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Sample records for adult body plan

  1. Adult Education Regional Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For more than one hundred and fifty years, until 2008, California was an undisputed national leader in its commitment to adult education. The state's investment in adult learners topped $750 million, a sum greater than the combined total of every other state in the nation. However, for the past several years recession and fiscal crisis have left…

  2. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. PMID:23933684

  3. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092

  4. The adult body: how age, gender, and body mass index are related to body image.

    PubMed

    Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women. PMID:19897779

  5. Adults are intuitive mind-body dualists.

    PubMed

    Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c). Further, we found that an intuitive belief in mind-body dualism may in fact be considered a default: Taxing participants' cognitive resources (Study 2) or priming them with an intuitive (vs. analytical) thinking style (Studies 3a and 3b) both increased dualistic beliefs. In a last set of studies, we found that beliefs in mind-body dualism are indeed related to essentialistic reasoning about the mind. When a living being was reassembled from its original molecules rather than recreated from new molecules, dualistic beliefs were significantly reduced (Studies 4a and 4b). Thus, results of the present research indicate that, despite any acquired scientific knowledge about the neurological origins of mental life, most adults remain "essentialistic mind-body dualists" at heart. PMID:25494547

  6. Planning Instruction for Adult Learners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranton, Patricia

    This book integrates what is known about how adults learn and the principles of instructional design into a practical, yet theoretically based guide for planning instruction. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) the theoretical framework of instructional design in adult education (lifelong and experiential learning;…

  7. The cell's view of animal body-plan evolution.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Deirdre C; Martindale, Mark Q; Srivastava, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    An adult animal's form is shaped by the collective behavior of cells during embryonic development. To understand the forces that drove the divergence of animal body-plans, evolutionary developmental biology has focused largely on studying genetic networks operating during development. However, it is less well understood how these networks modulate characteristics at the cellular level, such as the shape, polarity, or migration of cells. We organized the "Cell's view of animal body plan evolution" symposium for the 2014 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting with the explicit goal of bringing together researchers studying the cell biology of embryonic development in diverse animal taxa. Using a broad range of established and emerging technologies, including live imaging, single-cell analysis, and mathematical modeling, symposium participants revealed mechanisms underlying cells' behavior, a few of which we highlight here. Shape, adhesion, and movements of cells can be modulated over the course of evolution to alter adult body-plans and a major theme explored during the symposium was the role of actomyosin in coordinating diverse behaviors of cells underlying morphogenesis in a myriad of contexts. Uncovering whether conserved or divergent genetic mechanisms guide the contractility of actomyosin in these systems will be crucial to understanding the evolution of the body-plans of animals from a cellular perspective. Many speakers presented research describing developmental phenomena in which cell division and tissue growth can control the form of the adult, and other presenters shared work on studying cell-fate specification, an important source of novelty in animal body-plans. Participants also presented studies of regeneration in annelids, flatworms, acoels, and cnidarians, and provided a unifying view of the regulation of cellular behavior during different life-history stages. Additionally, several presentations highlighted technological

  8. Adult Education for Family Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education Special Issue, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The article presents the open-end discussion method as the best means for teaching family planning. People do not want an outsider lecturing them on questions of morality and religion, but an outsider, by skillfully formulating questions can direct group discussions toward a pre-determined conclusion. (AS)

  9. Planning Developmental Interventions for Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Delight E.

    Student affairs professionals have come to realize that the student body on college campuses is changing. Adult students are filling the spaces left vacant by a diminishing traditional-aged student population. Interventions in student affairs, however, are often targeted for the specific developmental tasks of the traditional student. Student…

  10. Futures Planning--Adult Sibling Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2015-01-01

    A total of 15 adult siblings of people who have a learning disability were interviewed in relation to their future wishes and expectations of care giving. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse transcripts from the interviews where it was demonstrated that futures planning remains an area of difficulty for families of…

  11. Lesson Plans for Teaching Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Intended for teachers, this book is a collection of lesson plans created by 28 teachers in North Carolina to provide opportunities that support integrated learning. Using recommended young adult literature, the book presents activities which promote the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. The book provides two or…

  12. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  13. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  14. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  15. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  16. Transition Planning Guide: From School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra Jespersen

    The guide is intended to assist disabled students, their families, and professionals working with them to become familiar with the variety of adult services available and to create a systematic plan for transition from school to adult life. The first section considers the logistics of transition planning and includes a description of the planning…

  17. Adult Basic Education. State Plan for Fiscal Year 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This plan seeks generally to improve literacy skills and specifically to aid adults in progressing through three adult performance levels to obtain the general educational development (GED) diploma. The introduction discusses the general growth of adult basic education; a chart depicts that growth in Kansas. The document is then divided into five…

  18. The Compact Body Plan of Tardigrades Evolved by the Loss of a Large Body Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank W; Boothby, Thomas C; Giovannini, Ilaria; Rebecchi, Lorena; Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-25

    The superphylum Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) exhibits a remarkable diversity of segment morphologies, enabling these animals to occupy diverse ecological niches. The molecular identities of these segments are specified by Hox genes and other axis patterning genes during development [1, 2]. Comparisons of molecular segment identities between arthropod and onychophoran species have yielded important insights into the origins and diversification of their body plans [3-9]. However, the relationship of the segments of tardigrades to those of arthropods and onychophorans has remained enigmatic [10, 11], limiting our understanding of early panarthropod body plan diversification. Here, we reveal molecular identities for all of the segments of a tardigrade. Based on our analysis, we conclude that tardigrades have lost a large intermediate region of the body axis-a region corresponding to the entire thorax and most of the abdomen of insects-and that they have lost the Hox genes that originally specified this region. Our data suggest that nearly the entire tardigrade body axis is homologous to just the head region of arthropods. Based on our results, we reconstruct a last common ancestor of Panarthropoda that had a relatively elongate body plan like most arthropods and onychophorans, rather than a compact, tardigrade-like body plan. These results demonstrate that the body plan of an animal phylum can originate by the loss of a large part of the body. PMID:26776737

  19. Some Problems in Planning Adult Education. No. 59. The Fundamentals of Educational Planning: Lecture, Discussion Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furter, Pierre

    The three papers presented relate to the problems of planning adult education and are titled "Adult Education for Whom? A Qualitative Analysis of the Customers,""From Literacy to Cultural Development," and "Out-of-School Education: Part of the System of a Parallel System?". The first paper trys to show that any discussion of adult education must…

  20. Lessons in Conference Planning: Adult Learning Principles at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke, Laura B.

    2007-01-01

    Chairing the annual Mountain Plains Adult Education Association Conference for 250 adult educators in Coeur d'Alene this past spring provided an opportunity for the author to offer a hands-on, conference planning experience to graduate students. Wanting to try something outside the typical classroom experience, the author organized a special…

  1. Both developmental and adult vision shape body representations

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Elena; Steiger, Tineke; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Sense of body ownership and body representation are fundamental parts of human consciousness, but the contribution of the visual modality to their development remains unclear. We tested congenitally and late blind adults on a somatosensory version of the rubber hand illusion, and on the Aristotle illusion, in which sighted controls touching a single sphere with crossed fingers commonly report perceiving two. We found that congenitally and late blind individuals did not report subjectively experiencing the rubber hand illusion. However, in an objective measure, the congenitally blind did not show a recalibration of the position of their hand towards the rubber hand while late blind and sighted individuals did. By contrast, all groups experienced the Aristotle illusion. This pattern of results provides evidence for a dissociation of the concepts of body ownership and spatial recalibration and, furthermore, suggests different reference frames for hands (external space) and fingers (anatomical space). PMID:25338780

  2. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45-53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  3. A Plan for: A Consumer Conference for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarakov, Selma

    This document provides a step-by-step description of the planning and implementation of a two day consumer concerns conference for older adults held at Palomar Community College (California). The bulk of the document is made up of practical discussions of such planning phases as facility selection and decoration, conference publicity, snack and…

  4. Planning for Serious Illness amongst Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have long been encouraged to maintain their autonomy by expressing their wishes for health care before they become too ill to meaningfully participate in decision making. This study explored the manner in which community-dwelling adults aged 55 and older plan for serious illness. An online survey was conducted within the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, with 283 adults ranging in age from 55 to 88 years. Planning for future medical care was important for the majority (78.4%) of respondents, although only 25.4% possessed a written advance care plan and 41.5% had designated a substitute decision maker. Sixty percent of respondents reported conversations about their treatment wishes; nearly half had discussed unacceptable states of health. Associations between key predictor variables and planning behaviors (discussions about treatment wishes or unacceptable states of health; designation of a substitute decision maker; preparation of a written advance care plan) were assessed using binary logistic regression. After controlling for all predictor variables, self-reported knowledge about advance care planning was the key variable significantly associated with all four planning behaviors. The efforts of nurses to educate older adults regarding the process of advance care planning can play an important role in enhancing autonomy. PMID:23691299

  5. Administering Adult Literacy Programs: The Role of Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Steve Olu

    In an era of rising public criticism of education and decreasing resources, strategic planning can be a major tool for educational administrators who wish to respond to the increasing challenges their adult literacy programs face. Strategic planning can be defined as a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and…

  6. Adult Career Planning: A Needed Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Joseph C.; McMahon, John E.

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests that the career planning and placement office in higher education be used to meet widespread community and alumni need for career planning. By extending its services the CPP could fill the role of a neutral party in the chronic conflict between the individual and the employing organization. (Author/EAK)

  7. Healthy appearances--distorted body images? Young adults negotiating body motives.

    PubMed

    Liimakka, Satu

    2014-02-01

    Drawing on focus group discussions, this article explores how young, Finnish university students view the cultural ideals of health and appearance. The young adults noted how body practices aiming at health can turn into unhealthy obsessions. As a result, a healthy-looking body may serve to cover an underlying body image distortion. Health and well-being were defined as appropriate motives for engaging in body projects, while appearance as a motive was questioned. I argue that the current promotion of health may cause individuals to experience pressure to outwardly appear healthy at the cost of neglecting the subjective experience of well-being, and that this may especially influence young women. PMID:23283598

  8. Eating regulation styles, appearance schemas, and body satisfaction predict changes in body fat for emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K; Ryan, Aubrey E; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-09-01

    . Overall, males and females with high autonomous regulation and high motivational salience are likely to maintain (instead of increase) percent body fat over the college years. Knowing the influence of these predictors can be useful for promoting health and intervening with young adults in the college setting and other emerging adults who are not enrolled in postsecondary institutions. PMID:22447394

  9. Later life care planning conversations for older adults and families.

    PubMed

    Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903

  10. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  11. Automated fiducial marker planning for thoracic stereotactic body radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Jason D.; Rai, Lav; Wibowo, Henky; Tsalyuk, Serge; Anderson, Eric D.

    2012-02-01

    Stereotactic body-radiation therapy (SBRT) has gained acceptance in treating lung cancer. Localization of a thoracic lesion is challenging as tumors can move significantly with breathing. Some SBRT systems compensate for tumor motion with the intrafraction tracking of targets by two stereo fluoroscopy cameras. However, many lung tumors lack a fluoroscopic signature and cannot be directly tracked. Small radiopaque fiducial markers, acting as fluoroscopically visible surrogates, are instead implanted nearby. The spacing and configuration of the fiducial markers is important to the success of the therapy as SBRT systems impose constraints on the geometry of a fiducial-marker constellation. It is difficult even for experienced physicians mentally assess the validity of a constellation a priori. To address this challenge, we present the first automated planning system for bronchoscopic fiducial-marker placement. Fiducial-marker planning is posed as a constrained combinatoric optimization problem. Constraints include requiring access from a navigable airway, having sufficient separation in the fluoroscopic imaging planes to resolve each individual marker, and avoidance of major blood vessels. Automated fiducial-marker planning takes approximately fifteen seconds, fitting within the clinical workflow. The resulting locations are integrated into a virtual bronchoscopic planning system, which provides guidance to each location during the implantation procedure. To date, we have retrospectively planned over 50 targets for treatment, and have implanted markers according to the automated plan in one patient who then underwent SBRT treatment. To our knowledge, this approach is the first to address automated bronchoscopic fiducialmarker planning for SBRT.

  12. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  13. Examples of Lesson Plans in Elementary Subjects for Adults. Content Materials in Education for Adult Responsibilities. California Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Adult Education.

    Lesson plans prepared by Adult Basic Education teachers who attended one-day mini-workshops and the participants of a six-session course held at the University of Southern California are presented. The plans are in outline format. The content areas covered are: Consumer Education (Buying Foods, Bank Checking Accounts, Telephone and Directory,…

  14. Body piercing and tattoos: a survey on young adults' knowledge of the risks and practices in body art

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The practice of tattooing and piercing has expanded in western society. In order to verify young adults' knowledge of the risk and practices related to body art, an investigation was conducted among freshmen of the University of Bari in the region of Apulia, Italy. Methods The study was carried out in the Academic Year 2009-2010 through an anonymous self-administered written questionnaire distributed to 1.656 freshmen enrolled in 17 Degree Courses. Results Of the 1.598 students included in the analysis, 78.3% believe it is risky to undergo piercing/tattoo practices. AIDS was indicated as a possible infection by 60.3% of freshmen, hepatitis C by 38.2%, tetanus by 34.3% and hepatitis B by 33.7% of the sample. 28.1% of freshmen were not aware that there are also non-infectious complications. 29% of the sample had at least one piercing or tattoo (this percentage does not include earlobe piercing in women). Of those with body art, the decision to undergo body art was made autonomously in 57.9% of the participants. 56.3% of freshmen undergoing body art had taken less than a month to decide. With regard to the reasons that led the sample to undergo body art, 28.4% were unable to explain it, 23.8% answered to improve their aesthetic aspect, 18.4% to distinguish themselves from others, 12.3% for fashion; 17.1% for other reasons. 25.4% of the sample declared that they had a piercing (79.8% female vs 20.2% male; ratio M/F 1:4.0). The average age for a first piercing was 15.3 years (range 10-27; SD ± 2.9). 9.6% of the sample declared that they have a tattoo (69.9% female vs 30.1% male; ratio M/F 1:2.3). The average age for a first tattoo was 17.5 years (range 10-26, SD ± 2.4). Conclusions Most of the freshmen knew about AIDS-related risks but not other potential risks. Body art is fairly common among young adults (especially women). The decision is often not shared with the family and is undertaken mostly without a specific reason or for the improvement of

  15. Planning Learner-Centred Adult Literacy Programmes. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan E.; Arnove, Robert F.

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals engaged in educational planning and administration, senior government officials, and policymakers in developing and developed countries alike, provides guidance regarding planning, implementing, and administering learner-centered adult literacy programs. Chapter 1 examines the following topics…

  16. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  17. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  18. Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Joan

    Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

  19. Body Adiposity Index: Its Relevance and Validity in Assessing Body Fatness of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    Background. One of the limitations of body mass index is its accuracy to assess body fatness. To address this limitation, a new index, body adiposity index, has been developed. However its validity needs to ascertained. Objective. Our aim was to investigate sex-specific relationship between BAI, BMI, and percent body fat in an endogamous population of Delhi, India. Method. Data was collected from 578 adults on bodyweight, height, skinfold thicknesses, hip circumference, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Pearson's correlations were calculated for BAI and BMI with PBF. Differences in the correlation coefficients were examined using Fisher's z tests. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and to determine optimal cut-off values. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the risk of having hypertension using the proposed cut-off points. Results. The correlations of PBF with BMI (men: r = 0.83; women: r = 0.71) were stronger than those with BAI (men: r = 0.66; women: r = 0.58). In men, the sensitivity and specificity of BAI to predict hypertension were higher than other anthropometric markers but lower than BMI. In women, the sensitivity of BAI was higher than BMI and WC. Conclusions. BAI can be used as an additional marker for screening population; however its validity needs to be demonstrated on other populations too. PMID:24587942

  20. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  1. Adaptive Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Planning for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Yujiao; Zhang, Fan; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of adaptive planning on lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Forty of 66 consecutive lung SBRT patients were selected for a retrospective adaptive planning study. CBCT images acquired at each fraction were used for treatment planning. Adaptive plans were created using the same planning parameters as the original CT-based plan, with the goal to achieve comparable comformality index (CI). For each patient, 2 cumulative plans, nonadaptive plan (P{sub NON}) and adaptive plan (P{sub ADP}), were generated and compared for the following organs-at-risks (OARs): cord, esophagus, chest wall, and the lungs. Dosimetric comparison was performed between P{sub NON} and P{sub ADP} for all 40 patients. Correlations were evaluated between changes in dosimetric metrics induced by adaptive planning and potential impacting factors, including tumor-to-OAR distances (d{sub T-OAR}), initial internal target volume (ITV{sub 1}), ITV change (ΔITV), and effective ITV diameter change (Δd{sub ITV}). Results: 34 (85%) patients showed ITV decrease and 6 (15%) patients showed ITV increase throughout the course of lung SBRT. Percentage ITV change ranged from −59.6% to 13.0%, with a mean (±SD) of −21.0% (±21.4%). On average of all patients, P{sub ADP} resulted in significantly (P=0 to .045) lower values for all dosimetric metrics. Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} was found to correlate with changes in dose to 5 cc (ΔD5cc) of esophagus (r=0.61) and dose to 30 cc (ΔD30cc) of chest wall (r=0.81). Stronger correlations between Δd{sub ITV}/d{sub T-OAR} and ΔD30cc of chest wall were discovered for peripheral (r=0.81) and central (r=0.84) tumors, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric effects of adaptive lung SBRT planning depend upon target volume changes and tumor-to-OAR distances. Adaptive lung SBRT can potentially reduce dose to adjacent OARs if patients present large tumor volume shrinkage during the treatment.

  2. Evolution of a pentameral body plan was not linked to translocation of anterior Hox genes: the echinoderm HOX cluster revisited.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Martinez, Pedro; Morris, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Echinodermata is a large phylum of marine invertebrates characterized by an adult, pentameral body plan. This morphology is clearly derived as all members of Deuterostomia (the superphylum to which they belong) have a bilateral body plan. The origin of the pentameral plan has been the subject of intense debate. It is clear that the ancestor of Echinodermata had a bilateral plan but how this ancestor transformed its body "architecture" in such a drastic manner is not clear. Data from the fossil record and ontogeny are sparse and, so far, not very informative. The sequencing of the sea urchin genome a decade ago opened the possibility that the pentameral body plan was a consequence of a broken Hox cluster and a series of papers dwelt on the putative relationship between Hox gene arrangements in the chromosomes and the origin of pentamery. This relationship, sound as it was, is challenged by the revelation that the sea star HOX cluster is, in fact, intact, thus falsifying the hypothesis of a direct relationship between HOX cluster arrangement and the origin of the pentameral body plan. Here, we explore the relationship between Hox gene arrangements and echinoderm body "architecture," the expression of Hox genes in development and alternative scenarios for the origin of pentamery, with putative roles for signaling centers in generating multiple axes. PMID:26763653

  3. Adult Education for the 21st Century: Strategic Plan to Meet California's Long-Term Adult Education Needs. 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Youth, Adult and Alternative Educational Services Div.

    This report presents a strategic plan for adult education in California. It represents an ongoing and participatory initiative to define current and future needs and recommend how the adult education system can meet those needs. The proposals put forth in the plan are intended to ensure that adult education will be a self-renewing institution that…

  4. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T.; Mannion, Philip D.; Falkingham, Peter L.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Hutchinson, John R.; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I.; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A.; Allen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic–Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  5. Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Mannion, Philip D; Falkingham, Peter L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Hutchinson, John R; Otero, Alejandro; Sellers, William I; Sullivan, Corwin; Stevens, Kent A; Allen, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean absolute body shape predictions. However, applying any consistent skeleton : body volume ratio to all taxa does yield changes in body shape that appear concurrent with major macroevolutionary events in sauropod history. A caudad shift in centre-of-mass (CoM) in Middle Triassic Saurischia, associated with the evolution of bipedalism in various dinosaur lineages, was reversed in Late Triassic sauropodomorphs. A craniad CoM shift coincided with the evolution of quadrupedalism in the Late Triassic, followed by a more striking craniad shift in Late Jurassic-Cretaceous titanosauriforms, which included the largest sauropods. These craniad CoM shifts are strongly correlated with neck enlargement, a key innovation in sauropod evolution and pivotal to their gigantism. By creating a much larger feeding envelope, neck elongation is thought to have increased feeding efficiency and opened up trophic niches that were inaccessible to other herbivores. However, we find that relative neck size and CoM position are not strongly correlated with inferred feeding habits. Instead the craniad CoM positions of titanosauriforms appear closely linked with locomotion and environmental distributions, potentially contributing to the continued success of this group until the end-Cretaceous, with all other sauropods having gone extinct by the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:27069652

  6. Planning for Effective Faculty Development: Using Adult Learning Strategies. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Patricia A.; King, Kathleen P.

    This book describes how to use adult learning strategies in planning faculty development. Chapter 1 addresses concerns about success, demonstrating how to use an adult learning model to help faculty developers succeed. Chapter 2 presents the Adult Learning Model for Faculty Development, which has four stages grounded in adult learning and program…

  7. The relationship between social network body size and the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica; Wethington, Elaine; Wells, Martin; Devine, Carol M.; Peterson, Janey; Wansink, Brian; Ramos, Rosio; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and the body sizes of their social network members. Methods Egocentric network data were examined for 245 adults recruited from 2012–2013 in New York City. A multivariable regression model was used to examine the relationship between participants' perception of normal body size and the body sizes of their network members adjusted for participant age, education, race/ethnicity and network size. Participants' body size norms were also examined stratified by the following characteristics of obese network members: frequency of contact, living proximity, relationship, and importance of relationship. Results Index participants were 89% female with mean body mass index 33.5 kg/m2. There were 2571 network members identified (31% overweight, 10% obese). In the fully adjusted multivariable model, perception of normal body size increased as the number of network members with obesity increased (p < 0.01). Larger body size norms were associated with increased frequency of contact with obese network members (p = 0.04), and obese members living in the home (p = 0.049). Conclusions These findings support a relationship between the body size norms of Black and Hispanic adults and their social network body size. PMID:26705513

  8. 7 CFR 273.24 - Time limit for able-bodied adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... processed in accord with 7 CFR part 15. (h) Adjustments. FNS will make adjustments as follows: (1) Caseload... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time limit for able-bodied adults. 273.24 Section 273... Program Alternatives § 273.24 Time limit for able-bodied adults. (a) Definitions. For purposes of the...

  9. 7 CFR 273.24 - Time limit for able-bodied adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... processed in accord with 7 CFR part 15. (h) Adjustments. FNS will make adjustments as follows: (1) Caseload... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time limit for able-bodied adults. 273.24 Section 273... Program Alternatives § 273.24 Time limit for able-bodied adults. (a) Definitions. For purposes of the...

  10. 7 CFR 273.24 - Time limit for able-bodied adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... processed in accord with 7 CFR part 15. (h) Adjustments. FNS will make adjustments as follows: (1) Caseload... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time limit for able-bodied adults. 273.24 Section 273... Program Alternatives § 273.24 Time limit for able-bodied adults. (a) Definitions. For purposes of the...

  11. 7 CFR 273.24 - Time limit for able-bodied adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... processed in accord with 7 CFR part 15. (h) Adjustments. FNS will make adjustments as follows: (1) Caseload... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time limit for able-bodied adults. 273.24 Section 273... Program Alternatives § 273.24 Time limit for able-bodied adults. (a) Definitions. For purposes of the...

  12. A Verbal Planning Impairment in Adult ADHD Indexed by Script Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Catherine; Scherzer, Peter; Braun, Claude M. J.; Godbout, Lucie; Poissant, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Though juvenile and adult ADHD cases are well known to have a nonverbal planning impairment, a verbal-planning impairment has been demonstrated only in juvenile ADHD. The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a verbal planning impairment also characterizes adult ADHD. Methods: A cohort of 30 adult ADHD clients of a…

  13. A novel GBE1 mutation and features of polyglucosan bodies autophagy in adult polyglucosan body disease.

    PubMed

    Sampaolo, Simone; Esposito, Teresa; Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Napolitano, Filomena; Lombardi, Luca; Lucà, Roberta; Roperto, Franco; Di Iorio, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    We report the clinical, neuro-imaging, pathological and biochemical features of an Italian family in which two siblings have the Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease (APBD). APBD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a gradually progressive involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems caused by the deficiency of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE1). The two affected siblings, a 64-year-old man and his 67-year-old sister who had complained of urinary urgency and sporadic incontinence and also progressive gait difficulty for 6 and 7 years respectively, had severely impaired deep sensations on direct examination and a moderately severe symmetrical, axonal sensory-motor neuropathy on electrophysiological testing. GBE1 activity was below 25% of the normal rate in leukocytes and sural nerves. The siblings were homozygous for the novel GBE1 mutation p.N541D. All other members of the pedigree are heterozygous and manifest no symptoms, even in the very elderly. The affected siblings showed polyglucosan bodies (PBs) included within non-myelinating Schwann cells and within lymphocyte vesicles, which were positive for the autophagy markers P62 and LC3-II at immunofluorescence microscopy. PMID:25544507

  14. Jellyfish Body Plans Provide Allometric Advantages beyond Low Carbon Content

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Kylie A.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lucas, Cathy H.; Sutherland, Kelly R.; Condon, Robert H.; Mianzan, Hermes; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world’s oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity of jellyfish and

  15. Mechanisms and constraints shaping the evolution of body plan segmentation.

    PubMed

    Ten Tusscher, K H W J

    2013-05-01

    Segmentation of the major body axis into repeating units is arguably one of the major inventions in the evolution of animal body plan pattering. It is found in current day vertebrates, annelids and arthropods. Most segmented animals seem to use a clock-and-wavefront type mechanism in which oscillations emanating from a posterior growth zone become transformed into an anterior posterior sequence of segments. In contrast, few animals such as Drosophila use a complex gene regulatory hierarchy to simultaneously subdivide their entire body axis into segments. Here I discuss how in silico models simulating the evolution of developmental patterning can be used to investigate the forces and constraints that helped shape these two developmental modes. I perform an analysis of a series of previous simulation studies, exploiting the similarities and differences in their outcomes in relation to model characteristics to elucidate the circumstances and constraints likely to have been important for the evolution of sequential and simultaneous segmentation modes. The analysis suggests that constraints arising from the involved growth process and spatial patterning signal--posterior elongation producing a propagating wavefront versus a tissue wide morphogen gradient--and the evolutionary history--ancestral versus derived segmentation mode--strongly shaped both segmentation mechanisms. Furthermore, this implies that these patterning types are to be expected rather than random evolutionary outcomes and supports the likelihood of multiple parallel evolutionary origins. PMID:23708840

  16. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities. PMID:22175080

  17. Plan de estudios de nivel secundario para adultos (Study Plan for Adult Secondary Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, Parte II: Informaciones, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document describes an experimental, multinational plan for adult secondary education sponsored through the Organization of American States and the Argentine Ministry of Culture and Education. General and specific goals of the program are listed here along with details of the proposed curriculum and areas of study, entrance requirements,…

  18. Planned Pregnancy, Planned Parenting: Enabling Choice for Adults with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conder, Jennifer; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    For adults with learning disabilities, becoming a parent can fulfil childhood dreams to take their place in society through a highly valued social role. Recent research aimed at describing the experience of parents with a learning disability suggests that there are barriers to successful planning for both pregnancy and parenthood. However, with…

  19. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  20. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature. PMID:27476147

  1. The Fallopian Dilemma: African Bodies, Citizenship and Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Pussetti, Chiara Gemma

    2015-03-01

    In the recent context of the European Union governmental activity-in particular in this time of crisis-immigration-related issues became of pivotal importance. Social healthcare programmes targeting deprived immigrant populations equate reducing social problems with guiding their conduct towards more responsible, healthier habits and life projects. Building upon a set of debates on governing the body and health under advanced liberalism, this paper, focusing on the Portuguese context and on family planning, suggests ideas towards a new research agenda on immigration and public health, claiming that social care interventions are inherently racialized. The insecurities, threats and overall concerns in a time of global crisis create a state of exception, which justifies the deployment of illiberal practices in order to secure collective well-being. In particular, I am interested in how the dominant discourses of the health and social care sectors influence [1] the ways in which "the right thing to do" is constructed and debated and the material effects of these decisions on immigrants lives; [2] the ongoing strategies, micronegotiations of power and truth between different actors; [3] the fading borders of the subject of medical knowledge, which becomes no longer to govern the body merely according to a medical logic, but rather to seek social well-being. PMID:26863238

  2. One Body, Many Parts: An Adult Program Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Teresa Bagamery

    2012-01-01

    The Lipscomb University Adult Degree Program exemplifies how a centralized governance system can benefit nontraditional college students and promote cross-departmental interactions. The two-person staff of the adult program at Lipscomb University envisions a number of potential benefits of having a much larger staff. However, such a programmatic…

  3. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image. PMID:26799227

  4. Emergency admissions due to swallowed foreign bodies in adults

    PubMed Central

    Erbil, Bülent; Karaca, Mehmet Ali; Aslaner, Mehmet Ali; İbrahimov, Zaur; Kunt, Mehmet Mahir; Akpinar, Erhan; Özmen, Mehmet Mahir

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study a retrospective analysis of patients who presented to the emergency departments (ED) with complaints related to foreign body ingestions. METHODS: Patients older than 16 years of age who presented to the ED between January 1st and December 31st of 2010 with complaints related to swallowed foreign bodies were identified from electronic health records and patient charts. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients presented with a complaint of foreign body ingestion during the study period. Overall, an X-ray was performed on 75 patients, and a fiberoptic evaluation was performed on 45 patients. A foreign body was detected in 46 (46%) patients. The diagnostic yield of the X-ray was 27 (36%) out of 75 patients, while the diagnostic yield of the fiberoptic evaluations was 21 (47%) out of 45 patients. The detected foreign bodies were mostly located in the esophagus (17 out of 46 foreign bodies detected). When the types of ingested foreign bodies were evaluated, 52 (52%) patients reported ingesting food, and 19 (19%) patients reported swallowing pins. An X-ray was performed on 33 patients with accidental food ingestions but yielded a positive result in only two cases. In 12 out of 21 patients with accidental food ingestion who underwent fiberoptic evaluation, the foreign material was detected and removed. CONCLUSION: Plain radiography is helpful in the localization of radiopaque swollen foreign bodies, while fiberoptic methods are useful as both diagnostic and therapeutic tools, regardless of radiopacity. PMID:24151363

  5. J-Asteroid, a Visualization and Mission Planning Tool for Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Dickenshied, S.

    2015-01-01

    J-Asteroid is a GIS that was developed by Arizona State University's Mars Space Flight Facility as a mission planning and visualization tool for small bodies. The tool was designed to assist NASA mission in small body exploration.

  6. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  8. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  9. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  10. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  11. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  12. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity. PMID:22406015

  13. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  14. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Methods: Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. Results: The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m−2. The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m−2 than those with a BMI ⩽21 kg m−2. Conclusion: The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their

  15. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  16. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  17. Body Mass Index and Comorbidities in Adult Severe Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Andreina; Pace, Elisabetta; Cibella, Fabio; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Both severe asthma and obesity are growing health problems. Severe asthma leads to a poor quality of life. The relationship among BMI, comorbidities, and severe asthma control in adults is still unclear. The aim of the study is to better understand the effect of the comorbidities as atopy, type II diabetes, OSAS, gastroesophageal reflux, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, infections, and psychological factors with BMI on asthma control in a cohort of adult severe asthmatics. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study assessing asthma control, treatments, pulmonary function, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Patients were divided into 3 classes according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. We found that the optimal state of asthma control is lower. whereas the score of Asthma Control Questionnaire, the number of asthma exacerbations during last year, the oral corticosteroids requirement during the previous year, and the LABA treatments are higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight severe asthmatics. The number of subjects with type II diabetes and OSAS are higher among obese and overweight patients than in normal weight asthmatics. In conclusion, BMI represents per se a factor for the deterioration in disease control in severe asthma. PMID:24987694

  18. Bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in adults: experience with 62 patients from 1974-1998.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, A; Sorli, J; Music, E; Kecelj, P

    1999-10-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with therapeutic bronchoscopy for removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in the adult. Bronchoscopy records and collection of foreign bodies in the endoscopic department were retrospectively examined. Among 37,466 bronchoscopies performed between 1974-1998, 62 (0.2%) were performed for the removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies. Medical history was suggestive of foreign body aspiration in 33 patients and the chest radiograph was suggestive in 10 patients. The procedure was performed with the flexible bronchoscope in 42 patients (68%), rigid bronchoscope in 4 (6%), and with both in 16 (26%) patients. Foreign bodies were found in the right bronchial tree on 42 occasions, in the left on 20 and in the trachea once. In 39 patients, inflammatory granulations were found around the foreign body. The origins of the foreign bodies included: bone fragments (n=31), vegetable (n=10), broncholith (n=8), a part of dental prosthesis (n=7), endodontic needle (n=2), a metallic (n=2), or plastic (n=1) particle, a tracheostomy tube (n=1) and a match (n=1). In one patient, 2 foreign bodies were found. The foreign bodies were successfully removed in all but 2 patients (3%). The most useful instruments for removal were alligator forceps and the wire basket. Foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial system are rare in adults. They can be successfully removed in the majority of patients under either flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:10573222

  19. Three Year Oklahoma Annual Program Plan for Adult Education. Fiscal Years 1983-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This document contains the State plan designed to enable the State Department of Education to implement an adult education program in Oklahoma that will meet the critical educational needs of the adult population. Sections of the plan include purpose; state definitions; legal authority; audits, goal statement, administrative provisions;…

  20. Localization and regulation of PML bodies in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Małgorzata H; Magalska, Adriana; Malinowska, Monika; Ruszczycki, Błażej; Czaban, Iwona; Patel, Satyam; Ambrożek-Latecka, Magdalena; Zołocińska, Ewa; Broszkiewicz, Hanna; Parobczak, Kamil; Nair, Rajeevkumar R; Rylski, Marcin; Pawlak, Robert; Bramham, Clive R; Wilczyński, Grzegorz M

    2016-06-01

    PML is a tumor suppressor protein involved in the pathogenesis of promyelocytic leukemia. In non-neuronal cells, PML is a principal component of characteristic nuclear bodies. In the brain, PML has been implicated in the control of embryonic neurogenesis, and in certain physiological and pathological phenomena in the adult brain. Yet, the cellular and subcellular localization of the PML protein in the brain, including its presence in the nuclear bodies, has not been investigated comprehensively. Because the formation of PML bodies appears to be a key aspect in the function of the PML protein, we investigated the presence of these structures and their anatomical distribution, throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PML is broadly expressed across the gray matter, with the highest levels in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. In the cerebral cortex PML is present exclusively in neurons, in which it forms well-defined nuclear inclusions containing SUMO-1, SUMO 2/3, but not Daxx. At the ultrastructural level, the appearance of neuronal PML bodies differs from the classic one, i.e., the solitary structure with more or less distinctive capsule. Rather, neuronal PML bodies have the form of small PML protein aggregates located in the close vicinity of chromatin threads. The number, size, and signal intensity of neuronal PML bodies are dynamically influenced by immobilization stress and seizures. Our study indicates that PML bodies are broadly involved in activity-dependent nuclear phenomena in adult neurons. PMID:25956166

  1. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  2. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  3. "Between Rationality and Politics": Autobiographical Portraits of Adult Education Programme Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Contrasts two models of adult education program planning: (1) the technical rational model, which asserts that planning is rational application of decision-making processes; and (2) the political model, which views planning as negotiation of personal and organizational interests. Finds a place for both political sensitivity and technical…

  4. Program Planning for the Training and Continuing Education of Adults: North American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S., Ed.

    This book provides an overview of program planning for adult learning from philosophical and pedagogical perspectives. It contains 19 papers and an introduction by the editor, Peter S. Cookson. The following are included: "A Conceptual Context for Program Planning" (Peter S. Cookson); "Prototypical Program Planning Models"--"Houle's Fundamental…

  5. Histology of two rice bodies isolated from the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Marianne; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Verwilghen, Denis R.V.G.; Deby-Dupont, Ginette P.; Serteyn, Didier A.

    2006-01-01

    In the human and equine species, different kinds of free floating intra-articular particles are related to certain disorders. Osteochondral fragments formed during osteochondrosis dissecans are the most common finding in the equine species, whereas in humans rice bodies due to rheumatoid arthritis are more frequent. Herein we report a third type of floating body inside the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion, in macroscopic appearance similar to articular rice bodies known in humans. As revealed by histologic examination, the two particles consist of polypoid degenerated structures derived from synovial villi. Their formation was probably induced by ischemia. PMID:16434856

  6. Self-Monitoring and Verbal Feedback to Reduce Stereotypic Body Rocking in a Congenitally Blind Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A self-management approach (utilizing self-counting of behaviors, corrective verbal feedback, and contingent verbal praise) was effectively used to reduce stereotypical body rocking in a congenitally blind young adult. Positive results were maintained, with replacement of overt counting with covert counting and immediate with delayed feedback as…

  7. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. PMID:22480489

  8. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  9. Colonizing Bodies: Corporate Power and Biotechnology in Young Adult Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The American cultural and political landscape has seen changes on the level of seismic shifts in the past four decades, thanks in part to the two very diverse fields of big business and biotechnology. Linking the two arenas together in the literary landscape is a growing body of young adult science fiction that envisions a future shaped profoundly…

  10. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  11. Effects of body size and nutritional regimen on survival in adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adult body size and nutritional regimen on the mean time to death (LT) for the 50th (LT50) and 90th centiles (LT90) of large and small male and female Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was determined in the laboratory. The estimated LT50 and the LT90 for large/small females was significantly ...

  12. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  13. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  14. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes. PMID:25998010

  15. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills. PMID:26798046

  16. Evolution of the bilaterian body plan: what have we learned from annelids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankland, M.; Seaver, E. C.

    2000-01-01

    Annelids, unlike their vertebrate or fruit fly cousins, are a bilaterian taxon often overlooked when addressing the question of body plan evolution. However, recent data suggest that annelids offer unique insights on the early evolution of spiral cleavage, anteroposterior axis formation, body axis segmentation, and head versus trunk distinction.

  17. Rac1 signaling in the establishment of the fucoid algal body plan.

    PubMed

    Hable, Whitney E

    2014-01-01

    Fucoid zygotes use environmental vectors, including sunlight, to initiate a growth axis a few hours after fertilization. The first division is then transversely oriented by the growth axis, producing daughter cells of distinct fates. The tip growing rhizoid cell gives rise to the holdfast, anchoring the alga to the intertidal substratum, while the opposite thallus cell mainly generates the photosynthetic and reproductive stipe and fronds. Elaboration of this simple growth axis thus establishes the basic body plan of the adult; and elucidating the mechanisms responsible for formation of the growth axis is paramount to understanding fucoid morphogenesis. Recent studies have culminated in a model whereby sunlight, and perhaps other environmental cues, activate the signaling protein Rac1 at the rhizoid pole. Here it sets in motion nucleation of a patch of actin filaments that in turn, targets ions, proteins, and cellular processes to the future growth site. At germination, Rac1 initiates morphogenesis by inducing transformation of the patch of actin filaments to a structure that delivers vesicles to the growing tip, and a few hours later orients the spindle and cytokinetic plate. PMID:25540648

  18. Evolution of the organizer and the chordate body plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    The discovery of the organizer by Spemann and Mangold in 1924 raised two kinds of questions: those about the means of patterning the chordate body axis and those about the mechanisms of cell determination by induction. Some researchers, stressing the second, have suggested over the years that the organizer is poorly named and doesn't really organize because inducers act permissively, because they are not unique to the organizer, and because multipotent responsive cells develop complex local differentiations under artificial conditions. Furthermore, with the discovery of meso-endoderm induction in 1969, the possibility arose that this earlier induction generates as much organization as, or more than, does the organizer itself. Evidence is summarized in this article that the organizer does fulfill its title with regard to pattern formation: it adds greatly to embryonic organization by providing information about time, place, scale, and orientation for development by nearby members of the large multipotent competence groups surrounding the organizer. Embryos having smaller or larger organizers due to experimental intervention develop defective axial organization. Without an organizer the embryo develops no body axis and none of the four chordate characters: the notochord, gill slits, dorsal hollow nerve chord, and post-anal tail. For normal axis formation, the organizer's tripartite organization is needed. Each part differs in inducers, morphogenesis, and self-differentiation. The organizer is a trait of development of all members of the chordate phylum. In comparison to hemichordates, which constitute a phylum with some similarities to chordates, the chordamesoderm part is unique to the chordate organizer (the trunk-tail organizer). Its convergent extension displaces the gastrula posterior pole from alignment with the animal-vegetal axis and generates a new anteroposterior axis orthogonal to this old one. Once it has extended to full length, its signaling modifies

  19. Developing a Promotional Plan for Adult Vocational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubird, Ernest

    This manual provides guidelines for promoting adult vocational programs in order to obtain increased funding, expand program offerings, attract more students, and develop and conduct customized training. The publication is organized in seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses briefly the history of adult vocational training, reviews its purposes,…

  20. Correctional Sentence Plan: A Pathway to Adult Correctional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokoele, Matata

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Matata Mokoele reflects on the importance of prisoner education, and notes that what is missing is official recognition of this or adult-specific components outlining an upper secondary school adult education diploma entitling holders to apply for higher education. Studies reporting a correlation between greater education and lower…

  1. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  2. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints. PMID:22695469

  3. Infant and adult perceptions of possible and impossible body movements: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N=14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old infants and adults spent more time looking at the elbows during impossible compared with possible arm movements, irrespective of the appearance of the actor. These results suggest that by 12 months of age, infants recognize biomechanical constraints on how arms move, and they extend this knowledge to humanoid robots. Adults exhibited more pupil dilation in response to the human's impossible arm movements compared with the possible ones, but 9- and 12-month-old infants showed no differential pupil dilation to the same actions. This finding suggests that the processing of human body movements might still be immature in 12-month-olds, as they did not show an emotional response to biomechanically impossible body movements. We discuss these findings in relation to the hypothesis that perception of others' body movements relies upon the infant's own sensorimotor experience. PMID:22906302

  4. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  5. Cambrian spiral-plated echinoderms from Gondwana reveal the earliest pentaradial body plan

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew B.; Zamora, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Echinoderms are unique among animal phyla in having a pentaradial body plan, and their fossil record provides critical data on how this novel organization came about by revealing intermediate stages. Here, we report a spiral-plated animal from the early Cambrian of Morocco that is the most primitive pentaradial echinoderm yet discovered. It is intermediate between helicoplacoids (a bizarre group of spiral-bodied echinoderms) and crown-group pentaradiate echinoderms. By filling an important gap, this fossil reveals the common pattern that underpins the body plans of the two major echinoderm clades (pelmatozoans and eleutherozoans), showing that differential growth played an important role in their divergence. It also adds to the striking disparity of novel body plans appearing in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:23804624

  6. Cambrian spiral-plated echinoderms from Gondwana reveal the earliest pentaradial body plan.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B; Zamora, Samuel

    2013-08-22

    Echinoderms are unique among animal phyla in having a pentaradial body plan, and their fossil record provides critical data on how this novel organization came about by revealing intermediate stages. Here, we report a spiral-plated animal from the early Cambrian of Morocco that is the most primitive pentaradial echinoderm yet discovered. It is intermediate between helicoplacoids (a bizarre group of spiral-bodied echinoderms) and crown-group pentaradiate echinoderms. By filling an important gap, this fossil reveals the common pattern that underpins the body plans of the two major echinoderm clades (pelmatozoans and eleutherozoans), showing that differential growth played an important role in their divergence. It also adds to the striking disparity of novel body plans appearing in the Cambrian explosion. PMID:23804624

  7. Older and Younger Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Factors Associated with Future Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Lin, Li-Chan; Kroger, Teppo; Chang, Ai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    A structured interview survey was conducted in a major city in Taiwan to explore and compare older and younger family primary caregivers' well being and their future caregiving plans for these adults with intellectual disability. The sample size was 315 caregivers who were 55 years or older and who cared for adults with intellectual disability and…

  8. Body Size Perceptions and Weight Status of Adults in a Nigerian Rural Community

    PubMed Central

    Akinpelu, AO; Oyewole, OO; Adekanla, BA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Thirty-five percent (64/183) of participants were classified as either overweight or obese by BMI. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions. Based on BMI classification, 43% (79/183) and 54% (98/183) of participants misperceived themselves in verbal and visual perception, respectively. Underestimation of body size was higher in men (38.3%, 36/94) while overestimation was higher in women (9.0%, 8/89). Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Conclusion: We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large proportion of these rural dwellers could not appropriately classify their weight status; and over 30% (64/183) and nearly 50% (92/183) of them underestimated their own body weight in verbal and visual perceptions respectively. PMID:26500794

  9. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise Interventions on Body Composition in HIV+ Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leach, L.L; Bassett, S.H; Smithdorf, G; Andrews, B.S; Travill, A.L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, physical activity and exercise have been used to positively impact the health and quality of life of persons infected with HIV and, more recently, has been associated with a spectrum of body composition changes. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of various exercise interventions on body composition in HIV positive adults, using a search strategy of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review was performed by five independent reviewers using a predetermined protocol adapted from previous research for assessing the articles for inclusion, the extracted data, and methodological quality. Eight RCTs involving 430 (26% female) HIV positive adults performing exercise a minimum of thrice weekly for at least six weeks were finally selected: Four were progressive resistance training (PRT) studies, three were aerobic training (AT) studies, and one involved yoga. In the PRT studies, there were significant increases in three anthropometric measures, namely, body mass, sum of skinfolds and sum of limb girths. In the AT studies, significant decreases were found in seven anthropometric measures, namely, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body mass, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and sum of skinfolds. With yoga, the changes were non-significant. Exercise contributes to improved body composition and, when applied safely, appears to be beneficial for adults living with HIV/AIDS. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively few RCTs published to date. Future studies would benefit from increased attention to sample size, female participants, participant follow-up, complete statistical analysis and intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26587075

  10. Effect of Nutritional Supplements on Immune Function and Body Weight in Malnourished Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H.; Poddar, Kavita H.; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m2. After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m2. The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements. PMID:23966789

  11. Urban Planning and School Architecture: Homologies in Governing the Civic Body and the School Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennon, Lisa

    This paper is a preliminary examination of homologous shifts in U.S. discourses of school architecture and "planning" as they relate to curricular reforms and inventions of new pedagogical techniques. The strategy of discursive analysis uses Michel Foucault's conceptualization of "governmentality" to examine discourses on the design and building…

  12. Assessing necessary nutrient reduction for measurement planning in groundwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Ralf; Eisele, Michael; Wendland, Frank

    2008-01-01

    For the Federal State of Lower Saxony, Germany, nitrogen management options are developed and implemented in three pilot areas using new participation approaches and technologies suitable for programs of measures to reduce diffuse pollution from agriculture. As a target value for water protection measures a nitrate concentration in percolation water of 50 mg/l as an average for a larger area defined by the groundwater bodies and their hydrogeological subdivisions has been defined. An integrative emission model is used to simulate the interactions between agricultural practice, nitrogen surpluses and the nitrogen flow through the soil and aquifer to the outflow into surface waters. The actual nitrate concentrations in percolation water are calculated for the entire Federal State of Lower Saxony considering site-characteristics, N-surpluses, water balance and denitrification in the soil. The tolerable N-surpluses needed to meet the environmental target are quantified as averages for each of the hydrogeological subdivisions by "backward" calculation using this model system. The required reduction of N-surpluses was estimated by comparing the tolerable N-surpluses with the actual state of nitrogen emission. For the evaluation of the amount and efficiency of water protection measures, the required reduction of N-surpluses to accomplish the environmental target is quantified, using the current status as a reference. PMID:19092207

  13. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G; Shively, Carol A; Clarkson, Thomas B; Appt, Susan E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Jones, Sara R; Register, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n=42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p<0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way - reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  14. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  15. Use of body mass index of adults in assessing individual and community nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, K. V.; Ferro-Luzzi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Adult malnutrition is much more widespread than is commonly recognized. Described in this article is the use of body mass index (BMI = weight in kg/(height in metres)2) as a measure of adult nutritional status, both of individuals and of communities. Concurrent assessment of the nutritional status of children and adults permits conclusions to be drawn about whether there is generalized undernutrition in a community or whether other factors (e.g., childhood infections or feeding practices) are more important in childhood malnutrition. Included is a tabular presentation that permits rapid assessment of both thinness or underweight (BMI values < 16, 17 and 18.5) and overweight (BMI > 25, 30 and 40). Examples of the use of BMI in both clinical and public health practice are also given. PMID:8846494

  16. Ground plan of the insect mushroom body: functional and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Brown, Sheena M.

    2014-01-01

    In most insects with olfactory glomeruli, each side of the brain possesses a mushroom body equipped with calyces supplied by olfactory projection neurons. Kenyon cells providing dendrites to the calyces supply a pedunculus and lobes divided into subdivisions supplying outputs to other brain areas. It is with reference to these components that most functional studies are interpreted. However, mushroom body structures are diverse, adapted to different ecologies and likely to serve various functions. In insects whose derived life styles preclude the detection of airborne odorants there is a loss of the antennal lobes and attenuation or loss of the calyces. Such taxa retain mushroom body lobes that as elaborate as those of mushroom bodies equipped with calyces. Antennal lobe loss and calycal regression also typifies taxa with short non-feeding adults where olfaction is redundant. Examples are cicadas and mayflies, the latter representing the most basal lineage of winged insects. Mushroom bodies of another basal taxon, the Odonata, possess a remnant calyx that may reflect the visual ecology of this group. That mushroom bodies persist in brains of secondarily anosmic insects suggests that they play roles in higher functions other than olfaction. Mushroom bodies are not ubiquitous: the most basal living insects, the wingless Archaeognatha, possess glomerular antennal lobes but lack mushroom bodies, suggesting that the ability to process airborne odorants preceded the acquisition of mushroom bodies. Archaeognathan brains are like those of higher malacostracans, which lack mushroom bodies but have elaborate olfactory centers laterally in the brain. PMID:19152379

  17. Body image and sexuality in Indonesian adults with a disorder of sex development (DSD).

    PubMed

    Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, disorders of sex development (DSDs) are not well recognized and medical care for affected individuals is scarce. Consequently, many patients live with ambiguous genitalia and appearance. We compared reported outcomes on body image, sexual functioning, and sexual orientation of 39 adults with DSDs (aged 18 to 41) and 39 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (urban, suburban, rural). Differences in gender and treatment status (treated or untreated) were also explored. On body image, adults with DSDs reported dissatisfaction with sex-related body parts. Compared to the matched controls, women with DSDs reported greater sexual distress, and men with DSDs reported lower erectile and ejaculation frequencies, and more dissatisfaction with sexual life but not with sexual desire and activities. Men with DSDs who had undergone genital surgery reported higher erectile and ejaculation frequencies than untreated men. More women than men in the DSDs group reported a nonexclusive heterosexual orientation. DSDs and infertility had a great impact on sexuality. Fear of ostracism complicated DSD acceptance. Findings were compared to those of Western studies. Based on these results, education about DSDs and their psychosexual consequences may help reduce the sexual distress and problems in adults with DSDs and improve quality of life. PMID:24144298

  18. Investigating interoception and body awareness in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Fiene, Lisa; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the current gap in the literature with regard to how adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) interpret elements of the interoceptive sense, which includes thirst, hunger, temperature, satiety, and the prediction of onset of illness. Adults with a diagnosed ASD (n = 74; 36 males, 38 females) were compared to a control group (n = 228; 53 males, 174 females, 1 unspecified) in their self-reported perceptions of body awareness utilizing the Body Awareness Questionnaire (BAQ) and thirst awareness using the Thirst Awareness Scale (TAS). Those in the ASD group reported a clinically significant lower body and thirst awareness compared to the control group, and this was a large effect (BAQ; d = -1.26, P < 0.001; TAS; d = -1.02, P < 0.001). These findings are of clinical importance, as difficulty with sensing internal bodily states could theoretically impact on the physical and mental health, social interactions and self-awareness of adults with ASD. PMID:25808391

  19. Estate Planning; A Suggested Outline for an Adult Group. Bulletin 151.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    This course outline on estate planning is designed for teachers and leaders in New York State public school adult education programs. Basic elements in estate planning (inventory, objectives, analysis, problem areas, administration, and others) are outlined, followed by information and guidelines on accumulating an estate, conserving an estate,…

  20. THE NEXT TWENTY YEARS--BACKGROUND NOTES FOR ADULT COUNSELING PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICHAEL, DONALD N.

    TO COUNSEL ADULTS WITHIN THE NEXT 20 YEARS, ADVANCED PLANNING AND ACTION BASED ON LONG-RANGE ASSESSMENTS MUST TAKE PLACE NOW. HIGHLY RATIONALIZED MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES, CYBERNATION, SOCIAL ENGINEERING, AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING CAN POTENTIALLY AFFECT THIS PLANNING. SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS INTERACTING WITH THESE TECHNOLOGIES WILL…

  1. Adults with Special Needs. A Resource and Planning Guide for Wisconsin's Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Barbara; Swanson, Coral

    This publication is intended to assist Wisconsin's public libraries and public library systems in providing service to adults with special needs (ASN). Twelve chapters cover the following topics: (1) planning for success, including planning services and measuring progress; (2) a Wisconsin vision for the future, including creating the vision and…

  2. Adult Basic Skills: Developing a Local Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basic Skills Agency, London (England).

    This document presents advice from the United Kingdom's Basic Skills Agency regarding developing local action plans. The first 20% of the document defines basic skills and discusses the following action plan components: (1) an estimate of the area's need for basic skills training; (2) a target to reduce the area's estimated scale of need; (3)…

  3. Generalizable Class Solutions for Treatment Planning of Spinal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weksberg, David C.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Vu, Khoi N.; Rebueno, Neal C.; Sharp, Hadley J.; Luo, Dershan; Yang, James N.; Shiu, Almon S.; Rhines, Laurence D.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Brown, Paul D.; Chang, Eric L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) continues to emerge as an effective therapeutic approach to spinal metastases; however, treatment planning and delivery remain resource intensive at many centers, which may hamper efficient implementation in clinical practice. We sought to develop a generalizable class solution approach for spinal SBRT treatment planning that would allow confidence that a given plan provides optimal target coverage, reduce integral dose, and maximize planning efficiency. Methods and Materials: We examined 91 patients treated with spinal SBRT at our institution. Treatment plans were categorized by lesion location, clinical target volume (CTV) configuration, and dose fractionation scheme, and then analyzed to determine the technically achievable dose gradient. A radial cord expansion was subtracted from the CTV to yield a planning CTV (pCTV) construct for plan evaluation. We reviewed the treatment plans with respect to target coverage, dose gradient, integral dose, conformality, and maximum cord dose to select the best plans and develop a set of class solutions. Results: The class solution technique generated plans that maintained target coverage and improved conformality (1.2-fold increase in the 95% van't Riet Conformation Number describing the conformality of a reference dose to the target) while reducing normal tissue integral dose (1.3-fold decrease in the volume receiving 4 Gy (V{sub 4Gy}) and machine output (19% monitor unit (MU) reduction). In trials of planning efficiency, the class solution technique reduced treatment planning time by 30% to 60% and MUs required by {approx}20%: an effect independent of prior planning experience. Conclusions: We have developed a set of class solutions for spinal SBRT that incorporate a pCTV metric for plan evaluation while yielding dosimetrically superior treatment plans with increased planning efficiency. Our technique thus allows for efficient, reproducible, and high-quality spinal

  4. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  5. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  6. Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseok; Noh, Jin-Won; Park, Jumin; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background There are conflicting results about the association between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in older adults. The present study examined the relationship between weight and depressive symptoms over time in older adults in South Korea. Methods We used data from three waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and ran a series of cross-lagged panel models to test the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity in older Korean adults. We assumed a temporally stable relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity and, thus imposed equality constraints over time. Results After controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms two years prior, underweight older adults had a higher depressive symptom score than those of normal weight. When controlling for obesity status from two years prior, older adults with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than normal weight. The same patterns were observed in data from 2006 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions These results show that there is a correlation between depressive symptoms and weight status. In middle-aged and elderly Asian populations, depression can lead to weight loss rather than obesity, and underweight may develop depressive symptoms. PMID:25501372

  7. Body mass index and mortality in nonsmoking older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, P; Bild, D E; Harris, T B; Duxbury, A; Siscovick, D; Rossi, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the relationship of body mass index to 5-year mortality in a cohort of 4317 nonsmoking men and women aged 65 to 100 years. METHODS: Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict mortality as a function of baseline body mass index, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and laboratory covariates. RESULTS: There was an inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality; death rates were higher for those who weighed the least. Inclusion of covariates had trivial effects on these results. People who had lost 10% or more of their body weight since age 50 had a relatively high death rate. When that group was excluded, there was no remaining relationship between body mass index and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The association between higher body mass index and mortality often found in middle-aged populations was not observed in this large cohort of older adults. Over-weight does not seem to be a risk factor for 5-year mortality in this age group. Rather, the risks associated with significant weight loss should be the primary concern. PMID:9551005

  8. The Use of Microcomputers with Autistic Adults: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warger, Cynthia L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen autistic adults participated in a program on the use of personal computers for recreation. Results revealed physical problems in the keyboard design, success of backward chaining, the reinforcing value of sound, and tendencies of the Ss to use language and initiate conversation during sessions. (CL)

  9. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  10. Nutritional Education Through Internet-Delivered Menu Plans Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Abeer; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Joseph, Lawrence; Da Costa, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background A potential barrier to weight loss and vascular risk reduction is difficulty in operationalizing dietary education into a concrete plan. Although a variety of Internet-based software tools are now available to address this issue, there has been little formal evaluation of these tools. Objective The aim of this single-arm pilot study is to determine the effect of a 24-week Internet-based menu-planning program, by examining pre- to postintervention changes in the body weight, blood pressure, and glycemia, specifically among overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), a clinical population at high risk for vascular diseases. Methods A total of 33 adults with DM2 were recruited by collaborating registered dietitians to a 24-week Internet-based menu-planning program. Individualized dietary prescriptions were operationalized into weekly Internet-delivered menu plans through an adapted version of a commercially available service. Adherence was defined as logging into the program at least once per week for a minimum of 18 of the 24 weeks. Multiple imputations were used for missing data. Using baseline and postintervention assessments, we calculated the weight changes (mean, 95% CI) and investigated the corresponding effects (linear regression models) on blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and hemoglobin A1C (ie, glycemia). Results The mean age was 58 (SD 7) years and the mean baseline body mass index was 34.4 (SD 4.6) kg/m2. The results of this study showed that ≥5% weight reduction was achieved by 6/33 participants (18%) and by 5/18 adherent participants (28%). A mean weight change of −2.0% (95% CI −2.6 to −1.4) was observed, with changes occurring in the adherent (−3.6%, 95% CI −4.5 to −2.8) but not in the nonadherent (0%, 95% CI −0.6 to 0.7). It was found that each 1% reduction in body weight was associated with a −2.4 mmHg change in systolic (95% CI −3.5 to −1.2) and a −0.8 mmHg change in diastolic blood pressure (95% CI

  11. The multidimensional relationship between early adult body weight and women's childbearing experiences.

    PubMed

    Frisco, Michelle L; Weden, Margaret M; Lippert, Adam M; Burnett, Kristin D

    2012-06-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States' women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women's social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women's educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  12. Planning Programs for Adult Learners: A Practical Guide for Educators, Trainers, and Staff Developers. Second Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    This how-to guide and resource book is designed to help in planning educational and training programs for adults in settings from the corporate sector to educational organizations. Chapters 1-3 lay the groundwork for the rest of the guide by introducing the 12-component Interactive Model of Program Planning. Chapter 1 describes adult programs and…

  13. Influence of Resistance Exercise on Lean Body Mass in Aging Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Sen, Ananda; Gordon, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Sarcopenia plays a principal role in the pathogenesis of frailty and functional impairment that occurs with aging. There are few published accounts which examine the overall benefit of resistance exercise (RE) for lean body mass (LBM), while considering a continuum of dosage schemes and/or age ranges. Therefore the purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of RE on LBM in older men and women, while taking these factors into consideration. Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Randomized controlled trials and randomized or non-randomized studies among adults ≥ 50 years, were included. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I2 statistics, and publication bias was evaluated through physical inspection of funnel plots as well as formal rank-correlation statistics. Mixed-effects meta-regression was incorporated to assess the relationship between RE dosage and changes in LBM. Results Data from forty-nine studies, representing a total of 1328 participants were pooled using random-effect models. Results demonstrated a positive effect for lean body mass and there was no evidence of publication bias. The Cochran Q statistic for heterogeneity was 497.8, which was significant (p < 0.01). Likewise, I2 was equal to 84%, representing rejection of the null hypothesis of homogeneity. The weighted pooled estimate of mean lean body mass change was 1.1 kg (95% CI, 0.9 kg to 1.2 kg). Meta-regression revealed that higher volume interventions were associated (β = 0.05, p < 0.01) with significantly greater increases in lean body mass, whereas older individuals experienced less increase (β = -0.03, p = 0.01). Conclusions RE is effective for eliciting gains in lean body mass among aging adults, particularly with higher volume programs. Findings suggest that RE participation earlier in life may provide superior effectiveness. PMID:20543750

  14. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship.

    PubMed

    Arik, Anam J; Hun, Lewis V; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25550465

  15. Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, AE; Reeder, BA; Elliott, S; Joffres, MR; Pahwa, P; Kirkland, SA; Paradis, G; Katzmarzyk, PT

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are associated with increased mortality risk, but it is unclear which anthropometric measurement most highly relates to mortality. We examined single and combined associations between BMI, WC, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. METHODS We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 8061 adults (aged 18–74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986–2004). Models controlled for age, sex, exam year, smoking, alcohol use and education. RESULTS There were 887 deaths over a mean 13 (SD 3.1) years follow-up. Increased risk of death from all-causes, CVD and cancer were associated with elevated BMI, WC and WHR (P < 0.05). Risk of death was consistently higher from elevated WC versus BMI or WHR. Ascending tertiles of each anthropometric measure predicted increased CVD mortality risk. In contrast, all-cause mortality risk was only predicted by ascending WC and WHR tertiles and cancer mortality risk by ascending WC tertiles. Higher risk of all-cause death was associated with WC in overweight and obese adults and with WHR in obese adults. Compared with non-obese adults with a low WC, adults with high WC had higher all-cause mortality risk regardless of BMI status. CONCULSION BMI and WC predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and WC predicted the highest risk for death overall and among overweight and obese adults. Elevated WC has clinical significance in predicting mortality risk beyond BMI. PMID:22249224

  16. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  17. Diverse functions of KNOX transcription factors in the diploid body plan of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KNOX genes were initially found as shoot meristem regulators in angiosperms. Recent studies in diverse plant lineages however, have revealed the divergence of KNOX gene function during the evolution of diploid body plans. Using genomic approaches, class I KNOX transcription factors have been shown t...

  18. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  19. Education for Older Adults with Early-Stage Dementia: Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richeson, Nancy E.; Boyne, Sarah; Brady, E. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 13-week adult education class for older adults with early-stage dementia titled Health Promotion for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. The mixed method research design (N = 14) used a quasiexperimental one-group pretest/posttest and the qualitative methods of focus group and phone interview with…

  20. Engaging Chinese American Adults in Advance Care Planning: A Community-Based, Culturally Sensitive Seminar.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Ching; Hinderer, Katherine A; Friedmann, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority groups are less engaged than Caucasian American adults in advance care planning (ACP). Knowledge deficits, language, and culture are barriers to ACP. Limited research exists on ACP and advance directives in the Chinese American adult population. Using a pre-posttest, repeated measures design, the current study explored the effectiveness of a nurseled, culturally sensitive ACP seminar for Chinese American adults on (a) knowledge, completion, and discussion of advance directives; and (b) the relationship between demographic variables, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions. A convenience sample of 72 urban, community-dwelling Chinese American adults (mean age=61 years) was included. Knowledge, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions increased significantly after attending the nurse-led seminar (p<0.01). Increased age correlated with advance directive completion and ACP discussions; female gender correlated with ACP discussions. Nursing education in a community setting increased advance directive knowledge and ACP engagement in Chinese American adults. PMID:25912237

  1. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  2. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution. PMID:26892238

  3. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan.

    PubMed

    Morris, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution. PMID:26892238

  4. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  5. Upper body balance control strategy during continuous 3D postural perturbation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Amori, V; Petrarca, M; Patané, F; Castelli, E; Cappa, P

    2015-01-01

    We explored how changes in vision and perturbation frequency impacted upright postural control in healthy adults exposed to continuous multiaxial support-surface perturbation. Ten subjects were asked to maintain equilibrium in standing stance with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) during sinusoidal 3D rotations at 0.25 (L) and 0.50 Hz (H). We measured upper-body kinematics--head, trunk, and pelvis--and analyzed differences in horizontal displacements and roll, pitch, and yaw sways. The presence of vision significantly decreased upper-body displacements in the horizontal plane, especially at the head level, while in EC the head was the most unstable segment. H trials produced a greater segment stabilization compared to L ones in EO and EC. Analysis of sways showed that in EO participants stabilized their posture by reducing the variability of trunk angles; in H trials a sway decrease for the examined segments was observed in the yaw plane and, for the pelvis only, in the pitch plane. Our results suggest that, during continuous multiaxial perturbations, visual information induced: (i) in L condition, a continuous reconfiguration of multi-body-segments orientation to follow the perturbation; (ii) in H condition, a compensation for the ongoing perturbation. These findings were not confirmed in EC where the same strategy--that is, the use of the pelvis as a reference frame for the body balance was adopted both in L and H. PMID:25205381

  6. Socioeconomic and behavioral correlates of body mass index in black adults: the Pitt County Study.

    PubMed Central

    Croft, J B; Strogatz, D S; James, S A; Keenan, N L; Ammerman, A S; Malarcher, A M; Haines, P S

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Obesity is more prevalent among Black women than Black men, but there is little information on the correlates of obesity in Blacks. This study describes the relations of sociodemographic factors and health behaviors to body mass index in a southern, Black population. METHODS. In 1988, a community probability sample of 1784 Black adults, aged 25 to 50, was examined in Pitt County, NC. RESULTS. More women than men were at least 20% overweight (57% vs 36%). The relation of socioeconomic status (a composite of education and occupation) to age-adjusted body mass index level was inverse in women but not in men. Body mass index did not differ with either current energy intake or energy expenditure. Smokers and drinkers had lower age-adjusted levels than non-smokers and abstainers. CONCLUSIONS. Since the excess body mass index levels associated with low socioeconomic status in women could not be explained after controlling for adverse health behaviors, further epidemiologic study of risk factors for obesity in Black women is recommended. PMID:1585962

  7. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  8. Planning and task management in older adults: cooking breakfast.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    The article describes a simulated "cooking breakfast" task in which participants must remember to start and stop cooking five foods so that all the foods are "ready" at the same time. In between starting and stopping operations, the participants also carried out a "table-setting" task as a filler activity. The breakfast task yields various measures of multitasking and executive control. Groups of younger and older adults performed the task; half of the participants in each group were bilinguals and the other half were monolinguals. The results showed substantial age-related decrements in most measures of executive control. Additionally, older bilinguals showed some advantages in task management over their monolingual peers. PMID:17225505

  9. Whole-body vibration improves cognitive functions of an adult with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van den Bos, Meinris; Regterschot, G Ruben H; Zeinstra, Edzard B; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a variety of cognitive impairments, which were shown to affect academic achievement and quality of life. Current treatment strategies, such as stimulant drug treatment, were demonstrated to effectively improve cognitive functions of patients with ADHD. However, most treatment strategies are associated with a number of disadvantages in a considerable proportion of patients, such as unsatisfactory effects, adverse clinical side effects or high financial costs. In order to address limitations of current treatment strategies, whole-body vibration (WBV) might represent a novel approach to treat cognitive dysfunctions of patients with ADHD. WBV refers to the exposure of the whole body of an individual to vibration and was found to affect physiology and cognition. In the present study, WBV was applied on 10 consecutive days to an adult diagnosed with ADHD. Neuropsychological assessments were performed repeatedly at three different times, i.e., the day before the start of the treatment, on the day following completion of treatment and 14 days after the treatment have been completed (follow-up). An improved neuropsychological test performance following WBV treatment points to the high clinical value of WBV in treating patients with neuropsychological impairments such as ADHD. PMID:25031090

  10. Adult polyglucosan body disease in a patient originally diagnosed with Fabry's disease.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, A; Savoiardo, M; Marchesi, C; Morandi, L; Mora, M; Morbin, M; Farina, L; Mazzeo, A; Toscano, A; Pagliarani, S; Lucchiari, S; Comi, G P; Salsano, E; Pareyson, D

    2014-03-01

    Adult polyglucosan body disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by glycogen branching enzyme gene mutations, characterised by urinary dysfunction, spastic paraplegia with vibration sense loss, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A gene mutations; neurological manifestations include cerebrovascular accidents, small-fibre neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old Sicilian male with stroke-like episodes, hypohidrosis and mild proteinuria, which led to the diagnosis of Fabry's disease after a hemizygous mutation (p.Ala143Thr) in α-galactosidase A gene was detected. Subsequently, he developed progressive walking difficulties and dementia, which were considered atypical for Fabry's disease. Therefore, we performed additional investigations that eventually led to the diagnosis of adult polyglucosan body disease caused by two novel missense mutations (p.Asp413His and p.Gly534Val) in the glycogen branching enzyme gene. Recently, the pathogenic role of the p.Ala143Thr mutation in causing Fabry's disease has been questioned. This case underlines the importance of performing further investigations when facing with atypical features even in the presence of a genetic diagnosis of a rare disease. PMID:24380807

  11. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, carotid body function and erythropoietin production in adult rats perinatally exposed to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Ramirez, Maria; Olea, Elena; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Cogolludo, Angel; Castañeda, Javier; Yubero, Sara; Agapito, Teresa; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Rocher, Asuncion; Rigual, Ricardo; Obeso, Ana; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; González, Constancio

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalians possess three cell systems that are activated by acute bodily hypoxia: pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), carotid body chemoreceptor cells (CBCC) and erythropoietin (EPO)-producing cells. In rats, chronic perinatal hyperoxia causes permanent carotid body (CB) atrophy and functional alterations of surviving CBCC. There are no studies on PASMC or EPO-producing cells. Our aim is to define possible long-lasting functional changes in PASMC or EPO-producing cells (measured as EPO plasma levels) and, further, to analyse CBCC functional alterations. We used 3- to 4-month-old rats born and reared in a normal atmosphere or exposed to perinatal hyperoxia (55–60% O2 for the last 5–6 days of pregnancy and 4 weeks after birth). Perinatal hyperoxia causes an almost complete loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which was correlated with lung oxidative status in early postnatal life and prevented by antioxidant supplementation in the diet. O2-sensitivity of K+ currents in the PASMC of hyperoxic animals is normal, indicating that their inhibition is not sufficient to trigger HPV. Perinatal hyperoxia also abrogated responses elicited by hypoxia on catecholamine and cAMP metabolism in the CB. An increase in EPO plasma levels elicited by hypoxia was identical in hyperoxic and control animals, implying a normal functioning of EPO-producing cells. The loss of HPV observed in adult rats and caused by perinatal hyperoxia, comparable to oxygen therapy in premature infants, might represent a previously unrecognized complication of such a medical intervention capable of aggravating medical conditions such as regional pneumonias, atelectases or general anaesthesia in adult life. Key points Adult animals that have been perinatally exposed to oxygen-rich atmospheres (hyperoxia), recalling those used for oxygen therapy in infants, exhibit a loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas vasoconstriction elicited by depolarizing agents is

  12. HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH RELATIVELY LOWER LEAN BODY MASS IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    KALYANI, RITA R.; TRA, Y.; EGAN, J.M.; FERRUCCI, L.; BRANCATI, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults with known diabetes are vulnerable to accelerated loss of lean body mass. However, the relationship of hyperglycemia per se with lean body mass is not fully understood. We sought to examine the independent relationship of hyperglycemia with relative lean body mass in older persons without a reported history of diabetes. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting United States. Participants We studied U.S. adults >50 years without known diabetes (n=5434) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Measurements In linear regression models, we studied the relationship of measured HbA1c (<5.0%, 5.0–5.4%, 5.5–5.9%, 6.0–6.4%, ≥6.5%) with percent lean body mass, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, after accounting for potential confounders. Results Among older U.S. men and women, progressively higher HbA1c was associated with relatively lower total, appendicular, and trunk percent lean mass, independent of demographics and height (all p<0.05). Accounting for physical activity, C-reactive protein, and diabetes-related comorbidities (heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, arthritis, neuropathy, hip fracture, amputation, cancer, pulmonary disease), undiagnosed diabetes (i.e. HbA1c ≥6.5%) versus reference (<5.0%) in both men and women was associated with lower total (−3.5±0.8% and −2.9±0.8%), appendicular (−1.8±0.5% and −1.2±0.4%), and trunk percent lean mass (−1.2±0.4% and −1.3±0.5%), respectively (all p<0.05). Persons at increased risk for diabetes (i.e. HbA1c 6.0–6.4%) also had significant decrements at these sites versus reference. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is associated with relatively lower lean mass in a nationally representative population of older adults without history of diabetes. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of hyperglycemia with the accelerated decline of skeletal muscle mass in older persons

  13. Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (β 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (β 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (β 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (β 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

  14. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  15. Adult Couples Facing a Planned or an Unplanned Pregnancy: Two Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Genevieve

    2005-01-01

    This study examined demographic, individual, and relational factors that differentiate adult couples facing an unplanned pregnancy carried to term from those facing a planned pregnancy. One hundred and eighteen couples expecting their first child completed, along with a demographic questionnaire, measures of personality, perceived stress,…

  16. HEALTH AND NUTRITION LESSON PLANS AND STUDENT WORKSHEETS, ADULT BASIC EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS MANUAL PROVIDES ADULT BASIC EDUCATION TEACHERS WITH LESSON PLANS IN HEALTH AND NUTRITION. EACH LESSON CONTAINS BACKGROUND MATERIAL OFFERING SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON THE SUBJECT OF EACH LESSON, AIMS, LESSON DEVELOPMENT, AND TWO STUDENT WORKSHEETS. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE SUGGESTED TO ENCOURAGE THE GREATEST POSSIBLE STUDENT INVOLVEMENT. THE TEN…

  17. Person-Centered Planning with Youth and Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impact, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This feature issue of "Impact" focuses on person-centered planning with youth and adults who have developmental disabilities. Featured articles include: (1) "Centering on People: A Quiet Revolution" (Judith A. Snow); (2) "Look-and Understand-before You Leap" (Brian Abery and Marijo McBride), which describes the basic principles and values…

  18. Self-Motivated Personal Career Planning Program. Planner's Guide. [Adult Form].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Verne; Wallace, Melvin

    The Self-Motivated Personal Career Planning guide for adults presents a process of self-assessment and goal-setting involving employee planners and management facilitators. An overview and rationale of the program and instructions and procedures are discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. The remainder of the guide consists of procedural steps for (1)…

  19. Reassessment of Phenylalanine Tolerance in Adults with Phenylketonuria is Needed as Body Mass Changes

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Gleason, Sally T.; van Calcar, Sandra C.; Ney, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in 8 adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and 5 subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25–28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, 7 subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15–173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R2=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  20. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ≤ 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

  1. Reassessment of phenylalanine tolerance in adults with phenylketonuria is needed as body mass changes.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Erin L; Gleason, Sally T; van Calcar, Sandra C; Ney, Denise M

    2009-12-01

    Lifelong treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes a phenylalanine (phe) restricted diet that provides sufficient phe for growth and maintenance plus phe-free amino acid formula to meet requirements for protein, energy and micronutrients. Phe tolerance (mg phe/kg body weight/day) is the amount of phe those with PKU can consume and maintain acceptable blood phe levels; it requires individual assessment because of varying phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The objective was to reassess phe tolerance in eight adults with PKU considering phe requirements, blood phe levels, genotype and phe tolerance at 5 years of age. Subjects had not received a personalized assessment of phe tolerance in several years, and five subjects were overweight, body mass index (BMI) 25-28. With the guidance of a metabolic dietitian, seven subjects increased phe tolerance (by 15-173%) without significantly increasing blood phe concentration. Increased phe tolerance was associated with both improved dietary compliance and inadequate phe intake at the onset of the protocol compared with current requirements. Improved dietary compliance reflected increased consumption of protein equivalents from amino acid formula and increased frequency of formula intake, from 2.2 to 3 times per day. Predictors of higher final phe tolerance following reassessment included being male and having a lower BMI (R(2)=0.588). This suggests that the rising trend of overweight and obesity may affect assessment of phe tolerance in adults. Therefore, interaction with the metabolic dietitian to reassess phe tolerance in relation to body mass is essential throughout adulthood to insure adequate intake of phe to support protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. PMID:19747868

  2. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  3. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  4. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  5. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  6. Fractal branching organizations of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds reveal a lost Proterozoic body plan

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer F.; Conway Morris, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The branching morphology of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds has no exact counterpart in other complex macroorganisms. As such, these fossils pose major questions as to growth patterns, functional morphology, modes of feeding, and adaptive optimality. Here, using parametric Lindenmayer systems, a formal model of rangeomorph morphologies reveals a fractal body plan characterized by self-similar, axial, apical, alternate branching. Consequent morphological reconstruction for 11 taxa demonstrates an adaptive radiation based on 3D space-filling strategies. The fractal body plan of rangeomorphs is shown to maximize surface area, consistent with diffusive nutrient uptake from the water column (osmotrophy). The enigmas of rangeomorph morphology, evolution, and extinction are resolved by the realization that they were adaptively optimized for unique ecological and geochemical conditions in the late Proterozoic. Changes in ocean conditions associated with the Cambrian explosion sealed their fate. PMID:25114255

  7. Fractal branching organizations of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds reveal a lost Proterozoic body plan.

    PubMed

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer F; Conway Morris, Simon

    2014-09-01

    The branching morphology of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds has no exact counterpart in other complex macroorganisms. As such, these fossils pose major questions as to growth patterns, functional morphology, modes of feeding, and adaptive optimality. Here, using parametric Lindenmayer systems, a formal model of rangeomorph morphologies reveals a fractal body plan characterized by self-similar, axial, apical, alternate branching. Consequent morphological reconstruction for 11 taxa demonstrates an adaptive radiation based on 3D space-filling strategies. The fractal body plan of rangeomorphs is shown to maximize surface area, consistent with diffusive nutrient uptake from the water column (osmotrophy). The enigmas of rangeomorph morphology, evolution, and extinction are resolved by the realization that they were adaptively optimized for unique ecological and geochemical conditions in the late Proterozoic. Changes in ocean conditions associated with the Cambrian explosion sealed their fate. PMID:25114255

  8. Effects of protocol and obesity on dose conversion factors in adult body CT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Williams, Cameron H.; Segars, W. Paul; Tward, Daniel J.; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Paulson, Erik K.; Frush, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), organ dose, effective dose, and risk index can be estimated from volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDIvol) or dose-length product (DLP) using conversion coefficients. Studies have investigated how these coefficients vary across scanner models, scan parameters, and patient size. However, their variability across CT protocols has not been systematically studied. Furthermore, earlier studies of the effect of patient size have not included obese individuals, which currently represent more than one-third of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of protocol and obesity on dose and risk conversion coefficients in adult body CT. Methods: Whole-body computational phantoms were created from clinical CT images of six adult patients (three males, three females), representing normal-weight patients and patients of three obesity classes. Body CT protocols at our institution were selected and categorized into ten examination categories based on anatomical region examined. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to estimate organ dose. Organ dose estimates were normalized by CTDIvol and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) to obtain organ dose conversion coefficients (denoted as h and hss factors, respectively). Assuming each phantom to be 20, 40, and 60 years old, effective dose and risk index were calculated and normalized by DLP to obtain effective dose and risk index conversion coefficients (denoted as k and q factors, respectively). Coefficient of variation was used to quantify the variability of each conversion coefficient across examination categories. The effect of obesity was assessed by comparing each obese phantom with the normal-weight phantom of the same gender. Results: For a given organ, the variability of h factor across examination categories that encompassed the entire organ volume was generally within 15%. However, k factor varied more across examination categories (15%–27%). For all three ages, the

  9. AECAP Guide for State Leaders: State and Local Coordination and Planning to Strengthen Adult Basic Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Gwaltney, Margaret K.

    2010-01-01

    The Adult Education Coordination and Planning (AECAP) guide is designed to assist state adult education staff in forming partnerships at the state level and facilitating coordination at the local level as a lever for expanding and improving the quality of adult basic education (ABE) and workforce development services. Coordination plays a critical…

  10. Differential perceptions of body image and body weight among adults of different socioeconomic status in a sub-urban population.

    PubMed

    Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (p<0.001) and female (p<0.001 to p<0.04) in all BW categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among skilled and tertiary males and females in normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Perceived BW differed (p<0.001) from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males in underweight, overweight and obese categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among unskilled and non-tertiary females, skilled and tertiary males and females in overweight and obese categories. Underweight 'unskilled' and 'non-tertiary' males perceived their BI to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Overweight and obese 'skilled' and 'unskilled', and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary', males and females perceived their BI and BW to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Significant differences in perceived BI existed between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.005), overweight males, and between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.008), normal-weight females. The 'skilled' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41-0.64; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96; p=0.03) than the 'unskilled' participants

  11. Robot body self-modeling algorithm: a collision-free motion planning approach for humanoids.

    PubMed

    Leylavi Shoushtari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Motion planning for humanoid robots is one of the critical issues due to the high redundancy and theoretical and technical considerations e.g. stability, motion feasibility and collision avoidance. The strategies which central nervous system employs to plan, signal and control the human movements are a source of inspiration to deal with the mentioned problems. Self-modeling is a concept inspired by body self-awareness in human. In this research it is integrated in an optimal motion planning framework in order to detect and avoid collision of the manipulated object with the humanoid body during performing a dynamic task. Twelve parametric functions are designed as self-models to determine the boundary of humanoid's body. Later, the boundaries which mathematically defined by the self-models are employed to calculate the safe region for box to avoid the collision with the robot. Four different objective functions are employed in motion simulation to validate the robustness of algorithm under different dynamics. The results also confirm the collision avoidance, reality and stability of the predicted motion. PMID:27186507

  12. From Lizard to Snake; Behind the Evolution of an Extreme Body Plan

    PubMed Central

    Woltering, Joost M

    2012-01-01

    The elongated, snake-like skeleton, as it has convergently evolved in numerous reptilian and amphibian lineages, is from a developmental biologist’s point of view amongst the most fascinating anatomical peculiarities in the animal kingdom. This type of body plan is characterized by a greatly increased number of vertebrae, a reduction of skeletal regionalization along the primary body axis and loss of the limbs. Recent studies conducted on both mouse and snakes now hint at how changes inside the gene regulatory circuitries of the Hox genes and the somitogenesis clock likely underlie these striking departures from standard tetrapod morphology, suggesting scenarios by which snakes and other elongated species may have evolved from more ordinarily bodied ancestors. PMID:23204918

  13. Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs) in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years). Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 28.0 ± 12.74 years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2%) patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%), and at the air way in 7 (21.8%) patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases) and the pharynx (4/7), while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each). The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2%) patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation) occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging. PMID:24834074

  14. Body Composition and Mortality after Adult Lung Transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric R.; Snyder, Mark E.; Katz, Patricia P.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; D’Ovidio, Frank; Bacchetta, Matthew; Sonett, Joshua R.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Shah, Lori; Robbins, Hilary; Van Horn, Kristin; Shah, Rupal J.; Diamond, Joshua M.; Wickersham, Nancy; Sun, Li; Hays, Steven; Arcasoy, Selim M.; Palmer, Scott M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Obesity and underweight are contraindications to lung transplantation based on their associations with mortality in studies performed before implementation of the lung allocation score (LAS)–based organ allocation system in the United States Objectives: To determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and plasma leptin levels with survival after lung transplantation. Methods: We used multivariable-adjusted regression models to examine associations between BMI and 1-year mortality in 9,073 adults who underwent lung transplantation in the United States between May 2005 and June 2011, and plasma leptin and mortality in 599 Lung Transplant Outcomes Group study participants. We measured body fat and skeletal muscle mass using whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry in 142 adult lung transplant candidates. Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted mortality rates were similar among normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), and class I obese (BMI 30–34.9) transplant recipients. Underweight (BMI < 18.5) was associated with a 35% increased rate of death (95% confidence interval, 10–66%). Class II–III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in mortality (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.8). Higher leptin levels were associated with increased mortality after transplant surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (P for interaction = 0.03). A BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 was 26% sensitive and 97% specific for total body fat–defined obesity. Conclusions: A BMI of 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 is not associated with 1-year mortality after lung transplantation in the LAS era, perhaps because of its low sensitivity for obesity. The association between leptin and mortality suggests the need to validate alternative methods to measure obesity in candidates for lung transplantation. A BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 may no longer contraindicate lung transplantation. PMID

  15. The Association of Physical Activity during Weekdays and Weekend with Body Composition in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, Nicole; Wirth, Michael D.; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. PMID:27200185

  16. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolzenius, Jacob D.; Laidlaw, David H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Conturo, Thomas E.; McMichael, Amanda R.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Heaps, Jodi M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Baker, Laurie M.; Scott, Staci E.; Cooley, Sarah A.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51 to 81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  17. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bolzenius, Jacob D; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; McMichael, Amanda R; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Salminen, Lauren E; Baker, Laurie M; Scott, Staci E; Cooley, Sarah A; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Obesity, commonly measured with body mass index (BMI), is associated with numerous deleterious health conditions including alterations in brain integrity related to advanced age. Prior research has suggested that white matter integrity observed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is altered in relation to high BMI, but the integrity of specific white matter tracts remains poorly understood. Additionally, no studies have examined white matter tract integrity in conjunction with neuropsychological evaluation associated with BMI among older adults. The present study examined white matter tract integrity using DTI and cognitive performance associated with BMI in 62 healthy older adults (20 males, 42 females) aged 51-81. Results revealed that elevated BMI was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the uncinate fasciculus, though there was no evidence of an age by BMI interaction relating to FA in this tract. No relationships were observed between BMI and other white matter tracts or cognition after controlling for demographic variables. Findings suggest that elevated BMI is associated with lower structural integrity in a brain region connecting frontal and temporal lobes and this alteration precedes cognitive dysfunction. Future studies should examine biological mechanisms that mediate the relationships between BMI and white matter tract integrity, as well as the evolution of these abnormalities utilizing longitudinal designs. PMID:25448431

  18. Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Kitamura, K; Kohno, N

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body configurations and the joint function during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Twelve healthy adult males and eight (one male and seven females) 6-yr-old kindergartners participated in this study. Subjects performed standing long jump on a force platform with full effort. Body segment and joint angles were analyzed by high speed videography (100 frames.s-1). Using kinetic and kinematic data, joint moments, power, and work done were calculated through a free body diagram. Average standing long jump performances were +1.5 SD above Japanese norm in both adults and children. A wide range of motion of the lower limb segments during flight phase was found in the adults. In the crouch prior to take off, joint muscle power peaks appeared in the same order, and joint contribution to the total work done showed almost the same values in both adults and children. It is suggested that gross motor pattern before take off is almost accomplished by the 6-yr-old. Judging by hip joint work, adult performance was much better than that of children, since the adults exerted relatively higher negative work from the onset of preparatory movement to the point of lowest center of gravity during crouch. It was concluded that skilled 6-yr-old children have not fully developed either hip negative work during preparatory movement or body configuration in the flight phase, although gross motor pattern before take off phase was accomplished to skilled adult level. PMID:1943628

  19. Influence of segment width on plan quality for volumetric modulated arc based stereotactic body radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nithiyanantham, Karthikeyan; Kadirampatti Mani, Ganesh; Subramani, Vikraman; Karukkupalayam Palaniappan, Karrthick; Uthiran, Mohanraj; Vellengiri, Sennniandavar; Raju, Sambasivaselli; Supe, Sanjay S.; Kataria, Tejinder

    2014-01-01

    Aim To study the influence of segment width on plan quality for volumetric modulated arc based stereotactic body radiotherapy. Background The redundancy of modulation for regularly shaped small volume tumors results in creation of many small segments and an increase of monitor units, with a consequent prolongation of treatment and uncertainty in treatment delivery. Materials and methods Six cases each in lung, abdomen and liver were taken for the study. For each case, three VMAT SBRT plans were generated with different penalties on minimum segment width of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. A comparison was made on the metrics of dose volume histogram, dosimetric indices, monitor units (MUs) and delivery accuracy. Results The mean reduction of total MUs when compared with 0.5 cm plan was observed as 12.7 ± 6.0% and 17.5 ± 7.2% for 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm of minimum segment width, respectively. The p value showed a significant degradation in dosimetric indices for 1.5 cm plans when compared with 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm plans. The average deviation of measured dose with TPS calculated was 3.0 ± 1.1%, 2.1 ± 0.84% and 1.8 ± 0.9% for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm, respectively. The calculated gamma index with pass criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement was 95.9 ± 2.8%, 96.5 ± 2.6% and 97.8 ± 1.6% as calculated for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm of penalties, respectively. In view of the trade off between delivery efficiency and plan quality, 1 cm minimum segment width plans showed an improvement. Conclusions VMAT SBRT plans with increased optimal value of minimum segment width showed better plan quality and delivery efficiency for stereotactic body radiotherapy. PMID:25184052

  20. Adult Education Program Performance Report. Program Year 1996. Under the Four-Year Plan for the Administration of Adult Education P.L. 102-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Director for Adult Education.

    The Guam State Plan for Adult Education, as implemented by Guam Community College, had five goals: provide a comprehensive adult education instructional program that is flexible and responsive to employment needs; increase enrollment and expand services for special groups; establish continuous needs assessment of targeted educationally…

  1. Use of flexible bronchoscopy in an adult for removal of an aspirated foreign body at a community hospital

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Vikram; Vadde, Rakesh; Munigikar, Prajakta; Bhattarai, Bikash; Agu, Chidozie; Basunia, Rashawn; Salhan, Divya; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph; Schmidt, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is more common in children than adults with about 80% occurring in children aged less than 15 years. FBA in adults is often overlooked as a potential cause of airway obstruction especially if there is no asphyxiation. We present a case of a 45-year-old male with alcohol abuse who presented with post-obstructive pneumonia secondary to aspiration of tooth of unknown duration. The tooth was removed via flexible bronchoscopy (FBr) and we will discuss the use of FBr for foreign body (FB) removal, which FB can be easily removed by FBr, and the different techniques and devices used for FB removal via FBr. PMID:26486107

  2. Interinstitutional Variations in Planning for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Takayama, Kenji; Nagata, Yasushi . E-mail: nag@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kunieda, Etsuo; Tateoka, Kunihiko; Ishizuka, Naoki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Sakamoto, Masato; Narita, Yuichiro; Ishikura, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess interinstitutional variations in planning for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer before the start of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) 0403 trial. Methods and Materials: Eleven institutions created virtual plans for four cases of solitary lung cancer. The created plans should satisfy the target definitions and the dose constraints for the JCOG 0403 protocol. Results: FOCUS/XiO (CMS) was used in six institutions, Eclipse (Varian) in 3, Cadplan (Varian) in one, and Pinnacle3 (Philips/ADAC) in one. Dose calculation algorithms of Clarkson with effective path length correction and superposition were used in FOCUS/XiO; pencil beam convolution with Batho power law correction was used in Eclipse and Cadplan; and collapsed cone convolution superposition was used in Pinnacle3. For the target volumes, the overall coefficient of variation was 16.6%, and the interinstitutional variations were not significant. For maximal dose, minimal dose, D95, and the homogeneity index of the planning target volume, the interinstitutional variations were significant. The dose calculation algorithm was a significant factor in these variations. No violation of the dose constraints for the protocol was observed. Conclusion: There can be notable interinstitutional variations in planning for SBRT, including both interobserver variations in the estimate of target volumes as well as dose calculation effects related to the use of different dose calculation algorithms.

  3. Spine stereotactic body radiation therapy plans: Achieving dose coverage, conformity, and dose falloff

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Linda X.; Shankar, Viswanathan; Shen, Jin; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Mynampati, Dinesh; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Goddard, Lee; Basavatia, Amar; Fox, Jana; Garg, Madhur; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2015-10-01

    We report our experience of establishing planning objectives to achieve dose coverage, conformity, and dose falloff for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans. Patients with spine lesions were treated using SBRT in our institution since September 2009. Since September 2011, we established the following planning objectives for our SBRT spine plans in addition to the cord dose constraints: (1) dose coverage—prescription dose (PD) to cover at least 95% planning target volume (PTV) and 90% PD to cover at least 99% PTV; (2) conformity index (CI)—ratio of prescription isodose volume (PIV) to the PTV < 1.2; (3) dose falloff—ratio of 50% PIV to the PTV (R{sub 50%}); (4) and maximum dose in percentage of PD at 2 cm from PTV in any direction (D{sub 2cm}) to follow Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0915. We have retrospectively reviewed 66 separate spine lesions treated between September 2009 and December 2012 (31 treated before September 2011 [group 1] and 35 treated after [group 2]). The χ{sup 2} test was used to examine the difference in parameters between groups. The PTV V{sub 100%} {sub PD} ≥ 95% objective was met in 29.0% of group 1 vs 91.4% of group 2 (p < 0.01) plans. The PTV V{sub 90%} {sub PD} ≥ 99% objective was met in 38.7% of group 1 vs 88.6% of group 2 (p < 0.01) plans. Overall, 4 plans in group 1 had CI > 1.2 vs none in group 2 (p = 0.04). For D{sub 2cm}, 48.3% plans yielded a minor violation of the objectives and 16.1% a major violation for group 1, whereas 17.1% exhibited a minor violation and 2.9% a major violation for group 2 (p < 0.01). Spine SBRT plans can be improved on dose coverage, conformity, and dose falloff employing a combination of RTOG spine and lung SBRT protocol planning objectives.

  4. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI

  5. Modeling of body tissues for Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy treatments planned with conventional x-ray CT systems.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-07-01

    In the conventional procedure for accurate Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy, a CT number given to each pixel of a patient image is directly converted to mass density and elemental composition using their respective functions that have been calibrated specifically for the relevant x-ray CT system. We propose an alternative approach that is a conversion in two steps: the first from CT number to density and the second from density to composition. Based on the latest compilation of standard tissues for reference adult male and female phantoms, we sorted the standard tissues into groups by mass density and defined the representative tissues by averaging the material properties per group. With these representative tissues, we formulated polyline relations between mass density and each of the following; electron density, stopping-power ratio and elemental densities. We also revised a procedure of stoichiometric calibration for CT-number conversion and demonstrated the two-step conversion method for a theoretically emulated CT system with hypothetical 80 keV photons. For the standard tissues, high correlation was generally observed between mass density and the other densities excluding those of C and O for the light spongiosa tissues between 1.0 g cm(-3) and 1.1 g cm(-3) occupying 1% of the human body mass. The polylines fitted to the dominant tissues were generally consistent with similar formulations in the literature. The two-step conversion procedure was demonstrated to be practical and will potentially facilitate Monte Carlo simulation for treatment planning and for retrospective analysis of treatment plans with little impact on the management of planning CT systems. PMID:27300449

  6. Modeling of body tissues for Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy treatments planned with conventional x-ray CT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-07-01

    In the conventional procedure for accurate Monte Carlo simulation of radiotherapy, a CT number given to each pixel of a patient image is directly converted to mass density and elemental composition using their respective functions that have been calibrated specifically for the relevant x-ray CT system. We propose an alternative approach that is a conversion in two steps: the first from CT number to density and the second from density to composition. Based on the latest compilation of standard tissues for reference adult male and female phantoms, we sorted the standard tissues into groups by mass density and defined the representative tissues by averaging the material properties per group. With these representative tissues, we formulated polyline relations between mass density and each of the following; electron density, stopping-power ratio and elemental densities. We also revised a procedure of stoichiometric calibration for CT-number conversion and demonstrated the two-step conversion method for a theoretically emulated CT system with hypothetical 80 keV photons. For the standard tissues, high correlation was generally observed between mass density and the other densities excluding those of C and O for the light spongiosa tissues between 1.0 g cm‑3 and 1.1 g cm‑3 occupying 1% of the human body mass. The polylines fitted to the dominant tissues were generally consistent with similar formulations in the literature. The two-step conversion procedure was demonstrated to be practical and will potentially facilitate Monte Carlo simulation for treatment planning and for retrospective analysis of treatment plans with little impact on the management of planning CT systems.

  7. Properties of ionic currents from isolated adult rat carotid body chemoreceptor cells: effect of hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    López-López, J R; González, C; Pérez-García, M T

    1997-01-01

    1. The electrical properties of chemoreceptor cells from neonatal rat and adult rabbit carotid bodies (CBs) are strikingly different. These differences have been suggested to be developmental and/or species related. To distinguish between the two possibilities, the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to characterize the ionic currents present in isolated chemoreceptor cells from adult rat CBs. Since hypoxia-induced inhibition of O2-sensitive K+ currents is considered a crucial step in O2 chemoreception, the effect of hypoxia on the adult rat chemoreceptor cell currents was also studied. 2. Outward currents were carried mainly by K+, and two different components could be distinguished: a Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)) sensitive to Cd2+ and charybdotoxin (CTX), and a Ca(2+)-insensitive, voltage-dependent K+ current (IK(V)). IK(V) showed a slow voltage-dependent activation (time constant (tau) of 87.4 ms at -20 mV and 8.8 ms at +60 mV) and a very slow inactivation, described by the sum of two exponentials (tau 1 = 684 +/- 150 ms and tau 2 = 4.96 +/- 0.76 s at + 30 mV), that was almost voltage insensitive. The kinetic and pharmacological properties of IK(V) are typical of a delayed rectifier K+ channel. 3. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents (ICa) were present in nineteen of twenty-seven cells. TTX-sensitive Na+ currents were also observed in about 10% of the cells. 4. Low PO2 (< 10 mmHg) reduced the whole outward current amplitude by 22.17 +/- 1.96% (n = 27) at +20 mV. This effect was absent in the presence of Cd2+. Since low PO2 did not affect ICa, we conclude that hypoxia selectively blocks IK(Ca). 5. The properties of the currents recorded in adult rat chemoreceptor cells, including the specific inhibition of IK(Ca) by hypoxia, are similar to those reported in neonatal rat CB cells, implying that the differences between rat and rabbit chemoreceptor cells are species related. PMID:9080372

  8. No effects of monosodium glutamate consumption on the body weight or composition of adult rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Aleman, Tiffany R; Murphy, Michelle C

    2012-10-10

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is pervasively consumed as a flavor enhancer so there are important implications to understanding its physiological actions, particularly its effects on body weight. Previous studies suggest that MSG increases, decreases, or has no effect on the body weight of rodents. However, most of these studies involved administration of MSG to immature rodents and consequently may not be relevant for understanding human obesity. We report here five experiments in which we measured the body weights of a total of 32 groups of 10-12 adult rats or mice given various diets to eat and MSG to eat or drink. We found no evidence that MSG influenced body weight, energy intake, or body composition. To the extent that experiments in rodents illuminate mechanisms involved in human obesity and body weight control, our results suggest that MSG is unlikely to be a useful anti-obesity supplement but neither is it responsible for exacerbating obesity. PMID:22868067

  9. A culture of future planning: perceptions of sexual risk among educated young adults.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I

    2014-10-01

    In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. PMID:25156216

  10. Reorganisation of Hoxd regulatory landscapes during the evolution of a snake-like body plan.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Isabel; Gitto, Sandra; Novoa, Ana; Codourey, Julien; Nguyen Huynh, Thi Hanh; Gonzalez, Federico; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Mallo, Moises; Duboule, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Within land vertebrate species, snakes display extreme variations in their body plan, characterized by the absence of limbs and an elongated morphology. Such a particular interpretation of the basic vertebrate body architecture has often been associated with changes in the function or regulation of Hox genes. Here, we use an interspecies comparative approach to investigate different regulatory aspects at the snake HoxD locus. We report that, unlike in other vertebrates, snake mesoderm-specific enhancers are mostly located within the HoxD cluster itself rather than outside. In addition, despite both the absence of limbs and an altered Hoxd gene regulation in external genitalia, the limb-associated bimodal HoxD chromatin structure is maintained at the snake locus. Finally, we show that snake and mouse orthologous enhancer sequences can display distinct expression specificities. These results show that vertebrate morphological evolution likely involved extensive reorganisation at Hox loci, yet within a generally conserved regulatory framework. PMID:27476854

  11. Effect of Acuros XB algorithm on monitor units for stereotactic body radiotherapy planning of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Rao F. Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Lau, Harold; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a curative regimen that uses hypofractionated radiation-absorbed dose to achieve a high degree of local control in early stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the presence of heterogeneities, the dose calculation for the lungs becomes challenging. We have evaluated the dosimetric effect of the recently introduced advanced dose-calculation algorithm, Acuros XB (AXB), for SBRT of NSCLC. A total of 97 patients with early-stage lung cancer who underwent SBRT at our cancer center during last 4 years were included. Initial clinical plans were created in Aria Eclipse version 8.9 or prior, using 6 to 10 fields with 6-MV beams, and dose was calculated using the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) as implemented in Eclipse treatment planning system. The clinical plans were recalculated in Aria Eclipse 11.0.21 using both AAA and AXB algorithms. Both sets of plans were normalized to the same prescription point at the center of mass of the target. A secondary monitor unit (MU) calculation was performed using commercial program RadCalc for all of the fields. For the planning target volumes ranging from 19 to 375 cm{sup 3}, a comparison of MUs was performed for both set of algorithms on field and plan basis. In total, variation of MUs for 677 treatment fields was investigated in terms of equivalent depth and the equivalent square of the field. Overall, MUs required by AXB to deliver the prescribed dose are on an average 2% higher than AAA. Using a 2-tailed paired t-test, the MUs from the 2 algorithms were found to be significantly different (p < 0.001). The secondary independent MU calculator RadCalc underestimates the required MUs (on an average by 4% to 5%) in the lung relative to either of the 2 dose algorithms.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Kathryn H.; Hornak, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Six adults with Prader Willi syndrome who participated in a six-month walking program showed significant differences in resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, body fat percentage, and weight loss, compared to a control group of five nonparticipants. (Author/JDD)

  13. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  14. Cut-off of body mass index and waist circumference to predict hypertension in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Tanu; Krishna, Vinay; Nath, Bhola; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Rao, Yashwant Kumar; Pandey, Umeshwar; Kaur, Samarjeet

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to predict hypertension in adults in north India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 801 subjects in Kanpur, aged 20 years and above, using multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to elicit the required information from the study participants and the diagnostic criteria for hypertension were taken according to the Seventh Joint National Committee Report on Hypertension (JNC-7). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the cut-off values of BMI and waist circumference to predict hypertension. RESULTS: The ROC analysis revealed that BMI is a good predictor of hypertension for both men (area under the ROC curve 0.714) and women (area under the ROC curve 0.821). The cut-off values of BMI for predicting hypertension were identified as ≥ 24.5 kg/m2 in men and ≥ 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Similarly, the ROC analysis for waist circumference showed that it is a good predictor of hypertension both for men (area under the ROC curve 0.784) and women (area under the ROC curve 0.815). The cut-offs for waist circumference for predicting hypertension were estimated as ≥ 83 cm for men and ≥ 78 cm for women. Adults with high BMI or high waist circumference had a higher prevalence of hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Simple anthropometric measurements such as BMI and waist circumference can be used for screening people at increased risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful and early diagnostic evaluation. Policies and programs are required for primary and secondary prevention of hypertension. PMID:25032202

  15. Childhood body mass index and adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L; Nguyen, Tuong L; Stone, Jennifer; Aujard, Kelly; Matheson, Melanie C; Abramson, Michael J; Burgess, John A; Walters, E Haydn; Dite, Gillian S; Bui, Minh; Evans, Christopher; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Ward, Gail; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Apicella, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with the breast cancer risk factor 'adult mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI'. In 1968, the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study studied every Tasmanian school child born in 1961. We obtained measured heights and weights from annual school medical records across ages 7-15 years and imputed missing values. Between 2009 and 2012, we administered to 490 women a questionnaire that asked current height and weight and digitised at least one mammogram per woman. Absolute and percent mammographic densities were measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS. We used linear regression and adjusted for age at interview and log current BMI. The mammographic density measures were negatively associated: with log BMI at each age from 7 to 15 years (all p < 0.05); with the average of standardised log BMIs across ages 7-15 years (p < 0.0005); and more strongly with standardised log BMI measures closer to age 15 years (p < 0.03). Childhood BMI measures explained 7 and 10 % of the variance in absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively, and 25 and 20 % of the association between current BMI and absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively. Associations were not altered by adjustment for age at menarche. There is a negative association between BMI in late childhood and the adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. This could explain, at least in part, why BMI in adolescence is negatively associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:26907766

  16. A Treatment Planning Study of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Sharma, Naveen; Andrews, Martin; Stephans, Kevin L; Oberti, Carlos; Lin, Sara; Wazni, Oussama; Tchou, Patrick; Saliba, Walid I; Suh, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to irradiate the antra of the four pulmonary veins while protecting nearby critical organs, such as the esophagus. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation were selected. For each patient, the antra of the four pulmonary veins were identified as the target volumes on a pre-catheterization contrast or non-contrast CT scan. On each CT scan, the esophagus, trachea, heart, and total lung were delineated and the esophagus was identified as the critical organ. For each patient, three treatment plans were designed with 0, 2, and 5 mm planning margins around the targets while avoiding overlap with a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) generated by a 2 mm expansion of the esophagus. Using three non-coplanar volumetric modulated arcs (VMAT), 60 plans were created to deliver a prescription dose of 50 Gy in five fractions, following the SBRT dose regimen for central lung tumors. With greater than 97% of the planning target volumes (PTV) receiving the prescription doses, we examined dosimetry to 0.03 cc and 5 cc of the esophagus PRV volume as well as other contoured structures. Results: The average PTV-0 mm, PTV-2 mm, and PTV-5 mm volumes were 3.05 ± 1.90 cc, 14.70 ± 5.00 cc, and 40.85 ± 10.20 cc, respectively. With three non-coplanar VMAT arcs, the average conformality indices (ratio of prescription isodose volume to the PTV volume) for the PTV-0 mm, PTV-2 mm and PTV-5 mm were 4.81 ± 2.0, 1.71 ± 0.19, and 1.23 ± 0.08, respectively. Assuming patients were treated under breath-hold with 2 mm planning margins to account for cardiac motion, all plans met esophageal PRV maximum dose limits < 50 Gy to 0.03 cc and 16 plans (80%) met < 27.5 Gy to 5 cc of the esophageal PRVs. For PTV-5 mm plans, 18 plans met the maximum dose limit < 50 Gy to 0.03 cc and only two plans met the maximum dose limit < 27.5 Gy to 5 cc of the

  17. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:25566425

  18. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) among Chinese adults with normal BMI from 1993 to 2009 and to examine the impact of performance of combined BMI and WC on the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted from 1993 to 2009. From which we included a total of 52023 participants aged ≥ 18 years. Results The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity among Chinese adults with BMI < 25 kg/m2 increased from 11.9% in 1993 to 21.1% in 2009 (P for linear trend <0.001). The upward trends were noted in both genders, all ages, rural/urban settings, and education groups (all P for linear trend <0.001), with greater increments in men, participants aged 18–64 years, and rural residents (P for interaction terms survey × sex, survey × age, and survey × rural/urban settings were 0.042, 0.003, and < 0.001, respectively). Trends in the prevalence of central obesity were similar when a more stringent BMI < 23 kg/m2 cut point (Asian cut point) was applied. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. More than 65% individuals with obesity would be missed if solely BMI was measured. Conclusions We observed an upward trend in the prevalence of central obesity among participants with normal BMI irrespective of sex, age, rural/urban settings, and education level. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. Approximately two thirds of the individuals with obesity would be missed if WC was not measured. It is, therefore, urgent to emphasize the importance of

  19. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations. PMID:26995099

  20. Whole-body amino acid composition of adult fancy ranchu goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Aqua feeds should be formulated to provide complete and balanced nutrition to achieve optimal health and growth in fish, including adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). There are few or no data relating to the EAA requirements for ornamental fish species, with the majority of quantitative data for these nutrients being available for commercially farmed fish. The determination of EAA requirements is usually established through dose-response studies, which can be costly and time consuming, especially if determining the requirement for many amino acids (AA). An alternative method for predicting the EAA of fish, which is also relatively fast and inexpensive, is the assessment of whole-body AA composition. A total of eight goldfish with a mean wet weight of 34.2 (SEM 1.4) g were obtained as a result of a routine cull by breeders. The fish were freeze-dried and AA was content analysed by hydrolysis or performic 'acid' oxidation. EAA values ranged between 0.97 (SEM 0.02) for tryptophan and 7.9 (SEM 0.14) for lysine (g/100 g AA). Compositional data were also used to estimate the essential amino acid ratios of these fish. The findings are in agreement with those for juvenile common goldfish, suggesting that there are no differences in whole-body AA composition between juvenile and adult, or fancy and common goldfish. However, these indices do not provide a quantitative total amount of each AA required by the fish, but can be used proportionally to provide guidelines to formulate diets for ornamental species. PMID:22005403

  1. Obesity in young Dutch adults: II, daily life-style and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Baecke, J A; Burema, J; Frijters, J E; Hautvast, J G; van der Wiel-Wetzels, W A

    1983-01-01

    The relationships between aspects of daily life-style and age, level of education, and body mass index (BMI; weight/height) were studied in young adult males (n = 1765) and females (n = 2092) in three age groups (19-21, 24-26 and 29-31 yr) in a Dutch population. By means of principal-components analysis five conceptually meaningful factors could be distinguished within the aspects of daily life-style which were considered. These factors were interpreted as constructs of: (1) slimming behaviour; (2) behaviour characterized by the consumption of coffee and alcohol, smoking habits and the number of hours sleep per night (CASS behaviour); (3) eating sweet and savoury snacks between meals; (4) health-conscious behaviour; and (5) physical activity. After adjustments were made for age and level of education, multiple regression analysis showed that slimming behaviour was positively related to BMI in both sexes, CASS behaviour was positively related to BMI in males, and health-conscious behaviour was inversely related to BMI in both sexes. An observed positive relationship between BMI and occupational physical activity in males could be explained by a confounding effect of socio-economic status. The observed weak positive relationship between number of hours active sport per month and BMI in males is possibly due to a difference in lean body mass. The consumption of sweet and savoury snacks was not related to BMI in either sex. These findings suggest that the daily life-style variables should be interpreted as indicators of more general types of behaviour, some of which may be important determinants of obesity. PMID:6840963

  2. Sagittal jaw position in relation to body posture in adult humans – a rasterstereographic study

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Carsten; Danesh, Gholamreza; Schilgen, Markus; Drerup, Burkhard; Hackenberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background The correlations between the sagittal jaw position and the cranio – cervical inclination are described in literature. Only few studies focus on the sagittal jaw position and the body posture using valid and objective orthopaedic examination methods. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with malocclusions reveal significant differences in body posture compared to those without (upper thoracic inclination, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and lower lumbar inclination). Methods Eighty-four healthy adult patients (with a mean age = 25.6 years and ranging from 16.1 to 55.8 years) were examined with informed consent. The orthodontic examination horizontal overjet (distance between upper and lower incisors) was determined by using an orthodontic digital sliding calliper. The subjects were subdivided in respect of the overjet with the following results: 18 revealed a normal overjet (Class I), 38 had an increased overjet (Class II) and 28 had an reversed overjet (Class III). Rasterstereography was used to carry out a three – dimensional back shape analysis. This method is based on photogrammetry. A three-dimensional shape was produced by analysing the distortion of parallel horizontal white light lines projected on the patient's back, followed by mathematical modelling. On the basis of the sagittal profile the upper thoracic inclination, the thoracic angle, the lordotic angle and the pelvic inclination were determined with a reported accuracy of 2.8° and the correlations to the sagittal jaw position were calculated by means of ANOVA, Scheffé and Kruskal-Wallis procedures. Results Between the different overjet groups, no statistically significant differences or correlations regarding the analysed back shape parameters could be obtained. However, comparing males and females there were statistically significant differences in view of the parameters 'lordotic angle' and 'pelvic inclination'. Conclusion No correlations between overjet and

  3. Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease (APBD): Anaplerotic diet therapy (Triheptanoin) and demonstration of defective methylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Roe, Charles R; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Wallace, Mary; Arning, Erland; Martin, Alan

    2010-01-01

    APBD is a rare disorder most often affecting adults of Ashkenazi Jewish origin due to partial deficiency of the glycogen brancher enzyme (GBE). It is characterized by progressive involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems and deposition of amylopectin-like polyglucosan bodies. There have been no metabolic derangements that might suggest effective therapy nor have there been any clinical improvements for control of its relentless progression. The APBD patients, in this study, experienced stabilization of disease progression, and limited functional improvement in most patients with dietary triheptanoin. Due to a plateau in clinical improvement, the reduced plasma creatinine and methionine levels prompted evaluation of other plasma methylation intermediates in this complex integrated pathway system: decreased S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) (p<0.002), increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (p<0.001), elevated creatine (p=0.001) and increased free choline (p<0.001). Plasma levels of homocysteine and guanidinoacetate were normal. Impaired metabolism of choline and creatine may relate to the progressive dysmyelination and progressive muscle weakness associated with APBD. The partial deficiency of GBE appears to produce a secondary energy deficit possibly related to inadequate reserves of normal glycogen for efficient degradation to free glucose. Dysfunctional regulation of glycogen synthase (GS) may result in continued synthesis and deposition of polyglucosan bodies. This investigation has demonstrated, for the first time, arrest of clinical deterioration with limited functional recovery with triheptanoin diet therapy and the existence of significant derangement of methylation pathways that, when corrected, may lead to even greater therapeutic benefits. PMID:20655781

  4. Footprint-based estimates of arch structure are confounded by body composition in adults.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Grigg, Nicole L; Lau, Hin C; Smeathers, James E

    2012-08-01

    Previous research employing indirect measures of arch structure, such as those derived from footprints, have indicated that obesity results in a "flatter" foot type. In the absence of radiographic measures, however, definitive conclusions regarding the osseous alignment of the foot cannot be made. We determined the effect of body mass index (BMI) on radiographic and footprint-based measures of arch structure. The research was a cross-sectional study in which radiographic and footprint-based measures of foot structure were made in 30 subjects (10 males, 20 female) in addition to standard anthropometric measures of height, weight, and BMI. Multiple (univariate) regression analysis demonstrated that both BMI (β = 0.39, t(26) = 2.12, p = 0.04) and radiographic arch alignment (β = 0.51, t(26) = 3.32, p < 0.01) were significant predictors of footprint-based measures of arch height after controlling for all variables in the model (R(2) = 0.59, F(3,26) = 12.3, p < 0.01). In contrast, radiographic arch alignment was not significantly associated with BMI (β = -0.03, t(26) = -0.13, p = 0.89) when Arch Index and age were held constant (R(2) = 0.52, F(3,26) = 9.3, p < 0.01). Adult obesity does not influence osseous alignment of the medial longitudinal arch, but selectively distorts footprint-based measures of arch structure. Footprint-based measures of arch structure should be interpreted with caution when comparing groups of varying body composition. PMID:22227795

  5. Modulation of auditory processing during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter.

    PubMed

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2015-04-01

    Stuttering is associated with atypical structural and functional connectivity in sensorimotor brain areas, in particular premotor, motor, and auditory regions. It remains unknown, however, which specific mechanisms of speech planning and execution are affected by these neurological abnormalities. To investigate pre-movement sensory modulation, we recorded 12 stuttering and 12 nonstuttering adults' auditory evoked potentials in response to probe tones presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs. no-speaking control conditions (silent reading; seeing nonlinguistic symbols). Findings indicate that, during speech movement planning, the nonstuttering group showed a statistically significant modulation of auditory processing (reduced N1 amplitude) that was not observed in the stuttering group. Thus, the obtained results provide electrophysiological evidence in support of the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with deficiencies in modulating the cortical auditory system during speech movement planning. This specific sensorimotor integration deficiency may contribute to inefficient feedback monitoring and, consequently, speech dysfluencies. PMID:25796060

  6. Use of Anthropometry for the Prediction of Regional Body Tissue Distribution in Adults: Benefits and Limitations in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Cattrysse, Erik; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Regional body composition changes with aging. Some of the changes in composition are considered major risk factors for developing obesity related chronic diseases which in turn may lead to increased mortality in adults. The role of anthropometry is well recognized in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of adults for risk classification, regardless of age. Regional body composition is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therapeutic measures recommended to lower cardiovascular disease risk include lifestyle changes. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize studies that assessed the relationships between anthropometry and regional body composition. The potential benefits and limitations of anthropometry for use in clinical practice are presented and suggestions for future research given. PMID:25489489

  7. Teacher-to-Teacher: A Unit Plan for Teaching Human Body Systems to Gifted and Talented Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Rebecca

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a unit plan designed to allow students to thoroughly investigate a human body system through a series of learning activities, and to teach the body system to other students using the products of their research. Methods, objectives, and an evaluation of the unit are discussed. (CW)

  8. The mid-developmental transition and the evolution of animal body plans

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Alison G.; Winter, Eitan; Mostov, Natalia; Khair, Sally; Senderovich, Naftalie; Kovalev, Ekaterina; Silver, David H.; Feder, Martin; Fernandez-Valverde, Selene L.; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Simmons, David; Simakov, Oleg; Larsson, Tomas; Liu, Shang-Yun; Jerafi-Vider, Ayelet; Yaniv, Karina; Ryan, Joseph F.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Rink, Jochen C.; Arendt, Detlev; Degnan, Sandie M.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Hashimshony, Tamar; Yanai, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Animals are grouped into ~35 ‘phyla’ based upon the notion of distinct body plans1–4. Morphological and molecular analyses have revealed that a stage in the middle of development—known as the phylotypic period—is conserved among species within some phyla5–9. Although these analyses provide evidence for their existence, phyla have also been criticized as lacking an objective definition, and consequently based on arbitrary groupings of animals10. Here we compare the developmental transcriptomes of ten species, each annotated to a different phylum, with a wide range of life histories and embryonic forms. We find that in all ten species, development comprises the coupling of early and late phases of conserved gene expression. These phases are linked by a divergent ‘mid-developmental transition’ that uses species-specific suites of signalling pathways and transcription factors. This mid-developmental transition overlaps with the phylotypic period that has been defined previously for three of the ten phyla, suggesting that transcriptional circuits and signalling mechanisms active during this transition are crucial for defining the phyletic body plan and that the mid-developmental transition may be used to define phylotypic periods in other phyla. Placing these observations alongside the reported conservation of mid-development within phyla, we propose that a phylum may be defined as a collection of species whose gene expression at the mid-developmental transition is both highly conserved among them, yet divergent relative to other species. PMID:26886793

  9. The mid-developmental transition and the evolution of animal body plans.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michal; Anavy, Leon; Cole, Alison G; Winter, Eitan; Mostov, Natalia; Khair, Sally; Senderovich, Naftalie; Kovalev, Ekaterina; Silver, David H; Feder, Martin; Fernandez-Valverde, Selene L; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Simmons, David; Simakov, Oleg; Larsson, Tomas; Liu, Shang-Yun; Jerafi-Vider, Ayelet; Yaniv, Karina; Ryan, Joseph F; Martindale, Mark Q; Rink, Jochen C; Arendt, Detlev; Degnan, Sandie M; Degnan, Bernard M; Hashimshony, Tamar; Yanai, Itai

    2016-03-31

    Animals are grouped into ~35 'phyla' based upon the notion of distinct body plans. Morphological and molecular analyses have revealed that a stage in the middle of development--known as the phylotypic period--is conserved among species within some phyla. Although these analyses provide evidence for their existence, phyla have also been criticized as lacking an objective definition, and consequently based on arbitrary groupings of animals. Here we compare the developmental transcriptomes of ten species, each annotated to a different phylum, with a wide range of life histories and embryonic forms. We find that in all ten species, development comprises the coupling of early and late phases of conserved gene expression. These phases are linked by a divergent 'mid-developmental transition' that uses species-specific suites of signalling pathways and transcription factors. This mid-developmental transition overlaps with the phylotypic period that has been defined previously for three of the ten phyla, suggesting that transcriptional circuits and signalling mechanisms active during this transition are crucial for defining the phyletic body plan and that the mid-developmental transition may be used to define phylotypic periods in other phyla. Placing these observations alongside the reported conservation of mid-development within phyla, we propose that a phylum may be defined as a collection of species whose gene expression at the mid-developmental transition is both highly conserved among them, yet divergent relative to other species. PMID:26886793

  10. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128) from Stage 3 (2008–10) of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999–2003, baseline n = 4056) to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR) and waist height ratio (WHtR) of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67–2.76) and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14–1.98). There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08–1.93). The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14), followed by WC (OR 1.78), WHtR (OR 1.71) and WHR (OR 1.45). WHtR (42–45%) and BMI (35–36%) provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults. PMID:26355742

  11. Evidence for involvement of Wnt signalling in body polarities, cell proliferation, and the neuro-sensory system in an adult ctenophore.

    PubMed

    Jager, Muriel; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Mialot, Antoine; Quéinnec, Eric; le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël

    2013-01-01

    Signalling through the Wnt family of secreted proteins originated in a common metazoan ancestor and greatly influenced the evolution of animal body plans. In bilaterians, Wnt signalling plays multiple fundamental roles during embryonic development and in adult tissues, notably in axial patterning, neural development and stem cell regulation. Studies in various cnidarian species have particularly highlighted the evolutionarily conserved role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in specification and patterning of the primary embryonic axis. However in another key non-bilaterian phylum, Ctenophora, Wnts are not involved in early establishment of the body axis during embryogenesis. We analysed the expression in the adult of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus of 11 orthologues of Wnt signalling genes including all ctenophore Wnt ligands and Fz receptors and several members of the intracellular β-catenin pathway machinery. All genes are strongly expressed around the mouth margin at the oral pole, evoking the Wnt oral centre of cnidarians. This observation is consistent with primary axis polarisation by the Wnts being a universal metazoan feature, secondarily lost in ctenophores during early development but retained in the adult. In addition, local expression of Wnt signalling genes was seen in various anatomical structures of the body including in the locomotory comb rows, where their complex deployment suggests control by the Wnts of local comb polarity. Other important contexts of Wnt involvement which probably evolved before the ctenophore/cnidarian/bilaterian split include proliferating stem cells and progenitors irrespective of cell types, and developing as well as differentiated neuro-sensory structures. PMID:24391946

  12. Evidence for Involvement of Wnt Signalling in Body Polarities, Cell Proliferation, and the Neuro-Sensory System in an Adult Ctenophore

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Muriel; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Mialot, Antoine; Quéinnec, Eric; le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël

    2013-01-01

    Signalling through the Wnt family of secreted proteins originated in a common metazoan ancestor and greatly influenced the evolution of animal body plans. In bilaterians, Wnt signalling plays multiple fundamental roles during embryonic development and in adult tissues, notably in axial patterning, neural development and stem cell regulation. Studies in various cnidarian species have particularly highlighted the evolutionarily conserved role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in specification and patterning of the primary embryonic axis. However in another key non-bilaterian phylum, Ctenophora, Wnts are not involved in early establishment of the body axis during embryogenesis. We analysed the expression in the adult of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus of 11 orthologues of Wnt signalling genes including all ctenophore Wnt ligands and Fz receptors and several members of the intracellular β-catenin pathway machinery. All genes are strongly expressed around the mouth margin at the oral pole, evoking the Wnt oral centre of cnidarians. This observation is consistent with primary axis polarisation by the Wnts being a universal metazoan feature, secondarily lost in ctenophores during early development but retained in the adult. In addition, local expression of Wnt signalling genes was seen in various anatomical structures of the body including in the locomotory comb rows, where their complex deployment suggests control by the Wnts of local comb polarity. Other important contexts of Wnt involvement which probably evolved before the ctenophore/cnidarian/bilaterian split include proliferating stem cells and progenitors irrespective of cell types, and developing as well as differentiated neuro-sensory structures. PMID:24391946

  13. Heterogeneity of chromatoid bodies in adult pluripotent stem cells of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Makoto; Kumagai, Nobuyoshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito

    2016-02-01

    The robust regenerative ability of planarians is known to be dependent on adult pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts. One of the morphological features of neoblasts is cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granules (chromatoid bodies: CBs), which resemble germ granules present in germline cells in other animals. Previously, we showed by immuno-electron microscopic analysis that DjCBC-1, a planarian Me31B/Dhh1/DDX6 homologue, which is a component of ribonucleoprotein granules, was localized in CBs in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Also, recently it was reported using another planarian species that Y12 antibody recognizing symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) specifically binds to CBs in which histone mRNA is co-localized. Here, we showed by double immunostaining and RNA interference (RNAi) that DjCBC-1-containing CBs and Y12-immunoreactive CBs are distinct structures, suggesting that CBs are composed of heterogeneous populations. We also found that the Y12-immunoreactive CBs specifically contained a cytoplasmic type of planarian PIWI protein (DjPiwiC). We revealed by RNAi experiments that Y12-immunoreactive CBs may have anti-transposable element activity involving the DjPiwiC protein in the neoblasts. PMID:26857694

  14. Leptin-independent programming of adult body weight and adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Elizabeth C; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Luan, Jian'an; Berends, Lindsey M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Low birth weight and rapid postnatal weight gain are independent and additive risk factors for the subsequent development of metabolic disease. Despite an abundance of evidence for these associations, mechanistic data are lacking. The hormone leptin has received significant interest as a potential programming factor, because differences in the profile of leptin in early life have been associated with altered susceptibility to obesity. Whether leptin alone is a critical factor for programming obesity has, until now, remained unclear. Using the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse, we show that low birth weight followed by rapid catch-up growth during lactation (recuperated offspring) leads to a persistent increase in body weight in adult life, both in wild-type and ob/ob animals. Furthermore, recuperated offspring are hyperphagic and epididymal fat pad weights are significantly increased, reflecting greater adiposity. These results show definitively that factors other than leptin are crucial in the programming of energy homeostasis in this model and are powerful enough to alter adiposity in a genetically obese strain. PMID:21209019

  15. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2). A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2). Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7). The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women. PMID:25715300

  16. Origin of the vertebrate body plan via mechanically biased conservation of regular geometrical patterns in the structure of the blastula.

    PubMed

    Edelman, David B; McMenamin, Mark; Sheesley, Peter; Pivar, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    We present a plausible account of the origin of the archetypal vertebrate bauplan. We offer a theoretical reconstruction of the geometrically regular structure of the blastula resulting from the sequential subdivision of the egg, followed by mechanical deformations of the blastula in subsequent stages of gastrulation. We suggest that the formation of the vertebrate bauplan during development, as well as fixation of its variants over the course of evolution, have been constrained and guided by global mechanical biases. Arguably, the role of such biases in directing morphology-though all but neglected in previous accounts of both development and macroevolution-is critical to any substantive explanation for the origin of the archetypal vertebrate bauplan. We surmise that the blastula inherently preserves the underlying geometry of the cuboidal array of eight cells produced by the first three cleavages that ultimately define the medial-lateral, dorsal-ventral, and anterior-posterior axes of the future body plan. Through graphical depictions, we demonstrate the formation of principal structures of the vertebrate body via mechanical deformation of predictable geometrical patterns during gastrulation. The descriptive rigor of our model is supported through comparisons with previous characterizations of the embryonic and adult vertebrate bauplane. Though speculative, the model addresses the poignant absence in the literature of any plausible account of the origin of vertebrate morphology. A robust solution to the problem of morphogenesis-currently an elusive goal-will only emerge from consideration of both top-down (e.g., the mechanical constraints and geometric properties considered here) and bottom-up (e.g., molecular and mechano-chemical) influences. PMID:27392530

  17. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  18. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  19. Consumption of fiber is associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of fiber and whole grain (WG) on body weight measures in US adults. A nationally representative sample of U.S. adults participating the NHANES, 1999-2004, was analyzed for body mass index (BMI) according to quartiles of dietary f...

  20. A comparison of the spatial dependence of body mass index among adults and children in a Swiss general population

    PubMed Central

    Guessous, I; Joost, S; Jeannot, E; Theler, J-M; Mahler, P; Gaspoz, J-M; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Chételat, Joël; Simos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be spatially dependent. Whether BMI clusters among children and how age-specific BMI clusters are related remains unknown. We aimed to identify and compare the spatial dependence of BMI in adults and children in a Swiss general population, taking into account the area's income level. Methods: Geo-referenced data from the Bus Santé study (adults, n=6663) and Geneva School Health Service (children, n=3601) were used. We implemented global (Moran's I) and local (local indicators of spatial association (LISA)) indices of spatial autocorrelation to investigate the spatial dependence of BMI in adults (35–74 years) and children (6–7 years). Weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Five spatial autocorrelation classes (LISA clusters) were defined including the high–high BMI class (high BMI participant's BMI value correlated with high BMI-neighbors' mean BMI values). The spatial distributions of clusters were compared between adults and children with and without adjustment for area's income level. Results: In both adults and children, BMI was clearly not distributed at random across the State of Geneva. Both adults' and children's BMIs were associated with the mean BMI of their neighborhood. We found that the clusters of higher BMI in adults and children are located in close, yet different, areas of the state. Significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were clearly identified in both adults and children. Area's income level was associated with children's BMI clusters. Conclusions: BMI clusters show a specific spatial dependence in adults and children from the general population. Using a fine-scale spatial analytic approach, we identified life course-specific clusters that could guide tailored interventions. PMID:24614662

  1. A Plan for Developing a Program of Adult Education to Meet the Needs of a Local Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harold K.

    Using local and national data, this study examined adult education program offerings in East Orange, New Jersey, potential participants' needs and interests, and program needs reported by business and industrial leaders. A plan was proposed for an appropriate community wide program. Data from public school adult education programs in 142 cities…

  2. The Extrastriate Body Area Computes Desired Goal States during Action Planning.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Marius; Verhagen, Lennart; de Lange, Floris P; Toni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    How do object perception and action interact at a neural level? Here we test the hypothesis that perceptual features, processed by the ventral visuoperceptual stream, are used as priors by the dorsal visuomotor stream to specify goal-directed grasping actions. We present three main findings, which were obtained by combining time-resolved transcranial magnetic stimulation and kinematic tracking of grasp-and-rotate object manipulations, in a group of healthy human participants (N = 22). First, the extrastriate body area (EBA), in the ventral stream, provides an initial structure to motor plans, based on current and desired states of a grasped object and of the grasping hand. Second, the contributions of EBA are earlier in time than those of a caudal intraparietal region known to specify the action plan. Third, the contributions of EBA are particularly important when desired and current object configurations differ, and multiple courses of actions are possible. These findings specify the temporal and functional characteristics for a mechanism that integrates perceptual processing with motor planning. PMID:27066535

  3. Whole-body dose evaluation with an adaptive treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenta; Kumada, Hiroaki; Isobe, Tomonori; Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Kamizawa, Satoshi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Dose evaluation for out-of-field organs during radiotherapy has gained interest in recent years. A team led by University of Tsukuba is currently implementing a project for advancing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), along with a radiation treatment planning system (RTPS). In this study, the authors used the RTPS (the 'Tsukuba-Plan') to evaluate the dose to out-of-field organs during BNCT. Computed tomography images of a whole-body phantom were imported into the RTPS, and a voxel model was constructed for the Monte Carlo calculations, which used the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System. The results indicate that the thoracoabdominal organ dose during BNCT for a brain tumour and maxillary sinus tumour was 50-360 and 120-1160 mGy-Eq, respectively. These calculations required ∼29.6 h of computational time. This system can evaluate the out-of-field organ dose for BNCT irradiation during treatment planning with patient-specific irradiation conditions. PMID:25520378

  4. The Extrastriate Body Area Computes Desired Goal States during Action Planning123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract How do object perception and action interact at a neural level? Here we test the hypothesis that perceptual features, processed by the ventral visuoperceptual stream, are used as priors by the dorsal visuomotor stream to specify goal-directed grasping actions. We present three main findings, which were obtained by combining time-resolved transcranial magnetic stimulation and kinematic tracking of grasp-and-rotate object manipulations, in a group of healthy human participants (N = 22). First, the extrastriate body area (EBA), in the ventral stream, provides an initial structure to motor plans, based on current and desired states of a grasped object and of the grasping hand. Second, the contributions of EBA are earlier in time than those of a caudal intraparietal region known to specify the action plan. Third, the contributions of EBA are particularly important when desired and current object configurations differ, and multiple courses of actions are possible. These findings specify the temporal and functional characteristics for a mechanism that integrates perceptual processing with motor planning. PMID:27066535

  5. Effect of a Nutritional Intervention in Athlete's Body Composition, Eating Behaviour and Nutritional Knowledge: A Comparison between Adults and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus; Silva, Danielle; Ribeiro, Sandra; Nunes, Marco; Almeida, Marcos; Mendes-Netto, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20-32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12-19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling consisting of four consultations separated by an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. Adolescents increased their mid-arm muscle circumference and improved meal frequency, and daily water intake. Athletes of both groups improved their ingestion of vegetables and fruits and decreased the ingestion of sweets and oils. Adolescents showed a higher prevalence of individuals that remained within or approached to the recommendations of sweets. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athletes body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been effective in promoting beneficial changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition, however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets. PMID:27618088

  6. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  7. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  8. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  9. Dosimetric aspects of inverse-planned modulated-arc total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Mareike; Kirby, Neil; Morin, Olivier; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To develop optimal beam parameters and to verify the dosimetric aspects of the recently developed modulated-arc total-body irradiation (MATBI) technique, which delivers an inverse-planned dose to the entire body using gantry rotation. Methods: The patient is positioned prone and supine underneath the gantry at about 2 m source-to-surface distance (SSD). Then, up to 28 beams irradiate the patient from different gantry angles. Based on full-body computed-tomography (CT) images of the patient, the weight of each beam is optimized, using inverse planning, to create a uniform body dose. This study investigates how to best simulate patients and the ideal beam setup parameters, such as field size, number of beams, and beam geometry, for treatment time and dose homogeneity. In addition, three anthropomorphic water phantoms were constructed and utilized to verify the accuracy of dose delivery, with both diode array and ion chamber measurements. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of the new technique, a beam model is created specifically for the extended-SSD positioning for MATBI. Results: Low dose CT scans can be utilized for dose calculations without affecting the accuracy. The largest field size of 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was found to deliver the most uniform dose in the least amount of time. Moreover, a higher number of beams improves dose homogeneity. The average dose discrepancy between ion chamber measurements and extended-SSD beam model calculations was 1.2%, with the largest discrepancy being 3.2%. This average dose discrepancy was 1.4% with the standard beam model for delivery at isocenter. Conclusions: The optimum beam setup parameters, regarding dose uniformity and treatment duration, are laid out for modulated-arc TBI. In addition, the presented dose measurements show that these treatments can be delivered accurately. These measurements also indicated that a new beam model did not significantly improve the accuracy of dose calculations

  10. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women. PMID:25778405

  11. Begin the Between: Planning for the Transition from High School to Adult Life for Youth with Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matuszak, Trish; And Others

    This guide was developed to provide an overview of the major elements of the transition planning process from school to the adult system of supports and services for youth with developmental disabilities and their families. The workbook format is intended to enable families to be proactive at each stage of the planning process. Initial sections…

  12. "I Felt I Was in Control of the Meeting": Facilitating Planning with Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espiner, Deborah; Hartnett, Frances Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of adults with an intellectual disability, their family, caregivers and/or advocates and key staff on a newly introduced approach to the facilitation of personal plans. Prior to this study, the organisation had concentrated more on the process of personal planning rather than on the…

  13. Safety and severity of accelerations delivered from whole body vibration exercise devices to standing adults

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Jesse; Kiel, Douglas P.; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) devices are used as a means to augment training, and their potential to treat a range of musculoskeletal diseases and injuries is now being considered. The goal of this work is to determine the degree to which acceleration delivered by WBV devices at the plantar surfaces of a standing human is transmitted through the axial and appendicular skeleton, and how this mechanical challenge corresponds to the safety Threshold Limit Values (TLV) established by the International Standards Organization ISO-2631. Design Non-blinded laboratory assessment of a range of WBV devices as it pertains to acceleration transmission to healthy volunteers. Methods Using skin and bite-bar mounted accelerometers, transmissibility to the tibia and cranium was determined in six healthy adults standing on a programmable WBV device as a function of frequency and intensity. Measures of transmissibility were then made from three distinct types of WBV platforms, which delivered a 50-fold range of peak-to-peak acceleration intensities (0.3 to 15.1g p-p; where 1g is earth’s gravitational field). Results For a given frequency, transmissibility was independent of intensity when below 1g. Transmissibility declined non-linearly with increasing frequency. Depending on the WBV device, vibration ranged from levels considered safe by ISO-2631 for up to eight hours each day (0.3gp-p @ 30Hz), to levels that were seven times higher than what is considered a safe threshold for even one minute of exposure each day (15.1g p-p @ 30Hz). Transmissibility to the cranium was markedly attenuated by the degree of flexion in the knees. Conclusions Vibration can have adverse effects on a number of physiologic systems. This work indicates that readily accessible WBV devices markedly exceed ISO guidelines for safety, and extreme caution must be practiced when considering their use. PMID:23453990

  14. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia

    2007-01-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico’s thirty-one states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25≤BMI<30) and obesity (30≤BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women over the median age of 35.4 years old with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. BMI was positively correlated with five of the six SES variables in both sexes: education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the model including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI in men and women. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women. PMID:17368895

  15. The Radiata and the evolutionary origins of the bilaterian body plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martindale, Mark Q.; Finnerty, John R.; Henry, Jonathan Q.

    2002-01-01

    The apparent conservation of cellular and molecular developmental mechanisms observed in a handful of bilaterian metazoans has spawned a "race" to reconstruct the bilaterian ancestor. Knowledge of this ancestor would permit us to reconstruct the evolutionary changes that have occurred along specific bilaterian lineages. However, comparisons among extant bilaterians provide an unnecessarily limited view of the ancestral bilaterian. Since the original bilaterians are believed by many to be derived from a radially symmetrical ancestor, additional evidence might be obtained by examining present-day radially symmetrical animals. We briefly review pertinent features of the body plans of the extant radial eumetazoan phyla, the Cnidaria, and Ctenophora, in the context of revealing potential evolutionary links to the bilaterians.

  16. Body Mass Index Categories and Mortality Risk in US Adults: The Effect of Overweight and Obesity on Advancing Death

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association of body mass index with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)–specific mortality risks among US adults and calculated the rate advancement period by which death is advanced among the exposed groups. Methods. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) linked to the National Death Index mortality file with follow-up to 2006 (n = 16 868). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the rate of dying and rate advancement period for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality for overweight and obese adults relative to their normal-weight counterparts. Results. Compared with normal-weight adults, obese adults had at least 20% significantly higher rate of dying of all-cause or CVD. These rates advanced death by 3.7 years (grades II and III obesity) for all-cause mortality and between 1.6 (grade I obesity) and 5.0 years (grade III obesity) for CVD-specific mortality. The burden of obesity was greatest among adults aged 45 to 64 years for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality and among women for all-cause mortality. Conclusions. These findings highlight the impact of the obesity epidemic on mortality risk and premature deaths among US adults. PMID:24432921

  17. Relationship between Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI–BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18–83 years were grouped into young (18–39 years) middle aged (40–59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Results Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. Conclusions BMI strongly correlate with BF

  18. A Diploblastic Radiate Animal at the Dawn of Cambrian Diversification with a Simple Body Plan: Distinct from Cnidaria?

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Kinya; Reimer, James D.; Liu, Yunhuan; Yao, Xiaoyong; Kubo, Daisuke; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microfossils of the genus Punctatus include developmental stages such as blastula, gastrula, and hatchlings, and represent the most complete developmental sequence of animals available from the earliest Cambrian. Despite the extremely well-preserved specimens, the evolutionary position of Punctatus has relied only on their conical remains and they have been tentatively assigned to cnidarians. We present a new interpretation of the Punctatus body plan based on the developmental reconstruction aided by recent advances in developmental biology. Results Punctatus developed from a rather large egg, gastrulated in a mode of invagination from a coeloblastura, and then formed a mouth directly from the blastopore. Spiny benthic hatchlings were distinguishable from swimming or crawling ciliate larvae found in cnidarians and sponges. A mouth appeared at the perihatching embryonic stage and was renewed periodically during growth, and old mouths transformed into the body wall, thus elongating the body. Growing animals retained a small blind gut in a large body cavity without partitioning by septa and did not form tentacles, pedal discs or holdfasts externally. A growth center at the oral pole was sufficient for body patterning throughout life, and the body patterning did not show any bias from radial symmetry. Conclusions Contrary to proposed cnidarian affinity, the Punctatus body plan has basic differences from that of cnidarians, especially concerning a spacious body cavity separating ectoderm from endoderm. The lack of many basic cnidarian characters in the body patterning of Punctatus leads us to consider its own taxonomic group, potentially outside of Cnidaria. PMID:23840375

  19. Reorganisation of Hoxd regulatory landscapes during the evolution of a snake-like body plan

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Isabel; Gitto, Sandra; Novoa, Ana; Codourey, Julien; Nguyen Huynh, Thi Hanh; Gonzalez, Federico; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Mallo, Moises; Duboule, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Within land vertebrate species, snakes display extreme variations in their body plan, characterized by the absence of limbs and an elongated morphology. Such a particular interpretation of the basic vertebrate body architecture has often been associated with changes in the function or regulation of Hox genes. Here, we use an interspecies comparative approach to investigate different regulatory aspects at the snake HoxD locus. We report that, unlike in other vertebrates, snake mesoderm-specific enhancers are mostly located within the HoxD cluster itself rather than outside. In addition, despite both the absence of limbs and an altered Hoxd gene regulation in external genitalia, the limb-associated bimodal HoxD chromatin structure is maintained at the snake locus. Finally, we show that snake and mouse orthologous enhancer sequences can display distinct expression specificities. These results show that vertebrate morphological evolution likely involved extensive reorganisation at Hox loci, yet within a generally conserved regulatory framework. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16087.001 PMID:27476854

  20. National Adult Literacy Congress: Leadership in Action (4th, Washington, D.C., September 17-20, 1993). Goals and Action Plans. Source Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Memorial Library System, Hyattsville, MD.

    This publication presents the National Adult Literacy Goals and Action Plans developed at the Fourth National Adult Literacy Congress. The goals and action plans are intended for use in national, state, and local initiatives to support adult students as they become part of the solution to the illiteracy problem in the United States. A list of the…

  1. Application of modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique on liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning following RTOG 0438 guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chengyu Chen, Yong; Fang, Deborah; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a feasible treatment method for the nonoperable, patient with early-stage liver cancer. Treatment planning for the SBRT is very important and has to consider the simulation accuracy, planning time, treatment efficiency effects etc. The modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique is a 3-dimensional conformal arc planning method, which has been proposed for liver SBRT planning at our center. In this study, we compared the MDCA technique with the RapidArc technique in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs). The results show that the MDCA technique has comparable plan quality to RapidArc considering PTV coverage, hot spots, heterogeneity index, and effective liver volume. For the 5 PTVs studied among 4 patients, the MDCA plan, when compared with the RapidArc plan, showed 9% more hot spots, more heterogeneity effect, more sparing of OARs, and lower liver effective volume. The monitor unit (MU) number for the MDCA plan is much lower than for the RapidArc plans. The MDCA plan has the advantages of less planning time, no-collision treatment, and a lower MU number.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of pain interference in older adults: Why treating the whole body and mind is necessary

    PubMed Central

    Przekop, Peter; Haviland, Mark G.; Oda, Keiji; Morton, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Our study presents pain-related interference rates in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and determines factors associated with these restrictions. Participants were 9506 respondents to the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (66.8% female and 33.2% male; average age = 62.3 years). In this sample, 48.2% reported no pain-related interference, whereas 37.7% reported moderate and 14.1% reported severe interference. As hypothesized, older age, female gender, lower education, financial strain, traumatic experiences, worse health, increased body mass index, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms all were associated with higher pain interference ratings (ordered logistic regression/three-level pain criterion; odds ratios p < 0.05). Our findings are similar to those from younger adults, and they suggest enduring effects of trauma on health and reveal the complexity of chronic pain in community-dwelling, older adults. PMID:25892375

  3. Prevalence and correlates of pain interference in older adults: why treating the whole body and mind is necessary.

    PubMed

    Przekop, Peter; Haviland, Mark G; Oda, Keiji; Morton, Kelly R

    2015-04-01

    Our study presents pain-related interference rates in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and determines factors associated with these restrictions. Participants were 9506 respondents to the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (66.8% female and 33.2% male; average age = 62.3 years). In this sample, 48.2% reported no pain-related interference, whereas 37.7% reported moderate and 14.1% reported severe interference. As hypothesized, older age, female gender, lower education, financial strain, traumatic experiences, worse health, increased body mass index, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms all were associated with higher pain interference ratings (ordered logistic regression/three-level pain criterion; odds ratios p < 0.05). Our findings are similar to those from younger adults, and they suggest enduring effects of trauma on health and reveal the complexity of chronic pain in community-dwelling, older adults. PMID:25892375

  4. The effects of food shortage during larval development on adult body size, body mass, physiology and developmental time in a tropical damselfly.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Cortés, J Guillermo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition--phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) "rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) "poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species. PMID:22085821

  5. Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Nigerian Adults: Implication as Indicators of Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Chinedu, Shalom Nwodo; Ogunlana, Olubanke O.; Azuh, Dominic E.; Iweala, Emeka E.J.; Afolabi, Israel S.; Uhuegbu, Chidi C.; Idachaba, Mercy E.; Osamor, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthropometric measures have been widely used for body weight classification in humans. Waist circumference has been advanced as a useful parameter for measuring adiposity. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and examined their significance as indicators of health status in adults. Design and methods The subject included 489 healthy adults from Ota, Nigeria, aged between 20 and 75 years, grouped into early adulthood (20-39 years), middle adulthood (40-59 years) and advanced adulthood (60 years and above). Weight, height and abdominal circumference were measured. BMI was calculated as weight kg/height2 (m2) and World Health Organization cut-offs were used to categorize them into normal, underweight, overweight and obese. Results Abnormal weight categories accounted for 60 % of the subjects (underweight 11 %, overweight 31%, and obese 18%). The waist circumference of overweight and obese categories were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal weight category. There was no significant difference between waist circumference of underweight and normal subjects. The correlation coefficient values of BMI with waist circumference (r=0.63), body weight (r=0.76) and height (r=-0.31) were significant (P<0.01) for the total subjects. Conclusions The study indicates that waist circumference can serve as a positive indicator of overweight and obesity in the selected communities; however, it may not be used to determine underweight in adults. Regular BMI and waist circumference screening is recommended as an easy and effective means of assessing body weight and in the prevention of weight related diseases in adults. Significance for public health This manuscript describes the correlation between body mass index, waist circumference and body weight of two communities in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria and the use of these anthropometric measures for body weight classification in human populations of the selected

  6. Small, sleek, and in control: The body plan, sensory-neural control, and flight stability of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2010-11-01

    Flying insects have evolved sophisticated sensory-neural systems, and here we argue that the fast reaction times of these systems reflect the need to overcome an intrinsic flight instability. We formulate a theory that shows how the body plan and flapping-wing aerodynamics determine the instability growth rate, which in turn dictates the response time needed to suppress it. We experimentally validate this theory by manipulating the flight, sensors, and body plan of fruit flies. The theory is general enough to describe a broad class of flying insects and also furnishes stability criteria for flapping-wing robots. Plausible body plans for the first flyers are determined by conjecturing that these insects were intrinsically stable and only later evolved fast-acting controls for the added benefit of flight agility.

  7. Body Image across the Life Span in Adult Women: The Role of Self-Objectification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lynch, Jessica E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated body image across life span in cross-section of women ages 20-84 years. Found that although body dissatisfaction remained stable, self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating all significantly decreased with age. Self- objectification mediated the relationship between age and disordered…

  8. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  9. Young adults' decision making surrounding heavy drinking: a multi-staged model of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Northcote, Jeremy

    2011-06-01

    This paper examines the real life contexts in which decisions surrounding heavy drinking are made by young adults (that is, on occasions when five or more alcoholic drinks are consumed within a few hours). It presents a conceptual model that views such decision making as a multi-faceted and multi-staged process. The mixed method study draws on purposive data gathered through direct observation of eight social networks consisting of 81 young adults aged between 18 and 25 years in Perth, Western Australia, including in-depth interviews with 31 participants. Qualitative and some basic quantitative data were gathered using participant observation and in-depth interviews undertaken over an eighteen month period. Participants explained their decision to engage in heavy drinking as based on a variety of factors. These elements relate to socio-cultural norms and expectancies that are best explained by the theory of planned behaviour. A framework is proposed that characterises heavy drinking as taking place in a multi-staged manner, with young adults having: 1. A generalised orientation to the value of heavy drinking shaped by wider influences and norms; 2. A short-term orientation shaped by situational factors that determines drinking intentions for specific events; and 3. An evaluative orientation shaped by moderating factors. The value of qualitative studies of decision making in real life contexts is advanced to complement the mostly quantitative research that dominates research on alcohol decision making. PMID:21632161

  10. Advance care planning: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials conducted with older adults.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Elizabeth; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Cornally, Nicola; Fitzgerald, Carol; Kearns, Tara; Coffey, Alice; Daly, Edel; O'Sullivan, Ronan; McGlade, Ciara; Molloy, D William

    2016-09-01

    Advance care planning (ACP), involving discussions between patients, families and healthcare professionals on future healthcare decisions, in advance of anticipated impairment in decision-making capacity, improves satisfaction and end-of-life care while respecting patient autonomy. It usually results in the creation of a written advanced care directive (ACD). This systematic review examines the impact of ACP on several outcomes (including symptom management, quality of care and healthcare utilisation) in older adults (>65years) across all healthcare settings. Nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searches of the CINAHL, PubMed and Cochrane databases. A total of 3646 older adults were included (range 72-88 years). Seven studies were conducted with community dwellers and the other two RCTs were conducted in nursing homes. Most studies did not implement a standardised ACD, or measure the impact on quality of end-of-life care or on the death and dying experience. All studies had some risk of bias, with most scoring poorly on the Oxford Quality Scale. While ACP interventions are well received by older adults and generally have positive effects on outcomes, this review highlights the need for well-designed RCTs that examine the economic impact of ACP and its effect on quality of care in nursing homes and other sectors. PMID:27451328

  11. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  12. Techniques: Paying Attention to the Place. Part 1--Activities for Instructors and Adult Learners [and] Part 2--Activities for Planning Places for Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    1992-01-01

    This two-part article discusses the role of the physical environment in adult learning. In the first part, two activities--environment introduction and visualization--are discussed as ways to develop an awareness for improving the learning environment. In the second part, two planning activities--mapping and geometric coding--are discussed as ways…

  13. Reporting and Charting Residents' Behaviors and Care in an Adult Residential Care Home. Adult Residential Care Home 12, Lesson Plan No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basuel, Terry

    Designed as part of a 40-hour course on adult residential care homes (ARCH's), this lesson plan was developed to explain the importance of and correct procedures for charting (i.e., keeping a written record of observations and care of ARCH residents). The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable students to: (1) list reasons why the…

  14. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-01-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= −0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance. PMID:27419113

  15. Recommendations for dose calculations of lung cancer treatment plans treated with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, S.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Chen, D.; Liu, D.; Li, H.; Kumar, S.; Gordon, J.; Ajlouni, M.; Movsas, B.; Chetty, I. J.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate dose distributions computed with 5 different dose algorithms for patients with lung cancers treated using stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). Treatment plans for 133 lung cancer patients, initially computed with a 1D-pencil beam (equivalent-path-length, EPL-1D) algorithm, were recalculated with 4 other algorithms commissioned for treatment planning, including 3-D pencil-beam (EPL-3D), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCC), and Monte Carlo (MC). The plan prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions normalized to the 95% isodose line. Tumors were classified according to location: peripheral tumors surrounded by lung (lung-island, N=39), peripheral tumors attached to the rib-cage or chest wall (lung-wall, N=44), and centrally-located tumors (lung-central, N=50). Relative to the EPL-1D algorithm, PTV D95 and mean dose values computed with the other 4 algorithms were lowest for "lung-island" tumors with smallest field sizes (3-5 cm). On the other hand, the smallest differences were noted for lung-central tumors treated with largest field widths (7-10 cm). Amongst all locations, dose distribution differences were most strongly correlated with tumor size for lung-island tumors. For most cases, convolution/superposition and MC algorithms were in good agreement. Mean lung dose (MLD) values computed with the EPL-1D algorithm were highly correlated with that of the other algorithms (correlation coefficient =0.99). The MLD values were found to be ~10% lower for small lung-island tumors with the model-based (conv/superposition and MC) vs. the correction-based (pencil-beam) algorithms with the model-based algorithms predicting greater low dose spread within the lungs. This study suggests that pencil beam algorithms should be avoided for lung SABR planning. For the most challenging cases, small tumors surrounded entirely by lung tissue (lung-island type), a Monte

  16. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  17. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  18. The Mediating Role of Visuospatial Planning Skills on Adaptive Function Among Young-Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumor.

    PubMed

    King, Tricia Z; Smith, Kristen M; Ivanisevic, Mirjana

    2015-08-01

    The Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) was used as a method to examine executive skills on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF). Young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (N = 31) and a demographically-matched comparison group (N = 33) completed the ROCF copy version and Grooved Pegboard, and informants were administered the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Survivors had significantly lower BQSS planning and SIB-R community living skills and greater perseveration. Mediation analyses found that BQSS planning skills mediate the relationship between group and community living skills. Convergent findings of the BRIEF Planning, and discriminant findings with the BQSS Fragmentation, BRIEF Emotional Control, and Grooved Pegboard support the planning construct as the specific mediator in this model. Together, these findings highlight the role of planning skills in adaptive functions of young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. PMID:26055499

  19. Engagement in activities revealing the body and psychosocial adjustment in adults with a trans-tibial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Donovan-Hall, M K; Yardley, L; Watts, R J

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the appearance of a prosthesis on social behaviour, social discomfort and psychological well-being in eleven amputees taking delivery of a prosthesis with a silicone cover. Two new scales were developed: the 'Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (EEARB); and the 'Discomfort-Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (Discomfort-EEARB) scales. The psychometric properties of these scales were determined using a sample of 101 able-bodied adults. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were also used to measure psychological well-being in the amputee sample. The EEARB and Discomfort-EEARB proved to have good reliability and validity. Comparison of amputees' scores prior to receiving the silicone cosmesis with those of the able-bodied adults revealed significant behavioural limitations and social discomfort, associated with low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. There was a significant increase in amputees' scores three months afier taking delivery of their prosthesis, indicating that amputees reported engaging in more activities which involved revealing their body, and that they would feel more comfortable in situations which involved revealing the body. As the amputee sample available was small and self-selected, it is not possible to generalise these findings to the amputee population as a whole. However, since there is little previous research investigating the effects of the appearance of the prosthesis, these findings demonstrate the need for further research in this area. PMID:12043922

  20. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M R; Gigante, D P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI, 62.7–65.6); 42% (95% CI, 40.6–43.6) of the subjects reported feeling larger than the desired body size, and 22% (95% CI, 20.7–23.3) reported feeling smaller than desired. Underweight subjects, subjects with less schooling, poor and sedentary male subjects with low psychological well-being and female subjects who were already mothers were more likely to express body dissatisfaction, perceiving their body as smaller than the desirable body size. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was also high among overweight subjects, subjects with a high socioeconomic status and married female subjects, who perceived their body size as too large. Minor psychiatric disorders were associated with body dissatisfaction in all subjects, regardless of perceiving themselves as larger or smaller than the desired body size. Most women perceived themselves as larger, but similar proportions of men perceived themselves as too small or too large. Conclusions: Body dissatisfaction was observed among men and women with normal weight, but it was more evident in the obese individuals. Regardless of the nutritional status, both men and women should be appropriately counseled because body size perception can lead to unhealthy behaviors in relation to diet and physical activity. PMID:25074390

  1. Frequency and Correlates of Advance Planning Among Cognitively Impaired Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Hirschman, Karen B.; Garand, Linda; Dew, Mary Amanda; Becker, James T.; Schulz, Richard; DeKosky, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of written advance planning among patients with or at risk for dementia-imposed decisional incapacity. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional. Setting University-based memory disorders clinic. Participants Persons with a consensus-based diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (N = 112), probable or possible Alzheimer disease (AD; N = 549), and nondemented comparison subjects (N = 84). Intervention N/A. Measurements Semistructured interviews to assess durable power of attorney (DPOA) and living will (LW) status upon initial presentation for a dementia evaluation. Results Sixty-five percent of participants had a DPOA and 56% had a LW. Planning rates did not vary by diagnosis. European Americans (adjusted odds ratio = 4.75; 95% CI, 2.40-9.38), older adults (adjusted odds ratio = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) and college graduates (adjusted odds ratio = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.33-3.20) were most likely to have a DPOA. Findings were similar for LW rates. Conclusions Although a majority of persons with and at risk for the sustained and progressive decisional incapacity of AD are formally planning for the future, a substantial minority are not. PMID:18669942

  2. The influence of calcium supplement on body composition, weight loss and insulin resistance in obese adults receiving low calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    Shalileh, Maryam; Shidfar, Farzad; Haghani, Hamid; Eghtesadi, Shahriar; Heydari, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are the most important problems of public health. Evidence from molecular animal research and epidemiologic investigations indicate that calcium intake may have an influence on body composition, weight and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of calcium supplementation on body composition, weight, insulin resistance and blood pressure in the face of calorie restriction in obese adults. METHODS: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on 40 adults with Body Mass Index > 25kg/m2 was conducted. Subjects were maintained for 24 weeks on a balanced deficit diet (-500 kcal/d deficit) and randomly assigned into two groups with 1000 mg ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in variables at the 12th and 24th week between the two groups. The lean mass showed no significant increase in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to baseline and in placebo group at the 24th week compared to the 12th week. The insulin concentration showed a significant decrease in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). The diastolic blood pressure had a significant decrease at the 24th week compared to the 12th week in both groups (p = 0.013-0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study suggest that 24 weeks of supplementation with 1000 mg ca/d did not have any effect on weight, body composition, insulin resistance and blood pressure beyond what can be achieved in an energy restricted diet in obese adults. PMID:21526081

  3. Effects of parental comments on body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in young adults: a sociocultural model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2009-06-01

    This study examined a sociocultural model of the influence of parental comments on body shape and eating concerns among males and females. Questionnaires were completed by 338 undergraduates. Participants reported levels of perceived parental comments, internalization of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimia. Results revealed that, regardless of gender, internalization and appearance comparison only partially mediated the relationship between parental comments and the outcome variables. The final model for females explained a larger proportion of the variability in body shape and eating concerns than in males, with positive and negative parental comments directly related to body dissatisfaction and through it to eating outcomes. In males, only negative comments were directly related to body dissatisfaction. These findings highlight the role of parental influences in sociocultural models of the development of body dissatisfaction and eating concerns, and the gender-specific patterns of sociocultural influence. PMID:19464242

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  5. Chronic central serotonin depletion attenuates ventilation and body temperature in young but not adult Tph2 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kara; Echert, Ashley E; Massat, Ben; Puissant, Madeleine M; Palygin, Oleg; Geurts, Aron M; Hodges, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Genetic deletion of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice leads to ventilatory deficits and increased neonatal mortality during development. However, it is unclear if the loss of the 5-HT neurons or the loss of the neurochemical 5-HT led to the observed physiologic deficits. Herein, we generated a mutant rat model with constitutive central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT depletion by mutation of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in dark agouti (DA(Tph2-/-)) rats. DA(Tph2-/-) rats lacked TPH immunoreactivity and brain 5-HT but retain dopa decarboxylase-expressing raphe neurons. Mutant rats were also smaller, had relatively high mortality (∼50%), and compared with controls had reduced room air ventilation and body temperatures at specific postnatal ages. In adult rats, breathing at rest and hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflexes were unaltered in adult male and female DA(Tph2-/-) rats. Body temperature was also maintained in adult DA(Tph2-/-) rats exposed to 4°C, indicating unaltered ventilatory and/or thermoregulatory control mechanisms. Finally, DA(Tph2-/-) rats treated with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) partially restored CNS 5-HT and showed increased ventilation (P < 0.05) at a developmental age when it was otherwise attenuated in the mutants. We conclude that constitutive CNS production of 5-HT is critically important to fundamental homeostatic control systems for breathing and temperature during postnatal development in the rat. PMID:26869713

  6. Promoting advance planning for health care and research among older adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240) comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance assessments are repeated at the

  7. Technical-Oriented Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Body of Knowledge for Information Systems Programs: Content and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Todd A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a body of knowledge that the educators can use to incorporate the technical aspects of enterprise resource planning (ERP) into an information systems (IS) program, encapsulated as the ERP technical knowledge framework. To illustrate the application of this framework, the author discusses a course sequence that…

  8. Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Chris B.; Garey, James R.; Swalla, Billie J.

    2000-01-01

    The deuterostome phyla include Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata. Chordata is composed of three subphyla, Vertebrata, Cephalochordata (Branchiostoma), and Urochordata (Tunicata). Careful analysis of a new 18S rDNA data set indicates that deuterostomes are composed of two major clades: chordates and echinoderms + hemichordates. This analysis strongly supports the monophyly of each of the four major deuterostome taxa: Vertebrata + Cephalochordata, Urochordata, Hemichordata, and Echinodermata. Hemichordates include two distinct classes, the enteropneust worms and the colonial pterobranchs. Most previous hypotheses of deuterostome origins have assumed that the morphology of extant colonial pterobranchs resembles the ancestral deuterostome. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of hemichordates that challenges this long-held view. We used 18S rRNA to infer evolutionary relationships of the hemichordate classes Pterobranchia and Enteropneusta. Our data show that pterobranchs may be derived within enteropneust worms rather than being a sister clade to the enteropneusts. The nesting of the pterobranchs within the enteropneusts dramatically alters our view of the evolution of the chordate body plan and suggests that the ancestral deuterostome more closely resembled a mobile worm-like enteropneust than a sessile colonial pterobranch. PMID:10781046

  9. Evolution of the chordate body plan: new insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C B; Garey, J R; Swalla, B J

    2000-04-25

    The deuterostome phyla include Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata. Chordata is composed of three subphyla, Vertebrata, Cephalochordata (Branchiostoma), and Urochordata (Tunicata). Careful analysis of a new 18S rDNA data set indicates that deuterostomes are composed of two major clades: chordates and echinoderms + hemichordates. This analysis strongly supports the monophyly of each of the four major deuterostome taxa: Vertebrata + Cephalochordata, Urochordata, Hemichordata, and Echinodermata. Hemichordates include two distinct classes, the enteropneust worms and the colonial pterobranchs. Most previous hypotheses of deuterostome origins have assumed that the morphology of extant colonial pterobranchs resembles the ancestral deuterostome. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of hemichordates that challenges this long-held view. We used 18S rRNA to infer evolutionary relationships of the hemichordate classes Pterobranchia and Enteropneusta. Our data show that pterobranchs may be derived within enteropneust worms rather than being a sister clade to the enteropneusts. The nesting of the pterobranchs within the enteropneusts dramatically alters our view of the evolution of the chordate body plan and suggests that the ancestral deuterostome more closely resembled a mobile worm-like enteropneust than a sessile colonial pterobranch. PMID:10781046

  10. Rupert Riedl and the re-synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology: body plans and evolvability.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Günter P; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2004-01-15

    This paper reviews the scientific career of Rupert Riedl and his contributions to evolutionary biology. Rupert Riedl, a native of Vienna, Austria, began his career as a marine biologist who made important contributions to the systematics and anatomy of major invertebrate groups, as well as to marine ecology. When he assumed a professorship at the University of North Carolina in 1968, the predominant thinking in evolutionary biology focused on population genetics, to the virtual exclusion of most of the rest of biology. In this atmosphere Riedl developed his "systems theory" of evolution, which emphasizes the role of functional and developmental integration in limiting and enabling adaptive evolution by natural selection. The main objective of this theory is to account for the observed patterns of morphological evolution, such as the conservation of body plans. In contrast to other "alternative" theories of evolution, Riedl never denied the importance of natural selection as the driving force of evolution, but thought it necessary to contextualize natural selection with the organismal boundary conditions of adaptation. In Riedl's view development is the most important factor besides natural selection in shaping the pattern and processes of morphological evolution. PMID:14760655

  11. Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H S; Tatham, L M; Rodriguez, C; Calle, E E; Thun, M J; Heath, C W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify behaviors associated with change in body mass index or with weight gain at the waist. METHODS: A cohort of 79236 White, non-Hispanic, healthy adults was questioned in 1982 and 1992 about diet and 10 physical activities. Estimates were made of the mean effects of stable behaviors on 10-year change in body mass index and on odds ratios for gain at the waist. RESULTS: Ten-year changes in body mass index was associated positively with meat consumption and smoking cessation and inversely with vegetable consumption, vitamin E supplementation, continued smoking, and some vigorous activities (e.g., jogging/running). Women's body mass index decreased with walking 4 or more hours per week and with regular alcohol intake, but these behaviors had a smaller effect on men's body mass index. weight gain was inversely associated with high vegetable consumption, walking 4 or more hours per week, and jogging/running 1 to 3 hours per week but not with less demanding physical activities. CONCLUSIONS: Simple derivation of behaviors associated with weight loss or reduced abdominal obesity may enhance programs designed to prevent obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:9184500

  12. The Mediating Effect of Body Mass Index on the Relationship between Cigarette Smoking and Atopic Sensitization in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cai, Fuwen; Xie, Biao; Qu, Siyang; Liu, Meina

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether the relationship between cigarette smoking and atopy is mediated by body fat mass, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI). We assessed the mediating role of BMI on the relationship between smoking and atopy in Chinese adults. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of 786 atopic cases and 2771 controls was conducted in adults aged 18 years or older from March 2010 to September 2014 in Harbin, China. Mediation models were used to estimate the indirect effects of smoking on atopic sensitization through BMI. Results: Compared to non-smokers, light smokers and moderate smokers had a lower risk of inhalant allergen sensitization. The indirect effect of smoking and sensitization to aeroallergens were only observed in light smokers (point estimate, −0.026; 95% CI, −0.062 to −0.004). The mediating roles of BMI on the relationships between smoking and other types of allergic sensitization were not statistically significant. Conclusion: BMI appeared to partially mediate the effect of light smoking on sensitization to aeroallergens. However, considering the other harmful health effects of cigarette smoking, the effective method to lower the incidence of atopy would be to decrease body fat mass by physical exercise and employing other more healthy ways of living rather than smoking. PMID:25807148

  13. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  14. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M

    2016-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  15. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Lorna J; Forshaw, Mark J; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on "appearance reasons to tan," "perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance," "perceived susceptibility to health consequences," and "tanning knowledge." The model was successful in predicting indoor tanning intentions and behaviour (explained 17% and 71%, resp.). An interesting outcome was the magnitude of the variable "appearance reasons to tan." A current tanned appearance therefore seemed to outweigh any adverse future appearance or health consequences caused by indoor tanning. Appearance-focused interventions to reduce such behaviour may now prove to be efficacious within a UK sample. PMID:24967136

  16. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Lorna J.; Forshaw, Mark J.; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on “appearance reasons to tan,” “perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance,” “perceived susceptibility to health consequences,” and “tanning knowledge.” The model was successful in predicting indoor tanning intentions and behaviour (explained 17% and 71%, resp.). An interesting outcome was the magnitude of the variable “appearance reasons to tan.” A current tanned appearance therefore seemed to outweigh any adverse future appearance or health consequences caused by indoor tanning. Appearance-focused interventions to reduce such behaviour may now prove to be efficacious within a UK sample. PMID:24967136

  17. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of <1 cup of SSB/day. An experienced moderator and co-moderator utilized a semi-structured script, grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. PMID:23102176

  18. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS® for Windows® ver. 16). Results: In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. Conclusion: It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State. PMID:25738011

  19. Testing the efficacy of the theory of planned behavior to explain strength training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rachel N; Farrell, Jocelyn M; Kelley, Mary Lou; Taylor, M Jane; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the constructs of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to gain a better understanding of the factors influencing older adults' participation in strength training. Two hundred men and women age 55 years and older were purposely sampled from seniors' centers in Ontario Canada. Participants completed a TPB questionnaire and reported their current physical activity participation. It was hypothesized that perceived behavioral control followed by attitude would be the strongest determinants of strength-training intentions and that intention would be the strongest determinant of strength-training behavior. Regression analyses revealed that subjective norm and perceived behavioral control explained 42% of the variance in intention and intention explained 40% of the variance in behavior. Gender and current strength-training participation did not significantly moderate the relationship between the TPB variables. The results suggest that interventions targeting subjective norm and perceived control might be helpful in promoting strength-training behavior among older adults. PMID:17387225

  20. Using methodological triangulation for cultural verification of commitment to a plan for exercise scale among Korean adults with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shin, YunHee; Pender, Nola J; Yun, SangKyun

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to use methodological triangulation to increase the cultural appropriateness of the Planning for Exercise Scale (Pender, 1996), which measures commitment to a plan of action, and to psychometrically evaluate the revised scale in a selected population of 230 Korean adults experiencing chronic diseases. First, through a qualitative approach, the cultural properties of the concept were identified in order to revise Pender's Planning for Exercise Scale. The revised scale consisted of 20 items: 13 items emerged from the qualitative procedure and seven items were retained from the original scale. Through a quantitative approach, the revised scale was analyzed psychometrically. Results showed the scale had sufficient reliability and validity to warrant its use by researchers or practitioners evaluating the level of commitment to a plan for exercise among Korean adults. The revised instrument is appropriate for use in future intervention studies designed to improve the performance of exercise among Koreans who are chronically ill. PMID:12884419

  1. Birth weight modifies the association between central-nervous-system gene variation and adult body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Haddad, Stephen A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth-weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth-weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women’s Health Study, and were based on genotype data on twenty BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth-weight, weight at age 18, and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual SNPs with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth-weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1, and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth-weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth-weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient = −0.045 (95% CI −0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and −0.055 (95% CI −0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth-weight ≥3,200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient = 0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction = 0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction < 0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1, and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low birth-weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation. PMID:26582267

  2. An extended theory of planned behavior intervention for older adults with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A; Norman, Paul; Mummery, Kerry; Riley, Malcolm; Posner, Natasha; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a 4-wk extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) intervention to promote regular physical activity and healthy eating among older adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease (N = 183). Participants completed TPB measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as planning and behavior, at preintervention and 1 wk and 6 wk postintervention for each behavior. No significant time-by-condition effects emerged for healthy eating. For physical activity, significant time-by-condition effects were found for behavior, intention, planning, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. In particular, compared with control participants, the intervention group showed short-term improvements in physical activity and planning, with further analyses indicating that the effect of the intervention on behavior was mediated by planning. The results indicate that TPB-based interventions including planning strategies may encourage physical activity among older people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22190336

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Partner STI Notification Among Adolescent and Young Adult Family Planning Clinic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patient-initiated partner STI notification, i.e., patients informing their sexual partners of diagnosis, is a cornerstone of STI prevention. Growing evidence suggests that women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) may fear such notification, or face negative consequences in response to STI disclosure. The current study assessed associations of IPV with fear of partner STI notification, and experiences of partner STI notification, among adolescent and young adult female family planning clinic patients. Methods Females patients ages 16–29 years in five family planning clinics in Northern California (n=1282) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Results History of physical or sexual IPV was associated with fear of partner STI notification. Moreover, participants exposed to IPV were more likely to have partners say it was not from them or otherwise accuse them of cheating in response to STI notification. Such partners were less likely to seek indicated STI treatment or testing. Conclusions Current findings suggest that STI partner notification may be compromised by IPV. Clinical practices and policies to support effective partner STI notification should include IPV assessment, and provide mechanisms to address related fears concerning partner notification. PMID:21680673

  4. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  5. The impact of body worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results. Clin. Anat. 29:439-445, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789643

  6. Association of body fat distribution with proinflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Puchau, Blanca; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) measurements have proved useful in recent studies to discern peripheral biomarkers for common complex diseases and for understanding host responses to drugs and nutrition in personalized medicine. Despite the initial promising data from PBMC, there is little information, however, on inflammatory and immune gene regulation in the context of body fat distribution and metabolic features in healthy adults. We investigated the putative association of body fat distribution and related-metabolic features with mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers in PBMC. This study enrolled 136 healthy subjects (85 females/51 males; age: 21.5 +/- 2.5 years). Anthropometrical, clinical, metabolic, and proinflammatory variables were assessed with validated tools. Interestingly, in normal-weight subjects with lower truncal fat (TF) values, mRNA levels of ICAM1, IL1R1, IL6, and TNF-alpha in PBMC were lower (p < 0.05), compared to normal-weight individuals with higher TF (>58.5/50.2% for men/women, respectively) and overweight/obese subjects [body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2)]. After regression analyses were performed, individuals with the highest tertiles of TF and waist circumference displayed higher mRNA gene expressions as well as circulating proinflammatory (C-reactive protein and IL6) and metabolic (blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and LDL-c:HDL-c ratio) variables values (p < 0.05), independent from gender. Our findings collectively suggest that the mRNA expression of certain proinflammatory markers in PBMC is associated with body fat distribution in healthy adult subjects, which in turn, was also related to metabolic features and plasma proinflammatory markers concentrations. PMID:20450441

  7. Spatial Transformations of Bodies and Objects in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Amy; Marsh, Lauren; Hamilton, Antonia; Ropar, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shown people with autism to be impaired at visual perspective taking. However it is still unclear to what extent the spatial mechanisms underlying this ability contribute to these difficulties. In the current experiment we examine spatial transformations in adults with ASD and typical…

  8. Mass spectral determination of phenylacetonitrile (PAN) levels in body tissues of adult desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Wings and legs of the gregarious desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria have been shown to be release sites of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major adult male-produced pheromone. However, there is limited information on the distribution of PAN within the locust. Here we show, using gas chromatograph...

  9. Temporal Relationship Between Childhood Body Mass Index and Insulin and Its Impact on Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P<0.001) from baseline BMI to follow-up insulin was significantly greater than the path coefficient (β=-0.02; P>0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with P<0.001 for the difference in βs. Blacks and whites showed similar patterns of the temporal relationship. The path coefficient (β=0.59; P<0.001) from BMI to insulin in the hypertensive group was significantly greater than that (β=0.24; P<0.001) in normotensive group, with P<0.001 for the difference in βs between these 2 groups. The mediation effect of childhood insulin on the childhood BMI-adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (P<0.001). These findings provide evidence that higher BMI levels precede hyperinsulinemia during childhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. PMID:27432860

  10. Correlation between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness in adult Japanese: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shimai, S; Kikuchi, S; Tanaka, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Japanese adults who like fat-rich foods have more body fatness and higher serum lipid levels than those who do not. The subjects were 540 male and 492 female workers under 41 years of age. A self-administered questionnaire determined four levels of liking for fat-rich foods. Anthropometric measurements were employed yielding body mass index (BMI), waist to hip circumference ratio (WHR), and skinfold thickness. Anthropometric values were compared among the levels of liking for fat-rich foods using analysis of covariance. For males, a liking for fat-rich foods was associated with BMI, WHR, whole-body skinfold thickness, and abdominal skinfold thickness (p<0.0001). In particular, those who like fat-rich foods "quite a bit" or "very much" showed significantly higher values than those who answered "no" or "a little". Multiple regression analysis showed that a liking for fat-rich foods explains 7-9% of the variation in the anthropometric indices, even when other lifestyles were taken into account. For females, such findings were not evident. There is a gender difference in the association between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness. The difference may be due to a female-specific attitude toward high-calorie foods. PMID:11161340

  11. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with the minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmand, Hamed; Winey, Brian; Craft, David

    2013-09-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam’s-eye-view) known as ‘apertures’. Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan as the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined maximum deviation from the ideal plan is guaranteed). Since the treatment plan optimization is inherently a multi-criteria-optimization problem, the planner can navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus OARs sparing, and then use the proposed technique to reduce the number of beams while guaranteeing epsilon-optimality. We use mixed integer programming (MIP) for optimization. To reduce the computation time for the resultant MIP, we use two heuristics: a beam elimination scheme and a family of heuristic cuts, known as ‘neighbor cuts’, based on the concept of ‘adjacent beams’. We show the effectiveness of the proposed technique on two clinical cases, a liver and a lung case. Based on our technique we propose an algorithm for fast generation of epsilon-optimal plans.

  12. SU-E-J-52: Dosimetric Benefit of Adaptive Re-Planning in Lung Cancer Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, J; Tian, Z; Gu, X; Yan, H; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric benefit of adaptive re-planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy(SBRT). Methods: Five lung cancer patients with SBRT treatment were retrospectively investigated. Our in-house supercomputing online re-planning environment (SCORE) was used to realize the re-planning process. First a deformable image registration was carried out to transfer contours from treatment planning CT to each treatment CBCT. Then an automatic re-planning using original plan DVH guided fluence-map optimization is performed to get a new plan for the up-to-date patient geometry. We compared the re-optimized plan to the original plan projected on the up-to-date patient geometry in critical dosimetric parameters, such as PTV coverage, spinal cord maximum and volumetric constraint dose, esophagus maximum and volumetric constraint dose. Results: The average volume of PTV covered by prescription dose for all patients was improved by 7.56% after the adaptive re-planning. The volume of the spinal cord receiving 14.5Gy and 23Gy (V14.5, V23) decreased by 1.48% and 0.68%, respectively. For the esophagus, the volume receiving 19.5Gy (V19.5) reduced by 1.37%. Meanwhile, the maximum dose dropped off by 2.87% for spinal cord and 4.80% for esophagus. Conclusion: Our experimental results demonstrate that adaptive re-planning for lung SBRT has the potential to minimize the dosimetric effect of inter-fraction deformation and thus improve target coverage while reducing the risk of toxicity to nearby normal tissues.

  13. Direct plan comparison of RapidArc and CyberKnife for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Eun; Kwak, Jungwon; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Cho, Byungchul

    2015-07-01

    We compared the treatment planning performance of RapidArc (RA) vs. CyberKnife (CK) for spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Ten patients with spinal lesions who had been treated with CK were re-planned with RA, which consisted of two complete arcs. Computed tomography (CT) and volumetric dose data of CK, generated using the Multiplan (Accuray) treatment planning system (TPS) and the Ray-trace algorithm, were imported to Varian Eclipse TPS in Dicom format, and the data were compared with the RA plan by using an analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) dose calculation. The optimized dose priorities for both the CK and the RA plans were similar for all patients. The highest priority was to provide enough dose coverage to the planned target volume (PTV) while limiting the maximum dose to the spinal cord. Plan quality was evaluated with respect to PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), high-dose spillage, intermediate-dose spillage (R50% and D2cm), and maximum dose to the spinal cord, which are criteria recommended by the RTOG 0631 spine and 0915 lung SBRT protocols. The mean CI' SD values of the PTV were 1.11' 0.03 and 1.17' 0.10 for RA and CK ( p = 0.02), respectively. On average, the maximum dose delivered to the spinal cord in CK plans was approximately 11.6% higher than that in RA plans, and this difference was statistically significant ( p < 0.001). High-dose spillages were 0.86% and 2.26% for RA and CK ( p = 0.203), respectively. Intermediate-dose spillage characterized by D2cm was lower for RA than for CK; however, R50% was not statistically different. Even though both systems can create highly conformal volumetric dose distributions, the current study shows that RA demonstrates lower high- and intermediate-dose spillages than CK. Therefore, RA plans for spinal SBRT may be superior to CK plans.

  14. A Plan of Organization, Administration, and Elements of Finance for Vocational-Technical Adult Education, Birmingham City School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, John Alton

    Designed to help formulate a plan of organization and administration for vocational and technical education and adult education in the Birmingham, Alabama, city schools, this study entailed an extensive literature review on vocational education and administrative matters; a historical review of several Birmingham schools (Paul Hayne School,…

  15. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  16. A Validation Study of the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Theory and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin Moore

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to determine if the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive processing model, a model previously investigated with children, would hold its factorial structure with adults. A collection of PASS experimental tasks were analyzed through Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. A four-factor solution consistent…

  17. A Tool to Identify Older Adults Who Are Candidates for Action Planning to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Wood, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study developed and tested a tool in a group of multiethnic seniors (n = 24). The tool enabled these older adults to self-assess their stage of change regarding fruit and vegetable intake, and identified those in the preparation stage who were most likely to participate in follow-up action planning classes. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale among adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siu-Kuen; Barron, David; Swami, Viren

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that the factor structure of Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), a widely-used measure of positive body image, may not be cross-culturally equivalent. Here, we used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the conceptual equivalence of a Chinese (Cantonese) translation of the BAS among women (n=1319) and men (n=1084) in Hong Kong. Results showed that neither the one-dimensional nor proposed two-dimensional factor structures had adequate fit. Instead, a modified two-dimensional structure, which retained 9 of the 13 BAS items in two factors, had the best fit. However, only one of these factors, reflective of General Body Appreciation, had adequate internal consistency. This factor also had good patterns of construct validity, as indicated through significant correlations with participant body mass index, self-esteem, and (among women) actual-ideal weight discrepancy. The present results suggest that there may be cultural differences in the concept and experience of body appreciation. PMID:25523745

  19. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  20. Adult Onset Global Loss of the Fto Gene Alters Body Composition and Metabolism in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sara; Teboul, Lydia; Tung, Y. C. Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; Bosch, Fatima; Jimenez, Veronica; Yeo, Giles S. H.; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Coll, Anthony P.; Cox, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    The strongest BMI–associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake. PMID:23300482

  1. Relationship between body mass index reference and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large cohort of Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Banwell, Cathy; Zhao, Jiaying; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate variation in body mass index (BMI) reference and 5-year all-cause mortality using data from 87151 adult Open University students nationwide. Analyses focused on BMI reference bands: "normal" (≥18.5 to <23), "lower normal" (≥18.5 to <20.75), "upper normal" (≥20.75 to <23), and "narrow Western normal" (≥23 to <25). We report hazard ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals adjusting for covariates. Compared to lower normal, adults aged 35-65 years who were obese (BMI ≥ 30) were twice as likely to die during the follow-up (HR 2.37; 1.01-5.70). For the same group, when using narrow Western normal as the reference, the results were similar (HR 3.02; 1.26-7.22). However, different combinations of BMI exposure and reference band produce quite different results. Older age persons belonging to Asian overweight BMI category (≥23 to <25) were relatively protected from mortality (HR 0.57; 0.34-0.96 and HR 0.49; 0.28-0.84) when assessed using normal (≥18.5 to <23) and upper normal (≥20.75 to <23) as reference bands. Use of different "normal" reference produced varying mortality relationships in a large cohort of Thai adults. Caution is needed when interpreting BMI-mortality data. PMID:25485146

  2. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  3. Long-Term Outcome After Static Intensity-Modulated Total Body Radiotherapy Using Compensators Stratified by Pediatric and Adult Cohorts

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Ralf A. Schultze, Juergen; Jensen, J. Martin; Hebbinghaus, Dieter; Galalae, Razvan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome after total body irradiation with intensity-modulating compensators and allogeneic/autologous transplantation, especially in terms of therapy-related toxicity in pediatric and adult cohorts. Methods and Materials: A total of 257 consecutive patients (40 children and 217 adults) have been treated since 1983 with TBI using static intensity-modulated radiotherapy for hematologic malignancies. The total dose of 12 Gy was applied in six fractions within 3 days before allogeneic (n = 174) or autologous (n = 83) transplantation. The median follow-up was 9.2 years. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 47.9% (49.8% for the adults and 37.5% for the children, p = 0.171). The 5-year tumor-related mortality rate was 23%, and the 5-year treatment-related mortality rate 29.2% (29.5% in the adults and 27.5% in the pediatric patients). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 28 (10.9%) of 257 patients and in 12.5% of the pediatric cohort. The interstitial pneumonitis rate was 25% in pediatric patients treated with a 12-Gy lung dose compared with 4.2% for those treated to an 11-Gy lung dose. The overall survival rate stratified by lung dose was 26.7% for 12 Gy and 52.4% for 11 Gy (p = 0.001). The incidence of veno-occlusive disease and cataract was 5.8% and 6.6% in all patients and 12.5% and 15% in the pediatric patients, respectively (p < 0.05). Secondary malignancies were found in 4.3% of all patients, all in the adult cohort at transplantation. Conclusion: Static intensity-modulated total body irradiation with a total dose of 12 Gy before allogeneic/autologous transplantation is a successful treatment with good long-term outcome and acceptable therapy-related toxicities. Constraining the lung dose to 11 Gy substantially lowered the actuarial treatment-related mortality. This effect was especially striking in the pediatric patients.

  4. Qualitative Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Beverage Behaviors among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of <1 cup of SSB/day. An experienced moderator and co-moderator utilized a semi-structured script, grounded in the TPB, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units (MU) to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n= 161 MU), availability/convenience (n= 95 MU), habit/addiction (n=57 MU), and cost (n= 28 MU). Health consequences associated with beverages and water quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and sub-themes provides critical insight into understanding culturally-relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. PMID:23102176

  5. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  6. Body image, self-esteem, and depression in burn-injured adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Orr, D A; Reznikoff, M; Smith, G M

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of burn-related variables (specifically, age at time of burn, years elapsed since burn, locus of burn, and percent of total body surface area burned), demographics, and perceived social support variables on psychological adjustment after injury within a well-defined sample. Subjects were 121 patients, currently 14 to 27 years old, burned within the past 10 years. They completed the following: Semantic Differential Measure of Body Image, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Social Inventory--Friends, and Perceived Social Inventory--Family. The mean age of the subjects was 17.8 years; the mean percent total body surface area burned was 27.3%, with 75% of the subjects having burns on a visible or socially sensitive area. Correlational and multiple regression analyses showed that subjects perceiving more social support (friends more than family) had more positive body images (p less than 0.01), greater self-esteem (p less than 0.01), and less depression (p less than 0.01) than others, with a significant impact from difference in subjects' gender. PMID:2793926

  7. Body size dynamics in young adults: 8-year follow up of cohorts in Brazil and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yiengprugsawan, V; Horta, B L; Motta, J V S; Gigante, D; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20–24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20.7 and 8.6%) than the Thai cohort (6.0 and 1.7%); these proportions rose to 34.6% and 22.9% vs 15.8% and 5.1%, respectively, in their early 30s. An association between a higher socioeconomic status and increase in overweight and obesity was observed among males; but an inverse pattern was noted for females in both cohorts and remained statistically significant after 8 years of follow up. Our comparative longitudinal analyses highlight the relationship between two middle-income settings facing rapid increases in body size (2–3 fold increase in the rate of overweight and obesity). Long-term follow up and a lifecourse approach for effective prevention of obesity will minimize adverse health burdens in later life. PMID:27428871

  8. Considering a Voice of the Body for Adult Transformative Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boleyn, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Unknowingly, much of the population of the Western World are thinking machines who live and learn isolated from somatic experiences. They distrust their bodies in the learning process and are stuck living out unquestioned realities of embodied socioculturalism and rationalism which guide decision making, learning and ways of being. Considering a…

  9. Diet quality and body mass index are associated with healthcare resource use in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health care resource consumption is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between diet quality and body mass index with health care resource use (HRU) in a cohort of advanced age. Participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (n=5,993) were mailed demographic and...

  10. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  11. Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Camina Martín, M A; de Mateo Silleras, B; Redondo del Río, M P

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, geriatric nutritional assessment usually includes nutritional screening, a simple anthropometric assessment, measurement of various biochemical parameters, such as serum albumin, and sometimes (not always) body composition analysis (BCA). However, there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed malnutrition in patients with dementia. Several factors contribute to this situation; probably, the most notable is the methodology used to assess body composition (BC). In this regard, for BCA, techniques are needed that are noninvasive, affordable, safe, simple and that require the minimum possible collaboration by the elderly patient. Consequently, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as indicators of overall and central adiposity, respectively; however, there is no consensus on the cutoffs for the elderly, and changes in BC (especially muscle-mass depletion) are masked by normal values of BMI and WC. Bioimpedance analysis is a simple, cost-effective and precise method for BCA, provided that cross-validated equations are used. Its main disadvantage is that it is highly sensitive to changes in body water (overhydration or dehydration), leading to substantial errors in BC estimates. However, using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models. PMID:25117995

  12. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insoluble fibre), or diet containing 10% w/w cellulose (CELL), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), oat beta-glucan (GLUC) or apple pectin (PECT) (4 weeks; n = 10/group). Food intake, body weight, and body composition (MRI) were recorded, final blood samples analysed for gut satiety hormones, hindgut contents for fermentation products (including short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) and intestinal tissues for SCFA receptor gene expression. Results GLUC, FOS and PECT groups had, respectively, 10% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.001) and 19% (P < 0.001) lower food intake and 37% (P < 0.01), 37% (P < 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.001) lower body weight gain than CONT during the four-week experiment. At the end they had 26% (P < 0.05), 35% (P < 0.01) and 42% (P < 0.001) less total body fat, respectively, while plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was 2.2-, 3.2- and 2.6-fold higher (P < 0.001) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) was 2.3-, 3.1- and 3.0-fold higher (P < 0.001). There were no differences in these parameters between CONT and CELL. Compared with CONT and CELL, caecal concentrations of fermentation products increased 1.4- to 2.2-fold in GLUC, FOS and PECT (P < 0.05) and colonic concentrations increased 1.9- to 2.5-fold in GLUC and FOS (P < 0.05), with no consistent changes in SCFA receptor gene expression detected. Conclusions This provides animal model evidence that sustained intake of three different soluble dietary fibres decreases food intake, weight gain and adiposity, increases circulating satiety

  13. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J.; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctena quinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence (insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  14. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    PubMed

    Łukowski, Adrian; Mąderek, Ewa; Giertych, Marian J; Karolewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Body mass and sex ratio (F/M) of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina) and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana). Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age) on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves). We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period. PMID:26657564

  15. Intervention Use and Action Planning in a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Weight Management Program for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many online interventions aiming for health behavior change but it is unclear how such interventions and specific planning tools are being used. Objective The aim of this study is to identify which user characteristics were associated with use of an online, computer-tailored self-regulation intervention aimed at prevention of weight gain; and to examine the quality of the goals and action plans that were generated using the online planning tools. Methods Data were obtained with a randomized controlled effect evaluation trial in which the online computer-tailored intervention was compared to a website containing generic information about prevention of weight gain. The tailored intervention included self-regulation techniques such as personalized feedback, goal setting, action planning, monitoring, and other techniques aimed at weight management. Participants included 539 overweight adults (mean age 46.9 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 28.03 kg/m2, 31.2% male, 11% low education level) recruited from the general population. Use of the intervention and its planning tools were derived from server registration data. Physical activity, fat intake, motivational factors, and self-regulation skills were self-reported at baseline. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the results. Results Use of the tailored intervention decreased sharply after the first modules. Visiting the first tailored intervention module was more likely among participants with low levels of fat intake (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95) or planning for change in PA (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05-0.97). Revisiting the intervention was more likely among participants high in restrained eating (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.12-5.43) or low in proactive coping skills for weight control (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.76). The planning tools were used by 5%-55% of the participants, but only 20%-75% of the plans were of good quality. Conclusions This study showed that psychological

  16. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status. PMID:27109636

  17. The Effects of Body Composition, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity on Calcaneus Quantitative Ultrasound in Spanish Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Rio-Valle, Jacqueline Schmidt; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2016-07-01

    Identifying modifiable factors that influence bone gain during early adulthood in order to maximize peak bone mass (PBM) is a potential primary strategy in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. The present study examined the relationships between body composition, dietary intake and physical activity (PA), and bone health measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the right calcaneus. The study population consisted of 781 Spanish men and women (age 19.1 ± 3.6). Body composition, dietary intake, PA, and bone strength were assessed. Calcaneus QUS was significantly correlated with age, height, weight, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, protein intake, and moderate and high PA. No significant correlation between calcium intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA, dB/MHz) was detected. Linear regression analyses revealed that independent variables accounted for 18.8% of the total variance of calcaneus BUA (p = .000). Lean mass and high PA were significant predictors of BUA variance in young adults (p = .000 and p = .045, respectively). Results indicate that lifestyle choices and their consequences during early adulthood could influence bone mass, particularly PA and lean mass. Furthermore, this study provides novel data about bone mass as indicated by the QUS measurements at the time of PBM acquisition. PMID:26933147

  18. Running to win or to be thin? An evaluation of body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among adult runners.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-06-01

    The current study evaluated associations between sport-performance-related body dissatisfaction (BD), general-appearance-related BD, and their relation to EAT-26 scores among a sample of adult runners who participated in middle- and long-distance races in the northeastern United States (N=400, 46.5% male). Women reported elevated BD and eating disorder symptoms, as compared to men. Ridge regression was used to analyze correlations between appearance- and performance-related BD with EAT-26 scores. Results demonstrated that appearance- and performance-related BD positively correlated with EAT-26 scores in women (βs=0.18 and 0.13, respectively). Race length was a significant covariate for women, such that those who ran middle-distance race events were more likely to report higher EAT-26 scores (β=-3.12). These associations were not demonstrated in men. Results suggest that it is beneficial to address sport-specific body image concerns, in addition to more general appearance-related body image concerns in female runners. PMID:26952015

  19. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  20. Removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    PubMed

    Birk, Michael; Bauerfeind, Peter; Deprez, Pierre H; Häfner, Michael; Hartmann, Dirk; Hassan, Cesare; Hucl, Tomas; Lesur, Gilles; Aabakken, Lars; Meining, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the removal of foreign bodies in the upper gastrointestinal tract in adults. Recommendations Nonendoscopic measures 1 ESGE recommends diagnostic evaluation based on the patient's history and symptoms. ESGE recommends a physical examination focused on the patient's general condition and to assess signs of any complications (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 2 ESGE does not recommend radiological evaluation for patients with nonbony food bolus impaction without complications. We recommend plain radiography to assess the presence, location, size, configuration, and number of ingested foreign bodies if ingestion of radiopaque objects is suspected or type of object is unknown (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 3 ESGE recommends computed tomography (CT) scan in all patients with suspected perforation or other complication that may require surgery (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 ESGE does not recommend barium swallow, because of the risk of aspiration and worsening of the endoscopic visualization (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends clinical observation without the need for endoscopic removal for management of asymptomatic patients with ingestion of blunt and small objects (except batteries and magnets). If feasible, outpatient management is appropriate (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 ESGE recommends close observation in asymptomatic individuals who have concealed packets of drugs by swallowing ("body packing"). We recommend against endoscopic retrieval. We recommend surgical referral in cases of suspected packet rupture, failure of packets to progress, or intestinal obstruction (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). Endoscopic measures 7 ESGE recommends emergent (preferably within 2 hours, but at the latest within 6 hours) therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for

  1. Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy in children and young adults undergoing stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Establishing Total Body Irradiation (TBI) using Helical Tomotherapy (HT) to gain better control over dose distribution and homogeneity and to individually spare organs at risk. Because of their limited body length the technique seems especially eligible in juvenile patients. Patients and methods The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 female and 4 male, aged 4 - 22 y with acute lymphoblastic- (ALL) or acute myeloic leukemia (AML). All patients presented with high risk disease features. Body length in treatment position ranged from 110–180 cm. Two Gy single dose was applied BID to a total dose of 12 Gy. Dose volume constraint for the PTV was 95% dose coverage for 95% of the volume. The lungs were spared to a mean dose of [less than or equal to] 10 Gy. Patients were positioned in a vac-loc bag in supine position with a 3-point head mask. Results Average D95 to the PTV was 11.7 Gy corresponding to a mean coverage of the PTV of 97.5%. Dmean for the lungs was 9.14 Gy. Grade 3–4 side effects were not observed. Conclusions TBI using HT is feasible and well tolerated. A benefit could be demonstrated with regard to dose distribution and homogeneity and the selective dose-reduction to organs at risk. PMID:23587349

  2. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Young Adults: 10-year Longitudinal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This study identified longitudinal risk factors for body dissatisfaction (BD) over a 10-year period from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants (N = 2134; age at baseline: M =15.0, SD =1.6 years) provided two waves of survey data. A 6-step hierarchical linear regression analysis examined the predictive contribution of Time 1 BD, weight status, demographics, family and peer environmental factors, and psychological factors. Among females, Asian race/ethnicity, low self-esteem, greater BD, and higher body mass index during adolescence contributed significantly to predicting greater BD at 10-year follow up (R2 = 0.27). Among males, demographics (i.e., Asian, other-mixed ethnicity, education attainment), depressive symptoms, greater BD, higher body mass index, more parent communication, and less peer weight teasing during adolescence contributed to BD at follow-up (R2 = 0.27). Findings indicate who may be at greatest risk for BD in young adulthood and the types of factors that should be addressed during adolescence. PMID:25045599

  3. Explaining Vegetable Consumption among Young Adults: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Menozzi, Davide; Sogari, Giovanni; Mora, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Although fruit and vegetable consumption is highly recommended for a healthy and balanced daily diet, several European countries do not meet these recommendations. In Italy, only 45% of young people are consuming at least one portion of vegetables per day. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the main determinants of vegetables consumption among young adults to suggest possible intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a samples of Italian students (n = 751), using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a conceptual framework. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed to test the TPB predictors for vegetable consumption, and the role of background factors (socio-demographic and personal characteristics) in improving the TPB model’s explaining power. Overall, 81% and 68%, respectively, of intentions and behaviour variance is explained by the TPB model. Socio-demographic and personal characteristics were found to influence intentions and behaviour indirectly by their effects on the theory’s more proximal determinants. Interventions should be targeted to improve perceived behavioural control (PBC), attitudes and subjective norms that significantly affect intentions. Tailored interventions for male students, enrolled in courses other than food science, and doing less physical activity may have a larger effect on behavioural change. PMID:26378570

  4. Explaining Vegetable Consumption among Young Adults: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, Davide; Sogari, Giovanni; Mora, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Although fruit and vegetable consumption is highly recommended for a healthy and balanced daily diet, several European countries do not meet these recommendations. In Italy, only 45% of young people are consuming at least one portion of vegetables per day. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the main determinants of vegetables consumption among young adults to suggest possible intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a samples of Italian students (n = 751), using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a conceptual framework. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed to test the TPB predictors for vegetable consumption, and the role of background factors (socio-demographic and personal characteristics) in improving the TPB model's explaining power. Overall, 81% and 68%, respectively, of intentions and behaviour variance is explained by the TPB model. Socio-demographic and personal characteristics were found to influence intentions and behaviour indirectly by their effects on the theory's more proximal determinants. Interventions should be targeted to improve perceived behavioural control (PBC), attitudes and subjective norms that significantly affect intentions. Tailored interventions for male students, enrolled in courses other than food science, and doing less physical activity may have a larger effect on behavioural change. PMID:26378570

  5. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Body Composition: A Population-Based Study of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayley, Amie C.; Williams, Lana J.; Kennedy, Gerard A.; Berk, Michael; Brennan, Sharon L.; Pasco, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is often associated with increased adiposity, particularly when assessed in the context of samples of sleep-disordered patients; however, it is unclear if this relationship is sustained among non-clinical, population-based cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between EDS and a number of body composition markers among a population-based sample of men and women. Methods This study assessed 1066 women aged 21–94 yr (median = 51 yr, IQR 35–66), and 911 men aged 24–92 yr (median = 60 yr, IQR 46–73) who participated in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS) between the years 2001 and 2008. Total body fat mass was determined from whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and anthropometric parameters (weight, height, and waist circumference) were measured. Lifestyle and health information was collected via self-report. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Scores of ≥10 were considered indicative of EDS. Results Women: After adjusting for age, alcohol intake, antidepressant medication use and physical activity, EDS was associated with greater waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). EDS was also associated with 1.5–1.6-fold increased odds of being overweight or obese. Men: After adjusting for age, alcohol use, physical activity and smoking status, EDS was associated with greater BMI. These findings were not explained by the use of sedative or antidepressant medication. EDS was also associated with 1.5-fold increased likelihood of being obese, independent of these factors. No differences in lean mass, %body fat, or %lean mass were detected between those with and without EDS for men or women. Conclusions These data suggest that EDS is associated with several anthropometric adiposity profiles, independent of associated lifestyle and health factors. Among women, symptoms of EDS are pervasive at both overweight and obese BMI classifications

  6. The Importance of Nonformal Adult Learning in Planning Education for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Helene Somraty

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of the use of nonformal education programs for teaching basic survival skills to adults in developing countries. (Availability: Dept. of Adult Education, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506) (SK)

  7. Advance Care Planning and Goals of Care Communication in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease and Multi-Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Lum, Hillary D; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    This article provides an approach to advance care planning (ACP) and goals of care communication in older adults with cardiovascular disease and multi-morbidity. The goal of ACP is to ensure that the medical care patients receive is aligned with their values and preferences. In this article, the authors outline common benefits and challenges to ACP for older adults with cardiovascular disease and multimorbidity. Recognizing that these patients experience diverse disease trajectories and receive care in multiple health care settings, the authors provide practical steps for multidisciplinary teams to integrate ACP into brief clinic encounters. PMID:27113144

  8. Open Education 2030: Planning the Future of Adult Learning in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaño Muñoz, Jonatan; Redecker, Christine; Vuorikari, Riina; Punie, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning and open education have become key elements on the European Agenda. This paper presents the first results of a foresight activity that aims to contribute to an understanding of how "Opening up Education" can improve adult learning in Europe in the future. It argues that to open up adult learning two main challenges must be…

  9. Unequal Chances to Participate in Adult Learning: International Perspectives. Fundamentals of Educational Planning 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell; Milana, Marcella

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to document cross-national patterns of adult learning, and in particular the unequal chances to participate in adult learning. In so doing, an effort is made to identify important motivating factors for participating in adult learning. The specific objectives of the booklet are to: (1) make available the…

  10. Preliminary Three-Year Plan for Adult Basic Education Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Harry V.; Rink, Dan L.

    U. S. Office of Education funding has been provided to Region Nine for fiscal year 1973 for an Adult Basic Education (ABE) staff development effort, aimed at improving the delivery of adult education services to meet target population needs and Federal program goals through preservice and inservice training of personnel engaged in adult education…

  11. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for Assessing Fat and Lean Body Mass in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Colette N.; Kauffman, Tricia G.; Cooney, Paula T.; Ramseur, Keshia R.; Brown, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples. PMID:21167190

  12. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height2), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. Objectives: The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). Design: We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αXβ) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Results: Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Conclusions: Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a

  13. DOSIMETRIC CONSEQUENCES OF USING CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES FOR INTENSITY-MODULATED STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY PLANNING.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Roback, Donald M; Larue, Susan M; Nolan, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Potential benefits of planning radiation therapy on a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (ceCT) should be weighed against the possibility that this practice may be associated with an inadvertent risk of overdosing nearby normal tissues. This study investigated the influence of ceCT on intensity-modulated stereotactic body radiotherapy (IM-SBRT) planning. Dogs with head and neck, pelvic, or appendicular tumors were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. All IM-SBRT plans were constructed on a pre- or ceCT. Contours for tumor and organs at risk (OAR) were manually constructed and copied onto both CT's; IM-SBRT plans were calculated on each CT in a manner that resulted in equal radiation fluence. The maximum and mean doses for OAR, and minimum, maximum, and mean doses for targets were compared. Data were collected from 40 dogs per anatomic site (head and neck, pelvis, and limbs). The average dose difference between minimum, maximum, and mean doses as calculated on pre- and ceCT plans for the gross tumor volume was less than 1% for all anatomic sites. Similarly, the differences between mean and maximum doses for OAR were less than 1%. The difference in dose distribution between plans made on CTs with and without contrast enhancement was tolerable at all treatment sites. Therefore, although caution would be recommended when planning IM-SBRT for tumors near "reservoirs" for contrast media (such as the heart and urinary bladder), findings supported the use of ceCT with this dose calculation algorithm for both target delineation and IM-SBRT treatment planning. PMID:26242716

  14. A Common Variant in the FTO Gene Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Predisposes to Childhood and Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frayling, Timothy M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Perry, John R. B.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W.; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J.; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R.; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ring, Susan M.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J.; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R.; Cardon, Lon R.; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes–susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass. PMID:17434869

  15. An outdoor adventure program for young adults with cancer: positive effects on body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Robin S; Lange, Whitney; Zebrack, Brad; Moulton, Samuel; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychological effects of an outdoor adventure program on young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). The 6-day adventure program included personal instruction and supervision on the basics of kayaking, surfing, or climbing. Compared to a wait-list control group, participants who took part in the program for the first time had improved (relative to pretest) body image, self-compassion and self-esteem, and less depression and alienation. Participants who took part for the second time, though also helped by the program in similar ways, were no better off psychologically than participants who took part for the first time. Possible explanations for the positive effects and their apparent short duration are offered. PMID:24988227

  16. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  17. Soccer vs. running training effects in young adult men: which programme is more effective in improvement of body composition? Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Z; Pantelić, S; Kostić, R; Trajković, N; Sporiš, G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were: 1) To determine the effects of a 12-week recreational soccer training programme and continuous endurance running on body composition of young adult men and 2) to determine which of these two programmes was more effective concerning body composition. Sixty-four participants completed the randomized controlled trial and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a soccer training group (SOC; n=20), a running group (RUN; n=21) or a control group performing no physical training (CON; n=23). Training programmes for SOC and RUN lasted 12-week with 3 training sessions per week. Soccer sessions consisted of 60 min ordinary five-a-side, six-a-side or seven-a-side matches on a 30-45 m wide and 45-60 m long plastic grass pitch. Running sessions consisted of 60 min of continuous moderate intensity running at the same average heart rate as in SOC (~80% HRmax). All participants, regardless of group assignment, were tested for each of the following dependent variables: body weight, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, body fat mass, fat-free mass and total body water. In the SOC and RUN groups there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body composition parameters from pre- to post-training values for all measures with the exception of fat-free mass and total body water. Body mass index, percent body fat and body fat mass did not differ between groups at baseline, but by week 12 were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the SOC and RUN groups compared to CON. To conclude, recreational soccer training provides at least the same changes in body composition parameters as continuous running in young adult men when the training intensity is well matched. PMID:26681832

  18. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  19. Some histological effects of chronic administration of chloroquine on the medial geniculate body of adult wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Adjene, J O; Caxton-Martins, A E

    2006-06-01

    Some histological effects of chronic administration of chloroquine commonly used for prophylaxis or treatment of malaria. rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus on the medial geniculate body (MGB) of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n= 18), average weight of 184g were randomly assigned into treatment (n= 10) and control (n=7) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 2mg/kg body weight of chloroquine base dissolved in distilled water daily for fourteen days through the orogastric tube administration while the control rats received equal volume of distilled water daily through the same route. The rats were fed with rat pellets purchased from Topfeed Ltd. Sapele. Delta State. Nigeria and given water liberally and were then sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The MGB were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H & E and thionin methods. The histological findings after H & E methods indicated that the treated sections of the MGB showed faintly reduced nuclei size, with the presence of many autophagic vacuoles and degenerative neurons when compared to the control sections. On the other hand. the thionin method indicated that the treated sections showed sparsely distributed neurons, which stain less intensely when compared with the control. The nissl substance in some of the neurons appeared degenerative while some hypertrophied with some vacuolations. These findings indicated that chronic administration of chloroquine has a deleterious effect on the neurons and nissl substance of the MGB. Chloroquine may probably have adverse effects on auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells and nissl substances of the MGB of the adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out. PMID:17209307

  20. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders. PMID:25909960

  1. Transgenerational Effects of Parental Larval Diet on Offspring Development Time, Adult Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Terhi M.; Kangassalo, Katariina; Pölkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either poor or standard diet and then mated in the four possible sex-by-parental diet crosses. Females that were raised on poor food produced larger offspring than females that were raised on standard food. Furthermore, male progeny sired by fathers that were raised on poor food were larger than male progeny sired by males raised on standard food. Development times were shortest for offspring whose one parent (mother or the father) was raised on standard and the other parent on poor food and longest for offspring whose parents both were raised on poor food. No evidence for transgenerational effects of parental diet on offspring disease resistance was found. Although paternal effects have been previously demonstrated in D. melanogaster, no earlier studies have investigated male-mediated transgenerational effects of diet in this species. The results highlight the importance of not only considering the relative contribution each parental sex has on progeny performance but also the combined effects that the two sexes may have on offspring performance. PMID:22359607

  2. Higher body mass index in older adults is associated with lower gray matter volume: implications for memory performance.

    PubMed

    Kharabian Masouleh, Shahrzad; Arélin, Katrin; Horstmann, Annette; Lampe, Leonie; Kipping, Judy A; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Schroeter, Matthias L; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Witte, Anja Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Midlife obesity has been associated with increased dementia risk, yet reports on brain structure and function are mixed. We therefore assessed the effects of body mass index (BMI) on gray matter volume (GMV) and cognition in a well-characterized sample of community-dwelled older adults. GMV was measured using 3T-neuroimaging in 617 participants (258 women, 60-80 years, BMI 17-41 kg/m(2)). In addition, cognitive performance and various confounders including hypertension, diabetes, and apolipoprotein E genotype were assessed. A higher BMI correlated significantly with lower GMV in multiple brain regions, including (pre)frontal, temporal, insular and occipital cortex, thalamus, putamen, amygdala, and cerebellum, even after adjusting for confounders. In addition, lower GMV in prefrontal and thalamic areas partially mediated negative effects of (1) higher BMI and (2) higher age on memory performance. We here showed that a higher BMI in older adults is associated with widespread gray matter alterations, irrespective of obesity-related comorbidities and other confounders. Our results further indicate that a higher BMI induces structural alterations that translate into subtle impairments in memory performance in aging. PMID:26973099

  3. Tob1 is expressed in developing and adult gonads and is associated with the P-body marker, Dcp2.

    PubMed

    Shapouri, Farnaz; Saeidi, Shaghayegh; de Iongh, Robb U; Casagranda, Franca; Western, Patrick S; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Sutherland, Jessie M; Hime, Gary R; Familari, Mary

    2016-05-01

    Tob1 is a member of the BTG/TOB family of proteins with established antiproliferative function. In Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis, the Tob1 gene is expressed from the one-cell stage through to early gastrula stages, followed in later development by discrete expression in many tissues including the notochord and somites. In both mouse and human, Tob1 is expressed in many adult tissues including the testis and ovary; however, the specific cell types are unknown. We examine Tob1 gene expression in mouse in developing germ cells and in sorted male germ cells (gonocytes, spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids) by reverse transcription and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR) and in adult ovary and testis by immunofluorescence with anti-Tob1 protein staining. By RT-ddPCR, Tob1 expression was low in developing male germ cells but was highly expressed in round spermatids. In developing female germ cells undergoing entry into meiosis, it increased 10-fold. Tob1 was also highly expressed in round spermatids and in oocytes in all stages of folliculogenesis. Notably, a marker for P-bodies, Dcp-2, was also highly expressed in round spermatids and all oocyte stages examined. The cytoplasmic presence of Tob1 protein in round spermatids and oocytes and the association of Tob1 protein with Dcp2 in both cell types suggest that Tob1 protein plays a role in post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:26662055

  4. The Impact of Neighborhood Park Access and Quality on Body Mass Index Among Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Stark, James H.; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina S.; Quinn, James; Weiss, Christopher C.; Bader, Michael D. M.; Konty, Kevin; Harris, Tiffany G.; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between adult individuals’ body mass index (BMI) and characteristics of parks (size and cleanliness) in an urban environment taking into account the physical and social environment of the neighborhood. Methods Cross-sectional, hierarchical linear models were used to determine whether park effects were associated with BMI using self-reported height and weight data obtained from the Community Health Survey in New York City (2002-2006). Results Both the proportion of the residential zip code that was large park space and the proportion that was small park space had significant inverse associations with BMI after controlling for individual socio-demographic and zip code built environment characteristics (-0.20 BMI units across the inter-quartile range (IQR) for large parks, 95% CI -0.32, -0.08; -0.21 BMI units across the IQR for small parks, 95% CI -0.31, -0.10, respectively). Poorer scores on the park cleanliness index were associated with higher BMI, 0.18 BMI units across the IQR of the park cleanliness index (95% CI 0.05, 0.30). Conclusions This study demonstrated that proportion of neighborhoods that was large or small park space and park cleanliness were associated with lower BMI among NYC adults after adjusting for other neighborhood features such as homicides and walkability, characteristics that could influence park usage. PMID:24704504

  5. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  6. Effectiveness of early discharge planning in acutely ill or injured hospitalized older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older age and higher acuity are associated with prolonged hospital stays and hospital readmissions. Early discharge planning may reduce lengths of hospital stay and hospital readmissions; however, its effectiveness with acutely admitted older adults is unclear. Methods In this systematic review, we compared the effectiveness of early discharge planning to usual care in reducing index length of hospital stay, hospital readmissions, readmission length of hospital stay, and mortality; and increasing satisfaction with discharge planning and quality of life for older adults admitted to hospital with an acute illness or injury. We searched the Cochrane Library, DARE, HTA, NHSEED, ACP, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, PubMed, Web of Science, SciSearch, PEDro, Sigma Theta Tau International’s registry of nursing research, Joanna Briggs Institute, CRISP, OT Seeker, and several internet search engines. Hand-searching was conducted in four gerontological journals and references of all included studies and previous systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Where meta-analysis was not possible, narrative analysis was performed. Results Nine trials with a total of 1736 participants were included. Compared to usual care, early discharge planning was associated with fewer hospital readmissions within one to twelve months of index hospital discharge [risk ratio (RR) = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 − 0.90]; and lower readmission lengths of hospital stay within three to twelve months of index hospital discharge [weighted mean difference (WMD) = −2.47, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = −4.13 − −0.81)]. No differences were found in index length of hospital stay, mortality or satisfaction with discharge planning. Narrative analysis of four studies indicated that early discharge planning was associated with greater overall quality of life and the

  7. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  8. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  9. Assessment of adult body composition using bioelectrical impedance: comparison of researcher calculated to machine outputted values

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Villoria, Maria; Wright, Charlotte M; McColl, John H; Sherriff, Andrea; Pearce, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the usefulness of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) for general use by identifying best-evidenced formulae to calculate lean and fat mass, comparing these to historical gold standard data and comparing these results with machine-generated output. In addition, we explored how to best to adjust lean and fat estimates for height and how these overlapped with body mass index (BMI). Design Cross-sectional observational study within population representative cohort study. Setting Urban community, North East England Participants Sample of 506 mothers of children aged 7–8 years, mean age 36.3 years. Methods Participants were measured at a home visit using a portable height measure and leg-to-leg BIA machine (Tanita TBF-300MA). Measures Height, weight, bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Outcome measures Lean and fat mass calculated using best-evidenced published formulae as well as machine-calculated lean and fat mass data. Results Estimates of lean mass were similar to historical results using gold standard methods. When compared with the machine-generated values, there were wide limits of agreement for fat mass and a large relative bias for lean that varied with size. Lean and fat residuals adjusted for height differed little from indices of lean (or fat)/height2. Of 112 women with BMI >30 kg/m2, 100 (91%) also had high fat, but of the 16 with low BMI (<19 kg/m2) only 5 (31%) also had low fat. Conclusions Lean and fat mass calculated from BIA using published formulae produces plausible values and demonstrate good concordance between high BMI and high fat, but these differ substantially from the machine-generated values. Bioelectrical impedance can supply a robust and useful field measure of body composition, so long as the machine-generated output is not used. PMID:26743700

  10. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  11. Secular Trends in Body Composition for Children and Young Adults: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shumei S.; Deng, Xiaoyan; Sabo, Roy; Carrico, Robert; Schubert, Christine M.; Wan, Wen; Sabo, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine secular trends by birth decade in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference/height (W/Ht), percent body fat (PBF), and fat free mass adjusted for height squared (FFM/Ht2) in children and adolescents aged 8–18 years. Methods Serial data were analyzed from 628 boys and 591girls aged 8 to 18 years who participated in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Subjects were stratified by birth decade from 1960 through 1999. Means and standard deviations were computed for all measurements by birth decade, age and sex. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used data to ascertain secular trends separately for boys and girls. Results Boys and girls born in the 1990s had significantly higher mean BMI, W/Ht and PBF than did children born in previous decades. Mean FFM/Ht2 was significantly smaller in boys born in the 1990s than boys of the same age born in earlier decades. No secular trend was noted in FFM/ Ht2 in girls by decade of birth. Conclusion Our analysis of serial data collected over four decades confirms the secular trend in childhood BMI previously observed in successive cross-sectional studies. Our analysis discloses significant positive secular trends in W/Ht and PBF in both boys and girls and a significant negative secular trend in FFM/Ht2 in boys over the last four decades of the 20th century. The secular changes presage increases in the prevalence of conditions associated with childhood and adolescent obesity – such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia – that may appear as early as the second decade of life. PMID:22410970

  12. Evaluation of Blended Wing-Body Combinations with Curved Plan Forms at Mach Numbers Up to 3.50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, George H.; Mellenthin, Jack A.

    1960-01-01

    This investigation is a continuation of the experimental and theoretical evaluation of the effects of wing plan-form variations on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of blended wing-body combinations. The present report compares previously tested straight-edged delta and arrow models which have leading-edge sweeps of 59.04 and 70-82 deg., respectively, with related models which have plan forms with curved leading and trailing edges designed to result in the same average sweeps in each case. All the models were symmetrical, without camber, and were generally similar having the same span, length, and aspect ratios. The wing sections had an average value of maximum thickness ratio of about 4 percent of the local wing chords in a streamwise direction. The wing sections were computed by varying their shapes along with the body radii (blending process) to match the selected area distribution and the given plan form. The models were tested with transition fixed at Reynolds numbers of roughly 4,000,000 to 9,000,000, based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing. The characteristic effect of the wing curvature of the delta and arrow models was an increase at subsonic and transonic speeds in the lift-curve slopes which was partially reflected in increased maximum lift-drag ratios. Curved edges were not evaluated on a diamond plan form because a preliminary investigation indicated that the curvature considered would increase the supersonic zero-lift wave drag. However, after the test program was completed, a suitable modification for the diamond plan form was discovered. The analysis presented in the appendix indicates that large reductions in the zero-lift wave drag would be obtained at supersonic Mach numbers if the leading- and trailing-edge sweeps are made to differ by indenting the trailing edge and extending the root of the leading edge.

  13. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Bertz, Fredrik C.; Levitsky, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation) tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency. PMID:27127719

  14. Adult NG2-Glia Are Required for Median Eminence-Mediated Leptin Sensing and Body Weight Control.

    PubMed

    Djogo, Tina; Robins, Sarah C; Schneider, Sarah; Kryzskaya, Darya; Liu, Xiaohong; Mingay, Andrew; Gillon, Colleen J; Kim, Joo Hyun; Storch, Kai-Florian; Boehm, Ulrich; Bourque, Charles W; Stroh, Thomas; Dimou, Leda; Kokoeva, Maia V

    2016-05-10

    While leptin is a well-known regulator of body fat mass, it remains unclear how circulating leptin is sensed centrally to maintain energy homeostasis. Here we show that genetic and pharmacological ablation of adult NG2-glia (also known as oligodendrocyte precursors), but not microglia, leads to primary leptin resistance and obesity in mice. We reveal that NG2-glia contact the dendritic processes of arcuate nucleus leptin receptor (LepR) neurons in the median eminence (ME) and that these processes degenerate upon NG2-glia elimination, which explains the consequential attenuation of these neurons' molecular and electrical responses to leptin. Our data therefore indicate that LepR dendrites in the ME represent the principal conduits of leptin's anorexigenic action and that NG2-glia are essential for their maintenance. Given that ME-directed X-irradiation confirmed the pharmacological and genetically mediated ablation effects on body weight, our findings provide a rationale for the known obesity risk associated with cranial radiation therapy. PMID:27166944

  15. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  16. Association of the Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) Gene with Body Height in Adult Males from Two Swedish Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, Andreas; Lundmark, Per; Axelsson, Tomas; Lind, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2008-01-01

    Human body height is a complex genetic trait with high heritability. We performed an association study of 17 candidate genes for height in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) that consists of 1153 elderly men of age 70 born in the central region of Sweden. First we genotyped a panel of 137 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) evenly distributed across the candidate genes in the ULSAM cohort. We identified 4 SNPs in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) on chromosome 6q25.1 with suggestive signals of association (p<0.05) with standing body height. This result was followed up by genotyping the same 25 SNPs in the ESR1 gene as in ULSAM in a second population cohort, the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort that consist of 507 males and 509 females of age 70 from the same geographical region as ULSAM. One SNP, rs2179922 located in intron 4 of ESR1 showed and association signal (p = 0.0056) in the male samples from the PIVUS cohort. Homozygote carriers of the G-allele of the SNP rs2179922 were on average 0.90 cm taller than individuals with the two other genotypes at this SNP in the ULSAM cohort and 2.3 cm taller in the PIVUS cohort. No association was observed for the females in the PIVUS cohort. PMID:18350145

  17. Organizational influence of the postnatal testosterone surge on the circadian rhythm of core body temperature of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Damian G; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms such as activity, body temperature, and hormone secretion. Circadian rhythms coordinated by the SCN often show sex differences arising from both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. In males, little is known about the organizational role of testosterone on the circadian regulation of core body temperature (CBT) in adulthood. To explore this, we castrated or sham-operated male rats on the day of birth, and at 4 months of age, implanted them with transmitters that measured CBT rhythms under a 12:12 light/dark cycle. This study revealed a significantly earlier rise in CBT during the light phase in neonatally castrated males. Subsequently, we found that treating neonatally castrated males with testosterone propionate (TP) in adulthood did not reverse the effect of neonatal castration, thus indicating an organizational role for testosterone. In contrast, a single injection of TP at the time of neonatal surgery, to mimic the postnatal surge of testosterone, coupled with TP treatment in adulthood, normalized the circadian rise in CBT. In a final study we examined CBT circadian rhythms in intact adult male and female rats and detected no differences in the rise of CBT during the light phase, although there was a greater overall elevation in female CBT. Together, results of these studies reveal an early organizational role of testosterone in males on the timing of the circadian rise of CBT, a difference that does not appear to reflect "defeminization". PMID:19272357

  18. Body mass trajectory, energy balance, and weight loss as determinants of health and mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bales, Connie W; Buhr, Gwendolen T

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between body mass (usually measured as BMI in kg/m(2)) and healthy longevity is a major focus of study in the nutrition and aging field. Over-nutrition now rivals frailty as the major nutritional concern; the number of older adults who are obese has increased dramatically in the past 3 decades. While obesity exacerbates a host of life-threatening, age-related chronic diseases, a somewhat paradoxical finding is that being somewhat overweight in old age appears to be a benefit with regard to longevity. In our recently completed systematic review of randomized controlled weight reduction trials, we found that weight loss interventions in overweight/obese older subjects led to significant benefits for those with osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, while having slightly negative effects on bone mineral density and lean body mass. In contrast to this finding, the preponderance of epidemiological evidence indicates that higher BMIs are associated with increased survival after age 65 years. Because of this contradictory state of the science, there is a critical need for further study of the relationship of weight and weight loss/gain to health in the later years of life. PMID:20054222

  19. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel H; Oehmigen, Mark; Grüneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H

    2016-05-01

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  -11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  -1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  -10.0% and  -2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning. PMID

  20. Whole-body hybrid imaging concept for the integration of PET/MR into radiation therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Oehmigen, Mark; Grueneisen, Johannes; Umutlu, Lale; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-05-01

    Modern radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning is based on multimodality imaging. With the recent availability of whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging new opportunities arise to improve target volume delineation in RT treatment planning. This, however, requires dedicated RT equipment for reproducible patient positioning on the PET/MR system, which has to be compatible with MR and PET imaging. A prototype flat RT table overlay, radiofrequency (RF) coil holders for head imaging, and RF body bridges for body imaging were developed and tested towards PET/MR system integration. Attenuation correction (AC) of all individual RT components was performed by generating 3D CT-based template models. A custom-built program for μ-map generation assembles all AC templates depending on the presence and position of each RT component. All RT devices were evaluated in phantom experiments with regards to MR and PET imaging compatibility, attenuation correction, PET quantification, and position accuracy. The entire RT setup was then evaluated in a first PET/MR patient study on five patients at different body regions. All tested devices are PET/MR compatible and do not produce visible artifacts or disturb image quality. The RT components showed a repositioning accuracy of better than 2 mm. Photon attenuation of  ‑11.8% in the top part of the phantom was observable, which was reduced to  ‑1.7% with AC using the μ-map generator. Active lesions of 3 subjects were evaluated in terms of SUVmean and an underestimation of  ‑10.0% and  ‑2.4% was calculated without and with AC of the RF body bridges, respectively. The new dedicated RT equipment for hybrid PET/MR imaging enables acquisitions in all body regions. It is compatible with PET/MR imaging and all hardware components can be corrected in hardware AC by using the suggested μ-map generator. These developments provide the technical and methodological basis for integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT planning.

  1. Body image, psychosocial functioning, and personality: how different are adolescents and young adults applying for plastic surgery?

    PubMed

    Simis, K J; Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    2001-07-01

    This study addressed three questions: (1) Do adolescents undergoing plastic surgery have a realistic view of their body? (2) How urgent is the psychosocial need of adolescents to undergo plastic surgery? (3) Which relations exist between bodily attitudes and psychosocial functioning and personality? From 1995 to 1997, 184 plastic surgical patients aged 12 to 22, and a comparison group of 684 adolescents and young adults from the general population aged 12 to 22 years, and their parents, were interviewed and completed questionnaires and standardised rating scales. Adolescents accepted for plastic surgery had realistic appearance attitudes and were psychologically healthy overall. Patients were equally satisfied with their overall appearance as the comparison group, but more dissatisfied with the specific body parts concerned for operation, especially when undergoing corrective operations. Patients had measurable appearance-related psychosocial problems. Patient boys reported less self-confidence on social areas than all other groups. There were very few patient-comparison group differences in correlations between bodily and psychosocial variables, indicating that bodily attitudes and satisfaction are not differentially related to psychosocial functioning and self-perception in patients than in peers. We concluded that adolescents accepted for plastic surgery have considerable appearance-related psychosocial problems, patients in the corrective group reporting more so than in the reconstructive group. Plastic surgeons may assume that these adolescents in general have a realistic attitude towards their appearance. are psychologically healthy, and are mainly dissatisfied about the body parts concerned for operation. corrective patients more so than reconstructive patients. Introverted patients may need more attention from plastic surgeons during the psychosocial assessment. PMID:11464971

  2. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  3. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Luna, Natália Mariana S; Mochizuki, Luis; Barbieri, Fábio; Santos, Sileno; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years). METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements): fat percentage (% fat), tissue (g), fat (g), lean mass (g), bone mineral content (g), and bone mineral density (g/cm2). In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg), height (cm), length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm), length of the lower limbs (cm) and length of the upper limbs (cm). The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m2), waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm2). Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male) height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females. PMID:23295598

  4. Effect of placental restriction and neonatal exendin-4 treatment on postnatal growth, adult body composition, and in vivo glucose metabolism in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Schultz, Christopher G; De Blasio, Miles J; Peura, Anita M; Heinemann, Gary K; Harryanto, Himawan; Hunter, Damien S; Wooldridge, Amy L; Kind, Karen L; Giles, Lynne C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Owens, Julie A; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2015-09-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Neonatal exendin-4 treatment can prevent diabetes in the IUGR rat, but whether this will be effective in a species where the pancreas is more mature at birth is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration after experimental restriction of placental and fetal growth on growth and adult metabolic outcomes in sheep. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in singleton-born adult sheep from control (CON; n = 6 females and 4 males) and placentally restricted pregnancies (PR; n = 13 females and 7 males) and in sheep from PR pregnancies that were treated with exendin-4 as neonates (daily sc injections of 1 nmol/kg exendin-4; PR + exendin-4; n = 11 females and 7 males). Placental restriction reduced birth weight (by 29%) and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult but did not affect adult adiposity, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Neonatal exendin-4 suppressed growth during treatment, followed by delayed catchup growth and unchanged adult adiposity. Neonatal exendin-4 partially restored glucose tolerance in PR progeny but did not affect insulin secretion or sensitivity. Although the effects on glucose tolerance are promising, the lack of effects on adult body composition, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity suggest that the neonatal period may be too late to fully reprogram the metabolic consequences of IUGR in species that are more mature at birth than rodents. PMID:26219868

  5. Wide Eyes and Drooping Arms: Adult-Like Congruency Effects Emerge Early in the Development of Sensitivity to Emotional Faces and Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Horner, Matthew; Mian, Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    Adults' and 8-year-old children's perception of emotional faces is disrupted when faces are presented in the context of incongruent body postures (e.g., when a sad face is displayed on a fearful body) if the two emotions are highly similar (e.g., sad/fear) but not if they are highly dissimilar (e.g., sad/happy). The current research investigated…

  6. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Lucy G; Simons, Jon S; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18-35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what-where-when style episodic memory test: the "Treasure-Hunt Task". This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what-where-when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  7. The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Botten, Joanne; Macbeth, Fergus; Bagust, Adrian; Clark, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA). No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2005. A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast or colorectal cancers were included. The overall mean BSA was 1.79 m2 (95% CI 1.78–1.80) with a mean BSA for men of 1.91 m2 (1.90–1.92) and 1.71 m2 (1.70–1.72) for women. Results were consistent across the three centres. No significant differences were noted between treatment in the adjuvant or palliative setting in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. However, statistically significant, albeit small, differences were detected between some tumour groups. In view of the consistency of results between three geographically distinct UK cancer centres, we believe the results of this study may be generalised and used in future costings and budgeting for new chemotherapy agents in the UK. PMID:20126669

  8. Higher body mass index is associated with episodic memory deficits in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Simons, Jon S.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become an international health crisis. There is accumulating evidence that excess bodyweight is associated with changes to the structure and function of the brain and with a number of cognitive deficits. In particular, research suggests that obesity is associated with hippocampal and frontal lobe dysfunction, which would be predicted to impact memory. However, evidence for such memory impairment is currently limited. We hypothesised that higher body mass index (BMI) would be associated with reduced performance on a test of episodic memory that assesses not only content, but also context and feature integration. A total of 50 participants aged 18–35 years, with BMIs ranging from 18 to 51, were tested on a novel what–where–when style episodic memory test: the “Treasure-Hunt Task”. This test requires recollection of object, location, and temporal order information within the same paradigm, as well as testing the ability to integrate these features into a single event recollection. Higher BMI was associated with significantly lower performance on the what–where–when (WWW) memory task and all individual elements: object identification, location memory, and temporal order memory. After controlling for age, sex, and years in education, the effect of BMI on the individual what, where, and when tasks remained, while the WWW dropped below significance. This finding of episodic memory deficits in obesity is of concern given the emerging evidence for a role for episodic cognition in appetite regulation. PMID:26447832

  9. Coupling of head and body movements to acoustic flow in sighted adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Kim, Chunggon; Ito, Kiyohide; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2005-09-01

    Blindfolded sighted persons were found to detect acoustic flow patterns and use this information to control action. A moving room (a large box on wheels, with no floor, that moved in the subject's fore-aft axis) was used. Blindfolded sighted persons (1) stood comfortably or (2) moved their head backward and forward to track audible room motion. Pink noise was presented through four speakers attached to the room, or mounted on stationary stands. Room motion was a sinusoid at 0.2 Hz, 22 cm, along subject's fore-aft axis. When standing comfortably, participants exhibited weak but consistent coupling of body sway with room motion. Tracking of room motion with head movements was robust, matching both the frequency and amplitude of room motion. This was true even when the only information about room motion came from reflected sound (i.e., when the speakers were stationary). The results suggest a strong ability of sighted persons to use acoustic flow in the perception and control of their own action. [Work supported by NSF (BCS-0236627).

  10. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult.

  11. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  12. Association between body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Ren, Xiaoxia; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease; however, the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all-cause mortality is controversial. We prospectively examined the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in 123,384 Chinese men and women who participated in the Kailuan health examination study from 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2009. Cases included 6218 deaths (5770 men and 448 women) that occurred during a mean follow-up period of 7.39 years. Relative risk was adjusted for factors such as age, serum lipid levels (ie, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), history of smoking and drinking, and physical activity, as well as a medical history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Within the cohort, the lowest risk of all-cause mortality was seen among persons with a BMI of 24 to 28 kg/m in male, and the risk was elevated among persons with BMI levels lower or higher than that range. Moreover, all-cause mortality was greatest in the group with a BMI of <18.5 kg/m. In contrast, in female, a high BMI was associated with increased mortality, and a BMI of <18.5 kg/m was associated with the lowest risk. Further, a U-shaped association was seen between BMI and the risk of death from any cause among men and women, even after adjusting for confounding factors. In conclusion, underweight was associated with a substantially increased risk of all-cause mortality in males. The excess risk of all-cause mortality with a high BMI, however, was seen among females. PMID:27512844

  13. Association between body mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ren, Xiaoxia; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease; however, the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all-cause mortality is controversial. We prospectively examined the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in 123,384 Chinese men and women who participated in the Kailuan health examination study from 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2009. Cases included 6218 deaths (5770 men and 448 women) that occurred during a mean follow-up period of 7.39 years. Relative risk was adjusted for factors such as age, serum lipid levels (ie, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), history of smoking and drinking, and physical activity, as well as a medical history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Within the cohort, the lowest risk of all-cause mortality was seen among persons with a BMI of 24 to 28 kg/m2 in male, and the risk was elevated among persons with BMI levels lower or higher than that range. Moreover, all-cause mortality was greatest in the group with a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2. In contrast, in female, a high BMI was associated with increased mortality, and a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 was associated with the lowest risk. Further, a U-shaped association was seen between BMI and the risk of death from any cause among men and women, even after adjusting for confounding factors. In conclusion, underweight was associated with a substantially increased risk of all-cause mortality in males. The excess risk of all-cause mortality with a high BMI, however, was seen among females. PMID:27512844

  14. Timing and Intensity of Light Correlate with Body Weight in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Kelly G.; Wilson, John; Kang, Joseph; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    Light exposure can influence sleep and circadian timing, both of which have been shown to influence weight regulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ambient light, sleep and body mass index. Participants included 54 individuals (26 males, mean age 30.6, SD = 11.7 years). Light levels, sleep midpoint and duration were measured with wrist actigraphy (Actiwatch-L) for 7 days. BMI was derived from self-reported height and weight. Caloric intake was determined from 7 days of food logs. For each participant, light and activity data were output in 2 minute epochs, smoothed using a 5 point (10 minute) moving average and then aggregated over 24 hours. The mean light timing above 500 lux (MLiT500) was defined as the average clock time of all aggregated data points above 500 lux. MLiT500 was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.51, p<0.001), and midpoint of sleep (r = 0.47, p<0.01). In a multivariable linear regression model including MLiT500 and midpoint of sleep, MLiT500 was a significant predictor of BMI (B = 1.26 SE = 0.34, β = 0.53 p = 0.001, r2Δ = 0.22). Adjusting for covariates, MLiT500 remained an independent predictor of BMI (B = 1.28 SE = 0.36, β = 0.54, p = 0.002, r2Δ = 0.20). The full model accounted for 34.7% of the variance in BMI (p = 0.01). Exposure to moderate levels of light at biologically appropriate times can influence weight, independent of sleep timing and duration. PMID:24694994

  15. Adult body mass and annual production/biomass relationships of field populations

    SciTech Connect

    Banse, K.; Mosher, S.

    1980-09-01

    We investigate specific production rates (per unit biomass) of populations using published data on the relation of annual production/mean biomass (P/B). Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates between the sizes of copepods and clams are emphasized, ranging about 10/sup 5/-fold in body mass upon reaching maturity, and about 10/sup 2/-fold in P/B. Fishes and mammals are briefly treated; phytoplankton is mentioned. For 33 invertebrates living at annual mean temperatures between about 5/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/C, M/sub s/ is shown to be an efficient and precise estimator, or scaling factor, of the annual P/B. The rate declines markedly with M/sub s/ according to P/B = 0.65M/sub s//sup -0/ /sup 37/. The exponent differs significantly from the -0.25 power of comparative physiology. Most of the measured values of P/B fall within 50 to 200% of predicted values. Much of this variability is associated with the ratio of annual production/annual respiration (P/R): for a given M/sub s/, species achieving about half the predicted P/B have P/R ratios of about 0.1; those achieving twice the predicted P/B have P/R ratios of about 1.0. Age upon reaching maturity contributes some variability, with late-maturing (> 1 yr) species tending towards a higher P/B. The variability is not significantly correlated with phylogenetic relationships (excepting insects for which P/B might not be mass-dependent), trophic type, major habitat, production rate, or biomass of the populations.

  16. Timing and intensity of light correlate with body weight in adults.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; Santostasi, Giovanni; Baron, Kelly G; Wilson, John; Kang, Joseph; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Light exposure can influence sleep and circadian timing, both of which have been shown to influence weight regulation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ambient light, sleep and body mass index. Participants included 54 individuals (26 males, mean age 30.6, SD = 11.7 years). Light levels, sleep midpoint and duration were measured with wrist actigraphy (Actiwatch-L) for 7 days. BMI was derived from self-reported height and weight. Caloric intake was determined from 7 days of food logs. For each participant, light and activity data were output in 2 minute epochs, smoothed using a 5 point (10 minute) moving average and then aggregated over 24 hours. The mean light timing above 500 lux (MLiT500) was defined as the average clock time of all aggregated data points above 500 lux. MLiT500 was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.51, p<0.001), and midpoint of sleep (r = 0.47, p<0.01). In a multivariable linear regression model including MLiT500 and midpoint of sleep, MLiT500 was a significant predictor of BMI (B = 1.26 SE = 0.34, β = 0.53 p = 0.001, r2Δ = 0.22). Adjusting for covariates, MLiT500 remained an independent predictor of BMI (B = 1.28 SE = 0.36, β = 0.54, p = 0.002, r2Δ = 0.20). The full model accounted for 34.7% of the variance in BMI (p = 0.01). Exposure to moderate levels of light at biologically appropriate times can influence weight, independent of sleep timing and duration. PMID:24694994

  17. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Alters Core Body Temperature and Corticosterone Rhythms in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Robert J.; Zuloaga, Damian G.; McGivern, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol’s effects on the developing brain include alterations in morphological and biochemistry of the hypothalamus. In order to examine the potential functional consequences of ethanol’s interference with hypothalamic differentiation, we studied the long-term effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on basal circadian rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and heart rate (HR). We also examined the late afternoon surge in corticosterone (CORT). CBT and HR rhythms were studied in separate groups of animals at 4 months, 8 months and 20 months of age. The normal late-afternoon rise in plasma corticosterone was examined in freely-moving male rats at 6 months of age via an indwelling right-atrial cannula. Results showed that the CBT circadian rhythm exhibited an earlier rise following the nadir of the rhythm in fetal alcohol exposed (FAE) males at all ages compared to controls. At 8 months of age, the amplitude of the CBT circadian rhythm in FAE males was significantly reduced to the level observed in controls at 20 months. No significant effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed on basal HR rhythm at any age. The diurnal rise in corticosterone secretion was blunted and prolonged in 6-month-old FAE males compared to controls. Both control groups exhibited a robust surge in corticosterone secretion around the onset of the dark phase of the light cycle, which peaked at 1930 hours. Instead, FAE males exhibited a linear rise beginning in mid afternoon, which peaked at 2130 hours. These results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of hypothalamic development can alter the long-term regulation of circadian rhythms in specific physiological systems. PMID:18047910

  18. Prepregnancy and Early Adulthood Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Change in Relation to Fetal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Colaci, Daniela S.; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Toth, Thomas L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18, and weight change since age 18 with risk of fetal loss. Methods Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Results Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared to those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of fetal loss was 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) for class II & III obese women (P, trend=<0.001). BMI at age 18 was not associated with fetal loss (P, trend=0.59). Compared to women who maintained a stable weight (+/− 4 kg) between age 18 and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9, 29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18. Conclusion Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss. PMID:25198273

  19. India's Action Plan for Wildlife Conservation and Role of Voluntary Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Samar

    1985-01-01

    Describes India's National Action Plan for wildlife conservation, itemizing and explaining the main components and strategies of this action program. Also presents a historical perspective of conservation practices, policies, and programs. A table of India's national parks and sanctuaries with data from 1970 to 1983 is included. (ML)

  20. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  1. The Personal Study Program as a Tool for Career Planning and Personalization of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnismaa, Jussi

    2003-01-01

    The personal study program (PSP) can be defined as a tool for the successful accomplishment of vocational adult training. The program defines the objectives of education and training and the best means of achieving these. Through counseling interaction, the adult learner may redefine his goals and relation to a future profession and so revise his…

  2. Michigan Adult Literacy Initiative. A Five Year Plan To Reduce Illiteracy in Michigan by 50%.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    In response to the problem of adult literacy, the Michigan State Board of Education initiated a program to reduce the functional illiteracy rate among adults in the state significantly. This is to be accomplished by: (1) raising the level of awareness of the scope of illiteracy problems in the state; (2) developing comprehensive literacy programs…

  3. Arkansas Action Plan for Literacy Enhancement. Report of the Governor's Commission on Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Office of the Governor, Little Rock.

    This document contains a mission statement, goals, and strategies and recommendations prepared by the Arkansas Governor's Commission on Adult Literacy. Goals include increasing from approximately 29,000 to 100,000 the number of adult learners engaged in pursuing at least one higher functional level of literacy by 1992-93 and quadrupling the…

  4. Effects of an Enhanced Discharge Planning Intervention for Hospitalized Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altfeld, Susan J.; Shier, Gayle E.; Rooney, Madeleine; Johnson, Tricia J.; Golden, Robyn L.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Nandi, Vijay; Perry, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify needs encountered by older adult patients after hospital discharge and assess the impact of a telephone transitional care intervention on stress, health care utilization, readmissions, and mortality. Design and Methods: Older adult inpatients who met criteria for risk of post-discharge complications were…

  5. Innovation in Doctoral Degrees Designed for Adult Learners: A Hybrid Model in Personal Financial Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…

  6. Future Planning Resource Guide for Families and Adults with Developmental Disabilities in Illinois. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joe; Lopez, Erick; DeBrine, Elizabeth; Factor, Alan; Heller, Tamar; Ennis, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This updated guide helps families navigate the maze of adult services and supports for individuals with developmental disabilities. It responds to families' need for a centralized source of information that describes adult services and how to access them. Content includes an overview of the service system and information on legal and financial…

  7. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  8. The Role of Confucian Cultural Values and Politics in Planning Educational Programs for Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Kiung; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Program planning activities are not culturally neutral but are replete with various cultural values and affected by them. This qualitative study was conducted in Korea and examines how cultural values influence educational planning in Korea. Specifically, the study was to examine how Confucian cultural values play out in educational planning in…

  9. Preliminary Study of Altered Skin Temperature at Body Sites Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior in Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Frank J.; Sutton, Kelly A.; Bodfish, James W.

    2001-01-01

    The sensory status of four nonverbal adults with mental retardation and severe self-injury was examined using skin temperature measures prior to opiate antagonist treatment. For each participant, the body site targeted most frequently for self-injury was associated with altered skin temperature and reduced by naltrexone treatment. In all cases,…

  10. Whole grain and fiber consumption are associated with lower body weight measures in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the association of whole grain consumption with body weight measures and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a recent, nationally representative sample of adults. A secondary analysis of 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data was conducted using ...

  11. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE PFOA INDUCES LOW DEVELOPMENTAL BODY WEIGHT FOLLOWED BY ADULT ONSET OBESITY THAT IS BLUNTED IN OVARIECTOMIZED ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Barker hypothesis, or fetal origins of adult disease, proposes that individuals born to mothers who were pregnant during lean times develop a "thrifty" phenotype with a smaller body size and lowered metabolic rates, leading to a propensity for obesity and development of disor...

  12. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Percent Body Fat Determined by Leg-to-Leg and Segmental Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Nagle, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Elise; Rawson, Eric S.; Dixon, Curt B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the impact that cycle ergometry exercise had on percent body fat (%BF) estimates when assessed using either leg-to-leg or segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) and whether the intensity of the exercise bout impacts the %BF magnitude of change. Method: Seventy-four college-aged adults participated in this…

  13. Relationship between body mass index and perceived insufficient sleep among U.S. adults: an analysis of 2008 BRFSS data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past 50 years, the average sleep duration for adults in the United States has decreased while the prevalence of obesity and associated outcomes has increased. The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived insufficient sleep was associated with body mass index (BMI) in a national sample. Methods We analyzed data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey (N = 384,541) in which respondents were asked, "During the past 30 days, for about how many days have you felt you did not get enough rest or sleep?" We divided respondents into six BMI categories and used multivariable linear regression and logistic regression analyses to assess the association between BMI categories and days of insufficient sleep after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, smoking, physical activity, and frequent mental distress. Results Adjusted mean days of insufficient sleep ranged from 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8, 8.0) days for people of normal weight to 10.5 (95% CI: 10.2, 10.9) days for those in the highest weight category (BMI ≥ 40). Days of perceived insufficient sleep followed a linear trend across BMI categories. The likelihood of reporting ≥14 days of insufficient sleep in the previous 30 days was higher for respondents in the highest weight category than for those who were normal weight (34.9% vs. 25.2%; adjusted odds ratio = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5, 1.8]). Conclusion Among U.S. adults, days of insufficient rest or sleep strongly correlated with BMI. Sleep sufficiency should be an important consideration in the assessment of the health of overweight and obese people and should be considered by developers of weight-reduction programs. PMID:21569264

  14. Human and Robotic Mission to Small Bodies: Mapping, Planning and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neffian, Ara V.; Bellerose, Julie; Beyer, Ross A.; Archinal, Brent; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the requirements, performs a gap analysis and makes a set of recommendations for mapping products and exploration tools required to support operations and scientific discovery for near- term and future NASA missions to small bodies. The mapping products and their requirements are based on the analysis of current mission scenarios (rendezvous, docking, and sample return) and recommendations made by the NEA Users Team (NUT) in the framework of human exploration. The mapping products that sat- isfy operational, scienti c, and public outreach goals include topography, images, albedo, gravity, mass, density, subsurface radar, mineralogical and thermal maps. The gap analysis points to a need for incremental generation of mapping products from low (flyby) to high-resolution data needed for anchoring and docking, real-time spatial data processing for hazard avoidance and astronaut or robot localization in low gravity, high dynamic environments, and motivates a standard for coordinate reference systems capable of describing irregular body shapes. Another aspect investigated in this study is the set of requirements and the gap analysis for exploration tools that support visualization and simulation of operational conditions including soil interactions, environment dynamics, and communications coverage. Building robust, usable data sets and visualisation/simulation tools is the best way for mission designers and simulators to make correct decisions for future missions. In the near term, it is the most useful way to begin building capabilities for small body exploration without needing to commit to specific mission architectures.

  15. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghwan; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin Ho; Choi, Ho Chun; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won; Kwon, Hyuktae; Heo, Nam Ju

    2015-01-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61), P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile) and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75), P for trend < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2), male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80), P for trend = 0.009). Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49), P for trend = 0.002). After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25), P for trend = 0.013). Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post-menopausal women

  16. Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Norell, Mark A

    2014-10-20

    The evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs was one of the great evolutionary transitions in the history of life. The macroevolutionary tempo and mode of this transition is poorly studied, which is surprising because it may offer key insight into major questions in evolutionary biology, particularly whether the origins of evolutionary novelties or new ecological opportunities are associated with unusually elevated "bursts" of evolution. We present a comprehensive phylogeny placing birds within the context of theropod evolution and quantify rates of morphological evolution and changes in overall morphological disparity across the dinosaur-bird transition. Birds evolved significantly faster than other theropods, but they are indistinguishable from their closest relatives in morphospace. Our results demonstrate that the rise of birds was a complex process: birds are a continuum of millions of years of theropod evolution, and there was no great jump between nonbirds and birds in morphospace, but once the avian body plan was gradually assembled, birds experienced an early burst of rapid anatomical evolution. This suggests that high rates of morphological evolution after the development of a novel body plan may be a common feature of macroevolution, as first hypothesized by G.G. Simpson more than 60 years ago. PMID:25264248

  17. Decoupling of body-plan diversification and ecological structuring during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition: evolutionary and geobiological feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Mángano, M Gabriela; Buatois, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    The rapid appearance of bilaterian clades at the beginning of the Phanerozoic is one of the most intriguing topics in macroevolution. However, the complex feedbacks between diversification and ecological interactions are still poorly understood. Here, we show that a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the trace-fossil record of the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition indicates that body-plan diversification and ecological structuring were decoupled. The appearance of a wide repertoire of behavioural strategies and body plans occurred by the Fortunian. However, a major shift in benthic ecological structure, recording the establishment of a suspension-feeder infauna, increased complexity of the trophic web, and coupling of benthos and plankton took place during Cambrian Stage 2. Both phases were accompanied by different styles of ecosystem engineering, but only the second one resulted in the establishment of the Phanerozoic-style ecology. In turn, the suspension-feeding infauna may have been the ecological drivers of a further diversification of deposit-feeding strategies by Cambrian Stage 3, favouring an ecological spillover scenario. Trace-fossil information strongly supports the Cambrian explosion, but allows for a short time of phylogenetic fuse during the terminal Ediacaran-Fortunian. PMID:24523279

  18. Dynamic relations between fast-food restaurant and body weight status: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis of Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwei; Short, Susan E; Liu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background Mixed findings have been reported on the association between Western fast-food restaurants and body weight status. Results vary across study contexts and are sensitive to the samples, measures and methods used. Most studies have failed to examine the temporally dynamic associations between community exposure to fast-food restaurants and weight changes. Methods Bayesian hierarchical regressions are used to model changes in body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) as a function of changes in Western fast-food restaurants in 216 communities for more than 9000 Chinese adults followed up multiple times between 2000 and 2009. Results Number of Western fast-food restaurants is positively associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR among rural population. More fast-food restaurants are positively associated with a future increase in WHpR for urban women. Increased availability of fast food between two waves is related to increased WHtR for urban men over the same period. A past increase in number of fast-food restaurants is associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR for rural population. Conclusions The associations between community exposure to Western fast food and weight changes are temporally dynamic rather than static. Improved measures of exposure to community environment are needed to achieve more precise estimates and better understanding of these relationships. In light of the findings in this study and China’s rapid economic growth, further investigation and increased public health monitoring is warranted since Western fast food is likely to be more accessible and affordable in the near future. PMID:22923769

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 32: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Peripheral Lung Lesion: Treatment Planning and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shuying; Oliver, Michael; Wang, Xiaofang

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), due to its high precision for target localizing, has become widely used to treat tumours at various locations, including the lungs. Lung SBRT program was started at our institution a year ago. Eighteen patients with peripheral lesions up to 3 cm diameter have been treated with 48 Gy in 4 fractions. Based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation, internal target volume (ITV) was delineated to encompass the respiratory motion of the lesion. A margin of 5 mm was then added to create the planning target volume (PTV) for setup uncertainties. There was no expansion from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV). Pinnacle 9.6 was used as the primary treatment planning system. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique, with one or two coplanar arcs, generally worked well. For quality assurance (QA), each plan was exported to Eclipse 10 and dose calculation was repeated. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) of the targets and organs at risk (OARs) were then compared between the two treatment planning systems. Winston-Lutz tests were carried out as routine machine QA. Patient-specific QA included ArcCheck measurement with an insert, where an ionization chamber was placed at the centre to measure dose at the isocenter. For the first several patients, and subsequently for the plans with extremely strong modulation, Gafchromic film dosimetry was also employed. For each patient, a mock setup was scheduled prior to treatments. Daily pre- and post-CBCT were acquired for setup and assessment of intra-fractional motion, respectively.

  20. Adaptive Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Automated Daily Plan Reoptimization Prevents Dose Delivery Degradation Caused by Anatomy Deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Leinders, Suzanne M.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Méndez Romero, Alejandra; Schaart, Dennis; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate how dose distributions for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be improved by using automated, daily plan reoptimization to account for anatomy deformations, compared with setup corrections only. Methods and Materials: For 12 tumors, 3 strategies for dose delivery were simulated. In the first strategy, computed tomography scans made before each treatment fraction were used only for patient repositioning before dose delivery for correction of detected tumor setup errors. In adaptive second and third strategies, in addition to the isocenter shift, intensity modulated radiation therapy beam profiles were reoptimized or both intensity profiles and beam orientations were reoptimized, respectively. All optimizations were performed with a recently published algorithm for automated, multicriteria optimization of both beam profiles and beam angles. Results: In 6 of 12 cases, violations of organs at risk (ie, heart, stomach, kidney) constraints of 1 to 6 Gy in single fractions occurred in cases of tumor repositioning only. By using the adaptive strategies, these could be avoided (<1 Gy). For 1 case, this needed adaptation by slightly underdosing the planning target volume. For 2 cases with restricted tumor dose in the planning phase to avoid organ-at-risk constraint violations, fraction doses could be increased by 1 and 2 Gy because of more favorable anatomy. Daily reoptimization of both beam profiles and beam angles (third strategy) performed slightly better than reoptimization of profiles only, but the latter required only a few minutes of computation time, whereas full reoptimization took several hours. Conclusions: This simulation study demonstrated that replanning based on daily acquired computed tomography scans can improve liver stereotactic body radiation therapy dose delivery.

  1. Neuronal plasticity in the mushroom body calyx during adult maturation in the honeybee and possible pheromonal influences.

    PubMed

    Muenz, Thomas S; Groh, Claudia; Maisonnasse, Alban; Le Conte, Yves; Plettner, Erika; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Honeybee workers express a pronounced age-dependent polyethism switching from various indoor duties to foraging outside the hive. This transition is accompanied by tremendous changes in the sensory environment that sensory systems and higher brain centers have to cope with. Foraging and age have earlier been shown to be associated with volume changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs). Using age- and task-controlled bees this study provides a detailed framework of neuronal maturation processes in the MB calyx during the course of natural behavioral maturation. We show that the MB calyx volume already increases during the first week of adult life. This process is mainly driven by broadening of the Kenyon cell dendritic branching pattern and then followed by pruning of projection neuron axonal boutons during the actual transition from indoor to outdoor duties. To further investigate the flexible regulation of division of labor and its neuronal correlates in a honeybee colony, we studied the modulation of the nurse-forager transition via a chemical communication system, the primer pheromone ethyl oleate (EO). EO is found at high concentrations on foragers in contrast to nurse bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. In this study, EO effects on colony behavior were not as robust as expected, and we found no direct correlation between EO treatment and synaptic maturation in the MB calyx. In general, we assume that the primer pheromone EO rather acts in concert with other factors influencing the onset of foraging with its effect being highly adaptive. PMID:25784170

  2. Gray and white matter structures in the midcingulate cortex region contribute to body mass index in Chinese young adults.

    PubMed

    He, Qinghua; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly becoming a central public health challenge around the world. Previous studies have suggested that elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) might be associated with structural changes in both gray and white matter, but this association is still not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and brain structure with a relatively large sample of young adults (N = 336) in a small age range (20 ± 1 years). Voxel-based morphometry results showed significant negative correlations between BMI and gray-matter volumes in the midcingulate cortex (MCC), left orbital frontal cortex, and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. There was also a significant negative correlation between BMI and white matter integrity as indexed by fractional anisotropy in bilateral cingulum. Further tractography analysis showed a significant negative correlation between BMI and the number of fibers passing the MCC region. Regression analysis showed that gray matter and white matter in these regions both contributed to the variance of BMI. These results remained significant even when analysis was restricted to the subjects with normal weights. Finally, we found that decision-making ability (as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task) mediated the association between the structure of the MCC (a region responsible for impulse control and decision making) and BMI. These results shed light on the structural neural basis of weight variations. PMID:24146133

  3. Gray and White Matter Structures in the Midcingulate Cortex Region Contribute to Body Mass Index in Chinese Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly becoming a central public health challenge around the world. Previous studies have suggested that elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) might be associated with structural changes in both gray and white matter, but this association is still not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and brain structure with a relatively large sample of young adults (N = 336) in a small age range (20 ± 1 years). VBM results showed significant negative correlations between BMI and Gray Matter Volumes (GMV) in the MCC, left OFC, and left VMPFC. There was also a significant negative correlation between BMI and white matter integrity as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in bilateral cingulum. Further tractography analysis showed a significant negative correlation between BMI and the number of fibers passing the MCC region. Regression analysis showed that gray matter and white matter in these regions both contributed to the variance of BMI. These results remained significant even when analysis was restricted to the subjects with normal-weights. Finally, we found that decision making ability (as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task) mediated the association between the structure of the MCC (a region responsible for impulse control and decision making) and BMI. These results shed light on the structural neural basis of weight variations. PMID:24146133

  4. Measures of body habitus are associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis: A population-based study☆

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Doug L.; Knox, Alan J.; Smyth, Alan R.; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body habitus differences may explain some of the variation in lung function between individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that measures of lean muscle mass and obesity are independently associated with lung function in CF. Methods Cross-sectional study design using UK CF registry data from 2096 clinically stable adults. Results Serum creatinine and BMI were positively and independently associated with FEV1 and FVC. One standard deviation increment in serum creatinine was associated with an FEV1 increase of 171 ml (95% confidence intervals CI: + 116 to + 227 ml) in males and 90 ml (95% CI: + 46 to + 133 ml) in females. Compared to the reference group of 20–24.9 kg/m2, those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2 had lower FEV1 with values of − 642 ml (95%CI: − 784 to − 500 ml) for males and − 468 ml (95%CI: − 564 to − 372 ml) for females. Conclusions Prospective studies and controlled trials are required to ascertain if these associations have therapeutic potential in modifying disease progression. PMID:22958983

  5. Body pool and synthesis of ascorbic acid in adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus): An agnathan fish with gulonolactone oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Régis; Dabrowski, Konrad

    1998-01-01

    Although many vertebrates can synthesize ascorbic acid (vitamin C), it is still unclear from the evolutionary perspective when the ability to synthesize the vitamin first appeared in the animal kingdom and how frequently the trait has been lost. We report here ascorbic acid biosynthesis ability in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which represent the most ancient vertebrate lineage examined thus far for presence of gulonolactone oxidase, the enzyme catalyzing the terminal step in biosynthesis of vitamin C. This finding supports the view that the ancestors of living vertebrates were not scurvy prone and that the loss of gulonolactone oxidase activity subsequently occurred several times in vertebrate phylogeny. Adult sea lamprey allocate significant amounts of ascorbic acid to the gonads to guaranty high-quality gametes. Tissue stores of ascorbate were maintained by de novo synthesis (1.2–1.3 mg of ascorbic acid/300-g sea lamprey per day at 15°C) while sea lamprey fast during spawning migration. We estimate that the in vivo daily renewal rate of ascorbate is 4–5% of the whole-body ascorbate pool based on measurement of its biosynthesis and concentration in the whole animal. PMID:9707638

  6. Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, E O; Takken, W

    1993-10-01

    The influence of adult body size on the pre-gravid state and fecundity was studied in Anopheles gambiae Giles females hand-caught inside houses and virgin females collected as pupae in Tanzania. Blood-fed mosquitoes were kept for 2-3 days before dissection and examination for insemination and ovarian condition. Those females which did not develop eggs were classified as pre-gravid. The number of mature eggs in those mosquitoes which became gravid was counted. Virgin females were fed and kept for egg maturation in the laboratory. Wing-length of females was measured as an index of mosquito size. The overall pre-gravid rate in the resting An.gambiae population was found to be 21% and, of these, 66% had been inseminated. In the virgin females the pre-gravid rate was 92.6%. The mean wing-length of wild females which became gravid was significantly larger than those which remained pre-gravid. There was a positive correlation between fecundity and wing-length. Smaller females tended to require two or three bloodmeals to facilitate completion of the first gonotrophic cycle. The critical size permitting oviposition from the first blood-meal was a wing-length of 3 mm. PMID:8268486

  7. Dietary Sodium Content, Mortality, and Risk for Cardiovascular Events in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Additional information is needed on the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. Objective To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2,642 older adults (age 71-80) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception 1997-98). Exposure Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We examined sodium intake both as a continuous and as a categorical variable (<1500mg/d [N=291; 11.0%]; 1500–2300mg/d [N=779; 29.5%]; and >2300mg/d [N=1572; 59.5%]. Main Outcomes Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF over 10-years of follow-up. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to those without prevalent CVD (N=1981) at baseline. Results Average age of participants was 73.6±2.9 years; 51.2% were women; 61.7% white; and 38.3% black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 developed CVD and 398 developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.98–1.09; P=0.27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the 1500–2300-mg group (30.7%) compared to the <1500-mg (33.8%) and >2300-mg (35.2%) groups; P=0.074. Sodium intake >2300mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs. 1500–2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95%CI 0.99–1.35; P=0.072). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HR for mortality was 1.20 (95%CI 0.93–1.54; P=0.16) per mg/kcal sodium and 1.11 (95%CI 0.96–1.28; P=0.17) per 100mg/kg/m2 sodium. In adjusted models accounting for the competing risk of death, sodium intake was not associated with risk for CVD (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.95–1.11; P=0.47) or HF (HR per 1g, 1.00; 95%CI 0.92–1

  8. Self-Efficacy, Planning, or a Combination of Both? A Longitudinal Experimental Study Comparing Effects of Three Interventions on Adolescents’ Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Hagger, Martin S.; Banik, Anna; Horodyska, Karolina; Knoll, Nina; Scholz, Urte

    2016-01-01

    Background The superiority of an intervention combining two sets of theory-based behavior change techniques targeting planning and self-efficacy over an intervention targeting planning only or self-efficacy only has rarely been investigated. Purpose We compared the influence of self-efficacy, planning, and self-efficacy+planning interventions with an education-based control condition on adolescents’ body fat, assuming mediating effects of respective social cognitive variables and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The moderating role of the built environment was examined. Methods Participants (N = 1217, aged 14–18 years) were randomly assigned to four conditions: planning (n = 270), self-efficacy (n = 311), self-efficacy+planning (n = 351), and control (n = 285). The measurement was conducted at baseline (T1), two-month follow-up (T2), and fourteen-month follow-up (T3). Interventions/control group procedures were delivered at T1 and T2. Percent of body fat tissue (measured at T1 and T3) was the main outcome. Social cognitive mediators (self-efficacy and planning) were assessed at T1 and T2. The behavioral mediator (MVPA) and the presence of built MVPA facilities (the moderator) were evaluated at T1 and T3. Results Similar small increases of body fat were found across the three intervention groups, but the increment of body fat was significantly larger in the control group. On average, differences between control and intervention groups translated to approximately 1% of body fat. Effects of the interventions on body fat were mediated by relevant social cognitive variables and MVPA. A lower increase of body fat was found among intervention group participants who had access to newly-built MVPA facilities. Conclusions We found no superiority of an intervention targeting two social cognitive variables over the intervention targeting one cognition only. PMID:27410961

  9. [Stellar Occultation Studies of Small Bodies in the Outer Solar System: Accomplishments, Status, and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, James

    2005-01-01

    Bodies residing in the outer solar system exhibit unique physical processes, and some of the lessons learned from them can be applied to understanding what occurred in the outer solar system during its formation and early evolution. Pluto, the largest known Kuiper Belt object (KBO), and its near twin Triton--an ex-KBO that has been captured by Neptune--have nitrogen atmospheres that are in vapor-pressure equilibrium with surface ice. These atmospheres are most sensitively probed from Earth by the technique of Stellar occultations, which can provide the temperature and pressure profiles of these atmospheres at a spatial resolution of a few kilometers. Recent results from occultations show that the surface pressure of Triton's atmosphere has been increasing and that the shape of the atmosphere deviates from its expected spherical figure. With the occultation technique we can also learn the sizes of smaller bodies that have formed in the outer solar system: Charon, the Centaurs, and KBOs. Our proposed program involves identifying occultation candidates, predicting occultations, observing occultations, analysis of the data, and synthesis of the occultation results with other data. The main goals for our proposed work are to (i) further observe occultations by Triton with the objectives of understanding its pressure changes, distortion, and enigmatic thermal structure (ii) determine whether the abrupt drop in Pluto's stellar occultation light curve is caused by a sharp thermal gradient near its surface or by atmospheric haze, (iii) further observations to characterize the potential collapse of Pluto's atmosphere as it recedes from the sun (information that should be of interest to the Pluto-Kuiper Express), ( iv ) determine Charon's radius more accurately than can be done with the mutual events to derive a better estimate of Charon's density, and ( v ) directly determine the size (and albedo) of Centaurs with the goal of more accurately estimating the sizes of KBOS.

  10. Form and function remixed: developmental physiology in the evolution of vertebrate body plans.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stuart A

    2014-06-01

    The most widely accepted model of evolutionary change, the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, is based on the gradualism of Darwin and Wallace. They, in turn, developed their ideas in the context of 19th century concepts of how matter, including the tissues of animals and plants, could be reshaped and repatterned. A new physics of condensed, chemically, electrically and mechanically excitable materials formulated in the 20th century was, however, readily taken up by physiologists, who applied it to the understanding of dynamical, external condition-dependent and homeostatic properties of individual organisms. Nerve conduction, vascular and airway dynamics, and propagation of electrical excitations in heart and brain tissue all benefited from theories of biochemical oscillation, fluid dynamics, reaction-diffusion-based pattern instability and allied dissipative processes. When, in the late 20th century, the development of body and organ form was increasingly seen to involve dynamical, frequently non-linear processes similar to those that had become standard in physiology, a strong challenge to the evolutionary synthesis emerged. In particular, large-scale changes in organismal form now had a scientific basis other than gradualistic natural selection based on adaptive advantage. Moreover, heritable morphological changes were seen to be capable of occurring abruptly with little or no genetic change, with involvement of the external environment, and in preferred directions. This paper discusses three examples of morphological motifs of vertebrate bodies and organs, the somites, the skeletons of the paired limbs, and musculoskeletal novelties distinctive to birds, for which evolutionary origination and transformation can be understood on the basis of the physiological and biophysical determinants of their development. PMID:24817211

  11. Form and function remixed: developmental physiology in the evolution of vertebrate body plans

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    The most widely accepted model of evolutionary change, the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, is based on the gradualism of Darwin and Wallace. They, in turn, developed their ideas in the context of 19th century concepts of how matter, including the tissues of animals and plants, could be reshaped and repatterned. A new physics of condensed, chemically, electrically and mechanically excitable materials formulated in the 20th century was, however, readily taken up by physiologists, who applied it to the understanding of dynamical, external condition-dependent and homeostatic properties of individual organisms. Nerve conduction, vascular and airway dynamics, and propagation of electrical excitations in heart and brain tissue all benefited from theories of biochemical oscillation, fluid dynamics, reaction–diffusion-based pattern instability and allied dissipative processes. When, in the late 20th century, the development of body and organ form was increasingly seen to involve dynamical, frequently non-linear processes similar to those that had become standard in physiology, a strong challenge to the evolutionary synthesis emerged. In particular, large-scale changes in organismal form now had a scientific basis other than gradualistic natural selection based on adaptive advantage. Moreover, heritable morphological changes were seen to be capable of occurring abruptly with little or no genetic change, with involvement of the external environment, and in preferred directions. This paper discusses three examples of morphological motifs of vertebrate bodies and organs, the somites, the skeletons of the paired limbs, and musculoskeletal novelties distinctive to birds, for which evolutionary origination and transformation can be understood on the basis of the physiological and biophysical determinants of their development. PMID:24817211

  12. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  13. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  14. Influence of Planning Time and First-Move Strategy on Tower of Hanoi Problem-Solving Performance of Mentally Retarded Young Adults and Nonretarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In two experiments using a computer-interfaced problem, planning time of 50 retarded young adults was as long as or longer than that of higher performing nonretarded children. In neither group was there a reliable correlation between planning time and performance. There were group differences in preferred strategies, possibly associated with…

  15. Body Mass Index in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Distribution, Associations and Service Implications--A Population-Based Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Thorp, C. F.; Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of weight problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID) have generally been small or selective and given conflicting results. The objectives of our large-scale study were to identify inequalities in weight problems between adults with ID and the general adult population, and to investigate factors associated…

  16. Exercise: Benefits for Body and Mind. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This teaching guide is part of a series of materials developed, with input from adult learners, to aid adult literacy teachers in incorporating health education into the curriculum. This guide aims to help teachers to provide adult students with information about good fitness habits and positive health behaviors that will substantially reduce the…

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  18. Effect of clothing type on body composition in adults across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ADP, using Bod Pod, is a popular method to assess body composition. For valid results, however, the manufacturer warrants tight-fitting clothing (swimsuit or spandex), which may be uncomfortable or impractical for overweight (O) and obese (OB) persons or those with negative body image. This study c...

  19. Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

  20. Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI). Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August) had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10), later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45) and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9) compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February) showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10), for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15) and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006). The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91) or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7). However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin

  1. Advance Care Planning and the Quality of End-of-Life Care among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Kara E.; Sudore, Rebecca; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alexander K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advance care planning is increasingly common, but whether it influences end-of-life quality of care remains controversial. Design Medicare data and survey data from the Health and Retirement Study were combined to determine whether advance care planning was associated with quality metrics. Setting The nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Participants 4394 decedent subjects (mean age 82.6 years at death, 55% women). Measurements Advance care planning was defined as having an advance directive, durable power of attorney or having discussed preferences for end-of-life care with a next-of-kin. Outcomes included previously reported quality metrics observed during the last month of life (rates of hospital admission, in-hospital death, >14 days in the hospital, intensive care unit admission, >1 emergency department visit, hospice admission, and length of hospice ≤3 days). Results Seventy-six percent of subjects engaged in advance care planning. Ninety-two percent of advance directives stated a preference to prioritize comfort. After adjustment, subjects who engaged in advance care planning were less likely to die in a hospital (adjusted RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.94), more likely to be enrolled in hospice (aRR 1.68, 1.43-1.97), and less likely to receive hospice for ≤3 days before death (aRR 0.88, 0.85-0.91). Having an advance directive, a durable-power-of-attorney or an advance care planning discussion were each independently associated with a significant increase in hospice use (p<0.01 for all). Conclusion Advance care planning was associated with improved quality of care at the end of life, including less in-hospital death and increased use of hospice. Having an advance directive, assigning a durable power of attorney and conducting advance care planning discussions are all important elements of advance care planning. PMID:23350921

  2. Sample Return Missions from Minor Bodies: Achievements, Future Plan and Observational Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Rotundi, A.; Epifani, E. Mazzotta

    2009-09-01

    We are entering in a new era of space exploration signed by sample return missions. Since the Apollo and Luna Program, the study of extraterrestrial samples in laboratory is gathering an increased interest of the scientific community so that nowadays exploration program of the Solar System is characterized by swelling sample return missions. Beside lunar samples, the NASA Stardust mission was the first successful space mission that on 15 January 2006 brought to Earth solid extraterrestrial samples collected from comet 81P/Wild 2 coma. Grains were collected during cometary fly-by into aerogel and once on Earth have been extracted for laboratory analyses. In the coming two decades many space missions on going or under study will harvest samples from minor bodies. Measurements required for detailed analysis that cannot be performed from a robotic spacecraft, will be carried out on Earth laboratories with the highest analytical accuracy attainable so far. An intriguing objective for the next sample return missions is to understand the nature of organic compounds. Organic compounds found in Stardust grains even if processed to large extend during aerogel capturing are here reported. Major objectives of Marco Polo mission are reported. Various ground-based observational programs within the framework of general characterizations of families and classes, cometary-asteroid transition objects and NEOs with cometary albedo are discussed and linked to sample return mission.

  3. Weight bias internalization in treatment-seeking overweight adults: Psychometric validation and associations with self-esteem, body image, and mood symptoms.

    PubMed

    Durso, Laura E; Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C

    2016-04-01

    Internalized weight bias has been previously associated with impairments in eating behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning. The present study explored the psychological correlates and psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) among overweight adults enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Questionnaires assessing internalized weight bias, anti-fat attitudes, self-esteem, body image concern, and mood symptoms were administered to 90 obese or overweight men and women between the ages of 21 and 73. Reliability statistics suggested revisions to the WBIS. The resulting 9-item scale was shown to be positively associated with body image concern, depressive symptoms, and stress, and negatively associated with self-esteem. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated that WBIS scores were significant and independent predictors of body image concern, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. These results support the use of the revised 9-item WBIS in treatment-seeking samples as a reliable and valid measure of internalized weight bias. PMID:26826975

  4. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Given the radiation concerns inherent to the x-ray modalities, accurately estimating the radiation doses that patients receive during different imaging modalities is crucial. This study estimated organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices for the three clinical chest x-ray imaging techniques (chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT) using 59 anatomically variable voxelized phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation methods. Methods: A total of 59 computational anthropomorphic male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) adult phantoms were used in this study. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for a clinical radiography system with the capability of conducting chest radiography and tomosynthesis (Definium 8000, VolumeRAD, GE Healthcare) and a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). A Monte Carlo dose simulation program (PENELOPE, version 2006, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) was used to mimic these two clinical systems. The Duke University (Durham, NC) technique charts were used to determine the clinical techniques for the radiographic modalities. An exponential relationship between CTDI{sub vol} and patient diameter was used to determine the absolute dose values for CT. The simulations of the two clinical systems compute organ and tissue doses, which were then used to calculate effective dose and risk index. The calculation of the two dose metrics used the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103 and BEIR VII report. Results: The average effective dose of the chest posteroanterior examination was found to be 0.04 mSv, which was 1.3% that of the chest CT examination. The average effective dose of the chest tomosynthesis examination was found to be about ten times that of the chest posteroanterior examination and about 12% that of the chest CT examination. With increasing patient average chest diameter, both the effective dose and risk index for CT increased considerably in an exponential fashion, while these two dose

  5. Application of a body condition score index for targeted selective treatment in adult Merino sheep--A modelling study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Besier, R B

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to establish whether sheep flock production losses due to nematode (worm) infections are typically greater in mature sheep selected for anthelmintic treatment at random compared to sheep selected for treatment based on low (poorer) body condition score (BCS). The study also examined the proportion of sheep in flocks that could be left untreated before production losses became evident, and projected worm egg pasture contamination. Sheep were monitored at two experimental sites in Western Australia (Mediterranean climate). Sheep were stratified for BCS, liveweight and faecal worm egg count (WEC) and allocated into treatment groups (treated or untreated), with equal numbers for each. Liveweight, BCS and WEC measurements were taken on 6 occasions at Farm A and 10 occasions at Farm B. Comparisons of sheep production (liveweight and BCS change) and pasture contamination potential (WEC) were conducted by generating "virtual flocks" of varying proportions sheep untreated (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% untreated). For the comparison of the selection mode of sheep for treatment, the untreated sheep were either selected at random, or as the highest BCS animals at the commencement of observations. Univariate general linear models with least square difference post-hoc tests were used to examine differences between flocks for liveweight, BCS and WEC, and regression analysis was used to examine relationships between BCS and WEC, and liveweight and WEC. No difference in body weights was observed between flocks with varying proportions of ewes notionally left untreated at Farm B, and until more than 30% were left untreated at Farm A. There was no difference in BCS between flocks with varying proportions of ewes left untreated at either site. At no point were there differences in cumulative liveweight change or BCS between selection methods (BCS versus random) where the same proportion of sheep in virtual flocks were left untreated, suggesting that effort committed to

  6. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Given the radiation concerns inherent to the x-ray modalities, accurately estimating the radiation doses that patients receive during different imaging modalities is crucial. This study estimated organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices for the three clinical chest x-ray imaging techniques (chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT) using 59 anatomically variable voxelized phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation methods. Methods: A total of 59 computational anthropomorphic male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) adult phantoms were used in this study. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for a clinical radiography system with the capability of conducting chest radiography and tomosynthesis (Definium 8000, VolumeRAD, GE Healthcare) and a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). A Monte Carlo dose simulation program (PENELOPE, version 2006, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) was used to mimic these two clinical systems. The Duke University (Durham, NC) technique charts were used to determine the clinical techniques for the radiographic modalities. An exponential relationship between CTDIvol and patient diameter was used to determine the absolute dose values for CT. The simulations of the two clinical systems compute organ and tissue doses, which were then used to calculate effective dose and risk index. The calculation of the two dose metrics used the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103 and BEIR VII report. Results: The average effective dose of the chest posteroanterior examination was found to be 0.04 mSv, which was 1.3% that of the chest CT examination. The average effective dose of the chest tomosynthesis examination was found to be about ten times that of the chest posteroanterior examination and about 12% that of the chest CT examination. With increasing patient average chest diameter, both the effective dose and risk index for CT increased considerably in an exponential fashion, while these two dose metrics

  7. The Challenge of the '80's and Beyond: Career Planning and the Adult Blue Collar Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Martin Elliot

    Career counseling is a particularly critical need for blue collar men, displaced workers from the declining industries of manufacturing. This article uses developmental theory based on the model of adult development of Daniel Levinson (1978), "Seasons of a Man's Life," to discuss the difficulty of blue collar men in attaining developmental…

  8. Self-Assessment and Development Planning for Adult and Community Learning Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Mike; Reisenberger, Anna

    This document is designed to help adult and community learning (ACL) services across the United Kingdom complete the annual self-assessment reports (SARs). The guide begins with background information on the purposes of self-assessment, the new context of ACL and the elements and format of the new SARs. The remaining four sections examine the…

  9. Hazards of Immobility: Bedsores. Adult Residential Care Home, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Kathleen

    Developed as part of a 104-hour course on adult residential care homes (ARCHs), this 50-minute lesson is designed to enable a student to: (1) define a bedsore; (2) list and describe three major causes of bedsores; (3) identify potential bedsore sites in the back-lying, side-lying, and sitting positions; and (4) calculate the risk for developing…

  10. Returning Adult Women Students: Pre- and Post-Counseling Attitudes and Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fought, Carol A.

    The rationale for conducting programs for the adult women who are seeking an "educational course of action" is based on the discontinuities in life styles experienced by women which make it extremely difficult and frustrating for them to contribute their talents to society. Personal characteristics of the women in a non-credit exploration course…

  11. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  12. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  13. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  14. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors. PMID:26005202

  15. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-04-15

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  16. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O’Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu, Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-01-01

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency, however an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic, were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA); while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity. PMID:21320519

  17. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control. PMID:27603885

  18. Attitudes towards Advance Care Planning and Healthcare Autonomy among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Ning, Xiao-hong; Zhu, Ming-lei; Liu, Xiao-hong; Li, Jing-bing; Liu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the preferences of ACP and healthcare autonomy in community-dwelling older Chinese adults. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted with older adults living in the residential estate of Chaoyang District, Beijing. Results. 900 residents were enrolled. 80.9% of them wanted to hear the truth regarding their own condition from the physician; 52.4% preferred to make their own healthcare decisions. Only 8.9% of them preferred to endure life-prolonging interventions when faced with irreversible conditions. 78.3% of the respondents had not heard of an ACP; only 39.4% preferred to document in an ACP. Respondents with higher education had significantly higher proportion of having heard of an ACP, as well as preferring to document in an ACP, compared to those with lower education. Those aged <70 years had higher proportion of having heard of an ACP, as well as refusing life-prolonging interventions when faced with irreversible conditions, compared to those aged ≥70 years. Conclusions. Although the majority of community-dwelling older Chinese adults appeared to have healthcare autonomy and refuse life-prolonging interventions in terms of end-of-life care, a low level of “Planning ahead” awareness and preference was apparent. Age and education level may be the influential factors. PMID:26858955

  19. Needs for Data and Tools to Plan and Interpret in situ Measurements of Small Solar System Bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, W. F.

    Spacecraft missions to small solar system bodies (asteroids and comet nuclei) are increasing in numbers and in complexities. Here we summarize observational and experimental needs for basic data, development of tools for mission planning and data analysis, and list some resources that need further development. We categorize them in several broad domains: For solid bodies (asteroid and comet nuclei) we need properties such as material strengths and thermal and electrical properties (e.g., conductivities and heat capacities). While we know many properties of analog materials, they may not be applicable to the extreme conditions found in space. For example, densities of asteroids are usually lower than metallic, stony, or carbonaceous analog materials on Earth. This implies porosity at various scales that can fundamentally modify some properties. There are orders at magnitude differences in thermal conductivity of amorphous water ice. Small solar system bodies are not spherical; they have different moments of inertia about different axes. Nonalignment between principal axes of inertia and the spin axes causes tumbling motion and internal strains and stresses that can interfere with many measurements. For example, we have no models to estimate strain and stress induced noise that could interfere with seismology. We lack technology how to deliver and anchor instruments efficiently over a wide but unknown surface area on an asteroid or a comet nucleus in the absence of gravity. For comet comae we need more atomic and molecular data, particularly in the area of electron and energetic particle collisions. We provide lists of available databases and summarize data and tools that are urgently needed. We suggest the formation of an international working group to attack these issues and exchange information and data.

  20. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood. PMID:25814051

  1. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  2. Legacy effects of short-term intentional weight loss on total body and thigh composition in overweight and obese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chmelo, E A; Beavers, D P; Lyles, M F; Marsh, A P; Nicklas, B J; Beavers, K M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Weight regain following intentional weight loss may negatively impact body composition, accelerating fat regain and increasing risk of physical disability. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term changes in whole body and thigh composition in obese older adults who intentionally lost and then partially regained weight to obese older adults who remained weight stable. Subjects/Methods: This pilot study analyzed total body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and thigh (computed tomography (CT)) composition data collected from 24 older (65–79 years) adults 18 months after completion of a 5-month randomized trial that compared resistance training alone (RT) with RT plus caloric restriction (RT+CR). Results: Mean loss of body mass in the RT+CR group (n=13) was 7.1±2.4 kg during the 5-month intervention (74% fat mass; 26% lean mass; all P<0.01), whereas RT (n=11) remained weight stable (+0.3±1.8 kg; P=0.64). Differential group effects were observed for all DXA and CT body composition measures at 5 months (all P⩽0.01); however, by 23 months, group differences persisted only for total body (RT+CR: 81.6±10.0 kg vs RT: 88.5±14.9 kg; P=0.03) and lean (RT+CR: 50.8±9.3 kg vs RT: 54.4±12.0 kg; P<0.01) mass. All RT+CR participants regained weight from 5 to 23 months (mean gain=+4.8±2.6 kg; P<0.01). Total fat mass and all thigh fat volumes increased, whereas thigh muscle volume decreased, during the postintervention follow-up in RT+CR (all P⩽0.01). In the RT group, body mass did not change from 5 to 23 months (−0.2±0.9 kg; P=0.87). Decreased total thigh volume, driven by the loss of thigh muscle volume, were the only postintervention body composition changes observed in the RT group (both P<0.04). Conclusions: Short-term body composition benefits of an RT+CR intervention may be lost within 18 months after completion of the intervention. PMID:27043417

  3. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  4. Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulation of p53 in Brown Fat at Adult But Not Embryonic Stages Regulates Thermogenesis and Body Weight in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Massadi, Omar; Porteiro, Begoña; Kuhlow, Doreen; Köhler, Markus; Gonzalez-Rellan, María J; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Díaz-Rodríguez, Esther; Quiñones, Mar; Senra, Ana; Alvarez, Clara V; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Schulz, Tim J; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage. PMID:27183316

  5. No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Bertrán, José J.; Ríos, Ruth E.; Soltero, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies have shown that a high calcium intake is related to lower body weight, fat, and serum lipids in obese individuals. However, clinical studies have shown inconclusive results. The present study was conducted to determine if dairy or calcium supplementation alters body composition or serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults without dietary energy restriction or exercise. Methods A 21-wk randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 obese adults, aged 21–50 y, with usual calcium intakes <700 mg/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following: high dairy (~1300 mg/d of calcium from dairy products by substituting foods); high calcium (~1300 mg/d of calcium; ~700 mg/d from diet and 600 mg/d from a supplement); or placebo. Subjects were asked to continue their established dietary intake (except for the high dairy group) and their physical activity during the study. Body weight was measured monthly; body fat, bone, and serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol) were measured at baseline and at 21 wk. Pairwise differences in study endpoints among the groups were assessed using ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results Grand mean calcium intake was 1200 ± 370 (median 1187) mg/d in the high dairy group, 1171 ± 265 (median 1165) mg/d in the high calcium group, and 668 ± 273 (median 691) mg/d in the control group, which was significantly lower compared to the two treatment groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant group effects in any of the outcome variables. Conclusion A high dairy or calcium diet alone did not alter body composition or serum lipids profile in a sample of Puerto Rican obese adults. PMID:20579848

  6. Road to Success: Helping Young Adults with Learning Disabilities Plan and Prepare for Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, D. Richard; Mellard, Daryl F.; Lancaster, Paula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews "Road to Success" as a curricular innovation that addresses needs of adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) as they transition from school to employment or postsecondary educational settings. A variety of curricula exist for aiding the general populace of job seekers in planning and preparing for employment, but few exist…

  7. Weight-Related Health Behaviors and Body Mass: Associations between Young Adults and Their Parents, Moderated by Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…

  8. Emotion recognition through static faces and moving bodies: a comparison between typically developed adults and individuals with high level of autistic traits

    PubMed Central

    Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Bossi, Francesco; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the type of stimulus (pictures of static faces vs. body motion) contributes differently to the recognition of emotions. The performance (accuracy and response times) of 25 Low Autistic Traits (LAT group) young adults (21 males) and 20 young adults (16 males) with either High Autistic Traits or with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HAT group) was compared in the recognition of four emotions (Happiness, Anger, Fear, and Sadness) either shown in static faces or conveyed by moving body patch-light displays (PLDs). Overall, HAT individuals were as accurate as LAT ones in perceiving emotions both with faces and with PLDs. Moreover, they correctly described non-emotional actions depicted by PLDs, indicating that they perceived the motion conveyed by the PLDs per se. For LAT participants, happiness proved to be the easiest emotion to be recognized: in line with previous studies we found a happy face advantage for faces, which for the first time was also found for bodies (happy body advantage). Furthermore, LAT participants recognized sadness better by static faces and fear by PLDs. This advantage for motion kinematics in the recognition of fear was not present in HAT participants, suggesting that (i) emotion recognition is not generally impaired in HAT individuals, (ii) the cues exploited for emotion recognition by LAT and HAT groups are not always the same. These findings are discussed against the background of emotional processing in typically and atypically developed individuals. PMID:26557101

  9. Emotion recognition through static faces and moving bodies: a comparison between typically developed adults and individuals with high level of autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Bossi, Francesco; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the type of stimulus (pictures of static faces vs. body motion) contributes differently to the recognition of emotions. The performance (accuracy and response times) of 25 Low Autistic Traits (LAT group) young adults (21 males) and 20 young adults (16 males) with either High Autistic Traits or with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HAT group) was compared in the recognition of four emotions (Happiness, Anger, Fear, and Sadness) either shown in static faces or conveyed by moving body patch-light displays (PLDs). Overall, HAT individuals were as accurate as LAT ones in perceiving emotions both with faces and with PLDs. Moreover, they correctly described non-emotional actions depicted by PLDs, indicating that they perceived the motion conveyed by the PLDs per se. For LAT participants, happiness proved to be the easiest emotion to be recognized: in line with previous studies we found a happy face advantage for faces, which for the first time was also found for bodies (happy body advantage). Furthermore, LAT participants recognized sadness better by static faces and fear by PLDs. This advantage for motion kinematics in the recognition of fear was not present in HAT participants, suggesting that (i) emotion recognition is not generally impaired in HAT individuals, (ii) the cues exploited for emotion recognition by LAT and HAT groups are not always the same. These findings are discussed against the background of emotional processing in typically and atypically developed individuals. PMID:26557101

  10. Relation of self-image to body size and weight loss attempts in black women: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Riley, N M; Bild, D E; Cooper, L; Schreiner, P; Smith, D E; Sorlie, P; Thompson, J K

    1998-12-01

    It has been suggested that the prevalence of obesity in black women is high partly because self-image in black women is not strongly dependent on body size. To determine associations between self-image, body size, and dieting behavior among black women, the authors assessed an Appearance Evaluation Subscale (AES) score (range, 1-5), a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS) score (range, 2-11), and reported dieting behavior in a population-based sample of 1,143 black women aged 24-42 years from the fourth follow-up examination (1992-1993) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Lower AES and BIS scores indicate poorer self-image and lower body size satisfaction, respectively. After adjustment for age, education, smoking, and physical activity, women in the lowest, middle, and highest tertiles of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) had mean AES scores of 3.7, 3.3, and 2.9, respectively (p < 0.001), and mean BIS scores of 7.8, 6.7, and 5.9, respectively (p < 0.001). After additional control for body mass index as a continuous variable, both AES and BIS scores were inversely related to ever dieting, current dieting, and previous weight loss of 10 pounds (4.5 kg) or more in all tertiles of body mass index. These results suggest that among black women, a higher body mass index is associated with poorer self-image and lower body size satisfaction and that these perceptions may be an avenue to promoting weight control. PMID:9850128

  11. Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Auer, Paul L.; Jiao, Shuo; Haessler, Jeffrey; Altshuler, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Carlson, Christopher S.; Carty, Cara L.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Curtis, Keith; Franceschini, Nora; Hsu, Li; Jackson, Rebecca; Lange, Leslie A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Monda, Keri L.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rosse, Stephanie A.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Willer, Cristen J.; Wilson, James G.; North, Kari; Kooperberg, Charles; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Peters, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E−06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E−07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, β = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E−08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, β = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E−10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; β = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E−09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r2 with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low

  12. Measured adolescent body mass index and adult breast cancer in a cohort of 951,480 women.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levine, Hagai; Derazne, Estela; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, studied predominantly as a self-reported risk factor for breast cancer (BC), may have been subjected to recall bias. We examined the association between measured BMI in adolescence and the incidence of BC by menopausal status. 951,480 Jewish Israeli females aged 16-19 who underwent anthropometric measurements in 1967-2011 were followed up to 31.12.2012 for BC incidence. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between adolescent BMI (as age-specific CDC percentiles) and time to BC diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. The analysis was also subdivided by age at diagnosis. 9619 BC cases diagnosed during 18,078,941 person-years of follow-up were included in multivariable analyses: 4901 premenopausal, 3809 perimenopausal, and 909 postmenopausal. Compared with 'healthy' BMI (5th-<85th percentiles) and adjusted for country of origin, education, and height, adolescent BMI was largely negatively associated with BC: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.057 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.955-1.169, p = 0.286) in underweight (<5th percentile); HR = 0.918 (95 % CI 0.849-0.993, p = 0.032) in overweight (85th-<95th percentiles); and HR = 0.682 (95 % CI 0.552-0.843, p = 0.00004) in obese (≥95th percentile) women. In premenopausal, but not peri- and postmenopausal BC, associations were statistically significant; underweight was associated with increased risk of premenopausal BC (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.01-1.31, p = 0.037), and overweight and obesity with significantly lower risk. Adolescent thinness was associated with increased risk for early BC. Overweight and obesity were protectively associated with premenopausal but not postmenopausal BC. The lack of an association of adolescent overweight/obesity with increased peri- and postmenopausal BC suggests a causal role for adult weight gain. PMID:27306419

  13. Measuring beliefs about gluten free diet adherence in adult coeliac disease using the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Kirby; Mullan, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to elicit the salient beliefs about gluten free diet (GFD) adherence in adults with coeliac disease (CD) and to design a TPB questionnaire to predict adherence levels. This questionnaire was administered to 265 CD participants with adherence and quality of life (QOL) measures, a GFD knowledge test, and self-reported psychiatric history. Regression analyses were used to test the fit of the TPB in predicting adherence, and to determine the nature of the relationships between adherence, QOL, knowledge, and psychiatric history. The TPB combined with self-reported depression and anxiety, and QOL explained significant variance in intention (41.0%) and adherence (33.7%). Poorer dietary adherence and psychiatric history were also associated with lower QOL. Findings suggest that the TPB provides an adequate model for predicting GFD adherence in CD, and the presence of psychiatric conditions represents a potential intervention target to improve adherence and QOL. PMID:21277925

  14. Timing of eclosion affects diapause development, fat body consumption and longevity in Osmia lignaria, a univoltine, adult-wintering solitary bee.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jordi; Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P

    2010-12-01

    Most insects from temperate areas enter diapause ahead of winter. Species diapausing in a feeding stage and accumulating metabolic reserves during permissive pre-wintering conditions are expected to enter diapause shortly before the onset of winter. In contrast, species diapausing in a non-feeding stage are expected to lower their metabolism as soon as possible to avoid excessive consumption of metabolic reserves. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a non-feeding adult within its cocoon, but previous studies show important weight losses and increased winter mortality in populations pre-wintered for extended periods. We measured respiration rates to assess diapause initiation and maintenance during pre-wintering, and tested whether timing of adult eclosion affected fitness by measuring fat body depletion, winter mortality and post-winter longevity. We worked with different cohorts of a population reared under natural conditions, and manipulated pre-wintering duration in a population reared under artificial conditions. In agreement with our expectation, O. lignaria lower their metabolic rates within a few days of adult eclosion, but nonetheless suffer strong weight loss during pre-wintering. Early developing individuals suffer greater weight loss and fat body depletion, and have short post-winter longevity. Although, we found no differences in winter mortality among treatments, our results indicate that increased mortality may occur in years with late winter arrivals. We discuss fundamental ecophysiological differences between adult and prepupal diapause within the Megachilidae, and hypothesize that species wintering as adults will be more negatively affected by a situation of extended summers under a scenario of global warming. PMID:20816851

  15. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  16. Hypertension, Abnormal Cholesterol, and High Body Mass Index among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... high total cholesterol among non-Hispanic Asian adults did not differ by sex, age, education, or foreign- ... Figure 3 ). The prevalence of high total cholesterol did not differ significantly by sex, age, education, or ...

  17. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  18. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels. PMID:26447516

  19. Differences in the thermal physiology of adult Yarrow's spiny lizards (Sceloporus jarrovii) in relation to sex and body size

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Martin S; Lattanzio, Matthew S; Miles, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often assumed to reflect the phenotypic consequences of differential selection operating on each sex. Species that exhibit SSD may also show intersexual differences in other traits, including field-active body temperatures, preferred temperatures, and locomotor performance. For these traits, differences may be correlated with differences in body size or reflect sex-specific trait optima. Male and female Yarrow's spiny lizards, Sceloporus jarrovii, in a population in southeastern Arizona exhibit a difference in body temperature that is unrelated to variation in body size. The observed sexual variation in body temperature may reflect divergence in thermal physiology between the sexes. To test this hypothesis, we measured the preferred body temperatures of male and female lizards when recently fed and fasted. We also estimated the thermal sensitivity of stamina at seven body temperatures. Variation in these traits provided an opportunity to determine whether body size or sex-specific variation unrelated to size shaped their thermal physiology. Female lizards, but not males, preferred a lower body temperature when fasted, and this pattern was unrelated to body size. Larger individuals exhibited greater stamina, but we detected no significant effect of sex on the shape or height of the thermal performance curves. The thermal preference of males and females in a thermal gradient exceeded the optimal temperature for performance in both sexes. Our findings suggest that differences in thermal physiology are both sex- and size-based and that peak performance at low body temperatures may be adaptive given the reproductive cycles of this viviparous species. We consider the implications of our findings for the persistence of S. jarrovii and other montane ectotherms in the face of climate warming. PMID:25540684

  20. Striving for Synergy in Adult Education as Equal Partners. A Position Paper for the Committee on Social Justice in Celebration of International Women's Year to Promote Dialogue, Discussion, and Planning for Elevation of the Status of Women Through Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Ruth M.

    In the realm of continuing education, synergy, when used to mean a working together on all phases of human rights, implies the promotion of an adult education vehicle to eliminate the cultural lag in the status of women. Recent United Nations actions (such as the establishment of International Women's Year and the World Plan of Action's pressing…

  1. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  3. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3-20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II-III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm(2); p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm(2); p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm(2); p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  4. Body Size in Early Life and Adult Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Pollak, Michael N.; Baer, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Body size in early life has been associated with breast cancer risk. This may be partly mediated through the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. The authors assessed whether birth weight, body fatness at ages 5 and 10 years, and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at age 18 years were associated with plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in 6,520 women aged 32–70 years at blood draw from the Nurses’ Health Study (1990–2006) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1997–2005). Birth weight, body fatness in childhood, and BMI at age 18 years were inversely associated with adult IGF-1 levels. For example, IGF-1 levels were 11.9% lower in women who reported being heaviest at age 10 years than in those who were leanest at age 10 (P-trend < 0.0001). Further, women who reported their birth weight as ≥10 pounds (≥4.5 kg) (vs. <5.5 pounds (<2.5 kg)) had 7.9% lower IGF-1 levels (P-trend = 0.002). Women whose BMI at age 18 years was ≥30 (vs. <20) had 14.1% lower IGF-1 levels (P-trend < 0.0001). Similar inverse associations were observed for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. These observations did not vary by adult BMI or menopausal status at blood draw. These findings suggest that altered IGF-1 levels in adulthood may be a mechanism through which early-life body size influences subsequent breast cancer risk. PMID:21828371

  5. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa12

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. Objective: We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Results: Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, −1.31 cm (95% CI: −2.32, −0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [−0.56 cm (95% CI: −1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. PMID:27335138

  6. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  7. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea. PMID:26459613

  8. Reliability of 2 Different Positioning Protocols for Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurement of Body Composition in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary J; Byrne, Nuala; Nana, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an accepted time-efficient method of body composition assessment for total body and regional fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and bone mineral content (BMC), but for longitudinal monitoring the measurements must be sufficiently reliable. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of a new positioning protocol (Nana et al) with the current reference (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]) protocol and investigate their within-protocol precision. Thirty healthy adults (16 females and 14 males) underwent 4 whole-body DXA scans in succession with full repositioning between scans. The scan order was randomized, with 2 scans undertaken in accordance with the current NHANES protocol and 2 using the Nana et al protocol. Magnitudes of typical errors of measurement and changes in the mean of DXA body composition estimates were assessed as standardized effect sizes. The Nana et al protocol repositioning produced trivial typical errors for total body across all LM estimates except for FM in the arms and trunk which were moderately substantial. The NHANES protocol produced similar typical errors for all measurements in LM except for FM and BMC in the trunk and arms which were substantially larger than the smallest worthwhile effect. The difference between protocols produced substantially large typical errors in estimations of both total body FM and regional FM and BMC, but differences in LM were all less than the smallest worthwhile effect. Although both protocols demonstrated acceptable intratest reliability, the Nana et al protocol produced enhanced precision in regional (arms and trunk) FM and BMC. The protocols were substantially different in body composition assessment especially for FM and thus should not to be interchanged. Anecdotally, subjects felt more comfortable and supported during the scan with the Nana et al protocol. PMID:26343822

  9. Web-enabled feedback control over energy balance promotes an increase in physical activity and a reduction of body weight and disease risk in overweight sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Lutz Erwin; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate whether a Web-based tool will facilitate the adoption of feedback control over calorie balance in overweight individuals, thereby promoting an increase of physical activity and a reduction of body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective exercise intervention study, commencing with a minimum weekly 3 × 20-min requirement of high-intensity interval training and requirement for Web-based self-monitoring and self-reporting of exercise and body weight. Subjects of this study include 83 overweight, sedentary, otherwise healthy adults aged 26-68 years. Anthropometric parameters, body fat, peak oxygen consumption, self-reported physical activity, frequency of use of the Web-based tool are among the characters measured in this study. This 24-week intervention substantially increased time spent for exercise (mean and median of 135 and 170 min/week, respectively) among the 72 % of participants who had adopted cognitive feedback control vs. no increase in the remaining participants of nonadopters. Adopters witnessed significantly improved peak oxygen consumption of >1 metabolic equivalent vs. no improvement among nonadopters. Adopters also reduced body mass index, body weight, and body fat by 1.6 kg/m(2), 4.8 kg, and 3.6 kg, respectively vs. 0.4 kg/m(2), 1.4 kg, and 1.1 kg in the control group. The increase in physical activity came at virtually no intervention effort of the investigators. This study demonstrates for the first time that adoption of cognitive feedback control over energy balance is possible with the help of a simple Web-based tool and that overweight adopters self-regulate exercise volume to significantly reduce body weight and improve biomarkers of fitness and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23636894

  10. [Body mass index and its relationship to nutritional and socioeconomic variables: a linear regression approach to a Brazilian adult sub-population].

    PubMed

    Leite de Vasconcellos, M T; Portela, M C

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and family energy intake, occupational energy expenditure, per capita family expenditure, sex, age, and left arm circumference for a group of Brazilian adults randomly selected among those interviewed for a survey on food consumption and family budgets, called the National Family Expenditure Survey. The authors discuss linear regression methodological issues related to treatment of outliers and influential cases, multicollinearity, model specification, heteroscedasticity, as well as the use of two-level variables derived from samples with complex design. The results indicate that the model is not affected by outliers and that there are no significant specification errors. They also show a significant linear relationship between BMI and the variables listed above. Although the hypothesis tests indicate significant heteroscedasticity, its corrections did not significantly change the model's parameters, probably due to the sample size (14,000 adults), making hypothesis tests more rigorous than desired. PMID:11784903

  11. The adult polyglucosan body disease mutation GBE1 c.1076A>C occurs at high frequency in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish background.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abrar; Armistead, Joy; Gushulak, Lara; Kruck, Christa; Pind, Steven; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2012-09-21

    Mutations of the glycogen branching enzyme gene, GBE1, result in glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IV, an autosomal recessive disorder having multiple clinical forms. One mutant allele of this gene, GBE1 c.1076A>C, has been reported in Ashkenazi Jewish cases of an adult-onset form of GSD type IV, adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD), but no epidemiological analyses of this mutation have been performed. We report here the first epidemiological study of this mutation in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish background and find that this mutation has a gene frequency of 1 in 34.5 (95% CI: 0.0145-0.0512), similar to the frequency of the common mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease among Ashkenazi Jews. This finding reveals APBD to be another monogenic disorder that occurs with increased frequency in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. PMID:22943850

  12. Automated approach for quantifying the repeated sit-to-stand using one body fixed sensor in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Van Lummel, R C; Ainsworth, E; Lindemann, U; Zijlstra, W; Chiari, L; Van Campen, P; Hausdorff, J M

    2013-05-01

    Much is known about the sit-to-stand (STS) and its biomechanics. Currently, however, there is little opportunity for instrumented quantification of the STS as part of screening or diagnosis in clinical practice. The objectives of the present study were to describe the feasibility of using an automated approach for quantifying the STS using one sensor location and to start testing the discriminative validity of this approach by comparing older and younger adults. 15 older subjects recruited from a residential care home and 16 young adults performed 5 repeated sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements. They were instrumented with a small and lightweight measurement system (DynaPort(®)) containing 1 triaxial seismic accelerometer and 3 uniaxial gyroscopes fixed in a belt around the waist. Durations of the (sub-)phases of the STS were analyzed and maximum angular velocities were determined. All successful STS cycles were automatically detected without any errors. The STS duration in the older adults was significantly longer and more variable in all phases (i.e., sit-to-stand, standing, stand-to-sit and sitting) compared to the young adults. Older adults also exhibited lower trunk flexion angular velocity. The results of this first fully automated analysis of instrumented repeated STS movements demonstrate that several STS parameters can be identified that provide a basis for a more precise, quantitative study of STS performance in clinical practice. PMID:23195854

  13. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict exercise intention in obese adults.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, François; Godin, Gaston

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework for understanding the intention to be physically active among a group of obese individuals. Individuals (n = 96) classified as obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing intention to be physically active and its theoretically related variables. The TPB explained 66% of the variance in physical activity intentions. Significant independent predictors of intention were perceived behavioural control (beta = .40) and attitude (beta = .36). The consideration of past behaviour (beta = .32) explained an additional 7% of the variance. These findings support the idea that, in designing interventions for obese individuals, nurses should focus on developing skills to overcome barriers to physical activity and on developing a positive attitude towards this behaviour. PMID:17679588

  14. Applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Supportive Behaviors by Parents and Adult Siblings of Immediate Relatives with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting supportive behaviors by parents and adult siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings whose immediate relatives with intellectual disability resided in two institutional care facilities. Three…

  15. A Case Study of Perceptions of Computer-Based Instruction by Nursing Students in a Two-Year College: Implications for Adult Continuing Education and Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leski, Joanne

    Community college nursing students' perceptions about computer-based instruction (CBI) were identified and examined from the standpoint of their implications for adult continuing education and program planning. Fifteen second-year nursing students, college faculty, and the nursing director were interviewed. The following were among the key…

  16. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  17. Association between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition in a Group or Puerto Rican Obese Adults: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltero, Sandra M.; Palacios, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a public health problem in Puerto Rico. Dietary patterns that include high intakes of energy and sweetened drinks and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to relate dietary patterns with body composition in obese subjects. Methods Dietary patterns were evaluated using 3-day food records. Body composition was assessed by body weight, hip and waist circumferences and % body fat, and then used to classify subjects by obesity stages using BMI and by low or high risk using WHR or % body fat. The resulting comparison groups were associated with energy, macronutrients, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and sweetened drinks intake and with meal energy density and meal frequency intake. Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used to compare groups and Spearman correlations were used for continuous variables. Results Thirty subjects completed the study. By BMI, 30% were obese type I, 33% type II and 37% type III; by WHR, 43% were low risk and 57% high risk; by % body fat, all were high risk. Dietary patterns were similar between groups. WHR was positively correlated with fiber consumption (r=0.42; p<0.05) and CHO intake (r=0.35; p=0.057). Conclusion In this pilot study, dietary patterns appeared similar between groups and sound with nutritional recommendations; however, we observed a poor quality of the diet due to very low intakes of fruits, vegetables and fiber and high intakes of sweetened drinks. PMID:21449494

  18. Regular consumption of a cereal breakfast. Effects on mood and body image satisfaction in adult non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, Paul; Walton, Jenny; Bartlett, Sarah; Hackett, Allan; Stevenson, Leonard

    2010-12-01

    Breakfast has psychological and nutritional benefits due to physiological mechanisms and expectations about health impact. Beliefs people hold about calories in food can adversely affect mood and body-image satisfaction and such adverse reactions can be predicted by body mass index. The objectives were to test the effect of consuming isocaloric breakfasts, appearing different in calorie content, on appetite, mood and body-image satisfaction, and to assess impact on daily nutrient intake. One-hundred-and-twenty-three women were randomly assigned to eat a cereal or muffin breakfast which "appeared" different in calorie content while unaware they were isocaloric. Participants estimated calories of breakfast, appetite, mood, and body-image satisfaction on a daily basis for seven-days. The cereal breakfast was perceived to be lower in calories, made participants fuller, happier, relaxed, and more satisfied about weight and body compared to the muffin breakfast. Differences in estimated daily fibre and micronutrient intake were compatible with the design. Breakfasts were isocaloric yet the cereal breakfast was rated lower in calories and produced more positive psychological reactions. This evidence indicates the power of perceptions of foods to influence important attributes of health and well-being which could be valuable in dietary interventions where mood and body image satisfaction affect outcome. PMID:20832439

  19. Fine structure and cytochemical analysis of the intestinal wall along the body of adult female of Litomosoides chagasfilhoi (Nematoda: Filarioidea).

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, A H A; Cunha, G S P; Ferreira, T F; de Carvalho, S N; Guimarães, E V; de Souza, W

    2006-05-01

    Litomosoides chagasfilhoi is a filariid nematode parasite of the abdominal cavity of the wild rodent Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887), that has been described and used in Brazil as a new model for human filariasis. The fine structure of the intestine of this nematode was analyzed based on observations made by light and transmission electron microscopies of serial sections along the body. Cytochemical analysis was carried out to investigate the composition of the intestinal wall. This structure consisted of a basal lamina and an epithelium of variable thickness, composed of cells that have an irregular shape. The cytoplasm of intestinal cells contains few organelles: vacuoles, lysosomal bodies, spheroid bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, and many large lipid droplets. In the anterior portion of the intestine, the lysosomal bodies, spheroid bodies, and vacuoles presented positive reaction for acid phosphatase, and carbohydrates were detected in lysosomal bodies. The midbody and posterior regions presented less organelles and lipid droplets, and nuclei were more abundant. Residues of L-fucose were detected by Ulex europaeus lectin binding in the midbody sections. Basic proteins were associated to lipid droplets, in the posterior region. In the whole extension of the intestine, carbohydrates were detected on tight junctions. These results indicate that the metabolized material in the epithelium can contribute to the microfilariae development and also probably can be involved with the excretory/secretory mechanism of these nematodes. PMID:16416290

  20. Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Élvio Rúbio; Blimkie, Cameron Joseph; Maia, José António; Lopes, Carla; Gouveia, Bruna Raquel; Freitas, Duarte Luís

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098≤r≤0.189) and males (0.104≤r≤0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population. PMID:24704345

  1. Developing a User-Centred Planning Tool for Young Adults with Development Disorders: A Research-Based Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh

    2016-01-01

    People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to

  2. Exercise: Benefits for Body and Mind. Student Workbook. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This workbook was developed to help adult literacy students learn about exercise and physical fitness. It contains information sheets and student worksheets, coordinated with an audiotape that is available. Some of the topics covered in the workbook are the following: benefits of exercise; stress; aerobic versus anaerobic exercise; exercise…

  3. Age Differences between Children and Young Adults in the Dynamics of Dual-Task Prioritization: Body (Balance) versus Mind (Memory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Sabine; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    Task prioritization can lead to trade-off patterns in dual-task situations. The authors compared dual-task performances in 9- and 11-year-old children and young adults performing a cognitive task and a motor task concurrently. The motor task required balancing on an ankle-disc board. Two cognitive tasks measured working memory and episodic memory…

  4. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein; the source of the dietary protein may influence satiety and food intake. Few long-term clinical trials have investigated the effects of whey protein on biomarkers of satiety, such as plasma ghrelin, in overweight and obese adults. The e...

  5. The Associations of Month of Birth With Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Leg Length: Findings From the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SoB) has been linked with various health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the associations between month of birth (MoB) and adult measures of leg length (LL), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Methods We analysed survey data from 10 geographically diverse areas of China obtained through the China Kadoorie Biobank. Analysis included 487 529 adults with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2. A general linear model was used to examine the associations between MoB and adult measures of LL, BMI, and WC, adjusted for survey site, sex, age, education level, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, sedentary leisure time, height (only for WC and LL), and hip circumference (only for LL). Results MoB was independently associated with both BMI and WC. Birth months in which participants had higher measures of adiposity were March–July for BMI and March–June for WC. The peak differences were 0.14 kg/m2 for BMI and 0.47 cm for WC. The association between MoB and LL depended on survey site. Participants who were born in February–August in four sites (Harbin, Henan, Gansu, and Hunan) had the shortest LL (all P < 0.01). The peak difference in mean LL was 0.21 cm. No statistically significant association between MoB and LL was noted in the other sites (Qingdao, Suzhou, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Liuzhou, and Haikou). Conclusions These findings suggest that MoB is associated with variations in adult adiposity measures and LL among Chinese adults. Low exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and subsequent reduced levels of vitamin D during the late second and early third trimesters may be involved in these phenomena. PMID:25716579

  6. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. Objective To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. Design A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Result Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are

  7. Adult Education Program Performance Report. Fiscal Year 1994. Under the Four-Year Plan for the Administration of Adult Education, P.L. 102-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Community Coll., Agana. Office of the State Director for Adult Education.

    Guam Community College provides basic skills education for adults who have less than high school education. In 1994, these services were provided at 11 sites by 20 administrative and support personnel, 70 teachers, and 6 counselors (88 of these work part time). In that year, more than 2,000 adults enrolled in programs to enhance their skills and…

  8. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7–13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968–2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13 (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These results suggest that exposures associated with higher birth weight and, in boys, greater height during childhood may contribute to the etiology of adult glioma. PMID:25205831

  9. Neonatal exposure to whole body ionizing radiation induces adult neurobehavioural defects: Critical period, dose--response effects and strain and sex comparison.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Per; Buratovic, Sonja; Fredriksson, Anders; Stenerlöw, Bo; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    2016-05-01

    Development of the brain includes periods which can be critical for its normal maturation. The present study investigates specifically vulnerable peri-/postnatal periods in mice which are essential for understanding the etiology behind radiation induced neurotoxicity and functional defects, including evaluation of neurotoxicity between sexes or commonly used laboratory mouse strains following low/moderate doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice, whole body irradiated to a single 500 mGy IR dose, on postnatal day (PND) 3 or PND 10 showed an altered adult spontaneous behaviour and impaired habituation capacity, whereas irradiation on PND 19 did not have any impact on the studied variables. Both NMRI and C57bl/6 male and female mice showed an altered adult spontaneous behaviour and impaired habituation following a single whole body irradiation of 500 or 1000 mGy, but not after 20 or 100 mGy, on PND 10. The present study shows that exposure to low/moderate doses of IR during critical life stages might be involved in the induction of neurological/neurodegenerative disorder/disease. A specifically vulnerable period for radiation induced neurotoxicity seems to be around PND 3-10 in mice. Further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms involved in induction of developmental neurotoxicity following low-dose irradiation. PMID:26876140

  10. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  11. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  12. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  13. Volumetric modulated arc planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using conventional and unflattened photon beams: a dosimetric comparison with 3D technique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Frequently, three-dimensional (3D) conformal beams are used in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Recently, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was introduced as a new treatment modality. VMAT techniques shorten delivery time, reducing the possibility of intrafraction target motion. However dose distributions can be quite different from standard 3D therapy. This study quantifies those differences, with focus on VMAT plans using unflattened photon beams. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients previously treated with 3D or VMAT SBRT were randomly selected. For each patient, non-coplanar 3D, coplanar and non-coplanar VMAT and flattening filter free VMAT (FFF-VMAT) plans were generated to meet the same objectives with 50 Gy covering 95% of the PTV. Two dynamic arcs were used in each VMAT plan. The couch was set at ± 5° to the 0° straight position for the two non-coplanar arcs. Pinnacle version 9.0 (Philips Radiation Oncology, Fitchburg WI) treatment planning system with VMAT capabilities was used. We analyzed the conformity index (CI), which is the ratio of the total volume receiving at least the prescription dose to the target volume receiving at least the prescription dose; the conformity number (CN) which is the ratio of the target coverage to CI; and the gradient index (GI) which is the ratio of the volume of 50% of the prescription isodose to the volume of the prescription isodose; as well as the V20, V5, and mean lung dose (MLD). Paired non-parametric analysis of variance tests with post-tests were performed to examine the statistical significance of the differences of the dosimetric indices. Results Dosimetric indices CI, CN and MLD all show statistically significant improvement for all studied VMAT techniques compared with 3D plans (p < 0.05). V5 and V20 show statistically significant improvement for the FFF-VMAT plans compared with 3D (p < 0.001). GI is improved for the FFF-VMAT and the non-coplanar VMAT plans (p < 0.01 and p

  14. Reduced Sun Exposure Does Not Explain the Inverse Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Percent Body Fat in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater adiposity is associated with lower blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The extent to which this may result from reduced sun exposure among heavier individuals is unknown. This analysis was conducted to determine whether sun exposure habits differ according to percent body fat (%...

  15. Body mass index, poor diet quality and health related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an aging population, potentially modifiable factors impacting mortality such as diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of interest. Surviving members of the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) (n = 5,993; aged =74 years) were contacted in the fall of 20...

  16. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Company, Joe; Ball, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the DF50 (ImpediMed Ltd, Eight Mile Plains, Queensland, Australia) bioelectrical impedance analysis device using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as the criterion in two groups: endurance athletes and power athletes. The secondary purpose was to develop accurate body fat…

  17. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  18. Impact of body size and physical activity during adolescence and adult life on overall and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Arash; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Islami, Farhad; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgar, Ali; Khoshnia, Masoud; Wacholder, Sholom; Matthews, Charles C; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2014-02-01

    We conducted this study to examine life-course body size and physical activity in relation to total and cause-specific mortality, which has not previously been studied in the low and middle-income countries in Asia. The Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based cohort in northeastern Iran in which 50,045 people above the age of 40 have been followed since 2004. Participants were shown a validated pictogram to assess body size at ages 15, 30, and the time of recruitment. Information on occupational physical activity at these ages was also collected. Subjects were followed up annually, and cause of death was determined. Cox regression models were adjusted for age at cohort start, smoking, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, place of residence, education, and opium use. Models for body size were also adjusted for physical activity at the same age, and vice versa. During a total of 252,740 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up duration 5.1 ± 1.3 years) through December 2011, 2,529 of the cohort participants died. Larger body sizes at ages 15 or 30 in both sexes were associated with increased overall mortality. Cancer mortality was more strongly associated with adolescent obesity, and cardiovascular mortality with early adulthood body size. Weight gain between these ages was associated with cardiovascular mortality. Obese adolescents who lost weight still had increased mortality from all medical causes in both sexes. Physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood had no association with mortality, but at cohort baseline higher levels of activity were associated with reduced mortality. Mortality in this Middle-Eastern population was associated with obesity both during adolescence and early adult life. PMID:24557643

  19. Adult Strabismus

    MedlinePlus

    ... will likely improve the double vision and depth perception. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and ... muscle surgery is usually not severe. Headache, pulling sensation with eye movement and foreign body sensation in ...

  20. Assessment of Under Nutrition of Bangladeshi Adults Using Anthropometry: Can Body Mass Index Be Replaced by Mid-Upper-Arm-Circumference?

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Tania; Karim, Md. Nazmul; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Md. Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Body-mass-index (BMI) is widely accepted as an indicator of nutritional status in adults. Mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric-measure used primarily among children. The present study attempted to evaluate the use of MUAC as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition, and thus to suggest a suitable cut-off value. Methods A cross-sectional study in 650 adult attendants of the patients of Dhaka-Hospital, of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) was conducted during 2012. Height, weight and MUAC of 260 male and 390 female aged 19–60 years were measured. Curve estimation was done to assess the linearity and correlation of BMI and MUAC. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC against BMI<18.5 was determined. Separate Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for male and female. Area under ROC curve and Youden's index were generated to aid selection of the most suitable cut-off value of MUAC for undernutrition. A value with highest Youden's index was chosen for cut-off. Results Our data shows strong significant positive correlation (linear) between MUAC and BMI, for males r = 0.81, (p<0.001) and for females r = 0.828, (p<0.001). MUAC cut-off <25.1 cm in males (AUC 0.930) and <23.9 cm in females (AUC 0.930) were chosen separately based on highest corresponding Youden's index. These values best correspond with BMI cut-off for under nutrition (BMI <18.5) in either gender. Conclusion MUAC correlates closely with BMI. For the simplicity and easy to remember MUAC <25 cm for male and <24 cm for female may be considered as a simpler alternative to BMI cut-off <18.5 to detect adult undernutrition. PMID:25875397