of the strong fidelity of Canvasbacks at the banding site. Because of small sample size, data were inadequate to permit mass/survival inferences for adult females. Sample sizes were adequate for young Canvasbacks, but the results were less consistent than for adult males. Although early-winter body mass was associated positively with overwinter as well as annual survival for young Canvasbacks in some years, we suspect that the lack of established wintering patterns among these birds may underlie the less consistent result.

  17. Breastfeeding, early nutrition, and adult body fat.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metropolitan-level ethnic residential segregation, racial identity, and body mass index among U.S. Hispanic adults: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The few studies that have examined whether metropolitan-level ethnic residential segregation is associated with obesity among Hispanics are mixed. The segmented assimilation theory, which suggests patterns of integration for immigrant groups varies by social factors, may provide an explanation for these mixed findings. In this study we examined whether one social factor, racial identity, modified the association between ethnic residential segregation and body mass index (BMI) among Hispanics. Methods We used data on 22,901 male and 37,335 non-pregnant female Hispanic adult participants of the 2003–2008 U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System living in 227 metropolitan or micropolitan areas (MMSAs). Participants self-identified as White, Black, and ‘some other race’. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight; the Hispanic isolation index was used to measure Hispanic residential segregation. Using multi-level linear regression models, we examined the association of Hispanic residential segregation with BMI, and we investigated whether this relationship varied by race. Results Among men, Hispanic segregation was unassociated with BMI after adjusting for age, race, MMSA-level poverty, and MMSA-level population size; there was no variation in this relationship by race. Among women, significant associations between Hispanic segregation and BMI in models adjusted for demographics and MMSA-level confounders became attenuated with further adjustment for education and language of exam. However, there was statistically significant variation by race (Pinteraction = 0.03 and 0.09 for Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics who identified as some other race, respectively, vs. Hispanic Whites). Specifically, higher segregation was associated with higher mean BMI among Hispanic Whites, but it was associated with lower mean BMI among Hispanic Blacks. Segregation was unassociated with BMI among Hispanic women identifying as some other race

  19. Body-mass index and risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: Prospective analyses from a primary care cohort of 1.4 million adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Bankhead, Clare; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Stevens, Sarah; Holt, Tim; Hobbs, F. D. Richard; Coresh, Josef; Woodward, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background It is uncertain whether being overweight, but not obese, is associated with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and how the size and shape of associations between body-mass index (BMI) and advanced CKD differs among different types of people. Methods We used Clinical Practice Research Datalink records (2000–2014) with linkage to English secondary care and mortality data to identify a prospective cohort with at least one BMI measure. Cox models adjusted for age, sex, smoking and social deprivation and subgroup analyses by diabetes, hypertension and prior cardiovascular disease assessed relationships between BMI and CKD stages 4–5 and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Findings 1,405,016 adults aged 20–79 with mean BMI 27.4kg/m2 (SD 5.6) were followed for 7.5 years. Compared to a BMI of 20 to <25kg/m2, higher BMI was associated with a progressively increased risk of CKD stages 4–5 (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.30–1.38 for BMI 25 to <30kg/m2; 1.94, 1.87–2.01 for BMI 30 to <35kg/m2; and 3.10, 2.95–3.25 for BMI ≥35kg/m2). The association between BMI and ESRD was shallower and reversed at low BMI. Current smoking, prior diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease all increased risk of CKD, but the relative strength and shape of BMI-CKD associations, which were generally log-linear above a BMI of 25kg/m2, were similar among those with and without these risk factors. There was direct evidence that being overweight was associated with increased risk of CKD stages 4–5 in these subgroups. Assuming causality, since 2000 an estimated 39% (36–42%) of advanced CKD in women and 26% (22–30%) in men aged 40–79 resulted from being overweight or obese. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence that being overweight increases risk of advanced CKD, that being obese substantially increases such risk, and that this remains true for those with and without diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Strategies to reduce weight among those

  20. Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Lotta K; Lehtinen, Markus J; Meland, Nils; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Yeung, Nicolas; Saarinen, Markku T; Courtney, Michael; Burcelin, Rémy; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Linros, Jüri; Apter, Dan; Scheinin, Mika; Kloster Smerud, Hilde; Rissanen, Aila; Lahtinen, Sampo

    2016-11-01

    The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters. 225 healthy volunteers (healthy, BMI 28-34.9) were randomized into four groups (1:1:1:1), using a computer-generated sequence, for 6months of double-blind, parallel treatment: 1) Placebo, microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 2) LU, 12g/d; 3) B420, 10(10)CFU/d in microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 4) LU+B420, 12g+10(10)CFU/d. Body composition was monitored with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the primary outcome was relative change in body fat mass, comparing treatment groups to Placebo. Other outcomes included anthropometric measurements, food intake and blood and fecal biomarkers. The study was registered in Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01978691). There were marked differences in the results of the Intention-To-Treat (ITT; n=209) and Per Protocol (PP; n=134) study populations. The PP analysis included only those participants who completed the intervention with >80% product compliance and no antibiotic use. In addition, three participants were excluded from DXA analyses for PP due to a long delay between the end of intervention and the last DXA measurement. There were no significant differences between groups in body fat mass in the ITT population. However, LU+B420 and B420 seemed to improve weight management in the PP population. For relative change in body fat mass, LU+B420 showed a-4.5% (-1.4kg, P=0.02, N=37) difference to the Placebo group, whereas LU (+0.3%, P=1.00, N=35) and B420 (-3.0%, P=0.28, N=24) alone had no effect (overall ANOVA P=0.095, Placebo N=35). A post-hoc factorial analysis was significant for B420 (-4.0%, P=0.002 vs. Placebo). Changes in fat mass were most pronounced in the abdominal region, and were reflected by similar

  1. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  2. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  3. Eating beyond satiety and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Yanover, T; Sacco, W P

    2008-09-01

    To examine discrete eating behaviours as predictors of body mass and psychological processes through which these behaviours might lead to increased body mass. Three hundred and twenty-nine undergraduate females filled out questionnaires on eating beyond satiety (EBS), snacking, night eating, and hunger as well as the process variables--eating expectancies and self-reported cue reactivity--in an online study. The eating behaviours were regressed on body mass index and mediation analyses were conducted for the process variables. EBS was the strongest predictor of body mass when the other eating behaviours were controlled. The process variables did not mediate the relationship between EBS and body mass. EBS may be a discrete variable on which to intervene to prevent and treat overweight and obesity. Further research is needed to elucidate the situational and affective antecedents of EBS.

  4. Resistance to change of adulthood body mass index.

    PubMed

    Heo, M; Faith, M S; Pietrobelli, A

    2002-10-01

    Numerous weight loss trials show that maintenance of weight loss is extremely difficult to sustain over time in adulthood. Using general population sample of adults whose weights were longitudinally tracked across several decades, we quantified resistance of weight to change by means of body mass index autocorrelation across a series of paired time points. Equations for age-adjusted sex-specific body mass index autocorrelation were developed. We found that body weight is quite resistant to change over years and decades. This finding partially de-mystifies the weight regain observed following intervention that last weeks or months.

  5. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  6. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  7. Impact of body mass on job quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2015-04-01

    The current study explores the association between body mass and job quality, a composite measurement of job characteristics, for adults. We use nationally representative data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study for the years 2005, 2007, and 2008 with 7282 person-year observations for men and 4611 for women. A Quality of Work Index (QWI) is calculated based on work content, job security, the possibilities for improvement, compensation, work conditions, and interpersonal relationships at work. The key independent variable is the body mass index (kg/m(2)) splined at 18.5, 25, and 30. For men, BMI is positively associated with the QWI only in the normal weight segment (+0.19 percentage points at the 10th, +0.28 at the 50th, +0.32 at the 75th, +0.34 at the 90th, and +0.48 at the 95th quantiles). A unit increase in the BMI for women is associated with a lower QWI at the lower quantiles in the normal weight segment (-0.28 at the 5th, -0.19 at the 10th, and -0.25 percentage points at the 25th quantiles) and at the upper quantiles in the overweight segment (-1.15 at the 90th and -1.66 percentage points at the 95th quantiles). The results imply a spill-over cost of overweight or obesity beyond its impact on health in terms of success in the labor market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer

    PubMed Central

    Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females’ body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013–2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition. PMID:28403161

  9. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  10. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.

  11. Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Hergovich, Andreas; Willinger, Ulrike; Arendasy, Martin

    2005-06-01

    There are indications that subjects with schizotypal personality have a lower Body Mass Index. Also schizotypal personality is linked to a higher incidence of paranormal belief. In this study we examined whether low Body Mass Index is also linked to paranormal belief. In a pilot study 48 students of psychology (85.4% women) between the ages of 20 and 27 years were administered a questionnaire assessing weight, height, and paranormal belief. Analysis suggested an association between belief in paranormal phenomena and low Body Mass Index. In a follow-up study with 300 subjects and equal sex distribution, the relationship was examined under control of schizotypy. The results for Body Mass Index could not be confirmed; however, paranormal belief was heavily associated with the cognitive-perceptual component of schizotypy.

  12. Association of breakfast energy density with diet quality and body mass index in American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Andon, Mark B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Rippe, James M

    2008-11-01

    Recent reports suggest that dietary energy density (ED) is associated with diet quality, energy intake, and body weight. Breakfast consumption was also associated with diet quality and body weight; however, little is known about the association of breakfast consumption with dietary ED. We examined differences in the ED (in energy content/g of food) of diets between breakfast consumers and nonconsumers, and in breakfast reporters we examined the association of ED of breakfast foods with ED of nonbreakfast foods, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). We combined dietary data from the 3 continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2004) to determine the ED (in kcal/g) of foods and nutritive beverages and the ED of foods only (n = 12 316; >or=20 y). Linear and logistic regression methods were used to examine the independent associations of breakfast reporting or breakfast ED with 24-h ED, nonbreakfast ED, diet quality, and BMI. The ED of 24-h dietary intake was lower among breakfast reporters than among nonreporters. Women breakfast reporters (but not men) had lower BMI than did nonreporters (27.9 +/- 0.2 compared with 29.4 +/- 0.4; P = 0.001). With increasing breakfast ED, nonbreakfast ED and fat intake increased, but micronutrient intake and the likelihood of mention of all 5 food groups declined. BMI increased with increasing breakfast ED in men but with increasing nonbreakfast ED in women (P body weight.

  13. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  14. PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-30

    ISS020-E-015853 (30 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses the IM mass measurement device to perform the PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement Russian biomedical routine assessments in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  15. Body composition and calcium metabolism in adult treated coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bodé, S; Hassager, C; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Christiansen, C

    1991-01-01

    Twenty two treated adult patients with coeliac disease (aged 20-70 years) were examined. Body composition was assessed from anthropometry and directly measured by dual photon absorptiometry. Bone mineral content was measured in the spine (dual photon absorptiometry) and at two forearm sites (single photon absorptiometry). Compared with age matched healthy subjects, treated coeliac patients had lower body mass index (-5%, p less than 0.05) and lower directly measured total body fat mass (-30%, p less than 0.001). They also had decreased bone mineral content (-9 to -13%, p less than 0.01) in the spine and in the forearms. The serum concentrations of albumin, D vitamin binding protein, and iron were reduced (-6 to -22%, p less than 0.01), but otherwise blood and urine analyses were normal. We conclude that this group of treated adult coeliac patients had a reduced fat mass and bone mineral content compared with the general population. PMID:1752465

  16. Family history, body mass index, selected dietary factors, menstrual history, and risk of moderate to severe acne in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, Anna; Cazzaniga, Simone; Parazzini, Fabio; Ingordo, Vito; Cusano, Francesco; Atzori, Laura; Cutrì, Francesco Tripodi; Musumeci, Maria Letizia; Zinetti, Cornelia; Pezzarossa, Enrico; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Caproni, Marzia; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Bonci, Angela; Bencini, Pierluca; Naldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Genetic and environmental components may contribute to acne causation. We sought to assess the impact of family history, personal habits, dietary factors, and menstrual history on a new diagnosis of moderate to severe acne. We conducted a case-control study in dermatologic outpatient clinics in Italy. Cases (205) were consecutive those receiving a new diagnosis of moderate to severe acne. Control subjects (358) were people with no or mild acne, coming for a dermatologic consultation other than for acne. Moderate to severe acne was strongly associated with a family history of acne in first-degree relatives (odds ratio 3.41, 95% confidence interval 2.31-5.05). The risk was reduced in people with lower body mass index with a more pronounced effect in male compared with female individuals. No association with smoking emerged. The risk increased with increased milk consumption (odds ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.59) in those consuming more than 3 portions per week. The association was more marked for skim than for whole milk. Consumption of fish was associated with a protective effect (odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.99). No association emerged between menstrual variables and acne risk. Some degree of overmatching may arise from choosing dermatologic control subjects and from inclusion of mild acne in the control group. Family history, body mass index, and diet may influence the risk of moderate to severe acne. The influence of environmental and dietetic factors in acne should be further explored. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Infant BMI trajectories are associated with young adult body composition

    PubMed Central

    Slining, M. M.; Herring, A. H.; Popkin, B. M.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.; Adair, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic aspect of early life growth is not fully captured by typical analyses, which focus on one specific time period. To better understand how infant and young child growth relate to the development of adult body composition, the authors characterized body mass index (BMI) trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and evaluated their association with adult body composition. Data are from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed a birth cohort to age 22 years (n=1749). In both males and females, LCGA identified seven subgroups of respondents with similar BMI trajectories from 0 to 24 months (assessed with bimonthly anthropometrics). Trajectory groups were compared with conventional approaches: (1) accelerated growth between two time points (0–4 months), (2) continuous BMI gain between two points (0–4 months and 0–24 months) and (3) BMI measured at one time point (24 months) as predictors of young adult body composition measures. The seven trajectory groups were distinguished by age-specific differences in tempo and timing of BMI gain in infancy. Infant BMI trajectories were better than accelerated BMI gain between 0 and 4 months at predicting young adult body composition. After controlling for BMI at age 2 years, infant BMI trajectories still explained variation in adult body composition. Using unique longitudinal data and methods, we find that distinct infant BMI trajectories have long-term implications for the development of body composition. PMID:24040489

  18. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Somatotype and Body Composition of Normal and Dysphonic Adult Speakers.

    PubMed

    Franco, Débora; Fragoso, Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles, Júlia; Martins, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers. Cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements were taken of a sample of 72 adult participants (40 normal speakers and 32 dysphonic speakers) according to International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry standards, which allowed the calculation of endomorphism, mesomorphism, ectomorphism components, body density, body mass index, fat mass, percentage fat, and fat-free mass. Perception and acoustic evaluations as well as nasoendoscopy were used to assign speakers into normal or dysphonic groups. There were no significant differences between normal and dysphonic speakers in the mean somatotype attitudinal distance and somatotype dispersion distance (in spite of marginally significant differences [P < 0.10] in somatotype attitudinal distance and somatotype dispersion distance between groups) and in the mean vector of the somatotype components. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between groups concerning the mean of percentage fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, body density, and body mass index after controlling by sex. The findings suggested no significant differences in the somatotype and body composition variables, between normal and dysphonic speakers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Relationship between Lifestyle Factors and Body Compositionin Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Štefan, Lovro; Čule, Marko; Milinović, Ivan; Juranko, Dora; Sporiš, Goran

    2017-08-08

    Background: Little is known of how lifestyle factors might influence on body composition parameters in young adults from Croatia. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lifestyle factors and body composition in young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants were 271 university students (59.0% of women). Body composition was measured by using bioelectric impendance analysis (BIA). Blood pressure and heart rate were measured according to standardized protocol and Mediterranean diet adherence (MD), physical activity (PA) and psychological distress (PD) were assessed with validated questionnaires. Results: Self-rated health (SRH) and PA were inversely associated with weight, body-mass index (BMI), fat-mass percentage and blood pressure in men and with weight, BMI, fat-mass percentage and heart rate in women. Higher levels of SRH and PA were positively associated with fat-free mass percentage in both men and women. Smoking was positively associatedwith BMI and fat-mass percentage in women and with heart rate in men. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with weight and BMI in women and fat-mass percentage and heart rate in men, yet inversely associated with fat-free mass percentage only in men. PD was positively associated with weight and blood pressure in men and with BMI, fat-mass percentage and blood pressure in women. Conclusions: Our study shows that higher levels of SRH, MD and PA are related with healthy body composition parameters in young adults. Special interventions and policies that enhance PA and MD and decrease substance use and misuse (SUM) and PD should be implemented within the university school systems.

  1. "Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study".

    PubMed

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as < 6hour/day (short sleep duration), 6-7hour/day and > 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students.

  2. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P<0.001); bone and bone mineral mass scaled to height with powers >2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of approximately 2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P=0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P=0.002). These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  3. Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young adults at risk for psychosis - The Oulu Brain and Mind Study.

    PubMed

    Koivukangas, Jenni; Björnholm, Lassi; Tervonen, Osmo; Miettunen, Jouko; Nordström, Tanja; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Mukkala, Sari; Moilanen, Irma; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Nikkinen, Juha; Veijola, Juha

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotic medications and psychotic illness related factors may affect both weight and brain structure in people with psychosis. Genetically high-risk individuals offer an opportunity to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and brain structure free from these potential confounds. We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20-25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. We also measured axial, radial and mean diffusivities. Most of the participants were normal weight rather than obese. In the FR group, decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial diffusivity were associated with an increase in BMI in several brain areas. In controls the opposite pattern was seen in participants with higher BMI. There was a statistically significant interaction between group and BMI on FA and radial and mean diffusivities. Our results suggest that the effect of BMI on WM differs between individuals with FR for psychosis and controls.

  4. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, Evangelos; Thriskos, Paschalis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p < 0.01 in both groups), whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients. PMID:27956899

  5. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Vlychou, Marianna; Alexiou, Evangelos; Thriskos, Paschalis; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Vassiou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p < 0.01 in both groups), whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  6. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  7. Body Mass Index and Mortality in CKD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse survival in the general population, but appears to confer a survival advantage in patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis. Data are limited on the relationship of BMI with mortality in patients in the earlier stages of c...

  8. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Wechsler, Howell; McKenna, Mary; Odom, Erica; Reinold, Chris; Thompson, Diane; Grummer-Strawn, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) measurement has attracted much attention across the nation from researchers, school officials, legislators, and the media as a potential approach to address obesity among youth. Methods: An expert panel, convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2005, reviewed and provided…

  9. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Wechsler, Howell; McKenna, Mary; Odom, Erica; Reinold, Chris; Thompson, Diane; Grummer-Strawn, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) measurement has attracted much attention across the nation from researchers, school officials, legislators, and the media as a potential approach to address obesity among youth. Methods: An expert panel, convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2005, reviewed and provided…

  10. Association between neighbourhood fast-food and full-service restaurant density and body mass index: a cross-sectional study of Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Simon; Campbell, M Karen; Gilliland, Jason; Sarma, Sisira

    2014-05-07

    Frequent fast-food consumption is a well-known risk factor for obesity. This study sought to determine whether the availability of fast-food restaurants has an influence on body mass index (BMI). BMI and individual-level confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-08 Canadian Community Health Survey. Neighbourhood socio-demographic variables were acquired from the 2006 Canadian Census. The geographic locations of all restaurants in Canada were assembled from a validated business registry database. The density of fast-food, full-service and non-chain restaurants per 10,000 individuals was calculated for respondents' forward sortation area. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between restaurant density and BMI. Fast-food, full-service and non-chain restaurant density variables were statistically significantly associated with BMI. Fast-food density had a positive association whereas full-service and non-chain restaurant density had a negative association with BMI (additional 10 fast-food restaurants per capita corresponded to a weight increase of 1 kilogram; p<0.001). These associations were primarily found in Canada's major urban jurisdictions. This research was the first to investigate the influence of fast-food and full-service restaurant density on BMI using individual-level data from a nationally representative Canadian survey. The finding of a positive association between fast-food restaurant density and BMI suggests that interventions aiming to restrict the availability of fast-food restaurants in local neighbourhoods may be a useful obesity prevention strategy.

  11. Associations between body mass index across adult life and hip shapes at age 60 to 64: Evidence from the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Muthuri, Stella G; Saunders, Fiona R; Hardy, Rebecca J; Pavlova, Anastasia V; Martin, Kathryn R; Gregory, Jennifer S; Barr, Rebecca J; Adams, Judith E; Kuh, Diana; Aspden, Richard M; Cooper, Rachel

    2017-08-24

    To examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) across adulthood with hip shapes at age 60-64years. Up to 1633 men and women from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development with repeat measures of BMI across adulthood and posterior-anterior dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density images of the proximal femur recorded at age 60-64 were included in analyses. Statistical shape modelling was applied to quantify independent variations in hip mode (HM), of which the first 6 were examined in relation to: i) BMI at each age of assessment; ii) BMI gain during different phases of adulthood; iii) age first overweight. Higher BMI at all ages (i.e. 15 to 60-64) and greater gains in BMI were associated with higher HM2 scores in both sexes (with positive HM2 values representing a shorter femoral neck and a wider and flatter femoral head). Similarly, younger age first overweight was associated with higher HM2 scores but only in men once current BMI was accounted for. In men, higher BMI at all ages was also associated with lower HM4 scores (with negative HM4 values representing a flatter femoral head, a wider neck and smaller neck shaft angle) but no associations with BMI gain or prolonged exposure to high BMI were found. Less consistent evidence of associations was found between BMI and the other four HMs. These results suggest that BMI across adulthood may be associated with specific variations in hip shapes in early old age. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of body mass index and attempt to lose weight in a national sample of US adults: association with reported food and nutrient intake, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kant, A K

    2003-02-01

    This study examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and attempting to lose weight for reporting of: (1) macro- and micronutrient intake; (2) intake of low-nutrient-density foods; and (3) serum biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular disease risk. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), n=13 095. Multiple regression methods were used to examine the independent associations of BMI, trying to lose weight, or the interaction of BMI-trying to lose weight with reported intakes of energy, nutrients, percentage energy from low-nutrient-density foods (sweeteners, baked and dairy desserts, visible fats and salty snacks), and serum concentrations of vitamins, carotenoids and lipids. BMI was an independent positive predictor (P<0.05) of percentage of energy from fat, saturated fat, but a negative predictor of the ratio of reported energy intake to estimated expenditure for basal needs (EI/BEE), percentage of energy from carbohydrate and alcohol (men only), and serum concentrations of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E and most carotenoids in both men and women. Trying to lose weight was a negative predictor (P<0.05) of EI/BEE, intake of energy, and energy density, but not micronutrient intake. Higher mean serum ascorbate, vitamin E, lutein/zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids (men only) concentrations were associated with trying to lose weight (P<0.05) in both men and women. Few adverse BMI-trying to lose weight interaction effects were noted. There was little evidence of increased nutritional risk in those reportedly trying to lose weight irrespective of weight status.

  13. Childhood maltreatment severity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein and body mass index in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Aas, Monica; Dieset, Ingrid; Hope, Sigrun; Hoseth, Eva; Mørch, Ragni; Reponen, Elina; Steen, Nils Eiel; Laskemoen, Jannicke Fjæra; Ueland, Thor; Aukrust, Pål; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have described an association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers in the psychotic disorders (schizophrenia [SZ] and bipolar disorder [BD]). Previous studies have been relatively small (<50 participants), and the severity of abuse and the putative influence of body mass index (BMI) have not been properly investigated. The combined effects of childhood abuse severity and clinical diagnosis on inflammatory markers were investigated in a large sample (n=483) of patients with a disorder on the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls (HCs). Plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 [TNFR-R1], glycoprotein 130 [gp130]) were analyzed, and BMI and data on childhood trauma events, on the basis of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were obtained from all participants. Patients had increased levels of hs-CRP (P<0.001, Cohens d=0.4), lower levels of gp130 (P<0.001, Cohens d=0.5), higher BMI (P<0.001, Cohens d=0.5) and reported more childhood maltreatment experiences (P<0.001, Cohens d=1.2) than the HC group. The severity of childhood abuse (up to three types of abuse: sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse) was associated with elevated BMI (f=8.46, P<0.001, Cohen's d=0.5) and hs-CRP (f=5.47, P=0.001, Cohen's d=0.3). Combined effects of patient status and severity of childhood abuse were found for elevated hs-CRP (f=4.76, P<0.001, Cohen's d=0.4). Differences among the groups disappeared when BMI was added to the model. Trauma-altered immune activation via elevated hs-CRP in patients with SZ and BD may be mediated by higher BMI; however, the direction of this association needs further clarification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Young Adults from 24 Low- and Middle-Income and Two High-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited in 26 universities in 24 low- and middle-income and two high-income countries. The sample included 18,211 (42.1% male and 57.9% female, mean age 21.0 in male and 20.7 years in female students) undergraduate university students. The overall BMI was a mean of 22.5 kg/m2 for men and 22.0 kg/m2 for women, and the mean WC was 78.4 cm for men and 73.8 cm for women. More than 39% of the students reported short sleep duration (≤6 h/day) and over 30% reported moderate to extreme sleep problems. In a linear multivariable regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, short sleep duration was positively associated with BMI in both men and women, and was positively associated with WC among women but not among men. Sleep quality or problems among men were not associated with BMI, while among women mild sleep problems were inversely associated with BMI, and poor sleep quality or problems were positively associated with WC both among men and women. The study confirmed an association between short sleep duration and increased BMI and, among women, increased WC, and an association between poor sleep quality and increased WC but not BMI. Further, differences in the association between sleep characteristics and BMI and WC were found by region and country income. PMID:28587107

  15. Light Intensity Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Relation to Body Mass Index and Grip Strength in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Hire, Don; Manini, Todd; Cooper, Rachel; Botoseneanu, Anda; McDermott, Mary M.; Pahor, Marco; Glynn, Nancy W.; Fielding, Roger; King, Abby C.; Church, Timothy; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Gill, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical activity and sedentary time—assessed both objectively and by self-report—with body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in a large sample of older adults. Methods We used cross-sectional baseline data from 1130 participants of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, a community-dwelling sample of relatively sedentary older adults (70-89 years) at heightened risk of mobility disability. Time spent sedentary and in light intensity activity were assessed using an accelerometer worn for 3–7 days (Actigraph GT3X) and by self-report. Associations between these exposures and measured BMI and grip strength were evaluated using linear regression. Results Greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were both associated with lower BMI. This was evident using objective measures of lower-light intensity, and both objective and self-reported measures of higher-light intensity activity. Time spent watching television was positively associated with BMI, while reading and computer use were not. Greater time spent in higher but not lower intensities of light activity (assessed objectively) was associated with greater grip strength in men but not women, while neither objectively assessed nor self-reported sedentary time was associated with grip strength. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were associated with lower BMI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that replacing sedentary activities with light intensity activities could lead to lower BMI levels and obesity

  16. Body Size Perception and Ideal Body Size in Overweight and Obese Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Hannah M.; Klapes, Bryan; Mummert, Amanda; Cha, EunSeok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the differences among actual body size, perceived body size and ideal body size in overweight and obese young adult women. Methods Actual body size was assessed by body mass index (BMI) while self-perceived and ideal body sizes were assessed by the Body Image Assessment Tool-Body Dimension (BIAS-BD). Descriptive statistics were calculated and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on actual BMI as a function of perceived BMI. Results Of the 42 participants included in the study, 12 were overweight (25≤BMI<30), 18 were obese 1 (30≤BMI<35), and 12 were obese 2 (35≤BMI≤39.48). The mean ideal body size of participants was 25.34±1.33. Participants in general perceived their body size (BMI: 35.82±1.06) to be higher than their actual body size (32.84±0.95). Overweight participants had a significantly higher mean body size misperception than obese 2 individuals (μdif = −6.68, p<.001). Conclusion Perception accuracy of body size differs in women by BMI. Weight loss programs need to be tailored to consider body size misperception in order to improve treatment outcomes for overweight and obese young women. PMID:26545593

  17. Effects of exogenous human insulin dose adjustment on body mass index in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, 2009 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Sehloho, Tohlang Solomon A; Van Zyl, Danie G

    2017-05-24

    To maintain fasting blood glucose levels within near to the normal range in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), frequent insulin dose adjustments may be required with short-, intermediate- and long-acting insulin formulations. Patients on human insulin generally experience weight gain over time, regardless of the level of glycaemic control achieved. To determine the effects of human insulin, adjusted quarterly to achieve glycaemic control, on body mass index (BMI), and establish dose regimens that achieve optimal glycaemic control without increasing BMI in patients with type 1 DM at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria, South Africa. The sample size (N=211, 48.8% male) was obtained by non-probability convenience sampling of all available records of patients with type 1 DM aged ≥18 years at baseline at the clinic. The longitudinal relationships of covariates with time-varying BMI, as well as with time-varying glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, were explored using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression modelling. The majority of the patients (84.8%) received the twice-daily biphasic human insulin regimen and the remainder received the basal neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) plus prandial regular human insulin regimen. The multivariable multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model indicated that time-varying BMI was significantly positively related to time-varying twice-daily biphasic insulin dosage (β (standard error) 0.464 (0.190), p=0.015), baseline HbA1c (0.092 (0.026), p<0.001) and baseline BMI (0.976 (0.016), p<0.001). There were significant inverse associations with the number of years spent in the study (-0.108 (0.052), p=0.038), time-varying HbA1c (-0.154 (0.031), p<0.001) and male sex (-0.783 (0.163), p<0.001). There were non-significant negative longitudinal associations of age (-0.005 (0.006), p=0.427) and current smoking status (-0.231 (0.218), p=0.290) with BMI outcomes. There was no evidence that optimal quarterly-prescribed daily

  18. Mode of Delivery and Offspring Body Mass Index, Overweight and Obesity in Adult Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Darmasseelane, Karthik; Hyde, Matthew J.; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Gale, Chris; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that mode of delivery, a potentially powerful influence upon long-term health, may affect later life body mass index (BMI). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of Caesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) on offspring BMI, overweight (BMI>25) and obesity (BMI>30) in adulthood. Secondary outcomes were subgroup analyses by gender and type of CS (in-labour/emergency, pre-labour/elective). Methods Using a predefined search strategy, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched for any article published before 31st March 2012, along with references of any studies deemed relevant. Studies were selected if they reported birth characteristics and long-term offspring follow-up into adulthood. Aggregate data from relevant studies were extracted onto a pre-piloted data table. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out in RevMan5. Results are illustrated using forest plots and funnel plots, and presented as mean differences or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results Thirty-five studies were identified through the search, and 15 studies with a combined population of 163,753 were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Comparing all CS to VD in pooled-gender unadjusted analyses, mean BMI difference was 0·44 kg·m-2 (0·17, 0·72; p = 0·002), OR for incidence of overweight was 1·26 (1·16, 1·38; p<0·00001) and OR for incidence of obesity was 1·22 (1·05, 1·42; p = 0·01). Heterogeneity was low in all primary analyses. Similar results were found in gender-specific subgroup analyses. Subgroup analyses comparing type of CS to VD showed no significant impact on any outcome. Conclusions There is a strong association between CS and increased offspring BMI, overweight and obesity in adulthood. Given the rising CS rate worldwide there is a need to determine whether this is causal, or reflective of confounding influences. Systematic review registration An a priori

  19. The association of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with body mass index: a cross-sectional, population-based study among Chinese adult male twins.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2016-04-11

    Obesity is a multifactorial abnormality which has an underlying genetic control but requires environmental influences to trigger. Numerous epidemiological studies have examined the roles of physical inactivity and dietary factors in obesity development. Interactions between obesity-related genes and these lifestyles have also been confirmed. However, less attention has been paid to these complex relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with body mass index (BMI), and whether these lifestyle factors modified the genetic variance of BMI. Subjects were twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry, aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 6121 complete male twin pairs. Information on height, weight, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking status were assessed with self-report questionnaires. The associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with BMI were evaluated by linear regression models. Further, structure equation models were conducted to estimate whether cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking status modified the degree of genetic variance of BMI. After adjustment for a variety of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, former smokers had higher BMI (β = 0.475; 95 % CI, 0.196 to 0.754) whereas moderate to heavy smokers had lower BMI (β = -0.115; 95 % CI, -0.223 to -0.007) when compared with nonsmokers. BMI decreased with increased cigarette pack-years (β = -0.008; 95 % CI, -0.013 to -0.003). These effects still existed substantially in within-MZ twin pair analyses. By contrast, current alcohol drinking had no significant influence on BMI when additionally controlled for shared factors in within-pair analyses. Genetic modification by alcohol drinking was statistically significant for BMI (β = -0.137; 95 % CI, -0.215 to -0.058), with the intake of alcohol decreasing the additive

  20. Exercise and bone mass in adults.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Fuentes, Teresa; Guerra, Borja; Calbet, Jose A L

    2009-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that exercise prior to the pubertal growth spurt stimulates bone growth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy to a greater degree than observed during growth in non-physically active children. Bone mass can be increased by some exercise programmes in adults and the elderly, and attenuate the losses in bone mass associated with aging. This review provides an overview of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies performed to date involving training and bone measurements. Cross-sectional studies show in general that exercise modalities requiring high forces and/or generating high impacts have the greatest osteogenic potential. Several training methods have been used to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and content in prospective studies. Not all exercise modalities have shown positive effects on bone mass. For example, unloaded exercise such as swimming has no impact on bone mass, while walking or running has limited positive effects. It is not clear which training method is superior for bone stimulation in adults, although scientific evidence points to a combination of high-impact (i.e. jumping) and weight-lifting exercises. Exercise involving high impacts, even a relatively small amount, appears to be the most efficient for enhancing bone mass, except in postmenopausal women. Several types of resistance exercise have been tested also with positive results, especially when the intensity of the exercise is high and the speed of movement elevated. A handful of other studies have reported little or no effect on bone density. However, these results may be partially attributable to the study design, intensity and duration of the exercise protocol, and the bone density measurement techniques used. Studies performed in older adults show only mild increases, maintenance or just attenuation of BMD losses in postmenopausal women, but net changes in BMD relative to control subjects who are losing bone mass are beneficial in

  1. Body mass index continues to accurately predict percent body fat as women age despite changes in muscle mass and height.

    PubMed

    Ablove, Tova; Binkley, Neil; Leadley, Sarah; Shelton, James; Ablove, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to predict obesity in clinical practice because it is suggested to closely correlate with percent body fat (%BF). With aging, women lose both lean mass and height. Because of this, many clinicians question whether BMI is an accurate predictor of obesity in aging women. In evaluating the equation for BMI (weight/height(2)), it is clear that both variables can have a dramatic effect on BMI calculation. We evaluated the relationship between BMI and %BF, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, in the setting of age-related changes in height loss and body composition in women. Our objective is to determine whether BMI continues to correlate with %BF as women age. Study participants were identified using data from five osteoporosis clinical trials, where healthy participants had full-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Deidentified data from 274 women aged between 35 and 95 years were evaluated. %BF, weight, age, tallest height, actual height, and appendicular lean mass were collected from all participants. BMI was calculated using the actual height and the tallest height of each study participant. %BF was compared with BMI and stratified for age. BMI calculated using the tallest height and BMI calculated using actual height both had strong correlations with %BF. Surprisingly, the effects of changes in height and lean body mass balance each other out in BMI calculation. There continues to be a strong correlation between BMI and %BF in adult women as they age.

  2. Determinants of variation in adult body height.

    PubMed

    Silventoinen, Karri

    2003-04-01

    Final body height is achieved as the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this article is to review past studies on body height that have followed different scientific traditions. In modern Western societies, about 20% of variation in body height is due to environmental variation. In poorer environments, this proportion is probably larger, with lower heritability of body height as well as larger socioeconomic body height differences. The role of childhood environment is seen in the increase in body height during the 20th century simultaneously with the increase in the standard of living. The most important non-genetic factors affecting growth and adult body height are nutrition and diseases. Short stature is associated with poorer education and lower social position in adulthood. This is mainly due to family background, but other environmental factors in childhood also contribute to this association. Body height is a good indicator of childhood living conditions, not only in developing countries but also in modern Western societies. Future studies combining different scientific traditions in auxology are needed to create a more holistic view of body height.

  3. Body mass index, body dissatisfaction and adolescent smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laurence J; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Taylor, Michelle; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-09-01

    Smoking influences body weight, but there is little evidence as to whether body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction increase smoking initiation in adolescents. We evaluated the association between measured BMI, body dissatisfaction and latent classes of smoking initiation (never smokers, experimenters, late onset regular smokers, early onset regular smokers) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In observational analyses we used BMI (N=3754) and body dissatisfaction at age 10.5 years (N=3349). In Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis, we used a BMI genetic risk score of 76 single nucleotide polymorphisms (N=4017). In females, higher BMI was associated with increased odds of early onset regular smoking (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) compared to being a never smoker, but not clearly associated with experimenting with smoking (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.10) or late onset regular smoking (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.09). No clear evidence was found for associations between BMI and smoking initiation classes in males (p-value for sex interaction≤0.001). Body dissatisfaction was associated with increased odds of late-onset regular smoking (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.99) in males and females combined (P-value for sex interaction=0.32). There was no clear evidence for an association between the BMI genetic risk score and smoking latent classes in males or females but estimates were imprecise. BMI in females and body dissatisfaction in males and females are associated with increased odds of smoking initiation, highlighting these as potentially important factors for consideration in smoking prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Body dissatisfaction among Iranian youth and adults.

    PubMed

    Garrusi, Behshid; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-28

    Despite the importance of body satisfaction on one's self image and well-being, little has been written about body image or how it affects people in Iran. The aim of this study is to assess body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in the general Iranian population. The sample size for this cross-sectional study included approximately 1,200 participants (both male and female) and was conducted in 2011. Body dissatisfaction (based on the Figure Rating Scale), demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and use of the media were recorded. Nearly two thirds of the participants were included in the middle age group and roughly half of them had a university education. Approximately two thirds of the participants were satisfied with their body. The mean score of body dissatisfaction in women was greater than men (p < 0.0001). Age, gender, marital status and BMI had a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction. The finding of this study demonstrates that in Iran, body dissatisfaction and it consequences must be addressed. While the prevalence and pattern of body dissatisfaction in Iran is as high as other Asian countries, considering cultural variation within Asian countries is also important.

  5. Gender dimorphism of body mass perception and regulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiedmer, Petra; Boschmann, Michael; Klaus, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    According to the set-point theory of body mass, changes in body mass are perceived by the body, leading to activation of compensatory feedback mechanisms, which in turn restores the set-point body mass. However, this theory is still under debate. To test if mass per se might be sensed and regulated, we implanted loads corresponding to 10% (HI) or 2% (LO, control) of body mass into mice in addition to sham-operated mice (SO). We recorded body mass, food intake, energy expenditure and body composition over 14 weeks. Both male and female mice showed an initial stress-induced loss of body mass, which was more pronounced in males. Subsequently, male HI mice displayed a permanently decreased biological body mass (MBB, body mass exclusive of the implant mass), equivalent to approximately half of the mass of the implant, and obtained by a decrease in fat mass compared to SO males. In contrast, female HI mice rapidly recovered and maintained their initial MBB and body composition following a mass load. Initial lean body mass was maintained in all male and female groups, and energy intake was similar in all male and female groups. Body mass changes could not be explained by measurable changes in energy intake or expenditure. We conclude that changes in body mass are perceived and partially compensated in male but not in female mice, suggesting that mass-specific regulation of body mass might not play a major role in overall body mass regulation. Different compartments of the body are possibly regulated by different signals and stimuli. Our results suggest that lean body mass rather than body mass per se seems to be tightly regulated. Higher efficiency of energy utilization in females compared to males could explain the gender-specific changes in energy balance.

  6. Associations between body mass index, shopping behaviors, amenity density, and characteristics of the neighborhood food environment among female adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Carr, Lucas J; Wu, Qiang; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the food environment among adult female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (N = 197) in eastern North Carolina. Food venue proximity to residential addresses was calculated using a geographic information system. Walk Score was used as a measure of amenity density. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between BMI and distance to and use of food venues, and residential amenity density. Frequency of supercenter use was significantly inversely associated with distance to supercenters. Walk Score was significantly inversely associated with BMI. BMI was not associated with distance to or use of any particular food venue. Future studies should examine specific health-promoting elements of amenity-dense neighborhoods accessible to limited-income populations.

  7. Body mass index in Serbian Roma.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Andrew; Cvorović, Jelena; Strkalj, Goran

    2009-01-01

    Stature and body mass were measured in 346 individuals belonging to three Roma groups from metropolitan Belgrade western Serbia. As with the majority of Serbian Roma, the participants in this study have been historically disadvantaged and their situation was further aggravated during the recent political crises. Surprisingly, the body mass index (BMI) of Serbian Roma is relatively high compared with western Europeans and is inconsistent with the view that Serbian Roma are predisposed to high rates of chronic energy deficiency ( approximately 4%). While the majority of individual Roma display BMI values within the normal range (WHO, 1995), certain groups have a moderate to high proportion of individuals ( approximately 35%) who could be classified as overweight and some who approach at-risk levels for clinical obesity.

  8. An Investigation of the Effect of Body Mass on Resting Heart Rate in Dogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Vanessa; Reiss, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A student project that investigated the relationship between resting heart beat frequency and body mass of adult dogs is described. The results are compared to those of other mammals and birds. The procedure and results are included. (KR)

  9. Managing body image difficulties of adult cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cororve Gingeret, Michelle; Teo, Irene; Epner, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    Body image is a critical psychosocial issue for patients with cancer because they often undergo significant changes to appearance and functioning. The primary purpose of this review article was to identify empirically-supported approaches to treat body image difficulties of adult cancer patients that can be incorporated into high-quality comprehensive cancer care. An overview was provided of theoretical models of body image relevant to cancer patients, and findings were presented from published literature on body image and cancer from 2003 to 2013. These data were integrated with information from the patient-doctor communication literature to delineate a practical approach for assessing and treating body image concerns of adult cancer patients. Body image difficulties were found across patients with diverse cancer sites, and were most prevalent in the immediate postoperative and treatment period. Age, body mass index, and specific cancer treatments have been identified as potential risk factors for body image disturbance in cancer patients. Current evidence supports the use of time-limited cognitive behavioral therapy interventions for addressing these difficulties. Other intervention strategies also show promise but require further study. Potential indicators of body image difficulties were identified to alert health care professionals when to refer patients for psychosocial care, and a framework was proposed for approaching conversations about body image that can be used by the oncologic treatment team. Body image issues affect a wide array of cancer patients. Providers can use available evidence combined with information from the health care communication literature to develop practical strategies for treating body image concerns of patients with cancer. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  11. A Revised Australian Dietary Guideline Index and Its Association with Key Sociodemographic Factors, Health Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Peri-Retirement Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Maree G.; Milte, Catherine M.; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Guideline Index, a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. This paper describes the revision of the index (DGI-2013) and examines its use in older adults. The DGI-2013 consists of 13 components reflecting food-based daily intake recommendations of the Australian Dietary Guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, the DGI-2013 score was calculated using dietary data collected via an 111-item food frequency questionnaire and additional food-related behaviour questions. The DGI-2013 score was examined in Australian adults (aged 55–65 years; n = 1667 men; 1801 women) according to sociodemographics, health-related behaviours and BMI. Women scored higher than men on the total DGI-2013 and all components except for dairy. Those who were from a rural area (men only), working full-time (men only), with lower education, smoked, did not meet physical activity guidelines, and who had a higher BMI, scored lower on the DGI-2013, highlighting a group of older adults at risk of poor health. The DGI-2013 is a tool for assessing compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. We demonstrated associations between diet quality and a range of participant characteristics, consistent with previous literature. This suggests that the DGI-2013 continues to demonstrate convergent validity, consistent with the original Dietary Guideline Index. PMID:26978399

  12. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Cire; Ahmed, Houra; Diom, Evelyne Siga; Deguenonvo, Richard Edouard Alain; Mbaye, Aminata; Zemene, Yilkal; Ndiaye, Issa Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy. PMID:27999701

  13. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart.

  14. Fathers matter: male body mass affects life-history traits in a size-dimorphic seabird.

    PubMed

    Cornioley, Tina; Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Börger, Luca; Weimerskirch, Henri; Ozgul, Arpat

    2017-05-17

    One of the predicted consequences of climate change is a shift in body mass distributions within animal populations. Yet body mass, an important component of the physiological state of an organism, can affect key life-history traits and consequently population dynamics. Over the past decades, the wandering albatross-a pelagic seabird providing bi-parental care with marked sexual size dimorphism-has exhibited an increase in average body mass and breeding success in parallel with experiencing increasing wind speeds. To assess the impact of these changes, we examined how body mass affects five key life-history traits at the individual level: adult survival, breeding probability, breeding success, chick mass and juvenile survival. We found that male mass impacted all traits examined except breeding probability, whereas female mass affected none. Adult male survival increased with increasing mass. Increasing adult male mass increased breeding success and mass of sons but not of daughters. Juvenile male survival increased with their chick mass. These results suggest that a higher investment in sons by fathers can increase their inclusive fitness, which is not the case for daughters. Our study highlights sex-specific differences in the effect of body mass on the life history of a monogamous species with bi-parental care. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Associations of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Adult Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Meiner, Vardiella; Sagy, Yael; Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Siscovick, David S.; Manor, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adult offspring adiposity. However, whether these maternal attributes are related to other cardio-metabolic risk factors in adulthood has not been comprehensively studied. Methods and Results We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, to prospectively examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with adiposity and related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Greater mppBMI, independent of GWG and confounders, was significantly associated with higher offspring BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, insulin and triglycerides and with lower HDL-C. For example, the effect sizes were translated to nearly 5kg/m2 higher mean BMI, 8.4cm higher WC, 0.13mmol/L (11.4mg/dL) higher triglycerides and 0.10mmol/L (3.8mg/dL) lower HDL-C among offspring of mothers within the upper mppBMI quartile (BMI>26.4kg/m2) compared to the lower (BMI<21.0kg/m2). GWG, independent of mppBMI, was positively associated with offspring adiposity; differences of 1.6kg/m2 in BMI and 2.4cm in waist were observed when offspring of mothers in the upper (GWG>14kg) and lower (GWG<9kg) quartiles of GWG were compared. Further adjustment for offspring adiposity attenuated to null the observed associations. Conclusions Maternal size both before and during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring. The associations appear to be driven mainly by offspring adiposity. Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardio-metabolic risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22344037

  16. Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Physical Activity, Food Intake, Eating Behaviors, Psychological Health, and Modeled Change in Body Mass Index in Overweight/Obese Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085–rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation. PMID:25102252

  17. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphisms are associated with physical activity, food intake, eating behaviors, psychological health, and modeled change in body mass index in overweight/obese Caucasian adults.

    PubMed

    Harbron, Janetta; van der Merwe, Lize; Zaahl, Monique G; Kotze, Maritha J; Senekal, Marjanne

    2014-08-06

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085-rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.

  18. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    PubMed

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  19. Body mass index and suicide methods.

    PubMed

    Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with lower rates of suicide. However, little is known about the association with different suicide methods. We studied the association between groups of body mass index and suicide methods. We identified all medicolegal autopsy cases with a cause of death due to external causes in Sweden during 1999-2013 (N = 39,368) and included 11,715 suicides and 13,316 accidents or homicides as controls. We applied multinomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, year and season of death. Obesity was associated with suicidal intoxication, OR 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.30] and negatively associated with all other suicide methods studied. Underweight showed a negative association with suicidal drowning and there was an indication towards a negative association with hanging in men OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.01). We conclude that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the choice of suicide method. This may be of importance in a public health perspective, e.g. potential for prevention of intoxications. In the practice of forensic medicine, the physician's level of suspicion may rise if the apparent suicidal method is less common for the individual characteristics of the deceased, such as BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on body mass index and weight loss outcomes in adults enrolled in an obesity treatment program.

    PubMed

    Megson, Maureen; Wing, Rena; Leahey, Tricia M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast eating and eating frequency on objectively assessed BMI and weight loss outcomes among adults enrolled in obesity treatment. Participants completed measures of breakfast eating and eating frequency before and after treatment and had their height and weight measured. Baseline breakfast eating and eating frequency were not associated with baseline BMI (p = .34, p = .45, respectively) and did not predict weight loss during treatment (p = .36, p = .58, respectively). From pre- to post-treatment, there was no significant change in eating frequency (p = .27) and changes in eating frequency had no impact on weight loss (r = -.08, p = .23). However, increases in breakfast eating during treatment were associated with significantly better weight loss outcomes (r = .26, p < .001). Among participants who increased breakfast eating, those who had either no change or a decrease in daily eating frequency were more likely to achieve a 5% weight loss compared to those who had an increase in daily eating frequency (p = .04). These results suggest that increasing breakfast eating, while simultaneously reducing or keeping eating frequency constant, may improve outcomes in obesity treatment. Experimental studies are needed to further elucidate these effects.

  1. The Effect of Adequate Gestational Weight Gain among Adolescents Relative to Adults of Equivalent Body Mass Index and the Risk of Preterm Birth, Cesarean Delivery, and Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Houde, Michele; Dahdouh, Elias M; Mongrain, Vanessa; Dubuc, Elise; Francoeur, Diane; Balayla, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether similar odds of cesarean delivery (C/S), preterm birth (PTB), and low birth weight (LBW) are observed among adolescents compared with body mass index (BMI)-equivalent adults in cases of adequate gestational weight gain. We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cohort study using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's birth data files from the United States for 2012. We selected from the cohort all singleton, cephalic pregnancies and stratified them according to maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain following the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. The effect of adequate gestational weight gain among adolescents relative to adults of equivalent BMI on the risk of C/S, PTB, and LBW was estimated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. We analyzed a total of 3,960,796 births, of which 1,036,646 (26.1%) met the inclusion criteria. In adolescents and adults, likelihood of achieving ideal gestational weight gain decreased with greater prepregnancy BMI. Relative to adults, the overall odds of C/S in all adolescents were (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) 0.61 (0.58 to 0.63). When comparing equivalent BMI categories, these odds were unchanged (P < .0001). The overall adjusted odds ratio of LBW was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.16). These odds were significantly higher when BMI stratification took place, decreasing with advancing BMI categories, from 1.23 (1.14 to 1.33) among the underweight, to nonsignificant differences in the obese classes (P < .05). Finally, when including only those achieving ideal weight gain, the overall odds of premature delivery (1.17 [1.14 to 1.20]) were higher among nonobese adolescents, while they were not found among the obese. When ideal gestational weight gain is attained, only nonobese adolescents exhibit a greater risk of LBW and preterm birth relative to adults of similar BMI, whereas the risk of C/S remains lower for all adolescents

  2. Association of the relative change in weight and body mass index with lung function in teenagers and adults with cystic fibrosis: Influence of gender and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cano Megías, Marta; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; González Albarrán, Olga; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional status is a prognostic factor in cystic fibrosis. Prevention of nutritional impairment and weigh loss are major clinical objectives because they are associated with worsening of lung function and increased mortality. To identify a potential relationship of clinical nutrition parameters, and their relative changes, with lung function (FEV1%) in a cohort of adolescent and adult patients with CF. A retrospective analysis of 64 patients older than 14years. Weight, height, BMI, and lung function data were collected at a period of disease stability, both in the year of the first abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and in the previous year. Relative changes in weight and BMI, and their relationship with FEV1%, were determined by linear regression and ANOVA tests; influence of gender and diabetes was also assessed. Mean age of the series (28 females and 36 males) was 26.8years. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was found in 26.7%, while 18.3% had diabetes without impaired fasting glucose (CFRD without FPG). Mean BMI was 20.32, with a mean weight of 53.53kg; 32.8% had BMI<18.5, and only 4.7% were overweight. Overall, a positive relative change in weight (≥6%) was associated with an increase in FEV1% (9.31%), as compared to those with a greater weight loss (at least 2%), who had a 12.09% fall in FEV1. Patients with CFRD without FPG had poorer lung function if they had a negative relative change in weight by at least 2% as compared to NGT. In patients with CF, a relative weight gain is positively associated to FEV1%, while a relative weight loss of at least 2% has a significant negative impact on lung function. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim

    2005-10-01

    We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.

  4. Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs Body Mass Index in Estimating Body Fat During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Courtney M; Su, Haiyan; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Golnabi, Amir H; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 1999 to 2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed between September 2015 and December 2016. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric data were used to determine changes in body fat levels, body proportions, and the scaling relationships among body mass, height, and percent body fat. To assess the merits of each adiposity index, 3 criteria were used: stability with age, accuracy in estimating percent body fat, and accuracy in classifying adolescents as overweight vs normal weight. Participants included 2285 non-Hispanic white participants aged 8 to 29 years. Percent body fat varied with both age and height during adolescence, invalidating the standard weight-to-height regression as the way of finding the optimal body fat index. Because the correct regression model (percent body fat is proportional to mass divided by heightn) suggested that percent body fat scales to height with an exponent closer to 3, we therefore focused on the tri-ponderal mass index (TMI; mass divided by height cubed) as an alternative to BMI z scores. For ages 8 to 17 years, TMI yielded greater stability with age and estimated percent body fat better than BMI (R2 = 0.64 vs 0.38 in boys and R2 = 0.72 vs 0.66 in girls). Moreover, TMI misclassified adolescents as overweight vs normal weight less often than BMI z scores (TMI, 8.4%; 95% CI, 7.3%-9.5% vs BMI, 19.4%; 95% CI, 17.8%-20.0%; P < .001) and performed equally as well as updated BMI percentiles

  5. Body mass index bias in defining obesity of diverse young adults: the Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Ellis, Kenneth J; McFarlin, Brian K; Sailors, Mary H; Bray, Molly S

    2009-10-01

    The BMI cut-score used to define overweight and obesity was derived primarily using data from Caucasian men and women. The present study evaluated the racial/ethnic bias of BMI to estimate the adiposity of young men and women (aged 17-35 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) determination of percentage body fat (DXA-BF%) as the referent standard. The samples were 806 women and 509 men who were tested from one to three times over 9 months providing 1300 observations for women and 820 observations for men. Linear mixed models (LMM) regression showed that with age and BMI controlled, DXA-BF% of African-American (AA) men and women, Asian-Indian men and women, Hispanic women and Asian women significantly differed from non-Hispanic white (NHW) men and women. For the same BMI of NHW women, the DXA-BF% of AA women was 1.76 % lower, but higher for Hispanic (1.65 %), Asian (2.65 %) and Asian-Indian (5.98 %) women. For the same BMI of NHW men, DXA-BF% of AA men was 4.59 % lower and 4.29 % higher for Asian-Indian men. Using the recommended BMI cut-scores to define overweight and obesity systematically overestimated overweight and obesity prevalence for AA men and women, and underestimated prevalence for Asian-Indian men and women, Asian women and Hispanic women. The present study extends the generalisability of research documenting the racial/ethnic bias of the universal overweight and obesity BMI cut-scores.

  6. Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D; Heymsfield, S B; Heo, M; Jebb, S A; Murgatroyd, P R; Sakamoto, Y

    2000-09-01

    Although international interest in classifying subject health status according to adiposity is increasing, no accepted published ranges of percentage body fat currently exist. Empirically identified limits, population percentiles, and z scores have all been suggested as means of setting percentage body fat guidelines, although each has major limitations. The aim of this study was to examine a potential new approach for developing percentage body fat ranges. The approach taken was to link healthy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) guidelines established by the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization with predicted percentage body fat. Body fat was measured in subjects from 3 ethnic groups (white, African American, and Asian) who were screened and evaluated at 3 universities [Cambridge (United Kingdom), Columbia (United States), and Jikei (Japan)] with use of reference body-composition methods [4-compartment model (4C) at 2 laboratories and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at all 3 laboratories]. Percentage body fat prediction equations were developed based on BMI and other independent variables. A convenient sample of 1626 adults with BMIs < or =35 was evaluated. Independent percentage body fat predictor variables in multiple regression models included 1/BMI, sex, age, and ethnic group (R: values from 0.74 to 0.92 and SEEs from 2.8 to 5.4% fat). The prediction formulas were then used to prepare provisional healthy percentage body fat ranges based on published BMI limits for underweight (<18.5), overweight (> or =25), and obesity (> or =30). This proposed approach and initial findings provide the groundwork and stimulus for establishing international healthy body fat ranges.

  7. Compulsive buying: relationship with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Marion, Brandee E

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying has historically been associated with various self-regulatory disturbances, including eating pathology (e.g., binge eating). Therefore, a relationship between scores on a measure of compulsive buying, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood was hypothesized. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of convenience of 373 obstetrics/gynecology patients, correlations between CBS scores and BMI, both generally and with regard to race were examined. A modest general correlation between CBS scores and BMI (r = 0.17, P < 0.01) was found. However, when these data were examined by race, CBS scores and BMI were significantly related among Caucasian women (r = 0.25, P < 0.01), but not in African American women (r = 0.04, P = n.s.). Findings indicate that compulsive buying is associated with increasing BMI in adulthood, particularly among Caucasian women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

    PubMed

    Borruel, Susana; Moltó, José F; Alpañés, Macarena; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), model of adipose distribution (MOAD), visceral adiposity index (VAI), and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression), and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99) and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98) probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  9. Inter-relationships between physical activity, body mass index, sedentary time, and cognitive functioning in younger and older adults: cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Ardern, C I; Baker, J

    2017-10-01

    Engagement in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is protective against cognitive decline whereas obesity and sedentary behaviors are associated with impairments in perceived cognitive function. Currently, little is known about how these relationships vary across the lifespan. This study investigated the inter-relationships between LTPA, leisure-time sedentary time (LTST), body mass index (BMI), and perceived cognitive functioning in younger and older Canadian adults. This is a cross-sectional study. Data from the 2012 annual component of the Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 45,522; ≥30 y) were used to capture LTPA, BMI, LTST, and perceived cognitive function. The inter-relationships were assessed using both mediation analyses and general linear models. Lower LTPA and higher BMI and LTST were related to poorer perceived cognitive functioning (P < 0.0001) and LTPA mediated the BMI-perceived cognitive functioning (Sobel's test: t = 3.24; P < 0.002) and LTST-perceived cognitive functioning (Sobel test: t = 3.35; P < 0.002) relationships. Higher LTPA levels contribute to better perceived cognitive functioning scores both independently and by way of offsetting the impact of elevated BMI and LTST on cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  10. Birth weight, postnatal weight gain and adult body composition in five low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Adair, Linda; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Fall, Caroline H D; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Osmond, Clive; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Stein, Aryeh D.; Victora, Cesar G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate associations between birth weight (BW), infancy and childhood weight gain and adult body composition. Methods Subjects included participants of five birth cohort studies from low and middle income nations (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, South Africa; n=3432). We modeled adult body composition as a function of BW and conditional weight gain (CW), representing changes in weight trajectory relative to peers, in three age intervals (0-12m, 12-24m, 24m-mid childhood). Results In 34 of 36 site- and sex-specific models, regression coefficients associated with BW and CWs were higher for adult fat-free than for fat mass. The strength of coefficients predicting fat-free mass relative to those predicting fat mass was greatest for birth weight, intermediate for CWs through 24 months, and weaker thereafter. However, because fat masses were smaller and showed larger variances than fat-free masses, weaker relationships with fat mass still yielded modest but significant increases in adult % body fat (PBF). CW at 12 months and mid-childhood tended to be strongest predictors of PBF, while BW was generally the weakest predictor of PBF. For most early growth measures, a 1 SD change predicted less than a 1% change in adult body fat, suggesting that any health impacts of early growth on changes in adult body composition are likely to be small in these cohorts. Conclusions Birth weight and weight trajectories up to 24 months tend to be more strongly associated with adult fat-free mass than with fat mass, while weight trajectories in mid-childhood predict both fat mass and fat-free mass. PMID:22121058

  11. The influence of home-delivered dietary approaches to stop hypertension meals on body mass index, energy intake, and percent of energy needs consumed among older adults with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Lyerly, Jordan; Troyer, Jennifer L; Warren-Findlow, Jan; McAuley, William J

    2012-11-01

    It is unclear whether participation in home-delivered meal programs similar to the Older Americans Act home-delivered meals program influence weight status among older adults with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. To examine the influence of a home-delivered Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) meal intervention on body mass index (BMI), energy consumed, and percent of energy needs consumed. A 1-year randomized control trial of home-delivered DASH meals and medical nutrition therapy conducted from 2003 through 2005. Participants who received DASH meals were compared with those who did not receive meals. Data were collected in participants' homes at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The study sample was composed of 298 adults aged >60 years with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia residing in a county in the southeastern part of North Carolina. Participants in the meals intervention group received seven frozen meals per week for 1 year. The meals were designed to meet one third of participants' energy and nutrient needs and to comply with the DASH diet. Change in BMI, energy consumed, and percent of energy needs consumed. Difference-in-differences models were used to estimate the effects of the meal intervention on BMI, energy consumed, and percent of daily energy needs consumed. Analyses were conducted among the full sample and by subgroup (ie, race, income, and baseline obesity status). In the full sample, receipt of meals did not have a significant effect on BMI, energy consumed, or percent of daily energy needs consumed. Among those living at or above the 165% poverty threshold, receipt of home-delivered meals was significantly associated with a decrease in energy consumed and, therefore, percent of daily energy needs consumed. Participation in a home-delivered DASH meal program did not lead to weight gain or weight loss in a group of mostly overweight or obese older adults with hypertension and/or hyperlidemia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition

  12. A body composition model to estimate mammalian energy stores and metabolic rates from body mass and body length, with application to polar bears.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Péter K; Klanjscek, Tin; Derocher, Andrew E; Obbard, Martyn E; Lewis, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    Many species experience large fluctuations in food availability and depend on energy from fat and protein stores for survival, reproduction and growth. Body condition and, more specifically, energy stores thus constitute key variables in the life history of many species. Several indices exist to quantify body condition but none can provide the amount of stored energy. To estimate energy stores in mammals, we propose a body composition model that differentiates between structure and storage of an animal. We develop and parameterize the model specifically for polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) but all concepts are general and the model could be easily adapted to other mammals. The model provides predictive equations to estimate structural mass, storage mass and storage energy from an appropriately chosen measure of body length and total body mass. The model also provides a means to estimate basal metabolic rates from body length and consecutive measurements of total body mass. Model estimates of body composition, structural mass, storage mass and energy density of 970 polar bears from Hudson Bay were consistent with the life history and physiology of polar bears. Metabolic rate estimates of fasting adult males derived from the body composition model corresponded closely to theoretically expected and experimentally measured metabolic rates. Our method is simple, non-invasive and provides considerably more information on the energetic status of individuals than currently available methods.

  13. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (P<0.001 in men, P=0.05 in women). It was positively associated with trunk-to-limb fat ratio in women who were less than 15 years old at the time of exposure (P=0.03). This is the first study to report a significant dose response for BMI and body composition 50 years after A-bomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  14. Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to small-bodied hominins.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher S; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Sridhar, Shilpa; Cameron, Noël; Churchill, Steven E

    2017-05-02

    Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of several published morphometric prediction equations when applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of modern human juveniles likely differ from those of small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful model for assessing the robustness of morphometric prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older groups, which fall in the body size range of adult Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes in these body proportions likely influence the shift in prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However, because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied hominins

  15. Environmental Light Exposure Is Associated with Increased Body Mass in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Cassandra L.; Allan, Alicia C.; Staton, Sally L.; Thorpe, Karen J.; Smith, Simon S.

    2016-01-01

    The timing, intensity, and duration of exposure to both artificial and natural light have acute metabolic and physiological effects in mammals. Recent research in human adults suggests exposure to moderate intensity light later in the day is concurrently associated with increased body mass; however, no studies have investigated the effect of light exposure on body mass in young children. We examined objectively measured light exposure and body mass of 48 preschool-aged children at baseline, and measured their body mass again 12 months later. At baseline, moderate intensity light exposure earlier in the day was associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Increased duration of light exposure at baseline predicted increased BMI 12-months later, even after controlling for baseline sleep duration, sleep timing, BMI, and activity. The findings identify that light exposure may be a contributor to the obesogenic environment during early childhood. PMID:26735299

  16. Prediction Equation for Calculating Fat Mass in Young Indian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Gupta, Giniya; Shenoy, Shweta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Accurate measurement or prediction of fat mass is useful in physiology, nutrition and clinical medicine. Most predictive equations currently used to assess percentage of body fat or fat mass, using simple anthropometric measurements were derived from people in western societies and they may not be appropriate for individuals with other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We developed equations to predict fat mass from anthropometric measurements in young Indian adults. Methods Fat mass was measured in 60 females and 58 males, aged 20 to 29 yrs by using hydrostatic weighing and by simultaneous measurement of residual lung volume. Anthropometric measure included weight (kg), height (m) and 4 skinfold thickness [STs (mm)]. Sex specific linear regression model was developed with fat mass as the dependent variable and all anthropometric measures as independent variables. Results The prediction equation obtained for fat mass (kg) for males was 8.46+0.32 (weight) − 15.16 (height) + 9.54 (log of sum of 4 STs) (R2= 0. 53, SEE=3.42 kg) and − 20.22 + 0.33 (weight) + 3.44 (height) + 7.66 (log of sum of 4 STs) (R2=0.72, SEE=3.01kg) for females. Conclusion A new prediction equation for the measurement of fat mass was derived and internally validated in young Indian adults using simple anthropometric measurements. PMID:22375197

  17. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10−8) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10−10) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. PMID:26604143

  18. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.

    PubMed

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-01-15

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.

  19. Body Weight Status among Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of obese, overweight, and healthy weight adults with intellectual disability in the community was estimated using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1985 to 2000. Using the Body Mass Index (BMI) as a measure, the percentage of adults with intellectual disability in the obese category was higher than that for the…

  20. Obesity, Body Mass Index, and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Omond, Kimberley J; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    The body mass indexes (BMIs) of 100 randomly selected homicide cases from the files of Forensic Science SA were compared to the Australian and South Australian populations. There were 70 males and 30 females (M:F = 2.3:1; age range 18-84 years; mean 42.3 years). There was a substantially lower proportion of obese individuals in the homicide population compared to the general Australian and South Australian populations (19% [vs.] 27.9% and 30%, respectively). A second group of 144 randomly selected autopsy cases where the BMI was ≥40 kg/m(2) was analyzed. There were 77 males and 67 females (M:F = 1.2:1; age range 23-78 years; mean 46.7 years). The majority of deaths were natural (N = 108), with no homicides. A negative association between obesity and homicide has, therefore, been demonstrated. Reasons for the lower numbers of obese/morbidly obese individuals among homicide victims are unclear, but may include physical protection afforded by fat padding from sharp force injuries, and relative sociodemographic isolation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING - THE MODERATING ROLE OF BODY DISSATISFACTION.

    PubMed

    Brdarić, Dragana; Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov Jerković, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women), with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47) from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  2. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  3. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  4. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  5. Body mass changes during long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Launius, Ryan D; Coen, Geoffrey K; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Charles, John B; Smith, Scott M

    2014-09-01

    During early spaceflights, many crewmembers did not meet their caloric requirements and consequently lost body mass during flight, as assessed by a decrease in postflight body mass. Maintaining body mass during spaceflight is crucial for maintaining crew health and monitoring body mass is thus important to medical operations as well as being a key component of human research. Determining body mass becomes difficult in a microgravity environment. We report data from two mass measurement devices on the International Space Station (ISS): the Russian body mass measuring device (BMMD), which uses spring oscillation physics, and NASA's Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device (SLAMMD), which uses Newton's second law of motion (F = ma). For 25 crewmembers whose body mass was measured on both devices, significant body mass loss occurred compared to preflight (gravimetric scale) and averaged -4.4% as assessed by BMMD and -2.8% as assessed by SLAMMD. After an initial loss in the first 30 d of flight, body mass remained constant through the rest of the mission, as determined using either device. The mean difference between the two devices was 1.1 kg when the closest SLAMMD and BMMD measurements were compared (6.9 ± 6.2 d apart). Dietary intake during flight is approximately 80% of the World Health Organization estimated requirement and the decrease in body mass follows in-flight energy intake closely on average. Body mass monitoring is important for monitoring crew health during a mission and to help ensure that crewmembers consume adequate energy intake to mitigate the risks of spaceflight.

  6. Inequality of the passive gravitational mass and the inertial mass of an extended body

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V.I.; Chugreev, Y.V.; Logunov, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the problem of two extended bodies, a new definition of the passive gravitational mass of an extended, spherically symmetric body (the Earth) is given. If this mass is equal to the inertial mass, the equation of motion of the center of mass of the extended body becomes the equation of a geodesic of a point in the total gravitational field of the two extended bodies (the Earth and the Sun). It is shown that in general the passive gravitational mass is not equal to the inertial mass, and therefore the center of mass does not move along a geodesic.

  7. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-08-24

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards body weight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight in various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Adolescents have major concerns regarding body image. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  8. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  9. Comparison of the effectiveness of body mass index and body fat percentage in defining body composition.

    PubMed

    Goonasegaran, Arvin Raj; Nabila, Fatin Nabila; Shuhada, Nurul Shuhada

    2012-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has limited diagnostic performance due to its inability to discriminate between fat and lean mass. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of body fat percentage (BFP) against BMI in defining body composition. A cross-sectional study was conducted on students aged 17-30 years in Melaka, Malaysia. Basic anthropometric measurements were acquired using a manual weighing scale, measuring tape and a fixed stadiometer. BFP was calculated using the United States Navy formula. Data was tabulated and analysed using Epi Info and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Kappa values were used. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of the 490 subjects recruited, 43% of males and 24.6% of females were found to be overweight, while 14.3% of males and 7.8% of females were obese, when calculated using BMI. However, 8.9% of males and 22.8% of females were considered obese based on the BFP. BFP plays a more important role in distinguishing between healthy and obese individuals, as it has a greater ability to differentiate between lean mass and fat mass compared to BMI.

  10. Stochastic modeling of uncertain mass characteristics in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Lanae A.; Mignolet, Marc P.

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the formulation, assessment, and application of a modeling strategy of uncertainty on the mass characteristics of rigid bodies, i.e. mass, position of center of mass, and inertia tensor. These characteristics are regrouped into a 4×4 matrix the elements of which are represented as random variables with joint probability density function derived following the maximum entropy framework. This stochastic model is first shown to satisfy all properties expected of the mass and tensor of inertia of rigid bodies. Its usefulness and computational efficiency are next demonstrated on the behavior of a rigid body in pure rotation exhibiting significant uncertainty in mass distribution.

  11. The influence of birthweight, past poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and current body mass index on levels of albuminuria in young adults: the multideterminant model of renal disease in a remote Australian Aboriginal population with high rates of renal disease and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; White, Andrew V; Tipiloura, Bernard; Singh, Gurmeet R; Sharma, Suresh; Bloomfield, Hilary; Swanson, Cheryl E; Dowling, Alison; McCredie, David A

    2016-06-01

    Australian Aborigines in remote areas have very high rates of kidney disease, which is marked by albuminuria. We describe a 'multihit' model of albuminuria in young adults in one remote Aboriginal community. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) were measured in 655 subjects aged 15-39 years and evaluated in the context of birthweights, a history of 'remote' poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN; ≥5 years earlier) and current body mass index (BMI). Birthweight had been <2.5 kg (low birthweight, LBW) in 25.4% of subjects and 22.8% had a remote history of PSGN. ACR levels rose with age. It exceeded the microalbuminuria threshold in 33.6% of subjects overall (25% of males and 45% of females). In multivariate models, birthweight (inversely), remote PSGN and current BMI were all independent predictors of ACR levels. The effects of birthweight and PSGN and their combination were expressed through amplification of ACR levels in relation to age and around the group median BMI of 20.8 kg/m(2). In people with BMI <20.8 (57.8% of all males and 40.3% of the females), LBW and PSGN alone had minimal effects on ACR, but in combination they strikingly amplified ACR in relation to age. Those with BMI ≥20.8 (which included 42.2% of the males and 59.7% of the females) had higher ACR levels, and both LBW and a PSGN history, separately and in combination, were associated with striking further amplification of ACR in the context of age. Much of the great excess of disease in this population is explained by high rates of the early life risk factors, LBW and PSGN. Their effects are expressed through amplification of ACR in the context of increasing age and are further moderated by levels of current body size. Both early life risk factors are potentially modifiable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years.

    PubMed

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-07-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research.

  13. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  14. Variation in body mass of wild canvasback and redhead ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Serie, Jerome R.

    1994-01-01

    We assessed variation in body mass of ducklings in single- and mixed-species broods of wild Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) and Redheads (Aythya americana) 20-50 days old. Body mass of canvasback ducklings was not affected by year and season (early vs. late hatch date) despite changes in water conditions. Mean body mass of male and female Canvasbacks did not differ in Class IIA but did differ in older age classes. Within-brood differences in body mass tended to be higher in Class IIA ducklings (6-7% of mean body mass for Canvasbacks, 9-11% in Redheads) and generally declined to 4-6% in Class IIC and older ducklings. Some within-brood differences were as high as 20-30% of mean body mass. Tests to assess sources of within-brood variation (age, sex, and season) in body mass for Canvasbacks were inconclusive. Variation within broods was generally less than that among broods for both Canvasbacks and Redheads. The lack of differences in duckling body mass between single- and mixed-species broods for any age class, sex, or species suggests that mass was not affected by interspecific brood parasitism.

  15. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  16. The "Body Mass Index" of Flexible Ureteroscopes.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Silvia; Somani, Bhaskar; Sofer, Mario; Pietropaolo, Amelia; Rosso, Marco; Saitta, Giuseppe; Gaboardi, Franco; Traxer, Olivier; Giusti, Guido

    2017-09-28

    To assess the "body mass index" (BMI) (weight and length) of 12 flexible ureteroscopes (digital and fiber optic) along with the light cables and camera heads, to make the best use of our instruments. Twelve different brand-new flexible ureteroscopes from four different manufacturers, along with eight camera heads and three light cables were evaluated. Each ureteroscope, camera head, and light cable was weighted; the total length of each ureteroscope, shaft, handle, flexible end-tip, and cable were all measured. According to our measurements (in grams [g]), the lightest ureteroscope was the LithoVue (277.5 g), while the heaviest was the URF-V2 (942.5 g). The lightest fiber optic endoscope was the Viper (309 g), while the heaviest was the Cobra (351.5 g). Taking into account the entirety of the endoscopes, the lightest ureteroscope was the Lithovue and the heaviest was the Wolf Cobra with the Wolf camera "3 CHIP HD KAMERA KOPF ENDOCAM LOGIC HD" (1474 g). The longest ureteroscope was the URF-P6 (101.6 cm) and the shortest was the LithoVue (95.5 cm); whereas the Viper and Cobra had the longest shaft (69 cm) and URF-V had the shortest shaft (67.2 cm). The URF-V2 had the longest flexible end-tip (7.6 cm), while the LithoVue had the shortest end-tip (5.7 cm) in both directions (up/down), while the URF-V had the shortest upward deflection (3.7 cm). Newer more versatile digital endoscopes were lighter than their traditional fiber optic counterparts in their entirety, with disposable endoscope having a clear advantage over other reusable ureteroscopes. Knowing the "BMI" of our flexible ureteroscopes is an important information that every endourologist should always take into consideration.

  17. The swimsuit issue: Correlates of body image in a sample of 52,677 heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Peplau, Letitia Anne; Lever, Janet

    2006-12-01

    Past research on adults' body image has typically used small convenience samples, limiting the ability to examine associations of personal characteristics to body satisfaction. This study of 52,677 heterosexual adults ages 18-65 examined associations of body satisfaction to age, height, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Age and height were mostly unrelated to body satisfaction. Consistent with an Objectification Theory perspective, fewer men than women reported being too heavy (41% versus 61%), rated their body as unattractive (11% versus 21%), or avoided wearing a swimsuit in public (16% versus 31%). Men felt better about their bodies than women across most of the weight span, although among underweight individuals, women felt better than men. Slender women (BMIs 14.5-22.49) were more satisfied than most other women (BMIs 22.5-40.5). Among men, underweight and obese men were least satisfied. These findings highlight gender differences in the association of weight to body satisfaction.

  18. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  19. Discordance between fat mass index and body mass index is associated with reduced bone mineral density in women but not in men: the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K; Hunter, M; James, A; Lim, E M; Cooke, B R; Walsh, J P

    2017-01-01

    The obesity-BMD relationship is complex. In 3045 middle-aged adults, we found that in women (but not men) with discordant fat mass index (FMI)/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone.

  20. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  1. Weight loss, body fat mass, and leptin in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorefält, Birgitta; Toss, Göran; Granérus, Ann-Kathrine

    2009-04-30

    Weight loss is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the causative mechanisms behind this weight loss are unclear. We compared 26 PD patients with sex and age matched healthy controls. Examinations were repeated at baseline, after one and after two years. Body fat mass was measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Seventy three per cent of the PD patients lost body weight. Loss of body fat mass constituted a considerable part of the loss of body weight. In the patients who lost weight, serum leptin levels were lower than in those who did not lose weight. The relationship between low body fat mass and low leptin levels seems to be relevant, at least for female PD patients. It is reasonable to believe that low leptin levels in these patients could be secondary to the decreased body fat mass. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, L G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, K F; Skytthe, A; Mortensen, E L; Baker, J L; Sørensen, T I A

    2014-10-01

    Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain. Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633 individuals. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months was retrieved from health visitors' records and information on BMI at ages 7 and 13 years from school health records. The associations of infant weight and weight gain standard deviation scores (SDS) with adult BMI-SDS were analyzed using multiple linear regression and path analysis. Higher-weight-SDS at all ages from birth to an age 12 months were associated with higher-BMI-SDS at 42 years (regression coefficients 0.08-0.12). Infant weight gain-SDS was associated with greater BMI-SDS at 42 years only between birth and 3 months (0.09, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.04, 0.15) driven by an association between 2 and 3 months (0.12, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.20). The latter was partly mediated through later BMI in the path analysis. Infant weight gain-SDS between 3 and 12 months was not associated with greater BMI-SDS at 42 years. Faster weight gain during only the first 3 months of infancy was associated with increased adult BMI, although not in a consistent monthly pattern. Adult BMI is more sensitive to high weight gain during early infancy than late infancy, but not specifically to the first month of life.

  3. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  4. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  5. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  6. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  7. Hematology, serum chemistry, and body mass of free-ranging and captive Canada lynx in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Moen, Ron; Rasmussen, James M; Burdett, Christopher L; Pelican, Katharine M

    2010-01-01

    Baseline blood chemistry data could be particularly valuable if reference values from free-ranging populations of rare or endangered species are not available. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the conterminous United States, even though the species is managed as a furbearer in Alaska and in most provinces of Canada. Body mass, blood chemistry, and hematologic data for free-ranging lynx were collected from 2003 to 2007 and for captive lynx from 1984 to 2007. Up to 2 yr of age, captive lynx were consistently heavier than free-ranging lynx. Body mass of adult free-ranging lynx was similar to body mass of captive adult lynx. Some differences in blood chemistry between free-ranging and captive lynx were statistically significant, but most measured values were within reference ranges for domestic cats. Free-ranging lynx had higher concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen than did captive lynx, and these were outside the reference value ranges for domestic cats. Alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus were higher in juveniles (<12 mo when captured) as compared to adults. Free-ranging lynx maintained body mass between serial captures. Hematologic values, blood chemistry values, and body mass of free-ranging Canada lynx provide support for the hypothesis that Canada lynx in Minnesota, at the southern edge of their range, are in normal physical condition.

  8. Individual Differences in Fornix Microstructure and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Baddeley, Roland J.; Jones, Derek K.; Aggleton, John P.; O’Sullivan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated health conditions is increasing in the developed world. Obesity is related to atrophy and dysfunction of the hippocampus and hippocampal lesions may lead to increased appetite and weight gain. The hippocampus is connected via the fornix tract to the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the nucleus accumbens, all key structures for homeostatic and reward related control of food intake. The present study employed diffusion MRI tractography to investigate the relationship between microstructural properties of the fornix and variation in Body Mass Index (BMI), within normal and overweight ranges, in a group of community-dwelling older adults (53–93 years old). Larger BMI was associated with larger axial and mean diffusivity in the fornix (r = 0.64 and r = 0.55 respectively), relationships that were most pronounced in overweight individuals. Moreover, controlling for age, education, cognitive performance, blood pressure and global brain volume increased these correlations. Similar associations were not found in the parahippocampal cingulum, a comparison temporal association pathway. Thus, microstructural changes in fornix white matter were observed in older adults with increasing BMI levels from within normal to overweight ranges, so are not exclusively related to obesity. We propose that hippocampal-hypothalamic-prefrontal interactions, mediated by the fornix, contribute to the healthy functioning of networks involved in food intake control. The fornix, in turn, may display alterations in microstructure that reflect weight gain. PMID:23555805

  9. Nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in relation to overall diet quality, body mass index, and waist circumference in British adults.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro

    2017-09-13

    Studies examining meal and snack eating behaviors in relation to overall diet and health markers are limited, at least partly because there is no definitive consensus about what constitutes a snack, a meal, or an eating occasion. This cross-sectional study examined how nutritional quality of meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 0600-1000, 1200-1500, and 1800-2100 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15%; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years participating in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Nutritional quality of meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetic EI-weighted means of the British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein per 100 g. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA scores (lower nutritional quality) of both meals and snacks were associated with unfavorable profiles of individual components of overall diet, including lower intakes of fruits/vegetables/nuts and higher intakes of biscuits/cakes/pastries, total fat, and saturated fatty acid. The FSA scores of meals and snacks were also inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β) = -0.22 to -0.17 and -0.06 to -0.03, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β = -0.25 to -0.19 and -0.08 to -0.05, respectively) in both sexes (P ≤ 0.005). However, the associations were stronger for meals, mainly due to their larger contribution to total EI (64% to 84%). After adjustment for potential confounders, only the FSA score of snacks based on EI contribution was positively associated with BMI

  10. What Is Your Body Mass Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Memis, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent each year in efforts to prevent and treat diseases caused by unhealthy eating habits. Promoting awareness among young children regarding the importance of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is crucial for preparing them to sustain healthy lives as adults. This article aims to highlight ways to help students…

  11. What Is Your Body Mass Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Memis, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent each year in efforts to prevent and treat diseases caused by unhealthy eating habits. Promoting awareness among young children regarding the importance of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight is crucial for preparing them to sustain healthy lives as adults. This article aims to highlight ways to help students…

  12. Body mass reconstruction on the basis of selected skeletal traits.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Anna; Piontek, Janusz; Vancata, Vaclav

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is: to estimate the body mass of the skeletons with the mechanical method (femoral head body mass estimation method--FH) and non-mechanical method (stature/living bi-iliac breadth body mass estimation method--ST/LBIB); to compare the reliability and potential use of results obtained with both methods. The material (46 skeletons, 26 males, 20 females) used in the study came from the medieval burial ground in Cedynia, Poland. Body mass reconstruction according to non-mechanical method was made using equations proposed by Ruff et al. (2005). Body mass estimation based on the mechanical method was calculated using formulas proposed by Ruff et al. (1995). In the mechanical body mass reconstruction method, femoral superoinferior breadth was used. Reconstruction of body weight using the non-mechanical method was based on maximum pelvic breadth and reconstructed body height. The correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height were also calculated. The significance of differences between the body mass of male and female individuals was tested with the Mann-Whitney U-test. The significance of differences between body mass values obtained with the mechanical (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/ LBIB) was tested using Pearson's correlation. The same test was used for the calculation of the relationship between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements and between femoral head and reconstructed body height. In contrast to females, in males there is no statistically significant correlation between body mass estimated with the mechanical method (FH) and the non-mechanical method (ST/LBIB). In both sexes there was not statistically significant correlation between bi-iliac breadth and femoral head measurements. Only in the females group the correlation between femoral head and reconstructed body height was statistically significant. It is worth to continue

  13. A New Body Shape Index Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Krakauer, Jesse C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI), it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC) is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC. Methods and Findings We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults () from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths). We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI) based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: –]), whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. (–) of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to (–) for BMI and (–) for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity), and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up. Conclusions Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors. PMID:22815707

  14. Allometric functional response model: body masses constrain interaction strengths.

    PubMed

    Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Rall, Björn C; Kalinkat, Gregor; Brose, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    1. Functional responses quantify the per capita consumption rates of predators depending on prey density. The parameters of these nonlinear interaction strength models were recently used as successful proxies for predicting population dynamics, food-web topology and stability. 2. This study addressed systematic effects of predator and prey body masses on the functional response parameters handling time, instantaneous search coefficient (attack coefficient) and a scaling exponent converting type II into type III functional responses. To fully explore the possible combinations of predator and prey body masses, we studied the functional responses of 13 predator species (ground beetles and wolf spiders) on one small and one large prey resulting in 26 functional responses. 3. We found (i) a power-law decrease of handling time with predator mass with an exponent of -0.94; (ii) an increase of handling time with prey mass (power-law with an exponent of 0.83, but only three prey sizes were included); (iii) a hump-shaped relationship between instantaneous search coefficients and predator-prey body-mass ratios; and (iv) low scaling exponents for low predator-prey body mass ratios in contrast to high scaling exponents for high predator-prey body-mass ratios. 4. These scaling relationships suggest that nonlinear interaction strengths can be predicted by knowledge of predator and prey body masses. Our results imply that predators of intermediate size impose stronger per capita top-down interaction strengths on a prey than smaller or larger predators. Moreover, the stability of population and food-web dynamics should increase with increasing body-mass ratios in consequence of increases in the scaling exponents. 5. Integrating these scaling relationships into population models will allow predicting energy fluxes, food-web structures and the distribution of interaction strengths across food web links based on knowledge of the species' body masses.

  15. Family meals and body weight in US adults.

    PubMed

    Sobal, Jeffery; Hanson, Karla

    2011-09-01

    Family meals are an important ritual in contemporary societies and many studies have reported associations of family meals with several biopsychosocial outcomes among children and adolescents. However, few representative analyses of family meals have been conducted in samples of adults, and adults may differ from young people in predictors and outcomes of family meal consumption. We examined the prevalence and predictors of adult family meals and body weight outcomes. The cross-sectional 2009 Cornell National Social Survey (CNSS) included questions about the frequency of family meals, body weight as BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. The CNSS telephone survey used random digit dialling to sample individuals. We analysed data from 882 adults living with family members in a nationally representative US sample. Prevalence of family meals among these adults revealed that 53 % reported eating family meals seven or more times per week. Predictive results revealed that adults who more frequently ate family meals were more likely to be married and less likely to be employed full-time, year-round. Outcome results revealed that the overall frequency of family meals among adults was not significantly associated with any measure of body weight. However, interaction term analysis suggested an inverse association between frequency of family meals and BMI for adults with children in the household, and no association among adults without children. These findings suggest that family meals among adults are commonplace, associated with marital and work roles, and marginally associated with body weight only in households with children.

  16. Body mass index or body fat! Which is a better obesity scale for Pakistani population?

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Rehman, Rehana; Chaudhry, Bushra

    2014-11-01

    To compare two methods of classifying obesity based on body mass index and body fat percentage. The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to August 2013 at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Male and female volunteers between the ages 15-65 years were selected using simple random sampling. They were classified into different groups for body mass index and body fat percentage measured through bioelectrical impedance scale. The subjects were sub-grouped into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the 828 healthy volunteers was 25.67±10.10 years. A total of 552 (66.6%) subjects had a higher body fat percentage and were misclassified by body mass index. Only 276 (33.3%) subjects had body fat percentage values corresponding to the body mass index classification. The difference in terms of categorising obesity was highly significant (p<0.001). Both body mass index and body fat percentage showed positive correlation with age (r=0.144; p=0.001) (r=0.261; p=0.001) and weight (r=0.578; p=0.001) (r=0.444; p=0.001) respectively. Moreover body fat percentage showed a significant positive association with gender (r=0.109; p=0.027) whereas BMI did not. Body fat percentage should be incorporated for a better understanding as well as categorising of obesity.

  17. [Maternal body mass index and breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Driul, L; Forzano, L; Londero, A P; Fachechi, G; Liva, S; Marchesoni, D

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether maternal BMI influences breast-feeding practice in quality and duration A retrospective case-control study were included Fifty women with Body Max Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 considered overweigh and obese and fifty controls with BMI<25 kg/m2 who delivered in our clinic between 2010 and 2011. The incidence of breast-feeding was significantly lower in overweight and obese women compared with normal weight. Breastfeeding length was negatively related to prepregnancy BMI but not to gestational weight gain, method of delivery or lactation integration. Obese women presented an elevated Body Max Index one year apart from childbirth and are correlated to maternal complications during breastfeeding. Maternal overweight and obesity is negatively correlated to duration and quality of lactation.

  18. Gender differences in body esteem among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Patricia L; Hayslip, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Ninety-five adults aged 60-91 completed measures of Body-as-Object Esteem (BOE) (i.e., appearance) and Body-as-Process Esteem (BPE) (i.e., function) to explore gender differences in body esteem among older adults. As hypothesized, a significant age by gender interaction revealed that men become more disparaging of the appearance and function of their bodies in their last decades of life, while women do not. Level of physical disability was negatively correlated with BOE, particularly for disabled women. Furthermore, as is seen across the lifespan, self-esteem is a significant predictor of BOE. Disabled participants who were older than 74 years had disproportionately low BPE scores and similarly poor global self-esteem. Whether working with older adults or studying body esteem in this population, it is vital that both dimensions of body esteem are assessed along with the impact of disability status, gender, self-esteem, and age.

  19. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  20. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  1. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive.

  2. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  3. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  4. Association between Indices of Body Composition and Abnormal Metabolic Phenotype in Normal-Weight Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lili; Dong, Fen; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fen; Pan, Li; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Yuxiang; Gaisano, Herbert; He, Yan; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-07

    We aimed to determine the association of indices of body composition with abnormal metabolic phenotype, and to examine whether the strength of association was differentially distributed in different age groups in normal-weight Chinese adults. A total of 3015 normal-weight adults from a survey of Chinese people encompassing health and basic physiological parameters was included in this cross-sectional study. We investigated the association of body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional body indices with metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUHNW) adults, divided by age groups and gender. Associations were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found abnormal metabolism in lean Chinese adults to be associated with higher adiposity indices (body mass index, BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat), lower skeletal muscle %, and body water %. Body composition was differentially distributed in age groups within the metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW)/MUHNW groups. The impact of factors related to MUHNW shows a decreasing trend with advancing age in females and disparities of factors (BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water %) associated with the MUHNW phenotype in the elderly was noticed. Those factors remained unchanged in males throughout the age range, while the association of BMI, body fat %, skeletal muscle %, and body water % to MUHNW attenuated and grip strength emerged as a protective factor in elderly females. These results suggest that increased adiposity and decreased skeletal muscle mass are associated with unfavorable metabolic traits in normal-weight Chinese adults, and that MUHNW is independent of BMI, while increased waist circumference appears to be indicative of an abnormal metabolic phenotype in elderly females.

  5. Methods used by adolescents for reducing body mass.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Heberlej, Agelika

    2015-01-01

    During adolescence teenagers undergo dynamic physical and mental changes which are accompanied by an increasing interest in changes to their external appearance. Often teens are concerned about such changes, leading to attempts at managing body mass reduction. Adolescent slimming more commonly arises due to a subjective appraisal of body mass rather than using any objective BMI indicators. To evaluate nutritional status of 13 year old boys and girls living in Szczecin, Poland and to analyse the methods used for achieving body mass reduction. Subjects were 1,342 adolescents consisting of 679 girls and 663 boys. Nutritional assessment was performed by anthropometric measurements; calculated BMI (Body Mass Index) and WC (Waist Circumference index). A questionnaire was also used to determine how the subjects lost body mass, their satisfaction levels, mood changes and physical activity. Only 73% subjects had an adequate/normal nutritional status. It was found that half of those declaring that they had used various means of losing body mass (13.04%), of whom the majority were girls, had normal BMI indicators. The most frequently used method of losing body mass were; reducing foodstuff portions and dishes, abstaining from dinner, 1-3 starvation days, increasing physical activity, reducing sweets consumption, abstaining altogether from sweets and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Slimming diets were undertaken by 13.1% subjects, consisting mainly of 1000-1300 kcal diets, vegetarian diets or ones recommended by a physician. Adolescents living in Szczecin showed similar rates of adopting slimming diets for reducing body mass when compared to other regions of Poland and the rest of Europe. The methods used for this purpose were mainly either anti- or pro-healthy nutritional behaviour, but less often using physical activity or through slimming diets. It thus appears that monitoring nutritional status in adolescents, as well as providing education in pro

  6. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  7. Adjusting powerlifting performances for differences in body mass.

    PubMed

    Cleather, Daniel John

    2006-05-01

    It has been established that, in the sports of Olympic weightlifting (OL) and powerlifting (PL), the relationship between lifting performance and body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently studied in OL, but the literature on PL is less extensive. In this study, PL performance and body mass, for both men and women, was examined by using data from the International Powerlifting Federation World Championships during 1995-2004. Nonlinear regression was used to apply 7 models (including allometric, polynomial, and power models) to the data. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between PL performance and body mass can be best modeled by the equation y = a - bx(-c), where y is the weight lifted (in kg) in the squat, bench press, or deadlift, x is the body mass of the lifter (in kg), and a, b, and c are constants. The constants a, b, and c are determined by the type of lift (squat, bench press, or deadlift) and the gender of the lifter and were obtained from the regression analysis. Inspection of the plots of raw residuals (actual performance minus predicted performance) vs. body mass revealed no body mass bias to this formula in contrast to research into other handicapping formulas. This study supports previous research that found a bias toward lifters in the intermediate weight categories in allometric fits to PL data.

  8. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  9. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size.

  10. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  11. Muscle Mass and Body Fat in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Estimation and Lipid-Lowering Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2016-12-06

    This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationships of muscle-mass and body-fat phenotypes to 10-yr risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and eligibility for lipid management. Participants were Korean adults (N = 7315; 3163 men, 4152 women) aged 40-79 yr, free from stroke and coronary heart disease, who provided complete data for estimating 10-yr CVD risk and body composition during the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010). Four levels of combined muscle mass and body fat were determined using sex-specific quintiles of appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared, and sex-specific quintiles of total body fat percentage. Ten-year CVD risk was calculated using Pooled Cohort Equations and Framingham risk scores. Lipid-lowering medication eligibility was determined using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Compared with the reference group, the risk of CVD events was higher in men with low muscle mass, high body fat, or the 2 factors combined. CVD risk was lower in women with low muscle mass, higher in women with high body fat, and nonsignificant in women with the 2 factors. Participants with low muscle mass and high body fat had higher odds for medication eligibility using the ACC/AHA guidelines but not the ATP III guidelines. Higher estimated 10-yr CVD risk was associated with combined phenotypes of low muscle mass and high fat in men but not in women. Also, the relationship of these phenotypes to lipid-lowering medication eligibility was guideline-specific.

  12. Pharmacology of manipulating lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Patricio V; Bush, Ernest D; Baar, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dysfunction and wasting of skeletal muscle as a consequence of illness decreases the length and quality of life. Currently, there are few, if any, effective treatments available to address these conditions. Hence, the existence of this unmet medical need has fuelled large scientific efforts.Fortunately, these efforts have shown many of the underlying mechanisms adversely affecting skeletal muscle health.With increased understanding have come breakthrough disease-specific and broad spectrum interventions, some progressing through clinical development.The present review focuses its attention on the role of the antagonistic process regulating skeletal muscle mass before branching into prospective promising therapeutic targets and interventions. Special attention is given to therapies in development against cancer cachexia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy before closing remarks on design and conceptualization of future therapies are presented to the reader. PMID:25311629

  13. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-06-01

    Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is measured with accelerometers, was conducted in healthy subjects under daily living conditions over intervals of one or more weeks. Activity energy expenditure as a fraction of daily energy expenditure is highest in adults at the reproductive age. Then, activity energy expenditure is a function of fat-free mass. Excess body mass as fat does not affect daily activity energy expenditure, but body movement decreases with increasing fatness. Overweight and obesity possibly affect daily physical activity energy expenditure through endurance. Physical activity is affected by energy availability; a negative energy balance induces a reduction of activity expenditure. Optimal performance and health require prevention of excess body fat and maintenance of energy balance, where energy balance determines physical activity rather than physical activity affecting energy balance.

  14. Body mass index effects sperm quality: a retrospective study in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, En-Yin; Huang, Yan; Du, Qing-Yun; Yao, Gui-Dong; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Excess weight and obesity have become a serious problem in adult men of reproductive age throughout the world. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the relationships between body mass index and sperm quality in subfertile couples in a Chinese Han population. Sperm analyses were performed and demographic data collected from 2384 male partners in subfertile couples who visited a reproductive medical center for treatment and preconception counseling. The subjects were classified into four groups according to their body mass index: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Of these subjects, 918 (38.3%) had a body mass index of >25.0 kg m-0 2 . No significant differences were found between the four groups with respect to age, occupation, level of education, smoking status, alcohol use, duration of sexual abstinence, or the collection time of year for sperm. The results clearly indicated lower sperm quality (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motile sperm, relative amounts of type A motility, and progressive motility sperm [A + B]) in overweight and obese participants than in those with normal body mass index. Normal sperm morphology and sperm volume showed no clear difference between the four groups. This study indicates that body mass index has a negative effect on sperm quality in men of subfertile couples in a Northern Chinese population. Further study should be performed to investigate the relationship between body mass index and sperm quality in a larger population.

  15. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor. PMID:22510779

  16. Birth mass is the key to understanding the negative correlation between lifespan and body size in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Olbricht, Gayla; Baker, Xavior; Hou, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Larger dog breeds live shorter than the smaller ones, opposite of the mass-lifespan relationship observed across mammalian species. Here we use data from 90 dog breeds and a theoretical model based on the first principles of energy conservation and life history tradeoffs to explain the negative correlation between longevity and body size in dogs. We found that the birth/adult mass ratio of dogs scales negatively with adult size, which is different than the weak interspecific scaling in mammals. Using the model, we show that this ratio, as an index of energy required for growth, is the key to understanding why the lifespan of dogs scales negatively with body size. The model also predicts that the difference in mass-specific lifetime metabolic energy usage between dog breeds is proportional to the difference in birth/adult mass ratio. Empirical data on lifespan, body mass, and metabolic scaling law of dogs strongly supports this prediction. PMID:27956710

  17. Birth mass is the key to understanding the negative correlation between lifespan and body size in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Olbricht, Gayla; Baker, Xavior; Hou, Chen

    2016-12-08

    Larger dog breeds live shorter than the smaller ones, opposite of the mass-lifespan relationship observed across mammalian species. Here we use data from 90 dog breeds and a theoretical model based on the first principles of energy conservation and life history tradeoffs to explain the negative correlation between longevity and body size in dogs. We found that the birth/adult mass ratio of dogs scales negatively with adult size, which is different than the weak interspecific scaling in mammals. Using the model, we show that this ratio, as an index of energy required for growth, is the key to understanding why the lifespan of dogs scales negatively with body size. The model also predicts that the difference in mass-specific lifetime metabolic energy usage between dog breeds is proportional to the difference in birth/adult mass ratio. Empirical data on lifespan, body mass, and metabolic scaling law of dogs strongly supports this prediction.

  18. Bone mineral density and body composition in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grey, A B; Ames, R W; Matthews, R D; Reid, I R

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease characterised by chronic pulmonary sepsis and malnutrition. To ascertain whether osteoporosis is a feature of cystic fibrosis in adult patients, total body and regional bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in a group of eight men and eight women aged 17-42 years. METHODS--Total body and regional BMD (lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck, trochanteric, and Ward's triangle), as well as total body fat and lean mass, were measured by dual energy x ray absorptiometry. A range of biochemical, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables was also assessed. RESULTS--Patients with cystic fibrosis had significantly reduced bone density at all sites compared with normal young adults. The mean reductions ranged from 7% at Ward's triangle to 13% at the trochanter. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with BMD at four sites and disease severity negatively correlated with BMD at two sites. Other biochemical and anthropometric variables were not predictive of bone density. Total body fat mass was reduced by 30% compared with normal young adults. CONCLUSIONS--Bone density is decreased in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and BMI and disease severity are independent predictors of bone density. PMID:8346485

  19. The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, M. de L.; Hanley, S.; Laughlin, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a simple method that uses skulls to estimate the diameter, and hence the mass, of birds' eyes. Allometric analysis demonstrated that, within five orders (parrots, pigeons, petrels, raptors and owls) and across 104 families of flying birds, eye mass is proportional to (body mass)0.68 over a range of body masses (6 g to 11.3 kg). As expected from their habits and visual ecology, raptors and owls have enlarged eyes, with masses 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than average birds of the same weight. Taking existing relationships for flight speed on body mass, we find that resolution increases close to (flight speed)1.333. Consequently, large birds resolve objects at a longer time to contact than small birds. Eye radius and skull size co-vary in strict proportion, suggesting common physiological, aerodynamic and mechanical constraints. Because eye mass scales close to brain mass, metabolic rate and information processing could also be limiting, but the precise factors determining the scaling of eye to body have not been identified.

  20. PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-06

    ISS019-E-014216 (6 May 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, uses the IM mass measurement device to perform the PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement Russian biomedical routine assessments in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.