Science.gov

Sample records for adult breast density

  1. Breast Density and Your Breast Mammogram Report

    MedlinePlus

    Breast Density and Your Mammogram Report Regular mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early. But if ... But in some women, there’s little change. Breast density is very common, and is not abnormal. How ...

  2. Transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS): a biomarker of breast tissue density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Kristina M.; Knight, Julia A.; Jong, Roberta; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-08-01

    A primary goal of preventive oncology is the identification of women at increased risk for breast cancer who would benefit most from risk reducing interventions. An established physical risk assessment technique is the use of mammography to quantify the dense tissue content of the breast. Women with a majority of the breast occupied by dense tissue are at four to six times greater risk of breast cancer than women with the least density. The main drawback of mammography is that it requires exposure to ionising radiation and there are concerns regarding use in young women. Another potential physical risk assessment is Transillumination Breast Spectroscopy (TIBS). TIBS uses non-ionizing optical radiation to measure bulk tissue properties and thus is applicable to women of any age. This study examines the feasibility of using TIBS in vivo to detect mammographic density as an interim indicator of breast cancer risk. TIBS measurements were completed on 300 women with radiological normal mammograms. White light (625 to 1060 nm) was delivered to the breast tissue and transmitted light was detected on the opposite side of the breast. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the spectral data and generate individual 'risk' scores. Agreement between the obtained 'risk' scores and mammographic density was established using density cluster analysis, the Kappa statistic and logistic regression. The agreement between breast density assessed by mammography and by TIBS was statistically significant for all 'risk' scores. Logistic regression indicated a strong association between the TIBS scores and mammographic density. TIBS provides an alternative to x-ray derived mammographic density as a biomarker of breast density and hence cancer risk.

  3. Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-03-01

    Breast density is known as a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Clinical assessment of breast density during screening mammography is often done by radiologists through visual evaluation or by a computer program. Automated computer methods offer the potential for non-subjective density assessments. With the rapid development and increased utilization of tomosynthesis clinically, there is a practical need for systems to provide automated breast density measurements in tomosynthesis like those available in mammography. QuantraTM is a software package using physical modeling of mammography systems, and performs volumetric assessment of breast tissue composition for conventional mammography. In this paper, we describe recent developments to extend Quantra to calculate breast density using tomosynthesis projection images. Our development took advantage of the combo imaging mode of Hologic Selenia DimensionsTM system, which allowed co-registered conventional 2D mammogram and 3D tomosynthesis images to be acquired in a single compression. We used the Quantra results of 2D mammograms as a reference to refine the new processing algorithm for tomosynthesis images. This paper describes details of the new algorithm and provides some preliminary results.

  4. Automatic breast density classification using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefan, D.; Talebpour, A.; Ahmadinejhad, N.; Kamali Asl, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to studies, the risk of breast cancer directly associated with breast density. Many researches are done on automatic diagnosis of breast density using mammography. In the current study, artifacts of mammograms are removed by using image processing techniques and by using the method presented in this study, including the diagnosis of points of the pectoral muscle edges and estimating them using regression techniques, pectoral muscle is detected with high accuracy in mammography and breast tissue is fully automatically extracted. In order to classify mammography images into three categories: Fatty, Glandular, Dense, a feature based on difference of gray-levels of hard tissue and soft tissue in mammograms has been used addition to the statistical features and a neural network classifier with a hidden layer. Image database used in this research is the mini-MIAS database and the maximum accuracy of system in classifying images has been reported 97.66% with 8 hidden layers in neural network.

  5. Circulating serum xenoestrogens and mammographic breast density

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Humans are widely exposed to estrogenically active phthalates, parabens, and phenols, raising concerns about potential effects on breast tissue and breast cancer risk. We sought to determine the association of circulating serum levels of these chemicals (reflecting recent exposure) with mammographic breast density (a marker of breast cancer risk). Methods We recruited postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin (N = 264). Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample that was analyzed for mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA). Percentage breast density was measured from mammograms by using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Results Serum BPA was positively associated with mammographic breast density after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other potentially confounding factors. Mean percentage density was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4 to 14.0) among the 193 women with nondetectable BPA levels, 13.7% (95% CI, 10.7 to 17.1) among the 35 women with detectable levels below the median (<0.55 ng/ml), and 17.6% (95% CI, 14.1 to 21.5) among the 34 women with detectable levels above the median (>0.55 ng/ml; Ptrend = 0.01). Percentage breast density was also elevated (18.2%; 95% CI, 13.4 to 23.7) among the 18 women with serum mono-ethyl phthalate above the median detected level (>3.77 ng/ml) compared with women with nondetectable BPA levels (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.9 to 14.3; Ptrend = 0.07). No other chemicals demonstrated associations with percentage breast density. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with high serum levels of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate had elevated breast density. Further investigation of the impact of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate on breast cancer risk by using repeated serum measurements or other markers of xenoestrogen exposure are needed. PMID:23710608

  6. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Gulsen, Gultekin; Su, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature. PMID:26692524

  7. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    PubMed Central

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:25086548

  8. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, Sabee Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  9. Relationship between breast sound speed and mammographic percent density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Nebojsa; Boyd, Norman; Littrup, Peter; Myc, Lukasz; Faiz, Muhammad; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Despite some shortcomings, mammography is currently the standard of care for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. However, breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to overcome the drawbacks of mammography. It is known that women with high breast densities have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Measuring breast density is accomplished through the use of mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular to total breast area. Using an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype, we created sound speed images of the patient's breast, motivated by the fact that sound speed in a tissue is proportional to the density of the tissue. The purpose of this work is to compare the acoustic performance of the UST system with the measurement of mammographic percent density. A cohort of 251 patients was studied using both imaging modalities and the results suggest that the volume averaged breast sound speed is significantly related to mammographic percent density. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.73 for the 175 film mammograms and 0.69 for the 76 digital mammograms obtained. Since sound speed measurements do not require ionizing radiation or physical compression, they have the potential to form the basis of a safe, more accurate surrogate marker of breast density.

  10. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    PubMed

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  11. One vs. Two Breast Density Measures to Predict 5- and 10- Year Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Gard, Charlotte C.; Sprague, Brian L.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background One measure of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density improves 5-year breast cancer risk prediction, but the value of sequential measures is unknown. We determined if two BI-RADS density measures improves the predictive accuracy of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium 5-year risk model compared to one measure. Methods We included 722,654 women aged 35–74 years with two mammograms with BI-RADS density measures on average 1.8 years apart; 13,715 developed invasive breast cancer. We used Cox regression to estimate the relative hazards of breast cancer for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and one or two density measures. We developed a risk prediction model by combining these estimates with 2000–2010 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence and 2010 vital statistics for competing risk of death. Results The two-measure density model had marginally greater discriminatory accuracy than the one-measure model (AUC=0.640 vs. 0.635). Of 18.6% of women (134,404/722,654) who decreased density categories, 15.4% (20,741/134,404) of women whose density decreased from heterogeneously or extremely dense to a lower density category with one other risk factor had a clinically meaningful increase in 5-year risk from <1.67% with the one-density model to ≥1.67% with the two-density model. Conclusion The two-density model has similar overall discrimination to the one-density model for predicting 5-year breast cancer risk and improves risk classification for women with risk factors and a decrease in density. Impact A two-density model should be considered for women whose density decreases when calculating breast cancer risk. PMID:25824444

  12. Microcalcifications detection using Fisher's linear discriminant and breast density.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, G A; Gonzalez, J A; Altamirano, L; Guichard, J S; Diaz, R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death in women. However, its early detection through microcalcifications identification is a powerful tool to save many lives. In this study, we present a supervised microcalcifications detection method based on Fisher's Linear Discriminant. Our method considers knowledge about breast density allowing it to identify microcalcifications even in difficult cases (when there is not high contrast between the microcalcification and the surrounding breast tissue). We evaluated our method with two mammograms databases for each of its phases: breast density classification, microcalcifications segmentation, and false-positive reduction, obtaining cumulative accuracy results around 90% for the microcalcifications detection task.

  13. Enhancement of Mammographic Density Measures in Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Cheddad, Abbas; Czene, Kamila; Shepherd, John A.; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Methods We present a novel approach to enhance area density measures that takes advantage of the relative density of the pectoral muscle that appears in lateral mammographic views. We hypothesized that the grey scale of film mammograms is normalized to volume breast density but not pectoral density and thus pectoral density becomes an independent marker of volumetric density. Results From analysis of data from a Swedish case–control study (1,286 breast cancer cases and 1,391 control subjects, ages 50–75 years), we found that the mean intensity of the pectoral muscle (MIP) was highly associated with breast cancer risk [per SD: OR = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75–0.88; P = 6 × 10−7] after adjusting for a validated computer-assisted measure of percent density (PD), Cumulus. The area under curve (AUC) changed from 0.600 to 0.618 due to using PD with the pectoral muscle as reference instead of a standard area-based PD measure. We showed that MIP is associated with a genetic variant known to be associated with mammographic density and breast cancer risk, rs10995190, in a subset of women with genetic data. We further replicated the association between MIP and rs10995190 in an additional cohort of 2,655 breast cancer cases (combined P = 0.0002). Conclusions MIP is a marker of volumetric density that can be used to complement area PD in mammographic density studies and breast cancer risk assessment. Impact Inclusion of MIP in risk models should be considered for studies using area PD from analog films. PMID:24722754

  14. Breast Density and Benign Breast Disease: Risk Assessment to Identify Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tice, Jeffrey A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M.; Gard, Charlotte C.; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. Methods We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. Results We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (P < .001). Conclusion The BCSC BBD model accurately estimates women's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. PMID:26282663

  15. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. Methods The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. Results After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. Conclusions High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with

  16. Characterization of breast density in women from Lima, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Fanny L.; Manrique, Susan; Guerrero, Jorge; Pinto, Joseph; Ferrer, Jose; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Data from GLOBOCAN show that around 4,000 Peruvian women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. From these new cases, the clinical presentation of 36% corresponded to advanced stages (III and IV). Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen current screening and early detection strategies. The American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density classification is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool in mammography to standardize and facilitate report to non-radiologists. In our sample of Peruvian women, we found that 45.3% of women have a breast density classified as ACR II, 32.3% as ACR I, 19.7% as ACR III and only 2.7% as ACR IV. Also, premenopausal women are more likely to have breast density types ACR III and IV than postmenopausal women. These results show certain similarity to other populations showing that most breast densities are classified as ACR I and II, but shows a unique distribution when taking into account all four ACR types. Our results are consistent with epidemiological evidence suggesting that the Peruvian population may have a different stratification of risk based on its particular genetic and/or ethnic background. The present work will aid to develop novel strategies for screening and early detection of breast malignancies.

  17. Multiclass primal support vector machines for breast density classification.

    PubMed

    Land, Walker H; Verheggen, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Parenchymal patterns defining the density of breast tissue are detected by advanced correlation pattern recognition in an integrated Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) and diagnosis system. Fractal signatures of density are modelled according to four clinical categories. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) in the primal formulation solves the multiclass problem using 'One-Versus-All' (OVA) and 'All-Versus-All' (AVA) decompositions, achieving 85% and 94% accuracy, respectively. Fully automated classification of breast density via a texture model derived from fractal dimension, dispersion, and lacunarity moves current qualitative methods forward to objective quantitative measures, amenable with the overarching vision of substantiating the role of density in epidemiological risk models of breast cancer. PMID:20054985

  18. Misclassification of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic density and implications for breast density reporting legislation

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Charlotte C.; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. states have begun legislating mammographic breast density reporting to women, requiring that women undergoing screening mammography who have dense breast tissue (BI-RADS density c or d) receive written notification of their breast density; however, the impact that misclassification of breast density will have on this reporting remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess reproducibility of the four-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density measure and examine its relationship with a continuous measure of percent density. We enrolled 19 radiologists, experienced in breast imaging, from a single integrated healthcare system. Radiologists interpreted 341 screening mammograms at two points in time six months apart. We assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement in radiologists’ interpretations of BI-RADS density and explored whether agreement depended upon radiologist characteristics. We examined the relationship between BI-RADS density and percent density in a subset of 282 examinations. Intra-radiologist agreement was moderate to substantial, with kappa varying across radiologists from 0.50–0.81 (mean=0.69, 95% CI (0.63, 0.73)). Intra-radiologist agreement was higher for radiologists with ≥10 years experience interpreting mammograms (difference in mean kappa=0.10, 95% CI (0.01, 0.24)). Inter-radiologist agreement varied widely across radiologist pairs from slight to substantial, with kappa ranging from 0.02–0.72 (mean=0.46, 95% CI (0.36, 0.55)). Of 145 examinations interpreted as “non-dense” (BI-RADS density a or b) by the majority of radiologists, 82.8% were interpreted as “dense” (BI-RADS density c or d) by at least one radiologist. Of 187 examinations interpreted as “dense” by the majority of radiologists, 47.1% were interpreted as “non-dense” by at least one radiologist. While the examinations of almost half of the women in our study were interpreted clinically as having BI-RADS density c or d, only

  19. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  20. Simulation of optical breast density measurements using structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2014-02-01

    Breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and we propose using diffuse optical tomography with structured light illuminations (SLI) to quantify the percentage of the fibroglandular (dense) tissue within the breast. Segmentations of dense tissue from breast MRI cases were used to create a geometric model of the breast. COMSOL-generated Finite Element Method (FEM) meshes were used for simulating photon migration through the breast tissue and reconstructing the absorption maps. In these preliminary simulations, the absorption coefficients of the non-dense and dense tissue were assigned using literature values based on their concentrations of water, lipid, oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin as they are the main chromophores, or absorbers of light, within the breast. Synthetic SLI measurements were obtained using a FEMbased forward solver. During the simulation, 12 distinct patterns consisting of vertical stripes, horizontal stripes, and checkerboard patterns were used for illumination and detection. Using these simulated measurements, FEM-based inverse solvers were used to reconstruct the 3D absorption maps. In this study, the methods are applied to reconstruct the absorption maps for multiple wavelengths (780nm, 830nm, 900nm, 1000nm) using one case as an example. We are currently continuing these simulations with additional cases and reconstructing 3D concentration maps of the chromophores within the dense and non-dense breast tissue.

  1. Local mammographic density as a predictor of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Mayu; Harkness, Elaine F.; Chen, Xin; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Bydder, Megan; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit Y.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Evans, Gareth D.; Howell, Anthony; Stavrinos, Paula; Wilson, Mary; Astley, Susan M.

    2015-03-01

    High overall mammographic density is associated with both an increased risk of developing breast cancer and the risk of cancer being masked. We compared local density at cancer sites in diagnostic images with corresponding previous screening mammograms (priors), and matched controls. VolparaTM density maps were obtained for 54 mammograms showing unilateral breast cancer and their priors which had been previously read as normal. These were each matched to 3 controls on age, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy usage, body mass index and year of prior. Local percent density was computed in 15mm square regions at lesion sites and similar locations in the corresponding images. Conditional logistic regression was used to predict case-control status. In diagnostic and prior images, local density was increased at the lesion site compared with the opposite breast (medians 21.58%, 9.18%, p<0.001 diagnostic; 18.82%, 9.45%, p <0.001 prior). Women in the highest tertile of local density in priors were more likely to develop cancer than those in the lowest tertile (OR 42.09, 95% CI 5.37-329.94). Those in the highest tertile of VolparaTM gland volume were also more likely to develop cancer (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.30-6.42). Local density is increased where cancer will develop compared with corresponding regions in the opposite breast and matched controls, and its measurement could enhance computer-aided mammography.

  2. Volumetric breast density evaluation from ultrasound tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2008-09-15

    Previous ultrasound tomography work conducted by our group showed a direct correlation between measured sound speed and physical density in vitro, and increased in vivo sound speed with increasing mammographic density, a known risk factor for breast cancer. Building on these empirical results, the purpose of this work was to explore a metric to quantify breast density using our ultrasound tomography sound speed images in a manner analogous to computer-assisted mammogram segmentation for breast density analysis. Therefore, volumetric ultrasound percent density (USPD) is determined by segmenting high sound speed areas from each tomogram using a k-means clustering routine, integrating these results over the entire volume of the breast, and dividing by whole-breast volume. First, a breast phantom comprised of fat inclusions embedded in fibroglandular tissue was scanned four times with both our ultrasound tomography clinical prototype (with 4 mm spatial resolution) and CT. The coronal transmission tomograms and CT images were analyzed using semiautomatic segmentation routines, and the integrated areas of the phantom's fat inclusions were compared between the four repeated scans. The average variability for inclusion segmentation was {approx}7% and {approx}2%, respectively, and a close correlation was observed in the integrated areas between the two modalities. Next, a cohort of 93 patients was imaged, yielding volumetric coverage of the breast (45-75 sound speed tomograms/patient). The association of USPD with mammographic percent density (MPD) was evaluated using two measures: (1) qualitative, as determined by a radiologist's visual assessment using BI-RADS Criteria and (2) quantitative, via digitization and semiautomatic segmentation of craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms. A strong positive association between BI-RADS category and USPD was demonstrated [Spearman {rho}=0.69 (p<0.001)], with significant differences between all BI-RADS categories as assessed

  3. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. PMID:26831342

  4. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health.

  5. Impact of Breast Density Notification Legislation on Radiologists' Practices of Reporting Breast Density: A Multi-State Study.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Manisha; Baker, Jay A; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Brandt, Eugenia K; Ghate, Sujata V

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of breast density notification legislation on breast density reporting by radiologists nationally. Materials and Methods The institutional review board exempted this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study from the requirement for informed consent. State-level data over a 5-year period on breast density categorization and breast cancer detection rate were collected from the National Mammography Database (NMD). Z tests were used to calculate differences in proportions. Results Facilities in 13 of 17 states that had breast density notification legislation as of 2014 submitted data to the NMD before and after law enactment. A total of 1 333 541 mammographic studies (hereafter called "mammograms") over a 30-month period, beginning 20 months before and continuing 10 months after law enactment, were included in the analysis. There was a small but statistically significant decrease in the percentage of mammograms reported as showing dense breast tissue (hereafter called "dense mammograms") in the month before law enactment compared with the month after (43.0% [22 338 of 52 000] vs 40.0% [18 604 of 46 464], P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of mammograms reported as dense in the month before law enactment compared with the 10th month after (43.0% [22 338 of 52 000] vs 42.8% [15 835 of 36 991], P = .65). There were no significant differences in the breast cancer detection rate between the month before and the month after law enactment (3.9 vs 3.8 cancers per 1000 mammograms, P = .79) or between the month before law enactment and the 10th month after (3.9 vs 4.2 cancers per 1000 mammograms, P = .55). In 21 analyzed states without breast density notification legislation, the percentage of mammograms reported as dense did not decrease below 42.8% (43 363 of 101 394) from 2010 to 2014, in contrast to 13 analyzed states with breast density notification legislation, which reached a nadir of 39.3% (20 965 of

  6. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  7. Estimation of Volumetric Breast Density from Digital Mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo-Proulx, Olivier

    Mammographic breast density (MBD) is a strong risk factor for developing breast cancer. MBD is typically estimated by manually selecting the area occupied by the dense tissue on a mammogram. There is interest in measuring the volume of dense tissue, or volumetric breast density (VBD), as it could potentially be a stronger risk factor. This dissertation presents and validates an algorithm to measure the VBD from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on an empirical calibration of the mammography system, supplemented by physical modeling of x-ray imaging that includes the effects of beam polychromaticity, scattered radation, anti-scatter grid and detector glare. It also includes a method to estimate the compressed breast thickness as a function of the compression force, and a method to estimate the thickness of the breast outside of the compressed region. The algorithm was tested on 26 simulated mammograms obtained from computed tomography images, themselves deformed to mimic the effects of compression. This allowed the determination of the baseline accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm was also used on 55 087 clinical digital mammograms, which allowed for the determination of the general characteristics of VBD and breast volume, as well as their variation as a function of age and time. The algorithm was also validated against a set of 80 magnetic resonance images, and compared against the area method on 2688 images. A preliminary study comparing association of breast cancer risk with VBD and MBD was also performed, indicating that VBD is a stronger risk factor. The algorithm was found to be accurate, generating quantitative density measurements rapidly and automatically. It can be extended to any digital mammography system, provided that the compression thickness of the breast can be determined accurately.

  8. The general radiologist's role in breast cancer risk assessment: breast density measurement on chest CT.

    PubMed

    Margolies, Laurie; Salvatore, Mary; Eber, Corey; Jacobi, Adam; Lee, In-Jae; Liang, Mingzhu; Tang, Wei; Xu, Dongming; Zhao, Shijun; Kale, Minal; Wisnivesky, Juan; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David

    2015-01-01

    To determine if general radiologists can accurately measure breast density on low-dose chest computed tomographic (CT) scans, two board-certified radiologists with expertise in mammography and CT scan interpretation, and seven general radiologists performed retrospective review of 100 women's low-dose chest CT scans. CT breast density grade based on Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System grades was independently assigned for each case. Kappa statistic was used to compare agreement between the expert consensus grading and those of the general radiologists. Kappa statistics were 0.61-0.88 for the seven radiologists, showing substantial to excellent agreement and leading to the conclusion that general radiologists can be trained to determine breast density on chest CT.

  9. Quantitative volumetric breast density estimation using phase contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Hauser, Nik; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Phase contrast mammography using a grating interferometer is an emerging technology for breast imaging. It provides complementary information to the conventional absorption-based methods. Additional diagnostic values could be further obtained by retrieving quantitative information from the three physical signals (absorption, differential phase and small-angle scattering) yielded simultaneously. We report a non-parametric quantitative volumetric breast density estimation method by exploiting the ratio (dubbed the R value) of the absorption signal to the small-angle scattering signal. The R value is used to determine breast composition and the volumetric breast density (VBD) of the whole breast is obtained analytically by deducing the relationship between the R value and the pixel-wise breast density. The proposed method is tested by a phantom study and a group of 27 mastectomy samples. In the clinical evaluation, the estimated VBD values from both cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) views are compared with the ACR scores given by radiologists to the pre-surgical mammograms. The results show that the estimated VBD results using the proposed method are consistent with the pre-surgical ACR scores, indicating the effectiveness of this method in breast density estimation. A positive correlation is found between the estimated VBD and the diagnostic ACR score for both the CC view (p=0.033 ) and AP view (p=0.001 ). A linear regression between the results of the CC view and AP view showed a correlation coefficient γ = 0.77, which indicates the robustness of the proposed method and the quantitative character of the additional information obtained with our approach.

  10. Quantitative volumetric breast density estimation using phase contrast mammography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhentian; Hauser, Nik; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-05-21

    Phase contrast mammography using a grating interferometer is an emerging technology for breast imaging. It provides complementary information to the conventional absorption-based methods. Additional diagnostic values could be further obtained by retrieving quantitative information from the three physical signals (absorption, differential phase and small-angle scattering) yielded simultaneously. We report a non-parametric quantitative volumetric breast density estimation method by exploiting the ratio (dubbed the R value) of the absorption signal to the small-angle scattering signal. The R value is used to determine breast composition and the volumetric breast density (VBD) of the whole breast is obtained analytically by deducing the relationship between the R value and the pixel-wise breast density. The proposed method is tested by a phantom study and a group of 27 mastectomy samples. In the clinical evaluation, the estimated VBD values from both cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) views are compared with the ACR scores given by radiologists to the pre-surgical mammograms. The results show that the estimated VBD results using the proposed method are consistent with the pre-surgical ACR scores, indicating the effectiveness of this method in breast density estimation. A positive correlation is found between the estimated VBD and the diagnostic ACR score for both the CC view (p = 0.033) and AP view (p = 0.001). A linear regression between the results of the CC view and AP view showed a correlation coefficient γ = 0.77, which indicates the robustness of the proposed method and the quantitative character of the additional information obtained with our approach.

  11. Reproductive factors related to childbearing and mammographic breast density.

    PubMed

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the associations of reproductive factors related to childbearing with percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas, by menopausal status. This study included 4110 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas were measured from digitized mammography film images with computerized techniques. All density measures were square root-transformed in all the analyses to improve normality. The data on reproductive variables and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires, at the time of the mammogram date. As compared to nulliparous women, parous postmenopausal women had lower percent density (β = -0.60, 95 % CI -0.84; -0.37), smaller absolute dense area (β = -0.66, 95 % CI -1.03; -0.29), and greater nondense area (β = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.27; 1.16). Among parous women, number of children was inversely associated with percent density in pre- (β per one child = -0.12, 95 % CI -0.20; -0.05) and postmenopausal women (β per one child = -0.07, 95 % CI -0.12; -0.02). The positive associations of breastfeeding with absolute dense and nondense areas were limited to premenopausal women, while the positive association of the age at first child's birth with percent density and the inverse association with nondense area were limited to postmenopausal women. Women with greater number of children and younger age at first child's birth have more favorable breast density patterns that could explain subsequent breast cancer risk reduction.

  12. Change in mammographic breast density associated with the use of Depo-Provera.

    PubMed

    Dillis, Charlotte L; Schreiman, Judith S

    2003-01-01

    We report two cases in which routine mammograms showed a significant increase in breast density compared to previous studies. Review of patient histories revealed that both women had been receiving contraceptive injections of Depo-Provera at the time of their earlier mammograms. Breast density increased after Depo-Provera was discontinued. We postulate that Depo-Provera has a suppressive effect on breast density. Alterations in breast density may have implications regarding breast cancer risk. Etiologies of generalized change in breast density are reviewed.

  13. A quantitative analysis of breast densities using cone beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Liu, Shaohua

    2009-02-01

    Duct patterns are formed by desmoplastic reactions as most breast carcinomas are. Hence, it has been suggested that the denser a breast is, the higher the likelihood to develop breast cancer. Consequently, breast density has been one of the suggested parameters to estimate the risk to develop breast cancer. Currently, the main technique to evaluate breast densities is through mammograms. However, mammograms have the disadvantage of displaying overlapping structures within the breast. Although there are efficient techniques to obtain breast densities from mammograms, mammography can only provide a rough estimate because of the overlapping breast tissue. In this study, cone beam CT images were utilized to evaluate the breast density of sixteen breast images. First, a breast phantom with known volumes representing fatty, glandular and calcified tissues was designed to calibrate the system. Since cone beam CT provides 3D-isotropic resolution images throughout the field of view, the issue of overlapping structures disappears, allowing greater accuracy in evaluating the volumes of each different part of the phantom. Then, using cone beam CT breast images, the breast density of eight patients was evaluated using a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm that differentiates between fatty, glandular and calcified tissues. The results demonstrated that cone beam CT images provide a better tool to evaluate the breast density of the whole breast more accurately. The results also demonstrated that using this semi-automatic segmentation algorithm improves the efficiency of classifying the breast into the four classifications as recommended by the American College of Radiology.

  14. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  15. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  16. Sunlight Exposure and Breast Density: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; So, Edwin; Lam, Tsz-ping; Woo, Jean; Yuen, PY; Qin, Ling; Ku, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to assess the association of sunlight exposure with breast cancer risk, measured by the breast density assessed from Tabár's mammographic pattern in Chinese women. Methods A total of 676 premenopausal women were recruited to participate in this study, in which 650 completed a validated sunlight exposure questionnaire via telephone. The mammograms were classified according to Tabár's classification for parenchyma, and patterns IV & V and I, II & III indicated respectively high and low risk mammographic patterns for breast cancer. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sun exposure-related variables were estimated using unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Among 646 participants, women with high breast cancer risk (Tabár's patterns IV &V) had less hours spent in the sun than those with low risk (I, II & III) at any age stage. A higher level of sunlight exposure was associated with a significantly lower risk having high risk Tabár's pattern. Women aged 40 to 44 years who were in the highest tertile of lifetime total hours spent in the sun had a multi-adjusted OR of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.18-0.92; p for trend=0.03) compared with those in the lowest tertile (>2.19 hr/day vs. <1.32 hr/day). For hours spent in the sun across the ages of 6 to 12 years, the comparable OR was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.15-0.91; p for trend=0.03). Conclusion These findings suggest that higher sunlight exposure is related to a lower risk of having high risk breast density pattern in premenopausal women. Our results also suggest the most relevant period of exposure is during earlier life. PMID:23843849

  17. Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity?

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H; Edelstein, S L; Tucker, J; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine whether breast-feeding is associated with increased longevity or cause-specific survival. METHODS. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on breast-feeding was available on 1170 subjects, who have been followed for more than 65 years. RESULTS. Survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model) indicated that breast-feeding was associated with increased longevity, even after adjustment for age at baseline, birthweight, infant health, and childhood socioeconomic status, but only among men, and the association was not significant (P = .15). Neither cardiovascular disease nor cancer survival was significantly associated with duration of breast-feeding for either sex. Survival from deaths due to injuries was positively associated with breast-feeding after adjustment (P = .03) and demonstrated a clear gradient with duration, but only among men. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, the present study does not provide strong evidence that breast-feeding is associated with adult longevity. The reduced risk of death from injury may reflect chance, in that the association was significant only for men, or it may reflect psychosocial correlates of breast-feeding practices. PMID:8092371

  18. Cardiovascular Complications of Breast Cancer Therapy in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klem, Igor; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Patel, Manesh R.; Winchester, Mark A.; Owusu, Cynthia; Kimmick, Gretchen G.

    2011-01-01

    Older adults frequently have pre-existing and cancer-related risk factors for cardiovascular toxicity from cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the risk factors and strategies for prevention and management of cardiovascular complications in older women with breast cancer. PMID:21737575

  19. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Nguyen, Tuong L; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    We carried out this study to evaluate the association between mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI and early-onset breast cancer in Asian women. We recruited 213 Korean patients with breast cancer (45% diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and 630 controls matched for age, menopausal status, and examination date. The percentage and absolute size of dense areas on digital mammograms were measured using a computer-assisted thresholding technique (Cumulus). We carried out an analysis using the conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for covariates. An increase by 1 SD in age and BMI-adjusted absolute dense area and percentage dense area was associated with a 1.15-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.29) and 1.20-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.37) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively. These associations were stronger for premenopausal disease (P=0.07 and 0.01, respectively) and for disease diagnosed before age 50 (P=0.07 and 0.02, respectively) than for postmenopausal disease (P=0.16 and 0.23, respectively) or later onset disease (P=0.10 and 0.10, respectively). There was no difference in the associations with premenopausal versus postmenopausal and early-onset versus late-onset disease. After adjusting for age and BMI, both a greater absolute dense area and a greater percentage dense area were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly at a young age.

  20. The contributions of breast density and common genetic variation to breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Celine M; Pankratz, V Shane; Scott, Christopher G; Haeberle, Lothar; Ziv, Elad; Jensen, Matthew R; Brandt, Kathleen R; Whaley, Dana H; Olson, Janet E; Heusinger, Katharina; Hack, Carolin C; Jud, Sebastian M; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Tice, Jeffrey A; Norman, Aaron D; Cunningham, Julie M; Purrington, Kristen S; Easton, Douglas F; Sellers, Thomas A; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fasching, Peter A; Couch, Fergus J

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated whether a 76-locus polygenic risk score (PRS) and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density were independent risk factors within three studies (1643 case patients, 2397 control patients) using logistic regression models. We incorporated the PRS odds ratio (OR) into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk-prediction model while accounting for its attributable risk and compared five-year absolute risk predictions between models using area under the curve (AUC) statistics. All statistical tests were two-sided. BI-RADS density and PRS were independent risk factors across all three studies (P interaction = .23). Relative to those with scattered fibroglandular densities and average PRS (2(nd) quartile), women with extreme density and highest quartile PRS had 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.74 to 4.12) increased risk, while those with low density and PRS had reduced risk (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.51). PRS added independent information (P < .001) to the BCSC model and improved discriminatory accuracy from AUC = 0.66 to AUC = 0.69. Although the BCSC-PRS model was well calibrated in case-control data, independent cohort data are needed to test calibration in the general population.

  1. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  2. Mammographic density and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, C; Matsubara, T; Fujita, H; Nagao, Y; Shibuya, C; Kashiki, Y; Shimizu, H

    2005-01-01

    Using an automated method for detecting mammographic mass, the authors evaluated the relation between quantitatively measured density and the risk of breast cancer in a case–control study among Japanese women. The case subjects were 146 women newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed with breast cancer at a general hospital. A total of 659 control women were selected from those who attended a breast cancer mass screening at this hospital. Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer were observed for breast densities of 25–49 and 50–74%, but not for densities of 75–100% as compared with 0% in premenopausal women after controlling for covariates (ORs=4.0, 4.3, and 1.4, respectively). In postmenopausal women, ORs were significantly increased for breast densities of 25–50% (OR=3.0) and 50–100% (OR=4.2). Total breast area was significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of density percent or dense area in postmenopausal women. These data suggested that mammographic density was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women as is the case in Caucasian women. However, the associations of the risk of breast cancer with breast size and a high breast density greater than 75%, needs to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:15956963

  3. Breast Cancer Patients with High Density Mammograms Do Not Have Increased Risk of Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, September 6, 2012 Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have ... is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of ...

  4. Changes in mammographic density over time in breast cancer cases and women at high risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Work, Meghan E; Reimers, Laura L; Quante, Anne S; Crew, Katherine D; Whiffen, Amy; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-10-01

    High mammographic breast density is one of the strongest intermediate markers of breast cancer risk, and decreases in density over time have been associated with decreases in breast cancer risk. Using repeated measures of mammographic density in a cohort of high-risk women, the Women at Risk (WAR) cohort at Columbia University Medical Center (N = 2670), we examined whether changes in prediagnostic mammographic density differed among 85 prospectively-ascertained breast cancer cases and 85 age-matched controls, using a nested case-control design. Median age at first mammogram was 51 years (range, 29-77 years), with a median of 4 years between first and second prediagnostic mammogram (range, 1-15 years). Using linear regression with change in percent density as the outcome, we found that in women who did not go on to be diagnosed with breast cancer, change in percent density decreased as time between first and second mammogram increased (β = -1.62% per year, p = 0.004). However, in women who did go on to be diagnosed with breast cancer, there was no overall change in percent density associated with time between first and second mammogram (β = 0.29% per year, p = 0.61); the change over time was statistically significantly different between cases versus controls (p <0.009). If replicated in larger cohorts, these results suggest that within-individual changes in mammographic density as measured by percent density may be a useful biomarker of breast cancer risk.

  5. Is there an influence of dietary habits on breast density as seen on digital mammograms?

    PubMed

    Voon, Noor Shatirah Mohd Fandi; Chelliah, Kanaga Kumari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary habit on breast density, which is an important risk factor for breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was performed on 64 Malaysian women of all races between the age of 35 to 70 years. All subjects underwent mammography and the breast density was analyzed from the images using BI-RADS by two independent radiologists. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the nutrient intake. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test to evaluate the association of dietary habits to breast density. Based on the results, mutton, pork, vegetables, sweets, snacks, soy bean and eggs intake showed associations with increased breast density (p < 0.05) while grains, meat, beverages, oil and fruits, did not show any association (p > 0.05). As a conclusion, this study showed diet may make changes to the breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:22292635

  6. Volumetric breast density evaluation by ultrasound tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myc, Lukasz; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Ranger, Bryan; Lupinacci, Jessica; Schmidt, Steven; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    Since a 1976 study by Wolfe, high breast density has gained recognition as a factor strongly correlating with an increased incidence of breast cancer. These observations have led to mammographic density being designated a "risk factor" for breast cancer. Clinically, the exclusive reliance on mammography for breast density measurement has forestalled the inclusion of breast density into statistical risk models. This exclusion has in large part been due to the ionizing radiation associated with the method. Additionally, the use of mammography as valid tool for measuring a three dimensional characteristic (breast density) has been criticized for its prima facie incongruity. These shortfalls have prompted MRI studies of breast density as an alternative three-dimensional method of assessing breast density. Although, MRI is safe and can be used to measure volumetric density, its cost has prohibited its use in screening. Here, we report that sound speed measurements using a prototype ultrasound tomography device have potential for use as surrogates for breast density measurement. Accordingly, we report a strong positive linear correlation between volume-averaged sound speed of the breast and percent glandular tissue volume as assessed by MR.

  7. iDensity: an automatic Gabor filter-based algorithm for breast density assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamdonkar, Ziba; Tay, Kevin; Ryder, Will; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Although many semi-automated and automated algorithms for breast density assessment have been recently proposed, none of these have been widely accepted. In this study a novel automated algorithm, named iDensity, inspired by the human visual system is proposed for classifying mammograms into four breast density categories corresponding to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). For each BI-RADS category 80 cases were taken from the normal volumes of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). For each case only the left medio-lateral oblique was utilized. After image calibration using the provided tables of each scanner in the DDSM, the pectoral muscle and background were removed. Images were filtered by a median filter and down sampled. Images were then filtered by a filter bank consisting of Gabor filters in six orientations and 3 scales, as well as a Gaussian filter. Three gray level histogram-based features and three second order statistics features were extracted from each filtered image. Using the extracted features, mammograms were separated initially separated into two groups, low or high density, then in a second stage, the low density group was subdivided into BI-RADS I or II, and the high density group into BI-RADS III or IV. The algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 94% in the first stage, sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 95% when classifying BIRADS I and II cases, and a sensitivity of 88% and 91% specificity when classifying BI-RADS III and IV.

  8. Breast density mapping based upon system calibration, x-ray techniques, and FFDM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Smith, Andrew P.; Jing, Zhenxue; Wu, Tao

    2007-03-01

    Clinical studies have correlated a high breast density to a women's risk of breast cancer. A breast density measurement that can quantitatively depict the volume distribution and percentage of dense tissues in breasts would be very useful for risk factor assessment of breast cancer, and might be more predictive of risks than the common but subjective and coarse 4-point BIRADS scale. This paper proposes to use a neural-network mapping to compute the breast density information based upon system calibration data, x-ray techniques, and Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. The mapping consists of four modules, namely, system calibration, generator of beam quality, generator of normalized absorption, and a multi-layer feed-forward neural network. As the core of breast density mapping, the network accepts x-ray target/filter combination, normalized x-ray absorption, pixel-wise breast thickness map, and x-ray beam quality during image acquisition as input elements, and exports a pixel-wise breast density distribution and a single breast density percentage for the imaged breast. Training and testing data sets for the design and verification of the network were formulated from calibrated x-ray beam quality, imaging data with a step wedge phantom under a variety x-ray imaging techniques, and nominal breast densities of tissue equivalent materials. The network was trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based back-propagation learning method. Various thickness and glandular density phantom studies were performed with clinical x-ray techniques. Preliminary results showed that the neural network mapping is promising in accurately computing glandular density distribution and breast density percentage.

  9. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  10. Breast density and parenchymal texture measures as potential risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of a woman's risk to develop specific subtypes of breast cancer is critical for appropriate utilization of chemopreventative measures, such as with tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. In this context, we investigate quantitative measures of breast density and parenchymal texture, measures of glandular tissue content and tissue structure, as risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view digital mammograms of the contralateral breast from 106 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast density and parenchymal texture were analyzed via fully-automated software. Logistic regression with feature selection and was performed to predict ER+ versus ER- cancer status. A combined model considering all imaging measures extracted was compared to baseline models consisting of density-alone and texture-alone features. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Delong's test were used to compare the models' discriminatory capacity for receptor status. The density-alone model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.62 AUC (p=0.05). The texture-alone model had a higher discriminatory capacity of 0.70 AUC (p=0.001), which was not significantly different compared to the density-alone model (p=0.37). In contrast the combined density-texture logistic regression model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.82 AUC (p<0.001), which was statistically significantly higher than both the density-alone (p<0.001) and texture-alone regression models (p=0.04). The combination of breast density and texture measures may have the potential to identify women specifically at risk for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer and could be useful in triaging women into appropriate risk-reduction strategies.

  11. Estimation of effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences for volumetric breast density measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue; Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Kshirsagar, Ashwini

    2014-03-01

    Breast density has been identified to be a risk factor of developing breast cancer and an indicator of lesion diagnostic obstruction due to masking effect. Volumetric density measurement evaluates fibro-glandular volume, breast volume, and breast volume density measures that have potential advantages over area density measurement in risk assessment. One class of volume density computing methods is based on the finding of the relative fibro-glandular tissue attenuation with regards to the reference fat tissue, and the estimation of the effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences between the fibro-glandular and fat tissue is key to volumetric breast density computing. We have modeled the effective attenuation difference as a function of actual x-ray skin entrance spectrum, breast thickness, fibro-glandular tissue thickness distribution, and detector efficiency. Compared to other approaches, our method has threefold advantages: (1) avoids the system calibration-based creation of effective attenuation differences which may introduce tedious calibrations for each imaging system and may not reflect the spectrum change and scatter induced overestimation or underestimation of breast density; (2) obtains the system specific separate and differential attenuation values of fibroglandular and fat for each mammographic image; and (3) further reduces the impact of breast thickness accuracy to volumetric breast density. A quantitative breast volume phantom with a set of equivalent fibro-glandular thicknesses has been used to evaluate the volume breast density measurement with the proposed method. The experimental results have shown that the method has significantly improved the accuracy of estimating breast density.

  12. Using ultrasound tomography to identify the distributions of density throughout the breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark E.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-04-01

    Women with high breast density are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. Breast density has usually been defined using mammography as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue to total breast area. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can also be used to measure breast density. UST creates tomographic sound speed images of the patient's breast which is useful as sound speed is directly proportional to tissue density. Furthermore, the volumetric and quantitative information contained in the sound speed images can be used to describe the distribution of breast density. The work presented here measures the UST sound speed density distributions of 165 women with negative screening mammography. Frequency distributions of the sound speed voxel information were examined for each patient. In a preliminary analysis, the UST sound speed distributions were averaged across patients and grouped by various patient and density-related factors (e.g., age, body mass index, menopausal status, average mammographic breast density). It was found that differences in the distribution of density could be easily visualized for different patient groupings. Furthermore, findings suggest that the shape of the distributions may be used to identify participants with varying amounts of dense and non-dense tissue.

  13. Comparison of breast density measurements made using ultrasound tomography and mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Krycia, Mark; Sherman, Mark E.; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-03-01

    Women with elevated mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue area to total breast area on a mammogram are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of a patient's breast, which can then be used to measure breast density. These sound speed images are useful because physical tissue density is directly proportional to sound speed. The work presented here updates previous results that compared mammographic breast density measurements with UST breast density measurements within an ongoing study. The current analysis has been expanded to include 158 women with negative digital mammographic screens who then underwent a breast UST scan. Breast density was measured for both imaging modalities and preliminary analysis demonstrated strong and positive correlations (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.703). Additional mammographic and UST related imaging characteristics were also analyzed and used to compare the behavior of both imaging modalities. Results suggest that UST can be used among women with negative mammographic screens as a quantitative marker of breast density that may avert shortcomings of mammography.

  14. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p < 0.831). In anticipation of breast density legislation, 33% (16/48), 6% (3/48), and 6% (3/48) of facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p < 0.001). In response to breast density legislation, more than 33% of facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management.

  15. Adolescent Diet and Subsequent Serum Hormones, Breast Density and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Joanne F.; Liu, Lea; Klifa, Catherine; Hylton, Nola; Shepherd, John A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kriska, Andrea; Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults. Methods A follow-up study was conducted of 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal 8-10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25-29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content (BMC) in intervention group participants compared to usual care group participants; their mean BMCs were 2,444g and 2,377g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusion Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density or BMD. Impact Additional research is needed to clarify the association of adolescent diet with breast cancer risk and to determine if the results reported here are specific to the DISC intervention or more broadly applicable. PMID:20501774

  16. Equol-producing status, isoflavone intake, and breast density in a sample of US Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marilyn; Byrne, Celia; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Fang, Carolyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differences in ability to metabolize daidzein to equol might help explain inconsistent findings regarding isoflavones and breast cancer. We examined equol producing status in relation to breast density, a marker of breast cancer risk, and evaluated whether an association of isoflavone intake with breast density differs by equol producing status in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Methods Participants were 224 women, age 36–58 years, enrolled in a study on diet and breast density. All women completed dietary recall interviews, underwent a soy challenge to assess equol producing status, and received a mammogram assessed for breast density using a computer-assisted method. Results In our sample, 30% were classified as equol producers. In adjusted linear regression models, equol producers had significantly lower mean dense tissue area (32.8 vs. 37.7 cm2, p=0.03) and lower mean percent breast density (32% vs. 35%, p=0.03) than non-producers. Significant, inverse associations of isoflavone intake with dense area and percent density were apparent, but only in equol producers (interaction p=0.05 for both). Conclusions These results support the possibility that equol producing status affects breast density, and that effects of isoflavones on breast density depend on ability to metabolize daidzein to equol. Impact While these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample, they offer a possible explanation for the inconsistent findings regarding soy intake and breast density and possibly also breast cancer risk. The findings further suggest the importance of identifying factors that influence equol producing status, and exploring appropriate targeting of interventions. PMID:24019393

  17. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Alfonso R; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-07-21

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (∼1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material.

  18. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Alfonso R.; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-07-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (˜1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material.

  19. Diffuse optical tomography with structured-light patterns to quantify breast density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-02-01

    Breast density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, where women with denser breasts are more likely to develop cancer. By identifying women at higher risk, healthcare providers can suggest screening at a younger age to effectively diagnose and treat breast cancer in its earlier stages. Clinical risk assessment models currently do not incorporate breast density, despite its strong correlation with breast cancer. Current methods to measure breast density rely on mammography and MRI, both of which may be difficult to use as a routine risk assessment tool. We propose to use diffuse optical tomography with structured-light to measure the dense, fibroglandular (FGT) tissue volume, which has a different chromophore signature than the surrounding adipose tissue. To test the ability of this technique, we performed simulations by creating numerical breast phantoms from segmented breast MR images. We looked at two different cases, one with a centralized FGT distribution and one with a dispersed distribution. As expected, the water and lipid volumes segmented at half-maximum were overestimated for the dispersed case. However, it was noticed that the recovered water and lipid concentrations were lower and higher, respectively, than the centralized case. This information may provide insight into the morphological distribution of the FGT and can be a correction in estimating the breast density.

  20. Breast density measurements using ultrasound tomography for patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Sherman, Mark; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Women with high breast density have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women treated with the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer experience a 50% reduction in risk of contralateral breast cancer and overall reduction of similar magnitude has been identified among high-risk women receiving the drug for prevention. Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce mammographic density, and in the IBIS-1 chemoprevention trial, risk reduction and decline in density were significantly associated. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of the breast. These sound speed images are useful because breast density is proportional to sound speed. The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between USTmeasured breast density and the use of tamoxifen. So far, preliminary results for a small number of patients have been observed and are promising. Correlations between the UST-measured density and mammographic density are strong and positive, while relationships between UST density with some patient specific risk factors behave as expected. Initial results of UST examinations of tamoxifen treated patients show that approximately 45% of the patients have a decrease in density in the contralateral breast after only several months of treatment. The true effect of tamoxifen on UST-measured density cannot yet be fully determined until more data are collected. However, these promising results suggest that UST can be used to reliably assess quantitative changes in breast density over short intervals and therefore suggest that UST may enable rapid assessment of density changes associated with therapeutic and preventative interventions.

  1. Vision 20/20: Mammographic breast density and its clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong Lau, Susie

    2015-12-15

    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are “dense” and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component.

  2. Breast density quantification with cone-beam CT: a post-mortem study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Travis; Ding, Huanjun; Le, Huy Q; Ducote, Justin L; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-01

    Forty post-mortem breasts were imaged with a flat-panel based cone-beam x-ray CT system at 50 kVp. The feasibility of breast density quantification has been investigated using standard histogram thresholding and an automatic segmentation method based on the fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). The breasts were chemically decomposed into water, lipid, and protein immediately after image acquisition was completed. The per cent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis was used as the gold standard for breast density comparison. Both image-based segmentation techniques showed good precision in breast density quantification with high linear coefficients between the right and left breast of each pair. When comparing with the gold standard using %FGV from chemical analysis, Pearson's r-values were estimated to be 0.983 and 0.968 for the FCM clustering and the histogram thresholding techniques, respectively. The standard error of the estimate was also reduced from 3.92% to 2.45% by applying the automatic clustering technique. The results of the postmortem study suggested that breast tissue can be characterized in terms of water, lipid and protein contents with high accuracy by using chemical analysis, which offers a gold standard for breast density studies comparing different techniques. In the investigated image segmentation techniques, the FCM algorithm had high precision and accuracy in breast density quantification. In comparison to conventional histogram thresholding, it was more efficient and reduced inter-observer variation.

  3. Automatic breast density classification using a convolutional neural network architecture search procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Pablo; Mendoza, Julio; Wainer, Jacques; Ferrer, Jose; Pinto, Joseph; Guerrero, Jorge; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Breast parenchymal density is considered a strong indicator of breast cancer risk and therefore useful for preventive tasks. Measurement of breast density is often qualitative and requires the subjective judgment of radiologists. Here we explore an automatic breast composition classification workflow based on convolutional neural networks for feature extraction in combination with a support vector machines classifier. This is compared to the assessments of seven experienced radiologists. The experiments yielded an average kappa value of 0.58 when using the mode of the radiologists' classifications as ground truth. Individual radiologist performance against this ground truth yielded kappa values between 0.56 and 0.79.

  4. Effects of tissue heterogeneity on the optical estimate of breast density

    PubMed Central

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Ganino, Serena; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Breast density is a recognized strong and independent risk factor for developing breast cancer. At present, breast density is assessed based on the radiological appearance of breast tissue, thus relying on the use of ionizing radiation. We have previously obtained encouraging preliminary results with our portable instrument for time domain optical mammography performed at 7 wavelengths (635–1060 nm). In that case, information was averaged over four images (cranio-caudal and oblique views of both breasts) available for each subject. In the present work, we tested the effectiveness of just one or few point measurements, to investigate if tissue heterogeneity significantly affects the correlation between optically derived parameters and mammographic density. Data show that parameters estimated through a single optical measurement correlate strongly with mammographic density estimated by using BIRADS categories. A central position is optimal for the measurement, but its exact location is not critical. PMID:23082283

  5. Association between mammographic density and basal-like and luminal A breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer overall, but few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and specific subtypes of breast cancer, especially aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Because basal-like breast cancers are less frequently screen-detected, it is important to understand how mammographic density relates to risk of basal-like breast cancer. Methods We estimated associations between mammographic density and breast cancer risk according to breast cancer subtype. Cases and controls were participants in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). A total of 491 cases had mammograms within five years prior to and one year after diagnosis and 528 controls had screening or diagnostic mammograms close to the dates of selection into CBCS. Mammographic density was reported to the CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (HER1 and HER2), and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and dichotomized as positive or negative, with ER+ and/or PR+, and HER2- tumors classified as luminal A and ER-, PR-, HER2-, HER1+ and/or CK5/6+ tumors classified as basal-like breast cancer. Triple negative tumors were defined as negative for ER, PR and HER2. Of the 491 cases 175 were missing information on subtypes; the remaining cases included 181 luminal A, 17 luminal B, 48 basal-like, 29 ER-/PR-/HER2+, and 41 unclassified subtypes. Odds ratios comparing each subtype to all controls and case-case odds ratios comparing mammographic density distributions in basal-like to luminal A breast cancers were estimated using logistic regression. Results Mammographic density was associated with increased risk of both luminal A and basal-like breast cancers, although estimates were imprecise. The

  6. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A; Gierach, Gretchen L; Olshan, Andrew F; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Millikan, Robert C

    2012-09-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Increasing mammographic density was associated with increased breast cancer risk among all women. After adjusting for potential confounders, a monotonically increasing risk of breast cancer was observed between the highest versus the lowest BI-RADS density categories [OR = 2.45, (95 % confidence interval: 0.99, 6.09)]. The association was stronger in whites, with ~40 % higher risk among those with extremely dense breasts compared to those with scattered fibroglandular densities [1.39, (0.75, 2.55)]. In AA women, the same comparison suggested lower risk [0.75, (0.30, 1.91)]. Because age, obesity, and exogenous hormones have strong associations with breast cancer risk, mammographic density, and race in the CBCS, effect measure modification by these factors was considered. Consistent with previous literature, density-associated risk was greatest among those with BMI > 30 and current hormone users (P value = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In the CBCS, mammographic density is associated with increased breast cancer risk, with some suggestion of effect measure modification by race, although results were not statistically significant. However, exposures such as BMI and hormone therapy may be important modifiers of this association and merit further investigation.

  7. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Increasing mammographic density was associated with increased breast cancer risk among all women. After adjusting for potential confounders, a monotonically increasing risk of breast cancer was observed between the highest versus the lowest BI-RADS density categories [OR = 2.45, (95 % confidence interval: 0.99, 6.09)]. The association was stronger in whites, with ~40 % higher risk among those with extremely dense breasts compared to those with scattered fibroglandular densities [1.39, (0.75, 2.55)]. In AA women, the same comparison suggested lower risk [0.75, (0.30, 1.91)]. Because age, obesity, and exogenous hormones have strong associations with breast cancer risk, mammographic density, and race in the CBCS, effect measure modification by these factors was considered. Consistent with previous literature, density-associated risk was greatest among those with BMI > 30 and current hormone users (P value = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In the CBCS, mammographic density is associated with increased breast cancer risk, with some suggestion of effect measure modification by race, although results were not statistically significant. However, exposures such as BMI and hormone therapy may be important modifiers of this association and merit further investigation. PMID:22864770

  8. Cross-sectional study to assess the association of population density with predicted breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Klimberg, Suzanne; Bondurant, Kristina L; Phillips, Martha M; Kadlubar, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    The Gail and CARE models estimate breast cancer risk for white and African-American (AA) women, respectively. The aims of this study were to compare metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women with respect to predicted breast cancer risks based on known risk factors, and to determine if population density was an independent risk factor for breast cancer risk. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 15,582 women between 35 and 85 years of age with no history of breast cancer. Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women were compared with respect to risk factors, and breast cancer risk estimates, using general linear models adjusted for age. For both white and AA women, tisk factors used to estimate breast cancer risk included age at menarche, history of breast biopsies, and family history. For white women, age at first childbirth was an additional risk factor. In comparison to their nonmetropolitan counterparts, metropolitan white women were more likely to report having a breast biopsy, have family history of breast cancer, and delay childbirth. Among white metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women, mean estimated 5-year risks were 1.44% and 1.32% (p < 0.001), and lifetime risks of breast cancer were 10.81% and 10.01% (p < 0.001), respectively. AA metropolitan residents were more likely than those from nonmetropolitan areas to have had a breast biopsy. Among AA metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women, mean estimated 5-year risks were 1.16% and 1.12% (p = 0.039) and lifetime risks were 8.94%, and 8.85% (p = 0.344). Metropolitan residence was associated with higher predicted breast cancer risks for white women. Among AA women, metropolitan residence was associated with a higher predicted breast cancer risk at 5 years, but not over a lifetime. Population density was not an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  9. Comparison of volumetric breast density estimations from mammography and thorax CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, N.; Klausz, R.; Cockmartin, L.; Muller, S.; Bosmans, H.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Breast density has become an important issue in current breast cancer screening, both as a recognized risk factor for breast cancer and by decreasing screening efficiency by the masking effect. Different qualitative and quantitative methods have been proposed to evaluate area-based breast density and volumetric breast density (VBD). We propose a validation method comparing the computation of VBD obtained from digital mammographic images (VBDMX) with the computation of VBD from thorax CT images (VBDCT). We computed VBDMX by applying a conversion function to the pixel values in the mammographic images, based on models determined from images of breast equivalent material. VBDCT is computed from the average Hounsfield Unit (HU) over the manually delineated breast volume in the CT images. This average HU is then compared to the HU of adipose and fibroglandular tissues from patient images. The VBDMX method was applied to 663 mammographic patient images taken on two Siemens Inspiration (hospL) and one GE Senographe Essential (hospJ). For the comparison study, we collected images from patients who had a thorax CT and a mammography screening exam within the same year. In total, thorax CT images corresponding to 40 breasts (hospL) and 47 breasts (hospJ) were retrieved. Averaged over the 663 mammographic images the median VBDMX was 14.7% . The density distribution and the inverse correlation between VBDMX and breast thickness were found as expected. The average difference between VBDMX and VBDCT is smaller for hospJ (4%) than for hospL (10%). This study shows the possibility to compare VBDMX with the VBD from thorax CT exams, without additional examinations. In spite of the limitations caused by poorly defined breast limits, the calibration of mammographic images to local VBD provides opportunities for further quantitative evaluations.

  10. A rare case of secretory breast carcinoma in a male adult with axillary lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinhua; Jiang, Li; Gan, Yongli; Wu, Weizhu

    2015-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is a rare tumor originally described in children but occurring equally in adult population, especially in women. This unusual subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases even death. So far, merely ten cases of secretory breast carcinoma with metastatic axillary lymph node in male were reported. Here, we describe the eleventh case, a 24-years-old male who presented with a painless mass in the right breast was diagnosed to be "secretary breast carcinoma", and subsequently underwent modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  11. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  12. Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2011-03-01

    Higher breast density is associated with a greater chance of developing breast cancer. Additionally, it is well known that higher mammographic breast density is associated with increased difficulty in accurately identifying breast cancer. However, comparatively little is known of the reliability of breast density judgements. All UK breast screeners (primarily radiologists and technologists) annually participate in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme where they make several judgements about series of challenging recent screening cases of known outcomes. As part of this process, for each case, they provide a radiological assessment of the likelihood of cancer on a confidence scale, alongside an assessment of case density using a three point scale. Analysis of the data from two years of the scheme found that the degree of agreement on case density was significantly greater than no agreement (p < .001). However, only a moderate degree of inter-rater reliability was exhibited (κ = .44) with significant differences between the occupational groups. The reasons for differences between the occupational groups and the relationship between agreement on density rating and case reading ability are explored.

  13. Clinical comparison of a novel breast DXA technique to mammographic density

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, John A.; Herve, Lionel; Landau, Jessie; Fan Bo; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steve R.

    2006-05-15

    We compare mammography breast density (BD{sub MD}) to the measure of breast composition using a clinical dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) system (BD{sub DXA}) calibrated to measure breast density. A DXA scanning protocol was developed to scan breasts isolated in the DXA scan field in either a prone pendulous or decubitus mediolateral position. A total of 17 participants were recruited among women undergoing clinical mammography examinations. Each participant had duplicate DXA scans and duplicate craniocaudal-view mammograms of their right breast with repositioning between each scan and one DXA and one craniocaudal-view mammogram of their left breast. The in vivo repeatability (RMS SD) of BD{sub DXA} and BD{sub MD} on duplicate scans was found to be 1.2% for BD{sub DXA} and 1.4% for BD{sub MD} when repeat BD{sub MD} measures were made on the same day. When repeat BD{sub MD} measures of the same breast were made more than 50 days apart, the repeatability decreased to 5.5%. Left and right breast measurements were highly correlated with both techniques at r{sup 2}=0.98 for BD{sub DXA} and r{sup 2}=0.86 for BD{sub MD}. Moderate correlation (r{sup 2}=0.52) was found between BD{sub DXA} and BD{sub MD} measurements. However, after recalibrating the DXA system to mammography reference materials, negative percent fibroglandular values were measured for the most fatty breasts. Thus, our results are reproducible and accurate to common mammography tissue standards, but did not accurately reflect true percent fibroglandular levels and further development of phantom standards are necessary. We conclude that breast composition can be precisely evaluated and assessed with clinical DXA densitometers at a lower dose than with mammographic breast density methods.

  14. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  15. Breast Tenderness after Initiation of Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Mammographic Density Change

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Carolyn J.; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Cauley, Jane A.; McTiernan, Anne; Manson, JoAnn E.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the association between new-onset breast tenderness and change in mammographic density after initiation of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE). Methods We analyzed baseline, year 1, and year 2 data from 695 participants of the Women's Health Initiative Estrogen + Progestin (daily CEE 0.625 mg + medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg [MPA] or placebo) and Estrogen-Alone (CEE 0.625 mg or placebo) trials who participated in the Mammogram Density Ancillary Study. Using multivariable repeated measures models, we analyzed the association between new-onset breast tenderness (i.e. absence of baseline tenderness and presence of tenderness at year 1 follow-up) and change from baseline in percent mammographic density. Results Active therapy increased the odds of new-onset breast tenderness (CEE + MPA vs. placebo risk ratio [RR] 3.01, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.96-4.62; CEE vs. placebo RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.14-2.53). Among women assigned to CEE + MPA, mean increase in mammographic density was greater among participants reporting new-onset of breast tenderness than among participants without new-onset breast tenderness (11.3% vs. 3.9% at year 1, 9.4% vs. 3.2% at year 2, P < 0.001). Among women assigned to CEE alone, increase in mammographic density at year 1 follow-up was not significantly different in women with new-onset breast tenderness compared to women without new-onset breast tenderness (2.4% vs. 0.6% at year 1, 2.2% vs. 1.0% at year 2, P = 0.30). Conclusions The new-onset of breast tenderness after initiation of CEE + MPA, but not CEE alone, is associated with greater increases in mammographic density. PMID:21979747

  16. Comparison of breast percent density estimation from raw versus processed digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Diane; Gavenonis, Sara; Conant, Emily; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    We compared breast percent density (PD%) measures obtained from raw and post-processed digital mammographic (DM) images. Bilateral raw and post-processed medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images from 81 screening studies were retrospectively analyzed. Image acquisition was performed with a GE Healthcare DS full-field DM system. Image post-processing was performed using the PremiumViewTM algorithm (GE Healthcare). Area-based breast PD% was estimated by a radiologist using a semi-automated image thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Comparison of breast PD% between raw and post-processed DM images was performed using the Pearson correlation (r), linear regression, and Student's t-test. Intra-reader variability was assessed with a repeat read on the same data-set. Our results show that breast PD% measurements from raw and post-processed DM images have a high correlation (r=0.98, R2=0.95, p<0.001). Paired t-test comparison of breast PD% between the raw and the post-processed images showed a statistically significant difference equal to 1.2% (p = 0.006). Our results suggest that the relatively small magnitude of the absolute difference in PD% between raw and post-processed DM images is unlikely to be clinically significant in breast cancer risk stratification. Therefore, it may be feasible to use post-processed DM images for breast PD% estimation in clinical settings. Since most breast imaging clinics routinely use and store only the post-processed DM images, breast PD% estimation from post-processed data may accelerate the integration of breast density in breast cancer risk assessment models used in clinical practice.

  17. Breast density evaluation using spectral mammography, radiologist reader assessment and segmentation techniques: a retrospective study based on left and right breast comparison

    PubMed Central

    Molloi, Sabee; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the precision of mammographic breast density measurement using radiologist reader assessment, histogram threshold segmentation, fuzzy C-mean segmentation and spectral material decomposition. Materials and Methods Spectral mammography images from a total of 92 consecutive asymptomatic women (50–69 years old) who presented for annual screening mammography were retrospectively analyzed for this study. Breast density was estimated using 10 radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm and spectral material decomposition. The breast density correlation between left and right breasts was used to assess the precision of these techniques to measure breast composition relative to dual-energy material decomposition. Results In comparison to the other techniques, the results of breast density measurements using dual-energy material decomposition showed the highest correlation. The relative standard error of estimate for breast density measurements from left and right breasts using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm and dual-energy material decomposition was calculated to be 1.95, 2.87, 2.07 and 1.00, respectively. Conclusion The results indicate that the precision of dual-energy material decomposition was approximately factor of two higher than the other techniques with regard to better correlation of breast density measurements from right and left breasts. PMID:26031229

  18. Same task, same observers, different values: the problem with visual assessment of breast density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, Jamie C.; Walshaw, Lani; Wilson, Mary; Seed, Sita; Barr, Nicky; Beetles, Ursula; Boggis, Caroline; Bundred, Sara; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit; Whiteside, Sigrid; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2013-03-01

    The proportion of radio-opaque fibroglandular tissue in a mammographic image of the breast is a strong and modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Subjective, area-based estimates made by expert observers provide a simple and efficient way of measuring breast density within a screening programme, but the degree of variability may render the reliable identification of women at increased risk impossible. This study examines the repeatability of visual assessment of percent breast density by expert observers. Five consultant radiologists and two breast physicians, all with at least two years' experience in mammographic density assessment, were presented with 100 digital mammogram cases for which they had estimated density at least 12 months previously. Estimates of percent density were made for each mammographic view and recorded on a printed visual analogue scale. The level of agreement between the two sets of estimates was assessed graphically using Bland-Altman plots. All but one observer had a mean difference of less than 6 percentage points, while the largest mean difference was 14.66 percentage points. The narrowest 95% limits of agreement for the differences were -11.15 to 17.35 and the widest were -13.95 to 40.43. Coefficients of repeatability ranged from 14.40 to 38.60. Although visual assessment of breast density has been shown to be strongly associated with cancer risk, the lack of agreement shown here between repeat assessments of the same images by the same observers questions the reliability of using visual assessment to identify women at high risk or to detect moderate changes in breast density over time.

  19. Automated Volumetric Breast Density derived by Shape and Appearance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-22

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r(2) = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  20. Automated volumetric breast density derived by shape and appearance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r2 = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  1. Automated Volumetric Breast Density derived by Shape and Appearance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-22

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r(2) = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted. PMID:25083119

  2. Breast Density in Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in High Risk Women and Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Marissa; Schnabel, Freya; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Lee, Jiyon; Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Moy, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MBD), background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer (BC) and at high risk for developing BC. Methods Our institutional database was queried for patients who underwent mammography and MRI. Results 403 (85%) had BC and 72 (15%) were at high risk. MBD (p=0.0005), BPE (p<0.0001), and FGT (p=0.02) were all higher in high risk women compared to the BC group. Conclusions Higher levels of MBD, BPE and FGT are seen in women at higher risk for developing BC when compared to women with BC. PMID:26351036

  3. Gemstone spectral imaging for measuring adult bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Guang; Liu, Dian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca2+ content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca2+-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca2+-water and water-Ca2+ densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and ≥80 years (P<0.05). The ages of male and female participants were negatively correlated with vertebral Ca2+-water density (P<0.01) and water-Ca2+ density (P<0.01). In conclusion, GSI may be used as a novel method of measuring the vertebral adult bone mineral density. PMID:27703518

  4. Effects of Neighborhood Density on Adult Word Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Skott E.; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Presumable lexical competition has been found to result in higher perceptual accuracy for words with few versus many neighbors. Previous studies have typically only analyzed the lexical-semantic level, however. In order to also explore the possibility of phonological effects, a word repetition task was administered to 46 typical adults in which 80 stimuli differed only in neighborhood density. In contrast to previous studies, verbal responses were elicited in order to analyze productions holistically and segmentally at the phonological level. An additional error analysis examined differences in neighborhood density between target words and substitutions. Findings revealed that words with more neighbors facilitated recognition, and were more accurately repeated than those with fewer neighbors. When a target word was misperceived, its substitution tended to be higher in neighborhood density, unrelated to word frequency. In order to interpret these results, an account of lexical competition is re-visited with consideration of characteristics of the lexicon discovered using graph theory (Vitevitch, 2008). PMID:26435762

  5. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN−). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45  μm) versus LN− (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07  μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN− cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis. PMID:23117811

  6. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2012-11-01

    Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN-). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45 μm) versus LN- (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07 μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN- cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis.

  7. Novel Associations between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants and Risk-Predicting Mammographic Density Measures

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Deborah J.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Scott, Christopher; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hazra, Aditi; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Jensen, Matt; Cunningham, Julie; Olson, Janet E.; Purrington, Kristen; Couch, Fergus J.; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Smith, Paula; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Douglas, Julie A.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Woolcott, Christy; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Haiman, Christopher; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Krishnan, Kavitha; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Ursin, Giske; Grenaker Alnaes, Grethe I.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gram, Inger Torhild; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Simard, Jacques; Paroah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Fasching, Peter A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hopper, John; Vachon, Celine M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute non-dense area adjusted for study, age and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong support for established associations between rs10995190 (in the region of ZNF365), rs2046210 (ESR1) and rs3817198 (LSP1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas (all p <10−5). Of 41 recently discovered breast cancer susceptibility variants, associations were found between rs1432679 (EBF1), rs17817449 (MIR1972-2: FTO), rs12710696 (2p24.1), and rs3757318 (ESR1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas, respectively. There were associations between rs6001930 (MKL1) and both adjusted absolute dense and non-dense areas, and between rs17356907 (NTN4) and adjusted absolute non-dense area. Trends in all but two associations were consistent with those for breast cancer risk. Results suggested that 18% of breast cancer susceptibility variants were associated with at least one mammographic density measure. Genetic variants at multiple loci were associated with both breast cancer risk and the mammographic density measures. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms at these loci could help identify etiological pathways implicated in how mammographic density predicts breast cancer risk. PMID:25862352

  8. The relationship between anatomic noise and volumetric breast density for digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Mainprize, James G.; Tyson, Albert H.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The appearance of parenchymal/stromal patterns in mammography have been characterized as having a Wiener power spectrum with an inverse power-law shape described by the exponential parameter, {beta}. The amount of fibroglandular tissue, which can be quantified in terms of volumetric breast density (VBD), influences the texture and appearance of the patterns formed in a mammogram. Here, a large study is performed to investigate the variations in {beta} in a clinical population and to indicate the relationship between {beta} and breast density. Methods: From a set of 2686 cranio-caudal normal screening mammograms, the parameter {beta} was extracted from log-log fits to the Wiener spectrum over the range 0.15-1 mm{sup -1}. The Wiener spectrum was calculated from regions of interest in the compression paddle contact region of the breast. An in-house computer program, Cumulus V, was used to extract the volumetric breast density and identify the compression paddle contact regions of the breast. The Wiener spectra were calculated with and without modulation transfer function (MTF) correction to determine the impact of VBD on the intrinsic anatomic noise. Results: The mean volumetric breast density was 25.5% ({+-}12.6%) over all images. The mean {beta} following a MTF correction which decreased the {beta} slightly ( Almost-Equal-To -0.08) was found to be 2.87. Varying the maximum of the spatial frequency range of the fits from 0.7 to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.5 mm{sup -1} showing small decreases in the result, although the effect of the quantum noise power component on reducing {beta} was clearly observed at 1.5 mm{sup -1}. Conclusions: The texture parameter, {beta}, was found to increase with VBD at low volumetric breast densities with an apparent leveling off at higher densities. The relationship between {beta} and VBD measured here can be used to create probabilistic models for computer simulations of detectability. As breast density is a known risk predictor for breast

  9. Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have increased risk of death | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.  The research was conducted in collaboration with investigators from the NCI-sponsored Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC).  |

  10. Percent Mammographic Density and Dense Area as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rauh, C; Hack, C C; Häberle, L; Hein, A; Engel, A; Schrauder, M G; Fasching, P A; Jud, S M; Ekici, A B; Loehberg, C R; Meier-Meitinger, M; Ozan, S; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Uder, M; Hartmann, A; Wachter, D L; Beckmann, M W; Heusinger, K

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Mammographic characteristics are known to be correlated to breast cancer risk. Percent mammographic density (PMD), as assessed by computer-assisted methods, is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Along with this assessment the absolute dense area (DA) of the breast is reported as well. Aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DA concerning breast cancer risk in addition to other risk factors and in addition to PMD. Methods: We conducted a case control study with hospital-based patients with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer and healthy women as controls. A total of 561 patients and 376 controls with available mammographic density were included into this study. We describe the differences concerning the common risk factors BMI, parital status, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and menopause between cases and controls and estimate the odds ratios for PMD and DA, adjusted for the mentioned risk factors. Furthermore we compare the prediction models with each other to find out whether the addition of DA improves the model. Results: Mammographic density and DA were highly correlated with each other. Both variables were as well correlated to the commonly known risk factors with an expected direction and strength, however PMD (ρ = -0.56) was stronger correlated to BMI than DA (ρ = -0.11). The group of women within the highest quartil of PMD had an OR of 2.12 (95 % CI: 1.25-3.62). This could not be seen for the fourth quartile concerning DA. However the assessment of breast cancer risk could be improved by including DA in a prediction model in addition to common risk factors and PMD. Conclusions: The inclusion of the parameter DA into a prediction model for breast cancer in addition to established risk factors and PMD could improve the breast cancer risk assessment. As DA is measured together with PMD in the process of computer-assisted assessment of PMD it might be considered to include it as one additional breast

  11. Predicting breast cancer risk using mammographic density measurements from both mammogram sides and views.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jennifer; Ding, Jane; Warren, Ruth M L; Duffy, Stephen W

    2010-11-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Which and how many x-rays are used for research, and how mammographic density is measured varies across studies. In this article, we compared three different measurements (absolute dense area, percent dense area and percent dense volume) from each of four mammograms [left, right, medio-lateral oblique (MLO) and cranio-caudal (CC) views] using three different methods of measurement [computer-assisted thresholding, visual assessment and standard mammogram form (SMF)] to investigate whether additional measurements and/or different methods of measurement provide more information in the prediction of breast cancer risk. Mammographic density was measured in all four mammograms from 318 cases and 899 age-matched controls combined from the Cambridge and Norwich Breast Screening Programmes. Measurements were averaged across various combinations of mammogram type and/or view. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios associated with increasing quintiles of each mammographic measure. Overall, there appeared to be no difference in the fit of the models using two or four mammograms compared to the models using just the contralateral MLO or CC mammogram (all P > 0.07) for all methods of measurement. Common practice of measuring just the contralateral MLO or CC mammogram for analysis in case-control studies investigating the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk appears to be sufficient.

  12. A fully automated scheme for mammographic segmentation and classification based on breast density and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Tzikopoulos, Stylianos D; Mavroforakis, Michael E; Georgiou, Harris V; Dimitropoulos, Nikos; Theodoridis, Sergios

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a fully automated segmentation and classification scheme for mammograms, based on breast density estimation and detection of asymmetry. First, image preprocessing and segmentation techniques are applied, including a breast boundary extraction algorithm and an improved version of a pectoral muscle segmentation scheme. Features for breast density categorization are extracted, including a new fractal dimension-related feature, and support vector machines (SVMs) are employed for classification, achieving accuracy of up to 85.7%. Most of these properties are used to extract a new set of statistical features for each breast; the differences among these feature values from the two images of each pair of mammograms are used to detect breast asymmetry, using an one-class SVM classifier, which resulted in a success rate of 84.47%. This composite methodology has been applied to the miniMIAS database, consisting of 322 (MLO) mammograms -including 15 asymmetric pairs of images-, obtained via a (noisy) digitization procedure. The results were evaluated by expert radiologists and are very promising, showing equal or higher success rates compared to other related works, despite the fact that some of them used only selected portions of this specific mammographic database. In contrast, our methodology is applied to the complete miniMIAS database and it exhibits the reliability that is normally required for clinical use in CAD systems. PMID:21306782

  13. Breast cancer research output, 1945-2008: a bibliometric and density-equalizing analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women, with an estimated 194,280 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2009 alone. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research yield in breast cancer from 1945 to 2008, using large-scale data analysis, the employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quality, and density-equalizing mapping. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) Science Citation Expanded database; this was searched using the Boolean operator, 'OR', with different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. Mapping was performed as described by Groneberg-Kloft et al. in 2008. Results A total of 180,126 breast cancer-associated items were produced over the study period; these had been cited 4,136,224 times. The United States returned the greatest level of output (n = 77,101), followed by the UK (n = 18,357) and Germany (n = 12,529). International cooperation peaked in 2008, with 3,127 entries produced as a result; relationships between the United States and other countries formed the basis for the 10 most common forms of bilateral cooperation. Publications from nations with high levels of international cooperation were associated with greater average citation rates. A total of 4,096 journals published at least one item on breast cancer, although the top 50 most prolific titles together accounted for over 43% (77,517/180,126) of the total output. Conclusions Breast cancer-associated research output continues to increase annually. In an era when bibliometric indicators are increasingly being employed in performance assessment, these findings should provide useful information for those tasked with improving that performance. PMID:21176219

  14. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  15. Consistency of breast density categories in serial screening mammograms: A comparison between automated and human assessment.

    PubMed

    Holland, Katharina; van Zelst, Jan; den Heeten, Gerard J; Imhof-Tas, Mechli; Mann, Ritse M; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-10-01

    Reliable breast density measurement is needed to personalize screening by using density as a risk factor and offering supplemental screening to women with dense breasts. We investigated the categorization of pairs of subsequent screening mammograms into density classes by human readers and by an automated system. With software (VDG) and by four readers, including three specialized breast radiologists, 1000 mammograms belonging to 500 pairs of subsequent screening exams were categorized into either two or four density classes. We calculated percent agreement and the percentage of women that changed from dense to non-dense and vice versa. Inter-exam agreement (IEA) was calculated with kappa statistics. Results were computed for each reader individually and for the case that each mammogram was classified by one of the four readers by random assignment (group reading). Higher percent agreement was found with VDG (90.4%, CI 87.9-92.9%) than with readers (86.2-89.2%), while less plausible changes from non-dense to dense occur less often with VDG (2.8%, CI 1.4-4.2%) than with group reading (4.2%, CI 2.4-6.0%). We found an IEA of 0.68-0.77 for the readers using two classes and an IEA of 0.76-0.82 using four classes. IEA is significantly higher with VDG compared to group reading. The categorization of serial mammograms in density classes is more consistent with automated software than with a mixed group of human readers. When using breast density to personalize screening protocols, assessment with software may be preferred over assessment by radiologists.

  16. Mammographic Density and Prediction of Nodal Status in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Hack, C C; Häberle, L; Geisler, K; Schulz-Wendtland, R; Hartmann, A; Fasching, P A; Uder, M; Wachter, D L; Jud, S M; Loehberg, C R; Lux, M P; Rauh, C; Beckmann, M W; Heusinger, K

    2013-02-01

    Aim: Nodal status remains one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. The cellular and molecular reasons for the spread of tumor cells to the lymph nodes are not well understood and there are only few predictors in addition to tumor size and multifocality that give an insight into additional mechanisms of lymphatic spread. Aim of our study was therefore to investigate whether breast characteristics such as mammographic density (MD) add to the predictive value of the presence of lymph node metastases in patients with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed primary, metastasis-free breast cancer patients from one breast center for whom data on MD and staging information were available. A total of 1831 patients were included into this study. MD was assessed as percentage MD (PMD) using a semiautomated method and two readers for every patient. Multiple logistic regression analyses with nodal status as outcome were used to investigate the predictive value of PMD in addition to age, tumor size, Ki-67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), grading, histology, and multi-focality. Results: Multifocality, tumor size, Ki-67 and grading were relevant predictors for nodal status. Adding PMD to a prediction model which included these factors did not significantly improve the prediction of nodal status (p = 0.24, likelihood ratio test). Conclusion: Nodal status could be predicted quite well with the factors multifocality, tumor size, Ki-67 and grading. PMD does not seem to play a role in the lymphatic spread of tumor cells. It could be concluded that the amount of extracellular matrix and stromal cell content of the breast which is reflected by MD does not influence the probability of malignant breast cells spreading from the primary tumor to the lymph nodes.

  17. Consumption of sweet foods and mammographic breast density: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing consumption of sugar worldwide seems to lead to several health problems, including some types of cancer. While some studies reported a positive association between sweet foods intake and breast cancer risk, little is known about their relation to mammographic density (MD), a strong breast cancer risk factor. This study examined the association of sweet foods and drinks intake with MD among 776 premenopausal and 779 postmenopausal women recruited at mammography. Methods A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of sweet foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and spoonsful of sugar added. Percent and absolute breast density were estimated using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to evaluate associations. All models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age and body mass index. Results For increasing quartiles of sugar-sweetened beverages intake, adjusted-mean absolute density was respectively 32, 34, 32 and 36 cm2 among all women (Ptrend = 0.040) and 43, 46, 44 and 51 cm2 among premenopausal women (Ptrend = 0.007). For increasing quartiles of sweet foods intake, adjusted-mean percent density was respectively 16, 16, 17 and 19% among postmenopausal women (Ptrend = 0.036). No association was shown between intake of spoonsful of sugar added and MD. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increase in sweet foods or sugar-sweetened beverage intake is associated with higher MD. PMID:24969543

  18. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  19. JNK1 stress signaling is hyper-activated in high breast density and the tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Michael P; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Pavlides, Stephanos; Reeves, Kimberley Jayne; Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Chadwick, Amy L; Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Lamb, Rebecca; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is an important screening modality for the early detection of DCIS and breast cancer lesions. More specifically, high mammographic density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. However, the biological processes underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Here, we re-interrogated genome-wide transcriptional profiling data obtained from low-density (LD) mammary fibroblasts (n = 6 patients) and high-density (HD) mammary fibroblasts (n = 7 patients) derived from a series of 13 female patients. We used these raw data to generate a “breast density” gene signature consisting of >1250 transcripts that were significantly increased in HD fibroblasts, relative to LD fibroblasts. We then focused on the genes that were increased by ≥ 1.5-fold (P < 0.05) and performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), using the molecular signatures database (MSigDB). Our results indicate that HD fibroblasts show the upregulation and/or hyper-activation of several key cellular processes, including the stress response, inflammation, stemness, and signal transduction. The transcriptional profiles of HD fibroblasts also showed striking similarities to human tumors, including head and neck, liver, thyroid, lung, and breast cancers. This may reflect functional similarities between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and HD fibroblasts. This is consistent with the idea that the presence of HD fibroblasts may be a hallmark of a pre-cancerous phenotype. In these biological processes, GSEA predicts that several key signaling pathways may be involved, including JNK1, iNOS, Rho GTPase(s), FGF-R, EGF-R, and PDGF-R-mediated signal transduction, thereby creating a pro-inflammatory, pro-proliferative, cytokine, and chemokine-rich microenvironment. HD fibroblasts also showed significant overlap with gene profiles derived from smooth muscle cells under stress (JNK1) and activated/infected macrophages (iNOS). Thus, HD fibroblasts may behave like activated

  20. MammoSys: A content-based image retrieval system using breast density patterns.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júlia E E; Machado, Alexei M C; Chavez, Guillermo C; Lopes, Ana Paula B; Deserno, Thomas M; Araújo, Arnaldo de A

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present a content-based image retrieval system designed to retrieve mammographies from large medical image database. The system is developed based on breast density, according to the four categories defined by the American College of Radiology, and is integrated to the database of the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, that provides images with classification ground truth. Two-dimensional principal component analysis is used in breast density texture characterization, in order to effectively represent texture and allow for dimensionality reduction. A support vector machine is used to perform the retrieval process. Average precision rates are in the range from 83% to 97% considering a data set of 5024 images. The results indicate the potential of the system as the first stage of a computer-aided diagnosis framework.

  1. A volumetric method for estimation of breast density on digitized screen-film mammograms.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Augustine, Bindu J; Yaffe, Martin J; Rico, Dan; Yang, Jiwei; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Boyd, Norman F

    2003-03-01

    A method is described for the quantitative volumetric analysis of the mammographic density (VBD) from digitized screen-film mammograms. The method is based on initial calibration of the imaging system with a tissue-equivalent plastic device and the subsequent correction for variations in exposure factors and film processing characteristics through images of an aluminum step wedge placed adjacent to the breast during imaging. From information about the compressed breast thickness and technique factors used for taking the mammogram as well as the information from the calibration device, VBD is calculated. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert images to Log relative exposure. Second, the images are corrected for x-ray field inhomogeneity using a spherical section PMMA phantom image. The effectiveness of using the aluminum step wedge in tracking down the variations in exposure factors and film processing was tested by taking test images of the calibration device, aluminum step wedge and known density phantoms at various exposure conditions and also at different times over one year. Results obtained on known density phantoms show that VBD can be estimated to within 5% accuracy from the actual value. A first order thickness correction is employed to correct for inaccuracy in the compression thickness indicator of the mammography units. Clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate whether VBD can be a better indicator for breast cancer risk. PMID:12674236

  2. The Impact of Acquisition Dose on Quantitative Breast Density Estimation with Digital Mammography: Results from ACRIN PA 4006.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M; Pertuz, Said; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of radiation dose on breast density estimation in digital mammography. Materials and Methods With institutional review board approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance under waiver of consent, a cohort of women from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network Pennsylvania 4006 trial was retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent breast screening with a combination of dose protocols, including standard full-field digital mammography, low-dose digital mammography, and digital breast tomosynthesis. A total of 5832 images from 486 women were analyzed with previously validated, fully automated software for quantitative estimation of density. Clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density assessment results were also available from the trial reports. The influence of image acquisition radiation dose on quantitative breast density estimation was investigated with analysis of variance and linear regression. Pairwise comparisons of density estimations at different dose levels were performed with Student t test. Agreement of estimation was evaluated with quartile-weighted Cohen kappa values and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Results Radiation dose of image acquisition did not significantly affect quantitative density measurements (analysis of variance, P = .37 to P = .75), with percent density demonstrating a high overall correlation between protocols (r = 0.88-0.95; weighted κ = 0.83-0.90). However, differences in breast percent density (1.04% and 3.84%, P < .05) were observed within high BI-RADS density categories, although they were significantly correlated across the different acquisition dose levels (r = 0.76-0.92, P < .05). Conclusion Precision and reproducibility of automated breast density measurements with digital mammography are not substantially affected by variations in radiation dose; thus, the use of low-dose techniques for the purpose of density estimation

  3. The Impact of Acquisition Dose on Quantitative Breast Density Estimation with Digital Mammography: Results from ACRIN PA 4006.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M; Pertuz, Said; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of radiation dose on breast density estimation in digital mammography. Materials and Methods With institutional review board approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance under waiver of consent, a cohort of women from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network Pennsylvania 4006 trial was retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent breast screening with a combination of dose protocols, including standard full-field digital mammography, low-dose digital mammography, and digital breast tomosynthesis. A total of 5832 images from 486 women were analyzed with previously validated, fully automated software for quantitative estimation of density. Clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density assessment results were also available from the trial reports. The influence of image acquisition radiation dose on quantitative breast density estimation was investigated with analysis of variance and linear regression. Pairwise comparisons of density estimations at different dose levels were performed with Student t test. Agreement of estimation was evaluated with quartile-weighted Cohen kappa values and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Results Radiation dose of image acquisition did not significantly affect quantitative density measurements (analysis of variance, P = .37 to P = .75), with percent density demonstrating a high overall correlation between protocols (r = 0.88-0.95; weighted κ = 0.83-0.90). However, differences in breast percent density (1.04% and 3.84%, P < .05) were observed within high BI-RADS density categories, although they were significantly correlated across the different acquisition dose levels (r = 0.76-0.92, P < .05). Conclusion Precision and reproducibility of automated breast density measurements with digital mammography are not substantially affected by variations in radiation dose; thus, the use of low-dose techniques for the purpose of density estimation

  4. Robust estimation of mammographic breast density: a patient-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heese, Harald S.; Erhard, Klaus; Gooßen, Andre; Bulow, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Breast density has become an established risk indicator for developing breast cancer. Current clinical practice reflects this by grading mammograms patient-wise as entirely fat, scattered fibroglandular, heterogeneously dense, or extremely dense based on visual perception. Existing (semi-) automated methods work on a per-image basis and mimic clinical practice by calculating an area fraction of fibroglandular tissue (mammographic percent density). We suggest a method that follows clinical practice more strictly by segmenting the fibroglandular tissue portion directly from the joint data of all four available mammographic views (cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique, left and right), and by subsequently calculating a consistently patient-based mammographic percent density estimate. In particular, each mammographic view is first processed separately to determine a region of interest (ROI) for segmentation into fibroglandular and adipose tissue. ROI determination includes breast outline detection via edge-based methods, peripheral tissue suppression via geometric breast height modeling, and - for medio-lateral oblique views only - pectoral muscle outline detection based on optimizing a three-parameter analytic curve with respect to local appearance. Intensity harmonization based on separately acquired calibration data is performed with respect to compression height and tube voltage to facilitate joint segmentation of available mammographic views. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) on the joint histogram data with a posteriori calibration guided plausibility correction is finally employed for tissue separation. The proposed method was tested on patient data from 82 subjects. Results show excellent correlation (r = 0.86) to radiologist's grading with deviations ranging between -28%, (q = 0.025) and +16%, (q = 0.975).

  5. Classification of breast tissue density by optical transillumination spectroscopy: optical and physiological effects governing predictive value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle K.; Jong, Roberta A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-12-01

    Preventive oncology is in need of a risk assessment technique that can identify individuals at high risk for breast cancer and that has the ability to monitor the efficacy of a risk reducing intervention. Optical transillumination spectroscopy (OTS) was shown to give information about breast tissue composition and tissue density. OTS is non-invasive, and in contrast to mammography, uses non-ionizing radiation. It is safe and can be used frequently on younger women, potentially permitting early risk detection and thus increasing the time available for risk reduction interventions to assert their influence. Before OTS can be used as a risk assessment and/or monitoring technique, its predictive ability needs to be demonstrated and maximized through the construction of mathematical models relating OTS and risk. To establish a correlation between OTS and mammographic density, Principle Components Analysis (PCA), using risk classification, is employed. PCA scores are presented in 3D cluster plots and a plane of differentiation that separates high and low tissue density is used to calculate the predictive value. Stratificaiton of PCA for measurement position on the breast in cranial-caudal projection is introduced. Analysis of PCA scores as a function of the volunteer's age and body mass index (BMI) is examined. A small but significant correlation between the component scores and age or BMI is noted but the correlation is dependnet on the tissue density category examined. Correction of the component scores for age and BMI is not recommended, since a priori knowledge of a women's tissue density is required. Stratification for the center and distal measurement positions provides a predictive value for OTS above 96%.

  6. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  8. A contrasting function for miR-137 in embryonic mammogenesis and adult breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Cho, Kyoung-Won; Kim, Eun-Jung; Tang, Qinghuang; Kim, Kye-Seong; Tickle, Cheryll; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in breast cancer cells and have been implicated in cancer formation, tumour invasion and metastasis. We investigated the miRNA expression profiles in the developing mammary gland. MiR-137 was expressed prominently in the developing mammary gland. When the miR-137 was over-expressed in the embryo, the mammary epithelium became thickened. Moreover, genes associated with mammary gland formation such as Tbx3 and Lef1 were not expressed. This suggests that miR-137 induces gland formation and invasion. When miR-137 was over-expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells, their ability to form tumours in adult mice was significantly reduced. These data support miR-137 decides epithelial cell behavior in the human breast cancer. It also suggests that miR-137 is a potential therapeutic target for amelioration of breast cancer progression.

  9. Area and Volumetric Density Estimation in Processed Full-Field Digital Mammograms for Risk Assessment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheddad, Abbas; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei; Easton, Douglas; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. Methods The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area) and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol). The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. Results All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p<0.025 for breast cancer risk and p<1×10−6 for rs10995190). After adjusting for one of the measures there remained little or no evidence of residual association with the remaining density measures (p>0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190). Conclusions Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of

  10. Assessment of change in breast density: reader performance using synthetic mammographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Sue; Swayamprakasam, Chitra; Berks, Michael; Sergeant, Jamie; Morris, Julie; Wilson, Mary; Barr, Nicky; Boggis, Caroline

    2012-02-01

    A recent study has shown that breast cancer risk can be reduced by taking Tamoxifen, but only if this results in at least a 10% point reduction in mammographic density. When mammographic density is quantified visually, it is impossible to assess reader accuracy using clinical images as the ground truth is unknown. Our aim was to compare three models of assessing density change and to determine reader accuracy in identifying reductions of 10% points or more. We created 100 synthetic, mammogram-like images comprising 50 pairs designed to simulate natural reduction in density within each pair. Model I: individual images were presented to readers and density assessed. Model II: pairs of images were displayed together, with readers assessing density for each image. Model III: pairs of images were displayed together, and readers asked whether there was at least a 10% point reduction in density. Ten expert readers participated. Readers' estimates of percentage density were significantly closer to the truth (6.8%-26.4%) when images were assessed individually rather than in pairs (9.6%-29.8%). Measurement of change was significantly more accurate in Model II than Model I (p<0.005). Detecting density changes of at least 10% points in image pairs, mean accuracy was significantly (p<0.005) lower (58%-88%) when change was calculated from density assessments than in Model III (74%-92%). Our results suggest that where readers need to identify change in density, images should be displayed alongside one another. In our study, less accurate assessors performed better when asked directly about the magnitude of the change.

  11. Amount of stroma is associated with mammographic density and stromal expression of oestrogen receptor in normal breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Chiesa, Flaminia; Paulsson, Janna; Strell, Carina; Behmer, Catharina; Rönnow, Katarina; Czene, Kamila; Östman, Arne; Hall, Per

    2016-07-01

    Following female sex and age, mammographic density is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Despite the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk, little is known about the underlying histology and biological basis of breast density. To better understand the mechanisms behind mammographic density we assessed morphology, proliferation and hormone receptor status in relation to mammographic density in breast tissues from healthy women. Tissues were obtained from 2012-2013 by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy from 160 women as part of the Karma (Karolinska mammography project for risk prediction for breast cancer) project. Mammograms were collected through routine mammography screening and mammographic density was calculated using STRATUS. The histological composition, epithelial and stromal proliferation status and hormone receptor status were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Higher mammographic density was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stromal and epithelial tissue and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial expression levels of Ki-67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were not associated with mammographic density. Epithelial Ki-67 was associated with a greater proportion of epithelial tissue, and epithelial PR was associated with a greater proportion of stromal and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial ER was not associated with any tissues. In contrast, expression of ER in the stroma was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stroma, and negatively associated with the amount of adipose tissue. High mammographic density is associated with higher amount of stroma and epithelium and less amount of fat, but is not associated with a change in epithelial proliferation or receptor status. Increased expressions of both epithelial PR and stromal ER are associated with a greater proportion of stroma, suggesting hormonal involvement

  12. Application of the compound probability density function for characterization of breast masses in ultrasound B scans.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P M; Piccoli, C W; Reid, J M; Forsberg, F; Goldberg, B B

    2005-05-21

    The compound probability density function (pdf) is investigated for the ability of its parameters to classify masses in ultrasonic B scan breast images. Results of 198 images (29 malignant and 70 benign cases and two images per case) are reported and compared to the classification performance reported by us earlier in this journal. A new parameter, the speckle factor, calculated from the parameters of the compound pdf was explored to separate benign and malignant masses. The receiver operating characteristic curve for the parameter resulted in an A(z) value of 0.852. This parameter was combined with one of the parameters from our previous work, namely the ratio of the K distribution parameter at the site and away from the site. This combined parameter resulted in an A(z) value of 0.955. In conclusion, the parameters of the K distribution and the compound pdf may be useful in the classification of breast masses. These parameters can be calculated in an automated fashion. It should be possible to combine the results of the ultrasonic image analysis with those of traditional mammography, thereby increasing the accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis.

  13. Do pathological parameters differ with regard to breast density and mode of detection in breast cancer? The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Hanna; Borgquist, Signe; Hartman, Linda; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to study how breast density relates to tumor characteristics in breast cancer with emphasis on mode of detection. Among 17,035 women in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study 826 incident cases have been diagnosed (1991-2007). Data on tumor characteristics, mode of detection, and density at diagnosis were collected. Associations between density and tumor characteristics were analyzed using logistic and ordinal logistic regression models yielding OR and 95% CI. Adjustments for age at diagnosis, BMI at baseline, and the mode of detection, were performed. In denser breasts, large tumor size was more frequent (ORadj 1.59 (1.26-2.01)) as was lymph node involvement (ORadj 1.32 (1.00-1.74)). Further, the higher the density, the lower the grade (ORadj 0.73 (0.53-1.02) for having higher grade), in screening-detected invasive breast cancer. Our findings stress the importance of considering the impact of density in mammography image interpretation and the possible associations with tumor aggressiveness.

  14. Study of the Effect of Breast Tissue Density on Detection of Masses in Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    García-Manso, A.; García-Orellana, C. J.; González-Velasco, H. M.; Gallardo-Caballero, R.; Macías-Macías, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the parameters that are usually stored for mammograms is the BI-RADS density, which gives an idea of the breast tissue composition. In this work, we study the effect of BI-RADS density in our ongoing project for developing an image-based CAD system to detect masses in mammograms. This system consists of two stages. First, a blind feature extraction is performed for regions of interest (ROIs), using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Next, in the second stage, those features form the input vectors to a classifier, neural network, or SVM classifier. To train and test our system, the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) was used. The results obtained show that the maximum variation in the performance of our system considering only prototypes obtained from mammograms with a concrete value of density (both for training and test) is about 7%, yielding the best values for density equal to 1, and the worst for density equal to 4, for both classifiers. Finally, with the overall results (i.e., using prototypes from mammograms with all the possible values of densities), we obtained a difference in performance that is only 2% lower than the maximum, also for both classifiers. PMID:23573165

  15. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV. Conclusion Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with

  16. Recruitment density can determine adult morphology and fecundity in the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Hills, Jeremy M; Thomason, Jeremy C

    2003-06-01

    Although consequences of the settlement preference of larvae have been well documented, the consequence of these settlement choices on subsequent mortality, morphology and fecundity has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between recruit and adult density and to determine the effect of recruitment on adult morphology and egg tissue mass. This study follows 48,718 barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) from recruitment at the end of the settling season to reproductively mature adults at a field site in the Clyde Sea (UK). Overall survivorship of the recruits to adulthood was 8.5%, although survivorship was up to 42% on low density settlement panels. In low density colonies (< 10 recruits cm-2), recruitment density was related to adult density (P < 0.001), whereas no relationship was found for higher density colonies. A shell morphology index measured at adulthood was related to recruitment density for low density recruited colonies (P < 0.001) but not high density colonies. Using ANCOVA, variations between the colonies in shell and egg tissue mass were not explained by mass of somatic tissue. However, egg mass was explained by recruitment density (P < 0.01). These results show that adult density is not a reliable indicator of the previous population density of the colony. Moreover, there are marked differences in population development between colonies with high and low recruit densities in terms of impact upon shell morphology and egg production. The dynamics that operate between recruits at the end of the settlement season and sexually mature adults to create the patterns elucidated in this paper, and other literature, remain unclear.

  17. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations. PMID

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with both mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Sara; Thompson, Deborah J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Li, Jingmei; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Douglas, Julie A.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Verghase, Jajini; Smith, Paula; Brown, Judith; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Heit, John A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; deAndrade, Mariza; Vierkant, Robert A.; Czene, Kamila; Fasching, Peter A.; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Pollan, Marina; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hopper, John L.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Boyd, Norman F.; Vachon, Celine M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density reflects the amount of stromal and epithelial tissues in relation to adipose tissue in the breast and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we report the results from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of three mammographic density phenotypes: dense area, non-dense area and percent density in up to 7,916 women in stage 1 and an additional 10,379 women in stage 2. We identify genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) loci for dense area (AREG, ESR1, ZNF365, LSP1/TNNT3, IGF1, TMEM184B, SGSM3/MKL1), non-dense area (8p11.23) and percent density (PRDM6, 8p11.23, TMEM184B). Four of these regions are known breast cancer susceptibility loci, and four additional regions were found to be associated with breast cancer (P<0.05) in a large meta-analysis. These results provide further evidence of a shared genetic basis between mammographic density and breast cancer and illustrate the power of studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes to identify putative disease susceptibility loci. PMID:25342443

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with both mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Sara; Thompson, Deborah J; Paterson, Andrew D; Li, Jingmei; Gierach, Gretchen L; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Douglas, Julie A; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Verghase, Jajini; Smith, Paula; Brown, Judith; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F; Heit, John A; Pankratz, V Shane; Norman, Aaron; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; deAndrade, Mariza; Vierkant, Robert A; Czene, Kamila; Fasching, Peter A; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; Shah, Kaanan P; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A; Beck, Andrew H; Knoblauch, Nicholas W; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Pollan, Marina; Figueroa, Jonine D; Couch, Fergus J; Hopper, John L; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Boyd, Norman F; Vachon, Celine M; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2014-01-01

    Mammographic density reflects the amount of stromal and epithelial tissues in relation to adipose tissue in the breast and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we report the results from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of three mammographic density phenotypes: dense area, non-dense area and percent density in up to 7,916 women in stage 1 and an additional 10,379 women in stage 2. We identify genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci for dense area (AREG, ESR1, ZNF365, LSP1/TNNT3, IGF1, TMEM184B and SGSM3/MKL1), non-dense area (8p11.23) and percent density (PRDM6, 8p11.23 and TMEM184B). Four of these regions are known breast cancer susceptibility loci, and four additional regions were found to be associated with breast cancer (P<0.05) in a large meta-analysis. These results provide further evidence of a shared genetic basis between mammographic density and breast cancer and illustrate the power of studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes to identify putative disease-susceptibility loci. PMID:25342443

  20. Longitudinal Change in Mammographic Density among ER-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Using Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Nyante, Sarah J; Sherman, Mark E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Brinton, Louise A; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Hoover, Robert N; Glass, Andrew; Gierach, Gretchen L

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen-associated mammographic density (MD) reductions are linked to improved breast cancer survival. We evaluated MD at six time points to determine the timing of greatest reduction following tamoxifen initiation. We sampled 40 Kaiser Permanente Northwest estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients from a prior study of MD change, according to tamoxifen use duration and age at diagnosis: <4 years tamoxifen and ≤50 years (N = 6) or >50 years (N = 10) old; ≥4 years tamoxifen and ≤50 years (N = 13) or >50 years (N = 11) old. A single reader evaluated percent MD in the contralateral breast on baseline (pre-diagnosis) and five approximately yearly post-diagnostic (T1 to T5) mammograms. Mean MD change was calculated. Interactions with age (≤50 and >50 years), tamoxifen duration (<4 and ≥4 years), and baseline MD (tertiles) were tested in linear regression models. Overall, the largest MD decline occurred by T1 (mean 4.5%) with little additional decline by T5. Declines differed by tertile of baseline MD (Pinteraction < 0.01). In the highest tertile, the largest reduction occurred by T1 (mean 14.9%), with an additional reduction of 3.6% by T5. Changes were smaller in the middle and lowest baseline MD tertiles, with cumulative reductions of 3.0% and 0.4% from baseline to T5, respectively. There were no differences by age (Pinteraction = 0.36) or tamoxifen duration (Pinteraction = 0.42). Among ER-positive patients treated with tamoxifen and surviving ≥5 years, most of the MD reduction occurred within approximately 12 months of tamoxifen initiation, suggesting that MD measurement at a single time point following tamoxifen initiation can identify patients with substantial density declines. PMID:26545407

  1. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  2. Adult Body Size, Hormone Receptor Status, and Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Phipps, Amanda I.; Koo, Jocelyn; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2011-01-01

    Large body size has been associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women. Data on other racial/ethnic populations are limited. The authors examined the association between premenopausal breast cancer risk and adult body size in 672 cases and 808 controls aged ≥35 years from a population-based case-control study conducted in 1995–2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (Hispanics: 375 cases, 483 controls; African Americans: 154 cases, 160 controls; non-Hispanic whites: 143 cases, 165 controls). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Height was associated with increased breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile: odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.53; Ptrend < 0.01); the association did not vary by hormone receptor status or race/ethnicity. Body mass index (measured as weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared) was inversely associated with risk in all 3 racial/ethnic groups, but only for estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive tumors (body mass index ≥30 vs. <25: odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.29, 0.61). Other body size measures (current weight, body build, adult weight gain, young adult weight and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) were similarly inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–positive breast cancer but not estrogen receptor– and progesterone receptor–negative disease. Despite racial/ethnic differences in body size, inverse associations were similar across the 3 racial/ethnic groups when stratified by hormone receptor status. PMID:21084558

  3. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  4. High Mammographic Breast Density Is Independent Predictor of Local But Not Distant Recurrence After Lumpectomy and Radiotherapy for Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Catherine C. Rembert, James; Chew, Karen; Moore, Dan; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Biologically meaningful predictors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) are lacking. Tissue components, including extracellular matrix, could confer resistance to ionizing radiation. Fibroglandular and extracellular matrix components of breast tissue relative to adipose tissue can be quantified by the mammographic breast density (MBD), the proportion of dense area relative to the total breast area on mammography. We hypothesized that the MBD might be a predictor of LRR after BCS and RT for invasive breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of 136 women with invasive breast cancer who had undergone BCS and RT and had had the MBD ascertained before, or at, diagnosis. Women with known recurrence were matched to women without recurrence by year of diagnosis. The median follow-up was 7.7 years. The percentage of MBD was measured using a computer-based threshold method. Results: Patients with a high MBD ({>=}75% density) vs. low ({<=}25%) were at increased risk of LRR (hazard ratio, 4.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-021.0; p = 0.071) but not distant recurrence. In addition, we found a complete inverse correlation between high MBD and obesity (body mass index, {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, patients with MBD in the greatest quartile were at significantly greater risk of LRR (hazard ratio, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-27.7; p = 0.01). Obesity without a high MBD also independently predicted for LRR (hazard ratio, 19.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-81.7; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that a high MBD and obesity are significant independent predictors of LRR after BCS and RT for invasive breast cancer. Additional studies are warranted to validate these findings.

  5. The effect of larval density on adult demographic traits in Ambystoma opacum

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Factors that affect traits of aquatic larvae of amphibians may have long-lasting effects on terrestrial juveniles and adults. I manipulated larval densities of marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, in large-scale field enclosures during 2 yr, released the juveniles that metamorphosed from these enclosures, and tested for effects on adults that returned to the pond during 6-7 subsequent breeding seasons. Individuals from low larval density treatments tended to have greater lipid stores at metamorphosis than those from high densities and survived longer in a laboratory inanition study. In the field, individuals that experienced low larval density returned for their first reproductive bout as larger adults than those from high-density treatments. For 5-yr-old females released in 1986, low larval density was linked to greater clutch size; clutch size in 4-yr-old animals from the 1987 cohort did not differ between larval treatment groups. Larval density also influenced age at first reproduction, as animals rared at low densities returned to breed at younger ages. Averaged across both cohorts, the proportion of animals that returned to breed at least once was 21% for low-density groups compared to 6% for the high density groups. The larval environment exerted a strong influence on postmetamorphic traits, and thus larval density likely plays an important role of population regulation in both the aquatic and terrestrial phase of the life cycle. 81 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. The Metabolic Syndrome and Mammographic Breast Density in a Racially Diverse and Predominantly Immigrant Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Schmitt, Karen; Desperito, Elise; Oskar, Sabine; Potter, Alan J.; Engmann, Natalie J.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The metabolic syndrome (MetS, clustering of elevated blood pressure, triglycerides and glucose, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), abdominal obesity) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk, but less is known about its association with mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Methods We collected data on risk factors, body size and blood pressure via in-person interviews and examinations, and measured glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-C from dried blood spots from women recruited through a mammography screening clinic (n=373; 68% Hispanic, 17% African American; 63% foreign born). We performed linear regression models to examine the associations of each MetS component and the MetS cluster (≥ 3 components) with percent density and dense breast area, measured using a computer-assisted technique and Cumulus software. Results About 45% of women had the MetS, with the prevalence of the individual components ranging from 68% for abdominal obesity to 33% for elevated triglycerides. The prevalence of the MetS increased with higher body mass index (BMI) and postmenopausal status, but did not vary substantially by ethnicity, immigrant generational status, parity, age at menarche or alcohol consumption. Low HDL-C (< 50 mg/dL), but not the MetS cluster or the other MetS components, was associated with larger dense breast area after adjusting for age, BMI, fasting time, and educational attainment (β=8.77, 95% CI=2.39, 15.14). The MetS and its individual components were not associated with BMI-adjusted percent density. Conclusions HDL-C alone may have an influence on dense breast tissue that is independent of BMI, and may be in the same direction as its association with breast cancer risk. PMID:26169301

  7. Influence of Obesity on Breast Density Reduction by Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Evidence from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Narinder; Schetter, Susann E; Liao, Jason; Hartman, Terryl J; Richie, John P; McGinley, John; Thompson, Henry J; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; DuBrock, Cynthia; Signori, Carina; Hamilton, Christopher; Calcagnotto, Ana; Trushin, Neil; Aliaga, Cesar; Demers, Laurence M; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Manni, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical data indicate that omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) potentiate the chemopreventive effect of the antiestrogen (AE) tamoxifen against mammary carcinogenesis. The role of n-3FA in breast cancer prevention in humans is controversial. Preclinical and epidemiologic data suggest that n-3FA may be preferentially protective in obese subjects. To directly test the protective effect of n-3FA against breast cancer, we conducted a 2-year, open-label randomized clinical trial in 266 healthy postmenopausal women (50% normal weight, 30% overweight, 20% obese) with high breast density (BD; ≥25%) detected on their routine screening mammograms. Eligible women were randomized to one of the following five groups (i) no treatment, control; (ii) raloxifene 60 mg; (iii) raloxifene 30 mg; (iv) n-3FA lovaza 4 g; and (v) lovaza 4 g plus raloxifene 30 mg. The 2-year change in BD, a validated biomarker of breast cancer risk, was the primary endpoint of the study. In subset analysis, we tested the prespecified hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) influences the relationship between plasma n-3FA on BD. While none of the interventions affected BD in the intention-to-treat analysis, increase in plasma DHA was associated with a decrease in absolute breast density but only in participants with BMI >29. Our results suggest that obese women may preferentially experience breast cancer risk reduction from n-3FA administration. PMID:26714774

  8. Modulation of infant formula fat profile alters the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and plasma fatty acid distribution relative to those with breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K C; Pronczuk, A; Wood, R A; Guy, D G

    1992-04-01

    The effect of breast-feeding was compared with that of two fat-modified milk formulas in 45 infants (15 per group) studied by assessing body weight gain for 4 months and plasma lipids, lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid profiles of plasma and red blood cells, and plasma tocopherol status 3 months after birth. A saturated fat formula with coconut oil/soybean oil (COCO/SOY) had a fatty acid content and polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S, 0.55) comparable with that of human milk fat (P/S, 0.39) and had the same fat energy content (50% kcal). The second formula, with corn oil/soybean oil (CORN/SOY), was highly unsaturated (P/S, 4.6), with only 35% kcal from fat. Energy intake and body weight gain were similar for all groups. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid levels were significantly lower (greater than 20% on average) in infants fed the CORN/SOY formula than in infants fed either the COCO/SOY formula or human milk. Infants fed the CORN/SOY formula also had lower (25% to 35%) plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratios. Plasma, red blood cell, and cholesteryl ester fatty acids from infants fed COCO/SOY contained less 18:1 and more 18:2; cholesterol esters in plasma from breast-fed infants had the highest 20:4n-6 levels. Plasma tocopherol levels were higher in infants consuming formulas. The presence of cholesterol in human milk appeared to expand the low-density lipoprotein pool and exert an "unfavorable" increase in the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio. Thus modulation of infant lipoproteins by changing dietary fat and cholesterol is feasible and in keeping with the known response in adults. PMID:1560323

  9. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  10. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate.

  11. Consistency of visual assessments of mammographic breast density from vendor-specific "for presentation" images.

    PubMed

    Abdolell, Mohamed; Tsuruda, Kaitlyn; Lightfoot, Christopher B; Barkova, Eva; McQuaid, Melanie; Caines, Judy; Iles, Sian E

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of percent breast density (PD) and breast cancer risk implicitly assume that visual assessments of PD are comparable between vendors despite differences in technology and display algorithms. This study examines the extent to which visual assessments of PD differ between mammograms acquired from two vendors. Pairs of "for presentation" digital mammography images were obtained from two mammography units for 146 women who had a screening mammogram on one vendor unit followed by a diagnostic mammogram on a different vendor unit. Four radiologists independently visually assessed PD from single left mediolateral oblique view images from the two vendors. Analysis of variance, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), scatter plots, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate PD assessments between vendors. The mean radiologist PD for each image was used as a consensus PD measure. Overall agreement of the PD assessments was excellent between the two vendors with an ICC of 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 0.97). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated narrow upper and lower limits of agreement between the vendors with only a small bias (2.3 percentage points). The results of this study support the assumption that visual assessment of PD is consistent across mammography vendors despite vendor-specific appearances of "for presentation" images. PMID:26870747

  12. The network of antigen-antibody reactions in adult women with breast cancer or benign breast pathology or without breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network's state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  13. The network of antigen-antibody reactions in adult women with breast cancer or benign breast pathology or without breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network's state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them.

  14. The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network’s state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  15. Assessment of Content-Based Image Retrieval Approaches for Mammography Based on Breast Density Patterns.

    PubMed

    Purwadi, Nabila Sabatini; Atay, Hüseyin Tanzer; Kurt, Kenan Kaan; Turkeli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study is trying to assess methods commonly used in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) for screening mammography analysis. A database consists of 12 different BI-RADS classes related to breast density patterns of mammogram patches which are taken from IRMA database is used in this study. Three feature extraction methods, namely grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), principal component analysis (PCA), and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) are being investigated and compared with prior studies. Two retrieval methods are also used in this study, namely k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and mutual information (MI) to measure the similarity between query image and images in database. The result will be evaluated using positive count rate in each query for each class. The result of this study is expected to contribute more towards better Computed-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) and specifically screening mammography analysis in clinical cases. PMID:27577481

  16. Using multiscale texture and density features for near-term breast cancer risk analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang (Bill); Qian, Wei; Zhang, Jianying; Saltzstein, Edward C.; Zheng, Bin; Lure, Fleming; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To help improve efficacy of screening mammography by eventually establishing a new optimal personalized screening paradigm, the authors investigated the potential of using the quantitative multiscale texture and density feature analysis of digital mammograms to predict near-term breast cancer risk. Methods: The authors’ dataset includes digital mammograms acquired from 340 women. Among them, 141 were positive and 199 were negative/benign cases. The negative digital mammograms acquired from the “prior” screening examinations were used in the study. Based on the intensity value distributions, five subregions at different scales were extracted from each mammogram. Five groups of features, including density and texture features, were developed and calculated on every one of the subregions. Sequential forward floating selection was used to search for the effective combinations. Using the selected features, a support vector machine (SVM) was optimized using a tenfold validation method to predict the risk of each woman having image-detectable cancer in the next sequential mammography screening. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used as the performance assessment index. Results: From a total number of 765 features computed from multiscale subregions, an optimal feature set of 12 features was selected. Applying this feature set, a SVM classifier yielded performance of AUC = 0.729 ± 0.021. The positive predictive value was 0.657 (92 of 140) and the negative predictive value was 0.755 (151 of 200). Conclusions: The study results demonstrated a moderately high positive association between risk prediction scores generated by the quantitative multiscale mammographic image feature analysis and the actual risk of a woman having an image-detectable breast cancer in the next subsequent examinations. PMID:26127038

  17. Determinants of the reliability of ultrasound tomography sound speed estimates as a surrogate for volumetric breast density

    SciTech Connect

    Khodr, Zeina G.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Sak, Mark A.; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Ali, Haythem; Vallieres, Patricia; Sherman, Mark E.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: High breast density, as measured by mammography, is associated with increased breast cancer risk, but standard methods of assessment have limitations including 2D representation of breast tissue, distortion due to breast compression, and use of ionizing radiation. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is a novel imaging method that averts these limitations and uses sound speed measures rather than x-ray imaging to estimate breast density. The authors evaluated the reproducibility of measures of speed of sound and changes in this parameter using UST. Methods: One experienced and five newly trained raters measured sound speed in serial UST scans for 22 women (two scans per person) to assess inter-rater reliability. Intrarater reliability was assessed for four raters. A random effects model was used to calculate the percent variation in sound speed and change in sound speed attributable to subject, scan, rater, and repeat reads. The authors estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these measures based on data from the authors’ experienced rater. Results: Median (range) time between baseline and follow-up UST scans was five (1–13) months. Contributions of factors to sound speed variance were differences between subjects (86.0%), baseline versus follow-up scans (7.5%), inter-rater evaluations (1.1%), and intrarater reproducibility (∼0%). When evaluating change in sound speed between scans, 2.7% and ∼0% of variation were attributed to inter- and intrarater variation, respectively. For the experienced rater’s repeat reads, agreement for sound speed was excellent (ICC = 93.4%) and for change in sound speed substantial (ICC = 70.4%), indicating very good reproducibility of these measures. Conclusions: UST provided highly reproducible sound speed measurements, which reflect breast density, suggesting that UST has utility in sensitively assessing change in density.

  18. Matching spatial scales of variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities across southwestern Atlantic rocky shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Lorena P.; Bagur, María; Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of aquatic invertebrate larvae often differs in space and time thus contributing to variation in the abundance of adults. In the present study, we examined spatial scales of variation in mussel (Brachidontes spp.) recruitment and adult abundance across rocky intertidal areas in the Southwestern Atlantic. Recruitment and adult densities were compared between two regions separated ca. 700 km from each other, two locations (10-20 km from each other) within each region, and two sites (100-500 m from each other) within each location. Variance components analysis indicates that most variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities occurs at the scale of locations, irrespective of if mussel recruitment is quantified on mussel bed samples or artificial substrates (plastic mesh collectors). Increased mussel recruitment and adult densities at this scale are associated with higher time-averaged chlorophyll a concentration and wave exposure, which can potentially affect the supply of larvae to rocky shores by increasing their survival and delivery rates. There was close correspondence between the spatial patterns of variation in cumulative recruitment on natural substrates during the study period and the density of adults at its end. This suggests that differences in mussel abundance along Southwestern Atlantic rocky shores could be primarily determined by larval recruitment.

  19. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  20. Inter- and intraradiologist variability in the BI-RADS assessment and breast density categories for screening mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, A; Comas, M; Macià, F; Ferrer, F; Murta-Nascimento, C; Maristany, M T; Molins, E; Sala, M; Castells, X

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate reader variability in screening mammograms according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and breast density categories. Methods A stratified random sample of 100 mammograms was selected from a population-based breast cancer screening programme in Barcelona, Spain: 13 histopathologically confirmed breast cancers and 51 with true-negative and 36 with false-positive results. 21 expert radiologists from radiological units of breast cancer screening programmes in Catalonia, Spain, reviewed the mammography images twice within a 6-month interval. The readers described each mammography using BI-RADS assessment and breast density categories. Inter- and intraradiologist agreement was assessed using percentage of concordance and the kappa (κ) statistic. Results Fair interobserver agreement was observed for the BI-RADS assessment [κ=0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36–0.38]. When the categories were collapsed in terms of whether additional evaluation was required (Categories III, 0, IV, V) or not (I and II), moderate agreement was found (κ=0.53, 95% CI 0.52–0.54). Intra-observer agreement for BI-RADS assessment was moderate using all categories (κ=0.53, 95% CI 0.50–0.55) and substantial on recall (κ=0.66, 95% CI 0.63–0.70). Regarding breast density, inter- and intraradiologist agreement was substantial (κ=0.73, 95% CI 0.72–0.74 and κ=0.69, 95% CI 0.68–0.70, respectively). Conclusion We observed a substantial intra-observer agreement in the BI-RADS assessment but only moderate interobserver agreement. Both inter- and intra-observer agreement in mammographic interpretation of breast density was substantial. Advances in knowledge Educational efforts should be made to decrease radiologists' variability in BI-RADS assessment interpretation in population-based breast screening programmes. PMID:22993385

  1. Quantification of mammographic masking risk with volumetric breast density maps: how to select women for supplemental screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Katharina; van Gils, Carla H.; Wanders, Johanna OP; Mann, Ritse M.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-03-01

    The sensitivity of mammograms is low for women with dense breasts, since cancers may be masked by dense tissue. In this study, we investigated methods to identify women with density patterns associated with a high masking risk. Risk measures are derived from volumetric breast density maps. We used the last negative screening mammograms of 93 women who subsequently presented with an interval cancer (IC), and, as controls, 930 randomly selected normal screening exams from women without cancer. Volumetric breast density maps were computed from the mammograms, which provide the dense tissue thickness at each location. These were used to compute absolute and percentage glandular tissue volume. We modeled the masking risk for each pixel location using the absolute and percentage dense tissue thickness and we investigated the effect of taking the cancer location probability distribution (CLPD) into account. For each method, we selected cases with the highest masking measure (by thresholding) and computed the fraction of ICs as a function of the fraction of controls selected. The latter can be interpreted as the negative supplemental screening rate (NSSR). Between the models, when incorporating CLPD, no significant differences were found. In general, the methods performed better when CLPD was included. At higher NSSRs some of the investigated masking measures had a significantly higher performance than volumetric breast density. These measures may therefore serve as an alternative to identify women with a high risk for a masked cancer.

  2. Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn

    2009-11-01

    In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.

  3. Increased extracellular matrix density decreases MCF10A breast cell acinus formation in 3D culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Lance, Amanda; Yang, Chih-Chao; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Dean, Delphine; Deitch, Sandy; Burg, Karen J L; Dréau, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to the generation and dynamic of normal breast tissue, in particular to the generation of polarized acinar and ductal structures. In vitro 3D culture conditions, including variations in the composition of the ECM, have been shown to directly influence the formation and organization of acinus-like and duct-like structures. Furthermore, the density of the ECM appears to also play a role in the normal mammary tissue and tumour formation. Here we show that the density of the ECM directly influences the number, organization and function of breast acini. Briefly, non-malignant human breast MCF10A cells were incubated in increasing densities of a Matrigel®-collagen I matrix. Elastic moduli near and distant to the acinus structures were measured by atomic force microscopy, and the number of acinus structures was determined. Immunochemistry was used to investigate the expression levels of E-cadherin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-14 and ß-casein in MCF10A cells. The modulus of the ECM was significantly increased near the acinus structures and the number of acinus structures decreased with the increase in Matrigel-collagen I density. As evaluated by the expression of laminin, the organization of the acinus structures present was altered as the density of the ECM increased. Increases in both E-cadherin and MMP14 expression by MCF10A cells as ECM density increased were also observed. In contrast, MCF10A cells expressed lower ß-casein levels as the ECM density increased. Taken together, these observations highlight the key role of ECM density in modulating the number, organization and function of breast acini.

  4. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  5. A quantitative study of fungiform papillae and taste pore density in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Carolina; Hutchinson, Ian; Laing, David G; Jinks, Anthony L

    2002-10-20

    Male children (8-9 years) are reported to have a higher sensitivity than male adults to the sweet tastant sucrose when small regions of the anterior tongue are stimulated. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the higher sensitivity was due to a greater density of fungiform papillae and taste pores (buds), since it has been reported in adults that increased densities of these two structures correlates with increased taste suprathreshold sensitivity [Physiol. Behav. 47 (1990) 1213]. Quantitative measures of the number and size of papillae and pores in two areas of the tongue that had been shown to have a higher sensitivity for sucrose were achieved in 20 male children 8-9 years of age and 20 adults 18-30 years of age, using videomicroscopy and NIH Image software. Customized templates and a red food dye were used to define the equivalent tongue locations across the 40 subjects and taste pores were stained with methylene blue. Children were found to have substantially smaller papillae than adults but significantly higher papilla densities in both areas. Similar numbers of taste pores per papilla were found for both groups, resulting in children having much higher taste pore densities in each area than adults. Other differences included smaller taste pore diameters in children compared to adults, and the papillae tended to be rounder in children. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that the higher densities of fungiform papillae and taste pores in children underlie their greater sensitivity for sucrose in the two areas. In addition, the anatomical differences between adults and children indicate the sense of taste is in a state of development during mid-childhood.

  6. Collagen density and alignment in responsive and resistant trastuzumab-treated breast cancer xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Lee, Jae H.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-02-01

    Tumor collagen characteristics influence tumor malignancy, invasion, and metastasis. This study investigates the effects of trastuzumab (Tz) on the collagen of Tz-responsive (BT474) and Tz-resistant (HR6) breast cancer xenografts. Collagen content was assessed by in vivo second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and histological trichrome staining of tumor sections. Collagen SHG imaging of control BT474 and HR6 tumors demonstrated increased collagen density after 14 days of treatment (p<0.05). Trichrome staining revealed decreased collagen in Tz-treated BT474 and HR6 tumors at 2, 5, and 14 days of treatment, suggesting that Tz affects the tumor microenvironment independent of epithelial cell response. Additionally, collagen alignment analysis revealed significantly less aligned collagen in the Tz-treated BT474 tumors at day 14 compared with control BT474 tumors. There was no correlation between SHG endpoints (collagen density and alignment) and trichrome staining (p>0.05), consistent with the physically distinctive nature of these measurements. There was also no correlation between tumor size and collagen endpoints (p>0.05). These results identify changes within the collagen compartment of the tumor microenvironment following Tz treatment, which are independent from the tumor cell response to Tz, and demonstrate that intravital collagen SHG imaging is capable of measuring dynamic changes in tumor microenvironment following treatment that complements trichrome staining.

  7. Novel single x-ray absorptiometry method to solve for volumetric breast density in mammograms with paddle tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Shepherd, John

    2007-03-01

    We report on the design and validation of a breast tissue equivalent phantom for automated measurement of breast composition in film/screen and digital mammography systems. This phantom is a multi-step phantom made of a single material and containing nine lead positioning markers around its periphery. The markers allow for the phantom position to be solved relative to the x-ray gantry. The phantom was adhered to the top of the mammographic compression paddle such that it projected an attenuation image onto the unused corner of the image without overlapping with CC- nor MLO-view breast edges. The markers and their centroids were identified using automatic morphological image processing operations. The phantom, and thus the paddle, orientation is then obtained by minimizing a simple least-square error function of the difference between a pseudo projection image of the phantom markers at known coordinates and the actual marker image. Fibroglandular-equivalent breast attenuation values were found directly from step phantom projections. Fat attenuation values were derived from the attenuation coefficient ratios of fat to fibroglandular tissue. Finally, breast density was calculated by comparing image pixel values to the fat/fibroglandular references at the same thickness. Multiple scans of a test object (a density step phantom with 7 densities) at nine different compression thicknesses and six paddle-tilt angles were acquired. We found the precision for determining the breast thickness to be 0.015 cm (standard deviation) and for determining individual paddle angles to be 0.05 degrees. Multiple clinical studies using the technique on film/screen and digital mammography machines are also currently under way.

  8. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  9. Short-term hormone therapy suspension and mammography recall: the Radiological Evaluation and Breast Density (READ) Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buist, Diana S.M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reed, Susan D.; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Gandara, Juleann C.; Seger, Deborah; Newton, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Without population-based evidence, some clinicians recommend short-term hormone therapy (HT) suspension to improve mammography performance. HT raises breast density and abnormal screening mammograms are more common among women with greater breast density and among women using HT. Objective Test whether brief (1–2 month) HT suspension before screening mammography decreases additional mammographic imaging (recall) in women aged 45–80. Design Three-group randomized controlled trial. Setting Integrated health plan in Washington state, US between 2004–2007. Patients 1704 women aged 44–80 who used HT at their most recent screening (index) mammogram, were due for a screening (study) mammogram, and were still using HT. Intervention Block randomization (by breast density and HT type) to: no HT suspension (N=567) or suspension for 1 (N=570) or 2 (N=567) months before the study mammogram. One blinded expert radiologist interpreted all mammograms. Measurements Recall was the primary outcome and change in mammographic breast density (percentage and dense area) between index and study mammograms was the secondary outcome. Results Mammography recall rates were 11.3% (61/542 no-suspension), 12.3% (50/478 1-month), and 9.8% (44/451 2-month). We identified no subgroups where brief suspension resulted in decreased mammography recall. With suspension, decreases in percentage breast density were orderly and statistically significant: 0.1% (no-suspension), −0.9% (1-month), and −1.5% (2-month). Comparable ordered declines were observed for dense area. Suspension groups experienced increased menopause symptoms. Limitations Our results can only be generalized to women aged 45–80 years who have used HT for at least 1 year and will consider short-term suspension; the majority (61%) of eligible women refused participation. Mammography recall was determined by one expert radiologist. Conclusions Brief HT suspension was associated with small changes in breast density

  10. Tumor phenotype and breast density in distinct categories of interval cancer: results of population-based mammography screening in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interval cancers are tumors arising after a negative screening episode and before the next screening invitation. They can be classified into true interval cancers, false-negatives, minimal-sign cancers, and occult tumors based on mammographic findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms. This study aimed to describe tumor-related characteristics and the association of breast density and tumor phenotype within four interval cancer categories. Methods We included 2,245 invasive tumors (1,297 screening-detected and 948 interval cancers) diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 among 645,764 women aged 45 to 69 who underwent biennial screening in Spain. Interval cancers were classified by a semi-informed retrospective review into true interval cancers (n = 455), false-negatives (n = 224), minimal-sign (n = 166), and occult tumors (n = 103). Breast density was evaluated using Boyd’s scale and was conflated into: <25%; 25 to 50%; 50 to 75%; >75%. Tumor-related information was obtained from cancer registries and clinical records. Tumor phenotype was defined as follows: luminal A: ER+/HER2- or PR+/HER2-; luminal B: ER+/HER2+ or PR+/HER2+; HER2: ER-/PR-/HER2+; triple-negative: ER-/PR-/HER2-. The association of tumor phenotype and breast density was assessed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Forty-eight percent of interval cancers were true interval cancers and 23.6% false-negatives. True interval cancers were associated with HER2 and triple-negative phenotypes (OR = 1.91 (95% CI:1.22-2.96), OR = 2.07 (95% CI:1.42-3.01), respectively) and extremely dense breasts (>75%) (OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.08-2.56)). However, among true interval cancers a higher proportion of triple-negative tumors was observed in predominantly fatty breasts (<25%) than in denser breasts (28.7%, 21.4%, 11.3% and 14.3%, respectively; <0

  11. Technical Note: Contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Leonard H.; Zhang Miao; Howell, Roger W.; Yue, Ning J.; Khan, Atif J.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. Results: The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. Conclusions: The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

  12. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; Kelly, Luke E.

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluated the total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol of 40 adults (mean age 37.5 years) with mental retardation residing at an intermediate care facility. Results indicated that 59 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females were at moderate to high risk for coronary heart disease. (DB)

  13. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  14. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  15. Detection of soft tissue densities from digital breast tomosynthesis: comparison of conventional and deep learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotin, Sergei V.; Yin, Yin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.; Periaswamy, Senthil

    2016-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been used in screening mammography for many years and is likely to be utilized for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Higher detection performance is desirable as it may have an impact on radiologist's decisions and clinical outcomes. Recently the algorithms based on deep convolutional architectures have been shown to achieve state of the art performance in object classification and detection. Similarly, we trained a deep convolutional neural network directly on patches sampled from two-dimensional mammography and reconstructed DBT volumes and compared its performance to a conventional CAD algorithm that is based on computation and classification of hand-engineered features. The detection performance was evaluated on the independent test set of 344 DBT reconstructions (GE SenoClaire 3D, iterative reconstruction algorithm) containing 328 suspicious and 115 malignant soft tissue densities including masses and architectural distortions. Detection sensitivity was measured on a region of interest (ROI) basis at the rate of five detection marks per volume. Moving from conventional to deep learning approach resulted in increase of ROI sensitivity from 0:832 +/- 0:040 to 0:893 +/- 0:033 for suspicious ROIs; and from 0:852 +/- 0:065 to 0:930 +/- 0:046 for malignant ROIs. These results indicate the high utility of deep feature learning in the analysis of DBT data and high potential of the method for broader medical image analysis tasks.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  17. A comparative study of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammography and magnetic resonance imaging: results from a high-risk population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Despina; Xing, Ye; Bakic, Predrag R.; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-03-01

    We performed a study to compare methods for volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammography (DM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a high-risk population of women. DM and MRI images of the unaffected breast from 32 women with recently detected abnormalities and/or previously diagnosed breast cancer (age range 31-78 yrs, mean 50.3 yrs) were retrospectively analyzed. DM images were analyzed using QuantraTM (Hologic Inc). The MRI images were analyzed using a fuzzy-C-means segmentation algorithm on the T1 map. Both methods were compared to Cumulus (Univ. Toronto). Volumetric breast density estimates from DM and MRI are highly correlated (r=0.90, p<=0.001). The correlation between the volumetric and the area-based density measures is lower and depends on the training background of the Cumulus software user (r=0.73-84, p<=0.001). In terms of absolute values, MRI provides the lowest volumetric estimates (mean=14.63%), followed by the DM volumetric (mean=22.72%) and area-based measures (mean=29.35%). The MRI estimates of the fibroglandular volume are statistically significantly lower than the DM estimates for women with very low-density breasts (p<=0.001). We attribute these differences to potential partial volume effects in MRI and differences in the computational aspects of the image analysis methods in MRI and DM. The good correlation between the volumetric and the area-based measures, shown to correlate with breast cancer risk, suggests that both DM and MRI volumetric breast density measures can aid in breast cancer risk assessment. Further work is underway to fully-investigate the association between volumetric breast density measures and breast cancer risk.

  18. Tibolone increases bone mineral density but also relapse in breast cancer survivors: LIBERATE trial bone substudy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Livial Intervention Following Breast Cancer: Efficacy, Recurrence and Tolerability Endpoints (LIBERATE: Clinical http://Trials.gov number NCT00408863), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that demonstrated that tibolone (Livial), a tissue-selective hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), increased breast cancer (BC) recurrence HR 1.40 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.70; P = 0.001). A subgroup of women was entered into a study of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Women with surgically excised primary BC (T1-3, N0-2, M-0) within the last 5 years, complaining of vasomotor symptoms, were assigned to tibolone, 2.5 mg daily, or placebo treatment for a maximum of 5 years. The BMD substudy enrolled 763 patients, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning at baseline and at 2 years. Results In the bone substudy, 699 of 763 women were eligible (345 allocated to tibolone, and 354, to placebo). After undergoing DXA scans, 300 (43%) women had normal BMD; 317 (45%), osteopenia; and 82 (11.7%), osteoporosis. Low body-mass index (P < 0.001), Asian race (P < 0.001), and late age at menarche (P < 0.04) predicted low bone mass at baseline. Tibolone increased BMD by 3.2% at the lumbar spine and 2.9% at the hip compared with placebo (both P < 0.001). The majority of fractures (55%) occurred in osteopenic patients. Women with normal BMD had increased recurrence with tibolone, 22 (15.6%) of 141 compared with placebo, 11 (6.9%) of 159 (P = 0.016), whereas no increased BC recurrence was seen in women with low BMD; 15 (7.4%) of 204 taking tibolone versus 13 (6.7%) of 195 taking placebo. Conclusions Tibolone is contraindicated after BC treatment, as it increases BMD and BC recurrence. Risk of BC recurrence was elevated in BC women with normal BMD (compared with low) who took tibolone. PMID:22251615

  19. Digital versus screen-film mammography: impact of mammographic density and hormone therapy on breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Prummel, Maegan V; Muradali, Derek; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Done, Susan J; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Most studies that have examined the effects of mammographic density and hormone therapy use on breast cancer detection have included screen-film mammography. This study further examines this association in post-menopausal women screened by digital mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified 688,418 women of age 50-74 years screened with digital or screen-film mammography from 2008 to 2009 within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Of 2993 eligible women with invasive breast cancer, 2450 were contacted and 1421 participated (847 screen-film mammography, 574 digital direct radiography). Mammographic density was measured by study radiologists using the standard BI-RADS classification system and by a computer-assisted method. Information on hormone therapy use was collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression and two-tailed tests for significance evaluated associations between factors and detection method by mammography type. Women with >75 % radiologist-measured mammographic density compared to those with <25 % were more likely to be diagnosed with an interval than screen-detected cancer, with the difference being greater for those screened with screen-film (OR = 6.40, 95 % CI 2.30-17.85) than digital mammography (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 0.67-8.58) and aged 50-64 years screened with screen-film mammography (OR = 10.86, 95 % CI 2.96-39.57). Recent former hormone therapy users were also at an increased risk of having an interval cancer with the association being significant for women screened with digital mammography (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.17-3.71). Breast screening using digital mammography lowers the risk of having an interval cancer for post-menopausal women aged 50-64 with greater mammographic density. PMID:26518019

  20. Digital versus screen-film mammography: impact of mammographic density and hormone therapy on breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Prummel, Maegan V; Muradali, Derek; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Done, Susan J; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Most studies that have examined the effects of mammographic density and hormone therapy use on breast cancer detection have included screen-film mammography. This study further examines this association in post-menopausal women screened by digital mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified 688,418 women of age 50-74 years screened with digital or screen-film mammography from 2008 to 2009 within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Of 2993 eligible women with invasive breast cancer, 2450 were contacted and 1421 participated (847 screen-film mammography, 574 digital direct radiography). Mammographic density was measured by study radiologists using the standard BI-RADS classification system and by a computer-assisted method. Information on hormone therapy use was collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression and two-tailed tests for significance evaluated associations between factors and detection method by mammography type. Women with >75 % radiologist-measured mammographic density compared to those with <25 % were more likely to be diagnosed with an interval than screen-detected cancer, with the difference being greater for those screened with screen-film (OR = 6.40, 95 % CI 2.30-17.85) than digital mammography (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 0.67-8.58) and aged 50-64 years screened with screen-film mammography (OR = 10.86, 95 % CI 2.96-39.57). Recent former hormone therapy users were also at an increased risk of having an interval cancer with the association being significant for women screened with digital mammography (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.17-3.71). Breast screening using digital mammography lowers the risk of having an interval cancer for post-menopausal women aged 50-64 with greater mammographic density.

  1. Breast Density Legislation: Discussion of Patient Utilization and Subsequent Direct Financial Ramifications for Insurance Providers.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, John; Hinrichs, Clay

    2015-10-01

    Now that New Jersey has become the 14th state in the United States to enact legislation regarding dense breast screening, its patients are eligible to receive screening breast sonography coverage from their insurance carriers. This law is intended to improve breast cancer detection in patients with dense breasts and create awareness of unique issues that come with dense breast tissue, while reinforcing already present efforts to reduce the incidence of and morbidity related to the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine data from months preceding the effective date of this legislation in a community hospital setting and compare these data with data from months immediately after, and 6 months after, its enactment to present patient participation data and estimate the legislation's direct financial ramifications. Detractors of this type of legislation worry about overburdening the health care system with an influx of patients. Although there is a lack of present studies confirming this suspicion in other states with dense breast legislation, this study confirms a large increase in patient utilization after enactment, showing a minimum relative increase of 176.90% and a maximum relative increase of 335.56% in patient utilization of screening breast sonography. The investigators further include an estimation of an increased direct cost for insurers of $4,910,899.18 to $9,848,897.96 for a given month.

  2. Experimental assessment of an automatic breast density classification algorithm based on principal component analysis applied to histogram data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Antonio; Ferrer, Jose; Pinto, Joseph; Lavarello, Roberto; Guerrero, Jorge; Castaneda, Benjamín.

    2015-01-01

    Breast parenchymal density is considered a strong indicator of cancer risk. However, measures of breast density are often qualitative and require the subjective judgment of radiologists. This work proposes a supervised algorithm to automatically assign a BI-RADS breast density score to a digital mammogram. The algorithm applies principal component analysis to the histograms of a training dataset of digital mammograms to create four different spaces, one for each BI-RADS category. Scoring is achieved by projecting the histogram of the image to be classified onto the four spaces and assigning it to the closest class. In order to validate the algorithm, a training set of 86 images and a separate testing database of 964 images were built. All mammograms were acquired in the craniocaudal view from female patients without any visible pathology. Eight experienced radiologists categorized the mammograms according to a BIRADS score and the mode of their evaluations was considered as ground truth. Results show better agreement between the algorithm and ground truth for the training set (kappa=0.74) than for the test set (kappa=0.44) which suggests the method may be used for BI-RADS classification but a better training is required.

  3. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer. Methods 13,572 women (50 to 69 years) in the Copenhagen mammography screening program (1991 through 2001) with childhood anthropometric measurements in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register were followed for breast cancer until 2010. With logistic and Cox regression models, we investigated associations among birth weight, height, and BMI at ages 7 to 13 years with MD (mixed/dense or fatty) and breast cancer, respectively. Results 8,194 (60.4%) women had mixed/dense breasts, and 716 (5.3%) developed breast cancer. Childhood BMI was significantly inversely related to having mixed/dense breasts at all ages, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72) at age 7 to 0.56 (0.53 to 0.58) at age 13, per one-unit increase in z-score. No statistically significant associations were detected between birth weight and MD, height and MD, or birth weight and breast cancer risk. BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.91 (0.83 to 0.99) at age 7 and 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) at age 13, whereas height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (age 7, 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) and age 13, 1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)). After additional adjustment for MD, associations of BMI with breast cancer diminished (age 7, 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) and age 13, 1.01 (0.93 to 1.11)), but remained with height (age 7, 1.06 (0.99 to 1.15) and age 13, 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)). Conclusions Among women 50 years and older, childhood body fatness was inversely associated with the breast cancer risk, possibly via a mechanism mediated by MD, at least partially. Childhood tallness was

  4. Bone health in adults treated with endocrine therapy for early breast or prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Poznak, Catherine H

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a hormonally responsive organ. Sex hormones and calcium regulating hormones, including parathyroid hormone, 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D, and calcitonin, have effects on bone resorption and bone deposition. These hormones affect both bone quality and bone quantity. The sex hormone estrogen inhibits bone resorption, and estrogen therapy has been developed to prevent and treat osteoporosis. Androgens are an important source of estrogen through the action of the enzyme aromatase and may themselves stimulate bone formation. Hence, the sex steroids play a role in bone metabolism. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are frequently hormonally responsive and may be treated with antiestrogens or antiandrogens respectfully. In addition, chemotherapy and supportive medications may alter the patient's endocrine system. In general, the suppression of sex hormones has a predictable affect on bone health, as seen by loss of bone mineral density and increased risk of fragility fractures. The bone toxicity of cancer-directed endocrine therapy can be mitigated through screening, counseling on optimization of calcium and vitamin D intake, exercise, and other lifestyle/behavioral actions, as well as the use of medications when the fracture risk is high. Maintaining bone health in patients who are treated with endocrine therapy for breast and prostate cancer is the focus of this review.

  5. Bone health in adults treated with endocrine therapy for early breast or prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Poznak, Catherine H

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a hormonally responsive organ. Sex hormones and calcium regulating hormones, including parathyroid hormone, 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D, and calcitonin, have effects on bone resorption and bone deposition. These hormones affect both bone quality and bone quantity. The sex hormone estrogen inhibits bone resorption, and estrogen therapy has been developed to prevent and treat osteoporosis. Androgens are an important source of estrogen through the action of the enzyme aromatase and may themselves stimulate bone formation. Hence, the sex steroids play a role in bone metabolism. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are frequently hormonally responsive and may be treated with antiestrogens or antiandrogens respectfully. In addition, chemotherapy and supportive medications may alter the patient's endocrine system. In general, the suppression of sex hormones has a predictable affect on bone health, as seen by loss of bone mineral density and increased risk of fragility fractures. The bone toxicity of cancer-directed endocrine therapy can be mitigated through screening, counseling on optimization of calcium and vitamin D intake, exercise, and other lifestyle/behavioral actions, as well as the use of medications when the fracture risk is high. Maintaining bone health in patients who are treated with endocrine therapy for breast and prostate cancer is the focus of this review. PMID:25993224

  6. Weight in infancy and adult calcium absorption as determinants of bone mineral density in adult men: the Hertfordshire cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, M B R; Makepeace, A E; Jameson, K A; Masterson, L M; Holt, R I G; Swaminathan, R; Javaid, M K; Cooper, C; Arden, N K

    2012-12-01

    Adult bone mass is modified by early life environmental influences, but the mechanism of this association is uncertain. Data support an inverse relationship between intestinal calcium absorption (αCa) and birth weight in women. However, little is known regarding determinants in men. This study examines the association between weight in infancy and adult αCa in healthy men and whether this could be a mechanism by which the early life environment may influence bone mass. Men were recruited from the MRC Hertfordshire Cohort Study, for whom detailed early life records were available. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine. We randomly selected 123 men stratified by birth weight and assessed αCa using the stable strontium absorption test. The mean age was 63.6 (SD 2.5) years. αCa was not associated with birth weight or weight at 1 year. FN aBMD was associated with both weight at 1 year (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and αCa (r = 0.20, p = 0.03). Both of these associations remained statistically significant in a mutually adjusted, multivariable model but would account for only ~4 % variance in BMD. We demonstrated a positive association between weight at 1 year and aBMD and between αCa and FN BMD, but no association was found between birth weight and αCa. This suggests that in men, although αCa is a contributing factor in FN bone density, it is not the main mechanism whereby the early environment modifies adult BMD. PMID:23010962

  7. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then

  8. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58–69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  9. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  10. Effects of Cardiovascular Disease on Compliance with Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations Among Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common among women and is a leading cause of death in the United States. This study assessed the impact of CVD on compliance with the US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for cervical and breast cancer screening among U.S. adult women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 17,408 women using data from the National Health Interview Survey 2013. A total of 11,788 respondents (21–65 years old) with complete information on Pap smear and 11,409 women (40+ years old) with complete information on mammography compliance were included. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of CVD on cervical and breast cancer screening practices. Results: Women with CVD were marginally more likely to have had a mammogram in accordance with guidelines (odds ratio 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.31) than those without CVD. However, compliance with Pap tests was similar (80.6% vs 82.3%, p>0.05) between the two groups. Myocardial infarction was associated with reduced odds of Pap smear compliance (odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.51). Conclusions: Women with prior myocardial infarction should be encouraged to continue receiving regular Pap smears. More research is needed to assess whether observed differences in Pap testing between patients with and without a history of myocardial infarction result from lack of provider recommendation or from patient noncompliance with their recommendations. PMID:26263281

  11. Mammographic density, parity and age at first birth, and risk of breast cancer: an analysis of four case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Woolcott, Christy G; Koga, Karin; Conroy, Shannon M; Byrne, Celia; Nagata, Chisato; Ursin, Giske; Vachon, Celine M; Yaffe, Martin J; Pagano, Ian; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-04-01

    Mammographic density is strongly and consistently associated with breast cancer risk. To determine if this association was modified by reproductive factors (parity and age at first birth), data were combined from four case-control studies conducted in the United States and Japan. To overcome the issue of variation in mammographic density assessment among the studies, a single observer re-read all the mammograms using one type of interactive thresholding software. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) while adjusting for other known breast cancer risk factors. Included were 1,699 breast cancer cases and 2,422 controls, 74% of whom were postmenopausal. A positive association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk was evident in every group defined by parity and age at first birth (OR per doubling of percent mammographic density ranged between 1.20 and 1.39). Nonetheless, the association appeared to be stronger among nulliparous than parous women (OR per doubling of percent mammographic density = 1.39 vs. 1.24; P interaction = 0.054). However, when examined by study location, the effect modification by parity was apparent only in women from Hawaii and when examined by menopausal status, it was apparent in postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, women. Effect modification by parity was not significant in subgroups defined by body mass index or ethnicity. Adjusting for mammographic density did not attenuate the OR for the association between parity and breast cancer risk by more than 16.4%, suggesting that mammographic density explains only a small proportion of the reduction in breast cancer risk associated with parity. In conclusion, this study did not support the hypothesis that parity modifies the breast cancer risk attributed to mammographic density. Even though an effect modification was found in Hawaiian women, no such thing was found in women from the other three locations.

  12. Consumption Patterns of Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Dietary Nutrient Density among French Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Francou, Aurée; Hebel, Pascale; Braesco, Véronique; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). PMID:26213964

  13. Regression Calibration in Nutritional Epidemiology: Example of Fat Density and Total Energy in Relationship to Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ross L.; Pettinger, Mary; Tinker, Lesley F.; Huang, Ying; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Johnson, Karen C.; Beasley, Jeannette; Anderson, Garnet; Shikany, James M.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Regression calibration using biomarkers provides an attractive approach to strengthening nutritional epidemiology. We consider this approach to assessing the relationship of fat and total energy consumption with postmenopausal breast cancer. In analyses that included fat density data, biomarker-calibrated total energy was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence in cohorts of the US Women's Health Initiative from 1994–2010. The estimated hazard ratio for a 20% increment in calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) energy was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.30). This association was not evident without biomarker calibration, and it ceased to be apparent following control for body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), suggesting that the association is mediated by body fat deposition over time. The hazard ratio for a corresponding 40% increment in FFQ fat density was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.09). A stronger fat density association, with a hazard ratio of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.41), emerged from analyses that used 4-day food records for dietary assessment. FFQ-based analyses were also carried out by using a second dietary assessment in place of the biomarker for calibration. This type of calibration did not correct for systematic bias in energy assessment, but may be able to accommodate the “noise” component of dietary measurement error. Implications for epidemiologic applications more generally are described. PMID:24064741

  14. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults living along streets with high traffic density.

    PubMed Central

    Oosterlee, A; Drijver, M; Lebret, E; Brunekreef, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the population living along streets with high traffic density has a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 673 adults and 106 children (0-15 years), living along busy traffic streets in the city of Haarlem was compared with a control sample of 812 adults and 185 children living along quiet streets. Exposed and control streets were selected on the basis of model calculations of NO2 concentrations. A postal questionnaire containing questions about respiratory symptoms and several potential confounders was used to collect information from the study subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, children living along busy streets were found to have a higher prevalence of most respiratory symptoms than children living along quiet streets. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for wheeze and for respiratory medication used. Risk ratios were higher for girls than for boys, with significant adjusted odds ratios between 2.9 and 15.8 for girls. In adults, only mild dyspnoea was more often reported by subjects living along streets with high traffic density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that living along busy streets increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms in children. PMID:8664961

  15. Bone structure and volumetric density in young adults born prematurely: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Backström, M C; Kuusela, A-L; Koivisto, A-M; Sievänen, H

    2005-04-01

    Prematurity is known to be associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood, but whether this condition has long-term detrimental consequences on adult bone structure is not known. In this study, we measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) the total bone cross-sectional area, cortical area and wall thickness, cortical and trabecular density, and a density-weighed polar section modulus as a bone strength index (BSI) at distal and shaft sites of right radius and tibia in a group of 40 prematurely born, otherwise normally developed and healthy young adults (17 women and 23 men, aged 18 to 27 years) and compared their data to corresponding data obtained from a group of 42 control subjects born term (20 women and 22 men, aged 18 to 28 years). Body height and weight were similar in both groups, but the preterm group had significantly lower BSI values at distal sites of tibia (approximately -16%) and radius (approximately -13%) and at tibial shaft (approximately -11%) as compared to control group. In the weight-bearing tibia, BMC was lower and the lower BSI values were mainly due to smaller total bone cross-sectional area. For unknown reason, this prematurity-associated detrimental effect seemed to concern more men than women. In contrast, prematurity was not associated with volumetric trabecular and cortical densities at any measured bone site while the typical sex differences in bone density were observed. We conclude that prematurity is associated with somewhat smaller cross-sectional bone dimensions in terms of body size in young adulthood. Due to the cross-sectional design, this study could not reveal specific reasons but they may pertain to nutrition during the neonatal period and living habits in general.

  16. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  17. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  18. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  19. Being breastfed in infancy and breast cancer incidence in adult life: results from the two nurses' health studies.

    PubMed

    Michels, K B; Trichopoulos, D; Rosner, B A; Hunter, D J; Colditz, G A; Hankinson, S E; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    2001-02-01

    Events during perinatal and early life may influence the incidence of breast cancer in adult life, and some case-control studies suggest that having been breastfed may reduce breast cancer risk. The authors studied this association among premenopausal and postmenopausal women by using data from the two Nurses' Health Studies, the Nurses' Health Study (using data from 1992 to 1996) and the Nurses' Health Study II (using data from 1991 to 1997). A history of being breastfed was self-reported by the study participants. During a total of 695,655 person-years, 1,073 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. The authors did not observe any important overall association between having been breastfed and the development of breast cancer later in life among premenopausal women (covariate-adjusted relative risk = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 1.20) or postmenopausal women (covariate-adjusted relative risk = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.37). No significant trend was observed with increasing duration of breastfeeding. The authors also used data on breastfeeding retrospectively collected from 2,103 mothers of participants of the two Nurses' Health Studies. With the mothers' reports, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.39) for women who were breastfed compared with those who were not. Data from these two large cohorts do not support the hypothesis that being breastfed confers protection against subsequent breast cancer. PMID:11157415

  20. Online Learning from Input versus Offline Memory Evolution in Adult Word Learning: Effects of Neighborhood Density and Phonologically Related Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…

  1. Conservative surgery and radiotherapy for stage I/II breast cancer using lung density correction: 10-year and 15-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Griffith, Kent A.; Hayman, James A.; Douglas, Kathye R.; Lichter, Allen S.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for breast cancer using lung density correction improves dose homogeneity. Its use obviates the need for a medial wedge, thus reducing scatter to the opposite breast. Although lung density correction is used at many centers in planning for early-stage breast cancer, long-term results of local control and survival have not been reported. Since 1984, we have used lung density correction for dose calculations at the University of Michigan. We now present our 10-year and 15-year results. Methods and Materials: The records of 867 patients with Stage I/II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT with or without systemic therapy were reviewed. Tangential fields delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast calculated using lung density correction were used. A boost was added in 96.8% of patients for a total median dose of 61.8 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-18.9 years), 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial rates of in-breast tumor recurrence as only first failure were 2.2%, 3.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. With surgical salvage, the 15-year cumulative rate of local control was 99.7%. Factors that significantly predicted for increased rate of local recurrence in multivariate analysis were age {<=} 35 years, hazard ratio 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.9) p = 0.004; negative progesterone receptor status, hazard ratio 6.8 (95% CI, 2.3-20.3) p = < 0.001; negative estrogen receptor status, hazard ratio 4.0 (95% CI, 1.5-11.1) p = 0.007; and lack of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, hazard ratio 7.7 (95% CI, 1.7-33.3) p = 0.008. Relapse-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 84.6%, 70.8%, and 55.9%, respectively; breast cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4%, 90.5%, and 86.9%, respectively; and corresponding estimates for overall survival were 89.7%, 75.7%, and 61.3%. Conclusions: Use of lung density correction was associated with high rates of local control, relapse-free survival, breast

  2. Effects of Tamoxifen and oestrogen on histology and radiographic density in high and low mammographic density human breast tissues maintained in murine tissue engineering chambers.

    PubMed

    Chew, G L; Huo, C W; Huang, D; Blick, T; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Southey, M C; Hopper, J L; Britt, K; Henderson, M A; Haviv, I; Thompson, E W

    2014-11-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. It is altered by exogenous endocrine treatments, including hormone replacement therapy and Tamoxifen. Such agents also modify breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the biomolecular basis of how systemic endocrine therapy modifies MD and MD-associated BC risk is poorly understood. This study aims to determine whether our xenograft biochamber model can be used to study the effectiveness of therapies aimed at modulating MD, by examine the effects of Tamoxifen and oestrogen on histologic and radiographic changes in high and low MD tissues maintained within the biochamber model. High and low MD human tissues were precisely sampled under radiographic guidance from prophylactic mastectomy fresh specimens of high-risk women, then inserted into separate vascularized murine biochambers. The murine hosts were concurrently implanted with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo pellets, and the high and low MD biochamber tissues maintained in the murine host environment for 3 months, before the high and low MD biochamber tissues were harvested for histologic and radiographic analyses. The radiographic density of high MD tissue maintained in murine biochambers was decreased in Tamoxifen-treated mice compared to oestrogen-treated mice (p = 0.02). Tamoxifen treatment of high MD tissue in SCID mice led to a decrease in stromal (p = 0.009), and an increase in adipose (p = 0.023) percent areas, compared to placebo-treated mice. No histologic or radiographic differences were observed in low MD biochamber tissue with any treatment. High MD biochamber tissues maintained in mice implanted with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo pellets had dynamic and measurable histologic compositional and radiographic changes. This further validates the dynamic nature of the MD xenograft model, and suggests the biochamber model may be useful for assessing the underlying molecular pathways of Tamoxifen-reduced MD, and in testing of other

  3. Three-dimensional temporal and spatial distribution of adult Rhyzopertha dominica in stored wheat and corn under different temperatures, moisture contents, and adult densities.

    PubMed

    Jian, Fuji; Larson, Ron; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G

    2012-08-01

    Three-dimensional temporal and spatial distributions of adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) at adult densities of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 adults per kg grain and at 20 +/- 1, 25 +/- 1, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C were determined in 1.5 t bins filled with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with 11.0 +/- 0.8, 13.0 +/- 0.6, and 15.0 +/- 0.5% moisture content (wet basis) or corn (Zea mays L.) with 13.0 +/- 0.2% moisture content (wet basis). At each of five sampled locations, grain was separated into three 15-kg vertical layers, and adult numbers in each layer were counted. Inside both corn and wheat, adults did not prefer any location in the same layer except at high introduced insect density in wheat. The adults were recovered from any layer of the corn and >12, 65, and 45% of adults were recovered in the bottom layer of the corn at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C; respectively. However, <1% of adults were recovered in the bottom layer of wheat. Numbers of adults correlated with those in adjacent locations in both vertical and horizontal directions, and the temporal continuous property existed in both wheat and corn. Adults had highly clumped distribution at any grain temperature and moisture content. This aggregation behavior decreased with the increase of adult density and redistribution speed. Grain type influenced their redistribution speed, and this resulted in the different redistribution patterns inside wheat and corn bulks. These characterized distribution patterns could be used to develop sampling plans and integrated pest management programs in stored grain bins.

  4. Wide Variation Seen in 'Dense' Breast Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... defined mammography patients' breasts as dense. Higher breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, experts ... could have implications for the so-called breast density notification laws that have been passed in about ...

  5. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    PubMed

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  6. Breast cancer screening among adult women--Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacqueline W; King, Jessica B; Joseph, Djenaba A; Richardson, Lisa C

    2012-06-15

    Breast cancer continues to have a substantial impact on the health of women in the United States. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding skin cancers) among women, with more than 210,000 new cases diagnosed in 2008 (the most recent year for which data are available). Incidence rates are highest among white women at 122.6 per 100,000, followed by blacks at 118 per 100,000, Hispanics at 92.8, Asian/Pacific Islanders at 87.9, and American Indian/Alaskan Natives at 65.6. Although deaths from breast cancer have been declining in recent years, it has remained the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women since the late 1980s with >40,000 deaths reported in 2008. Although white women are more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer, black women are more likely to die from breast cancer than women of any other racial/ethnic group. In addition, studies have demonstrated that nonwhite minority women tend to have a more advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Breast cancer also occurs more often among women aged ≥50 years, those with first-degree family members with breast cancer, and those who have certain genetic mutations. Understanding who is at risk for breast cancer helps inform guidelines for who should get screened for breast cancer.

  7. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  8. Bone mineral density of vegetarian and non-vegetarian adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Jing-Er; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2008-01-01

    Diet is thought to be one of the leading causes of bone mineral loss in aging people. In this study, we explored the potential impact of a vegetarian diet on bone mineral density (BMD) in adult Taiwanese men and women. This was a cross-sectional study of the relationship between diet (vegetarian versus non-vegetarian) and BMD and the incidence of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was determined in a cohort of 1865 adult male and female patients who underwent routine examination in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan between February 2003 and February 2004. Subjects with definite vertebral problems, known osteopathy, or poor posture were excluded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to determine BMD, on the right hip in men and on lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 in women. The subjects were grouped according to sex and diet, and were then stratified by age within each of the four groups. The outcome measures were the BMD value and the incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis according to defined criteria. Bone mineral density gradually declined with increasing age in Taiwanese men, while Taiwanese women showed a precipitous decrease in BMD after the 5th decade. However, no statistical differences in BMD were observed between vegetarians and non-vegetarians of either sex. The proportion of subjects with osteopenia or osteoporosis also appeared comparable between vegetarians and non-vegetarians of either sex. BMD shows an age-related decline in Taiwanese men and women, and eating a vegetarian diet does not appear to affect this decline.

  9. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  10. High-density array analysis of DNA methylation in Tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristin E; Anderton, Douglas L; Lee, Maxwell P; Pentecost, Brian T; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2014-02-01

    Roughly two-thirds of all breast cancers are ERα-positive and can be treated with the antiestrogen, Tamoxifen, however resistance occurs in 33% of women who take the drug for more than 5 y. Aberrant DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that alters gene expression in cancer, is thought to play a role in this resistance. To develop an understanding of Tamoxifen-resistance and identify novel pathways and targets of aberrant methylation, DNA from MCF-7 breast cancer cells and Tamoxifen-resistant derivatives, TMX2-11 and TMX2-28, were analyzed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Normalizing against MCF-7 values, ERα-positive TMX2-11 had 4000 hypermethylated sites and ERα-negative TMX2-28 had over 33 000. Analysis of CpG sites altered in both TMX2-11 and TMX2-28 revealed that the Tamoxifen-resistant cell lines share 3000 hypermethylated and 200 hypomethylated CpGs. ZNF350 and MAGED1, two genes hypermethylated in both cell lines, were examined in greater detail. Treatment with 5-aza-2ꞌdeoxycitidine caused a significant reduction in promoter methylation of both ZNF350 and MAGED1 and a corresponding increase in expression in TMX2-28. A similar relationship between methylation and expression was not detected in TMX2-11. Our findings are indicative of the variable responses to methylation-targeted breast cancer therapy and highlight the need for biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcome.

  11. The effects of the adult density of Macoma balthica on the recruitment of juvenile bivalves: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M.; Edwards, F.; Huxham, M.

    2002-02-01

    Populations of intertidal bivalves are patchily distributed at a variety of scales, and the distributions of adults and juveniles are often different. Adult-juvenile interactions may help explain this patchiness. In this study, the effects of different densities of adult Macoma balthica (L.) on the numbers of re-locating juvenile M. balthica and Cerastoderma edule (L.) were examined. Two field experiments were conducted, which established three densities of adult M. balthica (reflecting the range of values found on the study site) and allowed recruitment of bivalves into experimental plots for two tidal cycles. Both experiments were run at peak summer arrival of juveniles at this site. The first was open to predators, the second was protected from larger epibenthic and avian predators by cages. The mean number of juvenile C. edule found in the high-density treatment was significantly lower than in the other density treatments in the first (open) experiment. There was also evidence of density-dependent predation by Carcinus maenas (L.). There were no significant effects of adult M. balthica density on the numbers of juvenile bivalves in the caged experiment. These results were compared with those from a small-scale field survey, which showed a negative correlation between juvenile M. balthica ≤1.6 mm and individuals ≥1.6 mm. Our study suggests that densities of M. balthica ≥1.6 mm may have an impact on the numbers of juvenile bivalves (in particular, C. edule) re-locating at this site, but that this effect is not the result of direct adult-juvenile interactions, but is caused indirectly by density-dependent predation by C. maenas.

  12. Are Qualitative Assessments of Background Parenchymal Enhancement, Amount of Fibroglandular Tissue on MR Images, and Mammographic Density Associated with Breast Cancer Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Dontchos, Brian N.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Korde, Larissa A.; Lam, Diana L.; Scheel, John R.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessments of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT), and mammographic density are associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women who are at high risk. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, all screening breast MR images obtained from January 2006 to December 2011 in women aged 18 years or older and at high risk for but without a history of breast cancer were identified. Women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed after index MR imaging comprised the cancer cohort, and one-to-one matching (age and BRCA status) of each woman with breast cancer to a control subject was performed by using MR images obtained in women who did not develop breast cancer with follow-up time maximized. Amount of BPE, BPE pattern (peripheral vs central), amount of FGT at MR imaging, and mammographic density were assessed on index images. Imaging features were compared between cancer and control cohorts by using conditional logistic regression. Results Twenty-three women at high risk (mean age, 47 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; six women had BRCA mutations) with no history of breast cancer underwent screening breast MR imaging; in these women, a diagnosis of breast cancer (invasive, n = 12; in situ, n = 11) was made during the follow-up interval. Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were nine times more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer during the follow-up interval than were those with minimal BPE (P = .007; odds ratio = 9.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 71.0). BPE pattern, MR imaging amount of FGT, and mammographic density were not significantly different between the cohorts (P = .5, P = .5, and P = .4, respectively). Conclusion Greater BPE was associated with a higher probability of developing breast cancer in women at high risk for cancer and warrants further study. © RSNA

  13. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  14. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jinya; Sahni, Shivani; Liao, Susu; Tucker, Katherine L.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Gao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d) and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep) were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates. Results Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women. Conclusions Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached. PMID:26147647

  15. Calibrated breast density methods for full field digital mammography: A system for serial quality control and inter-system generalization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, B.; Smallwood, A. M.; Sellers, T. A.; Drukteinis, J. S.; Heine, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing a system for calibrated breast density measurements using full field digital mammography (FFDM). Breast tissue equivalent (BTE) phantom images are used to establish baseline (BL) calibration curves at time zero. For a given FFDM unit, the full BL dataset is comprised of approximately 160 phantom images, acquired prior to calibrating prospective patient mammograms. BL curves are monitored serially to ensure they produce accurate calibration and require updating when calibration accuracy degrades beyond an acceptable tolerance, rather than acquiring full BL datasets repeatedly. BL updating is a special case of generalizing calibration datasets across FFDM units, referred to as cross-calibration. Serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques were developed and evaluated. Methods: BL curves were established for three Hologic Selenia FFDM units at time zero. In addition, one set of serial phantom images, comprised of equal proportions of adipose and fibroglandular BTE materials (50/50 compositions) of a fixed height, was acquired biweekly and monitored with the cumulative sum (Cusum) technique. These 50/50 composition images were used to update the BL curves when the calibration accuracy degraded beyond a preset tolerance of ±4 standardized units. A second set of serial images, comprised of a wide-range of BTE compositions, was acquired biweekly to evaluate serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques. Results: Calibration accuracy can degrade serially and is a function of acquisition technique and phantom height. The authors demonstrated that all heights could be monitored simultaneously while acquiring images of a 50/50 phantom with a fixed height for each acquisition technique biweekly, translating into approximately 16 image acquisitions biweekly per FFDM unit. The same serial images are sufficient for serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration. Serial calibration accuracy was

  16. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation ofr = 0

  17. Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zeff, Benjamin W.; White, Brian R.; Dehghani, Hamid; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging is a vital element of neuroscience and cognitive research and, increasingly, is an important clinical tool. Diffuse optical imaging is an emerging, noninvasive technique with unique portability and hemodynamic contrast capabilities for mapping brain function in young subjects and subjects in enriched or clinical environments. We have developed a high-performance, high-density diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system that overcomes previous limitations and enables superior image quality. We show herein the utility of the DOT system by presenting functional hemodynamic maps of the adult human visual cortex. The functional brain images have a high contrast-to-noise ratio, allowing visualization of individual activations and highly repeatable mapping within and across subjects. With the improved spatial resolution and localization, we were able to image functional responses of 1.7 cm in extent and shifts of <1 cm. Cortical maps of angle and eccentricity in the visual field are consistent with retinotopic studies using functional MRI and positron-emission tomography. These results demonstrate that high-density DOT is a practical and powerful tool for mapping function in the human cortex. PMID:17616584

  18. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  19. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  20. Versican but not decorin accumulation is related to malignancy in mammographically detected high density and malignant-appearing microcalcifications in non-palpable breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) and malignant-appearing microcalcifications (MAMCs) represent the earliest mammographic findings of non-palpable breast carcinomas. Matrix proteoglycans versican and decorin are frequently over-expressed in various malignancies and are differently involved in the progression of cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the expression of versican and decorin in non-palpable breast carcinomas and their association with high risk mammographic findings and tumor characteristics. Methods Three hundred and ten patients with non-palpable suspicious breast lesions, detected during screening mammography, were studied. Histological examination was carried out and the expression of decorin, versican, estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and c-erbB2 (HER-2/neu) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Histological examination showed 83 out of 310 (26.8%) carcinomas of various subtypes. Immunohistochemistry was carried out in 62/83 carcinomas. Decorin was accumulated in breast tissues with MD and MAMCs independently of the presence of malignancy. In contrast, versican was significantly increased only in carcinomas with MAMCs (median ± SE: 42.0 ± 9.1) and MD (22.5 ± 10.1) as compared to normal breast tissue with MAMCs (14.0 ± 5.8), MD (11.0 ± 4.4) and normal breast tissue without mammographic findings (10.0 ± 2.0). Elevated levels of versican were correlated with higher tumor grade and invasiveness in carcinomas with MD and MAMCs, whereas increased amounts of decorin were associated with in situ carcinomas in MAMCs. Stromal deposition of both proteoglycans was related to higher expression of ERα and PR in tumor cells only in MAMCs. Conclusions The specific accumulation of versican in breast tissue with high MD and MAMCs only in the presence of malignant transformation and its association with the aggressiveness of the tumor suggests its possible use as molecular marker in non-palpable breast carcinomas

  1. SU-E-T-129: Dosimetric Evaluation of the Impact of Density Correction On Dose Calculation of Breast Cancer Treatment: A Study Based On RTOG 1005 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J; Yu, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: RTOG 1005 requires density correction in the dose calculation of breast cancer radiation treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of density correction on the dose calculation. Methods: Eight cases were studied, which were planned on an XiO treatment planning system with pixel-by-pixel density correction using a superposition algorithm, following RTOG 1005 protocol requirements. Four were protocol Arm 1 (standard whole breast irradiation with sequential boost) cases and four were Arm 2 (hypofractionated whole breast irradiation with concurrent boost) cases. The plans were recalculated with the same monitor units without density correction. Dose calculations with and without density correction were compared. Results: Results of Arm 1 and Arm 2 cases showed similar trends in the comparison. The average differences between the calculations with and without density correction (difference = Without - With) among all the cases were: -0.82 Gy (range: -2.65∼−0.18 Gy) in breast PTV Eval D95, −0.75 Gy (range: −1.23∼0.26 Gy) in breast PTV Eval D90, −1.00 Gy (range: −2.46∼−0.29 Gy) in lumpectomy PTV Eval D95, −0.78 Gy (range: −1.30∼0.11 Gy) in lumpectomy PTV Eval D90, −0.43% (range: −0.95∼−0.14%) in ipsilateral lung V20, −0.81% (range: −1.62∼−0.26%) in V16, −1.95% (range: −4.13∼−0.84%) in V10, −2.64% (−5.55∼−1.04%) in V8, −4.19% (range: −6.92∼−1.81%) in V5, and −4.95% (range: −7.49∼−2.01%) in V4, respectively. The differences in other normal tissues were minimal. Conclusion: The effect of density correction was observed in breast target doses (an average increase of ∼1 Gy in D95 and D90, compared to the calculation without density correction) and exposed ipsilateral lung volumes in low dose region (average increases of ∼4% and ∼5% in V5 and V4, respectively)

  2. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings.

  3. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  4. Functional Consequences of Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density in Humans across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Arash; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Rotenberg, David J.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Rathi, Yogesh; Michailovich, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21–84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues. We also determined the functional correlates of variations in GM microstructure by obtaining resting-state fMRI and behavioral data. We found a significant age-related deficit in neocortical ODI (most prominently in frontoparietal regions), whereas increased ODI was observed in hippocampus and cerebellum with advancing age. Neocortical ODI outperformed cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy for the prediction of chronological age in the same individuals. Higher GM ODI sampled from resting-state networks with known age-related susceptibility (default mode and visual association networks) was associated with increased functional connectivity of these networks, whereas the task-positive networks tended to show no association or even decreased connectivity. Frontal pole ODI mediated the negative relationship of age with executive function, whereas hippocampal ODI mediated the positive relationship of age with executive function. Our in vivo findings align very closely with the postmortem data and provide evidence for vulnerability and compensatory neural mechanisms of aging in GM microstructure that have functional and cognitive impact in vivo. PMID:25632148

  5. Genetic variants in adult bone mineral density and fracture risk genes are associated with the rate of bone mineral density acquisition in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Tilling, Kate; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 63 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These SNPs are thought to reflect variants that influence bone maintenance and/or loss in adults. It is unclear whether they affect the rate of bone acquisition during adolescence. Bone measurements and genetic data were available on 6397 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at up to five follow-up clinics. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of BMD and its components bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA), from 9 to 17 years. Genotype data from the 63 adult BMD associated SNPs were investigated individually and as a genetic risk score in the longitudinal model. Each additional BMD lowering allele of the genetic risk score was associated with lower BMD at age 13 [per allele effect size, 0.002 g/cm2 (SE = 0.0001, P = 1.24 × 10−38)] and decreased BMD acquisition from 9 to 17 years (P = 9.17 × 10−7). This association was driven by changes in BMC rather than BA. The genetic risk score explained ∼2% of the variation in BMD at 9 and 17 years, a third of that explained in adults (6%). Genetic variants that putatively affect bone maintenance and/or loss in adults appear to have a small influence on the rate of bone acquisition through adolescence. PMID:25941325

  6. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  7. Trends in Bone Mineral Density in Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis over a 15 Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Melissa S.; Baker, Joshua F.; Uluer, Ahmet; Herlyn, Karen; Lapey, Allen; Sicilian, Leonard; Tillotson, Angela Pizzo; Gordon, Catherine M.; Merkel, Peter A.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Improvements in clinical care have led to increased life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) over the past several decades. Whether these improvements have had significant effects on bone health in patients with CF is unclear. Methods This is a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in adults with CF evaluated in 1995–1999 to age-, race-, and gender matched patients with CF evaluated in 2011–2013 at the same center on calibrated DXA machines. Results The cohorts were similar in terms of age, BMI, pancreatic insufficiency, presence of F508del mutation, and reproductive history. In the most recent cohort, pulmonary function was superior, and fewer patients had vitamin D deficiency or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Areal BMD measures of the PA spine, lateral spine, and distal radius were similarly low in the two cohorts. Conclusions Although pulmonary function and vitamin D status were better in patients in the present-day cohort, areal BMD of the spine was reduced in a significant number of patients and was no different in patients with CF today than in the late 1990s. Further attention to optimizing bone health may be necessary to prevent CF-related bone disease. PMID:25698451

  8. Altered response-preparation in patients with adult ADHD: A high-density ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Tombor, László; Papp, Szilvia; Bitter, István; Czobor, Pál

    2016-03-30

    Aberrations in early-developing bottom-up processes, such as stimulus-driven response preparation, are thought to play a critical role in the onset of ADHD, and in its persistence over time. Electrophysiology offers a unique tool to gain insight into response preparation, since response preparation has been associated with distinctive ERP changes, including negative potential-shifts which occur predominantly over frontal brain areas. We examined response-preceding negative potential shifts (RPNS) as a probe of response-preparation in adult ADHD patients by obtaining high-density event-related potentials from 33 ADHD and 29 matched healthy subjects during a Go/Nogo task using a 128-channel BioSemi recording-system. Compared to controls, ADHD patients showed enhancement of the RPNS in fronto-central brain regions in the Go condition during correct responses. This change was associated with poor performance in the Stroop incongruency-task: the greater the enhancement, the higher the proportion of errors. Moreover, the ERP-enhancement showed association with the severity of ADHD-symptoms; and with heightened response-variability. Thus, ADHD patients demonstrate neurophysiological alterations in response-preparation and response-preceding brain activity, suggestive of excessive activation of prefrontal neural circuits. Given the correlation with neuropsychological and psychopathological measures, these changes may constitute a pathway for core symptoms of ADHD, including premature and impaired response-preparation and motor-hyperactivity.

  9. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations. PMID:11934368

  10. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale for early post-treatment breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Levine, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The end of primary treatment for cancer patients is increasingly recognized as an important time of adjustment that may impact quality of life (QoL). A psychometrically sound QoL instrument that assesses the mix of acute and longer-term concerns present during this unique time has not yet been identified. This article evaluates the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale, originally developed for long-term (≥5 years) cancer survivors, as an appropriate QoL measure for this transition period. Methods Psychometric properties of the QLACS were evaluated in a sample of post-treatment breast cancer survivors 18–24 months post-diagnosis. This observational study consisted of women (n = 552) aged 25 years and older (mean = 55.4 years) who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. The 47 items of the QLACS comprise 12 domains: seven domains are generic, and five are cancer specific. Results The QLACS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha for the 12 domains ranged from 0.79 to 0.91) and good convergent and divergent validity (assessed by comparison with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and other measures). Conclusions The QLACS appears to be consistent with other widely accepted measures in capturing QoL, while also allowing for more inclusive measurement of specific issues relevant to post-treatment cancer survivors. These data, in addition to previous data supporting use of the QLACS across different cancer sites, suggest that the QLACS is a promising comprehensive QoL measure appropriate for breast cancer survivors transitioning off active treatment. PMID:24996392

  11. Association of mammographic density with the proliferation marker Ki-67 in a cohort of patients with invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Heusinger, Katharina; Jud, Sebastian M; Häberle, Lothar; Hack, Carolin C; Fasching, Peter A; Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Lux, Michael P; Hagenbeck, Carsten; Loehberg, Christian R; Wittenberg, Thomas; Rauh, Claudia; Wagner, Florian; Uder, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wachter, David L

    2012-10-01

    There is growing evidence that certain breast cancer (BC) risk factors specifically increase the risk for specific molecular tumor subtypes. Different molecular subtypes of BC can partly be described by analyzing proliferation in tumors. Very few data are available regarding the association of mammographic density (MD), as a BC risk factor, with proliferation. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between Ki-67 expression in BCs and MD. In this case-only study, data on BC risk factors, hormone receptor expression, and MD were available for 1,975 patients with incident BC. MD was assessed as percentage mammographic density (PMD) using a semiautomated method by two readers for every patient. The association of the Ki-67 proliferation index and PMD was studied using multifactorial analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), with PMD as the target variable and including well-known factors that are also associated with MD such as age, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and body mass index (BMI). There were no significant differences in PMD between women with BC who had low and high Ki-67 values (P = 0.31). However, there were relevant differences in women with low BMI (P = 0.07), and in women using postmenopausal HRT (P = 0.06) as well as in women with low PR values (P = 0.07). In these subgroups, the Ki-67 expression index increased with decreasing PMD. Likewise PMD is correlated with BMI, parity status, and menopausal status stronger in patients with low proliferating tumors, and with progesterone receptor expression in patients with high proliferating tumors. MD correlates inversely with Ki-67 proliferation in BC tumors only in some subgroups of BC patients, defined by commonly known BC risk factors that are usually associated with MD as well.

  12. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  13. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  14. Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagata, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

  15. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age.

  16. Predictions of adult Anopheles albimanus densities in villages based on distances to remotely sensed larval habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rejmankova, E.; Roberts, D. R.; Pawley, A.; Manguin, S.; Polanco, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral System Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult collections near larval habitats, we defined a landing rate of 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min from 6:30 PM to 8:00 PM as the threshold for high (> or = 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) versus low (< 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) densities of An. albimanus. Sites located less than 500 m from the habitat were predicted as having values higher than this threshold, while lower values were predicted for sites located greater than 1,500 m from the habitat. Predictions were verified by collections of mosquitoes landing on humans. The predictions were 100% accurate for sites in the > 1,500-m category and 89% accurate for sites in the < 500-m category.

  17. Potential impact of legislation mandating breast density notification: benefits, harms, and cost effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Stout, Natasha K.; Schechter, Clyde; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Lee, Christoph I.; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; de Koning, Harry J.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Lehman, Constance D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background At least nineteen states have laws that require telling women with dense breasts and a negative screening mammogram to consider supplemental screening. The most readily available supplemental screening modality is ultrasound, yet little is known about its effectiveness. Objective To evaluate the benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts. Design Comparative modeling with 3 validated simulation models. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium; the medical literature. Target Population A contemporary cohort of women eligible for routine screening. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Payer. Interventions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts following a negative screening mammogram. Outcome Measures Breast cancer deaths averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, false positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations, costs, costs per QALY gained. Results of Base-Case Analysis Supplemental ultrasound screening after a negative mammogram for women aged 50–74 with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts averted 0.36 additional breast cancer deaths (range across models: 0.14–0.75), gained 1.7 QALYs (0.9–4.7), and resulted in 354 false-positive ultrasound biopsy recommendations (345–421) per 1000 women with dense breasts compared with biennial screening by mammography alone. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $325,000 per QALY gained ($112,000-$766,000). Restricting supplemental ultrasound screening to women with extremely dense breasts cost $246,000 per QALY gained ($74,000-$535,000). Results of Sensitivity Analysis The conclusions were not sensitive to ultrasound performance characteristics, screening frequency, or starting age. Limitations Provider costs for coordinating supplemental ultrasound were not considered. Conclusions Supplemental ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts undergoing

  18. SU-D-204-01: Dual-Energy Calibration for Breast Density Measurement Using Spectral Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H; Cho, H; Kumar, N; Sennung, D; Molloi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of minimizing the systematic errors in dual-energy breast density quantification induced by the use of tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms as the calibration basis materials. Methods: Dual-energy calibration using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms was performed on a spectral mammography system based on scanning multi-slit Si strip photon-counting detectors. The plastic phantom calibration used plastic water and adipose-equivalent phantoms as the basis materials, which have different x-ray attenuation properties compared to water and lipid in actual breast tissue. Two methods were used to convert the dual-energy decomposition measurements in plastic phantom thicknesses into true water and lipid basis. The first method was based entirely on the theoretical x-ray attenuation coefficients of the investigated materials in the mammographic energy range. The conversion matrix was determined from least-squares fitting of the target material using the reported attenuation coefficients of water and lipid. The second method was developed based on experimental calibrations, which measured the low-and high-energy signals of pure water and lipid of known thicknesses. A non-linear rational function was used to correlate the decomposed thicknesses to the known values, so that the conversion coefficients can be determined. Both methods were validated using independent measurements of water and lipid mixture phantoms. The correlation of the dual-energy decomposition measurements and the known values were studied with linear regression analysis. Results: There was an excellent linear correlation between the converted water thicknesses and the known values. The slopes of the linear fits were determined to be 0.63 and 1.03 for the simulation and experimental results, respectively. The non-linear fitting in the experimental approach reduced the root-mean-square (RMS) errors from approximately 3.4 mm to 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The results suggested

  19. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, p<0.001) and adults (r=-0.650, p<0.001). In regression analysis with pelvic vBMD as the dependent variable and BMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  20. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement With Physical Activity Among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696 adults in Detroit, Michigan, multilevel models were used to examine joint effects of residential density and resident involvement in neighborhood activities in relation to physical activity. We found a marginally significant negative interaction of higher residential density and resident neighborhood involvement. Higher residential density was negatively associated with physical activity, and resident neighborhood involvement was positively associated with physical activity. Our findings suggest that future work incorporate additional neighborhood and individual-level characteristics to understand the complexity of the association between the neighborhood environment, resident social engagement in the neighborhood, and physical activity.

  1. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women.

  2. Increased expression of CD146 and microvessel density (MVD) in invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: Comparative study with invasive ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Yang, Dongling; Wang, Shuling; Guo, Xiaojing; Lang, Ronggang; Fan, Yu; Gu, Feng; Zhang, Xinmin; Niu, Yun; Yan, Xiyun; Fu, Li

    2011-12-15

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a rare variant of ductal carcinoma of the breast, and is characterized by a high metastatic potential and an aggressive clinical course. Studies of CD146 expression and function in breast cancer remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CD146 and microvessel density (MVD) in breast IMPC. CD146 mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry for CD146 and MVD measured by CD31 were assessed in 82 cases of IMPC and 137 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS). The mRNA level of CD146 in cancer specimens was higher in IMPC than in IDC-NOS. CD146 expression in tumor cells was up-regulated in IMPC as compared with that in IDC-NOS, and was positively correlated with histological grade, ER, PR status, and P53 expression in IMPC and IDC-NOS. CD146 expression in vascular endothelial cells was significantly higher than that in IDC, and was positively correlated with tumor progression in IMPC and IDC-NOS. MVD in IMPC was significantly higher than that in IDC. CD146 expression in tumor cells was positively correlated with that in vascular endothelial cells of IMPC and IDC-NOS. The association of CD146 expression with MVD and its correlation with progression in breast carcinoma indicated that CD146 is a potentially useful prognostic marker for breast cancer. CD146 could be a new drug target in the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Association of mammographic density with hormone receptors in invasive breast cancers: results from a case-only study.

    PubMed

    Heusinger, Katharina; Jud, Sebastian M; Häberle, Lothar; Hack, Carolin C; Adamietz, Boris R; Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Lux, Michael P; Wittenberg, Thomas; Wagner, Florian; Loehberg, Christian R; Uder, Michael; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A

    2012-12-01

    For many breast cancer (BC) risk factors, there is growing evidence concerning molecular subtypes for which the risk factor is specific. With regard to mammographic density (MD), there are inconsistent data concerning its association with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between ER and PR expression and MD. In our case-only study, data on BC risk factors, hormone receptor expression and MD were available for 2,410 patients with incident BC. MD was assessed as percent MD (PMD) using a semiautomated method by two readers for every patient. The association of ER/PR and PMD was studied with multifactorial analyses of covariance with PMD as the target variable and including well-known factors that are also associated with MD, such as age, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, and body mass index (BMI). In addition to the commonly known associations between PMD and age, parity, BMI and hormone replacement therapy, a significant inverse association was found between PMD and ER expression levels. Patients with ER-negative tumors had an average PMD of 38%, whereas patients with high ER expression had a PMD of 35%. A statistical trend toward a positive association between PMD and PR expression was also seen. PMD appears to be inversely associated with ER expression and may correlate positively with PR expression. These effects were independent of other risk factors such as age, BMI, parity, and hormone replacement therapy, possibly suggesting other pathways that mediate this effect.

  4. Role of vascular density and normalization in response to neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tolaney, Sara M; Boucher, Yves; Duda, Dan G; Martin, John D; Seano, Giorgio; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Barry, William T; Goel, Shom; Lahdenrata, Johanna; Isakoff, Steven J; Yeh, Eren D; Jain, Saloni R; Golshan, Mehra; Brock, Jane; Snuderl, Matija; Winer, Eric P; Krop, Ian E; Jain, Rakesh K

    2015-11-17

    Preoperative bevacizumab and chemotherapy may benefit a subset of breast cancer (BC) patients. To explore potential mechanisms of this benefit, we conducted a phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab (single dose) followed by combined bevacizumab and adriamycin/cyclophosphamide/paclitaxel chemotherapy in HER2-negative BC. The regimen was well-tolerated and showed a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in triple-negative (TN)BC (11/21 patients or 52%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 30,74]) than in hormone receptor-positive (HR)BC [5/78 patients or 6% (95%CI: 2,14)]. Within the HRBCs, basal-like subtype was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.007; Fisher exact test). We assessed interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and tissue biopsies before and after bevacizumab monotherapy and circulating plasma biomarkers at baseline and before and after combination therapy. Bevacizumab alone lowered IFP, but to a smaller extent than previously observed in other tumor types. Pathologic response to therapy correlated with sVEGFR1 postbevacizumab alone in TNBC (Spearman correlation 0.610, P = 0.0033) and pretreatment microvascular density (MVD) in all patients (Spearman correlation 0.465, P = 0.0005). Moreover, increased pericyte-covered MVD, a marker of extent of vascular normalization, after bevacizumab monotherapy was associated with improved pathologic response to treatment, especially in patients with a high pretreatment MVD. These data suggest that bevacizumab prunes vessels while normalizing those remaining, and thus is beneficial only when sufficient numbers of vessels are initially present. This study implicates pretreatment MVD as a potential predictive biomarker of response to bevacizumab in BC and suggests that new therapies are needed to normalize vessels without pruning.

  5. Role of vascular density and normalization in response to neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tolaney, Sara M.; Boucher, Yves; Duda, Dan G.; Martin, John D.; Seano, Giorgio; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Barry, William T.; Goel, Shom; Lahdenrata, Johanna; Isakoff, Steven J.; Yeh, Eren D.; Jain, Saloni R.; Golshan, Mehra; Brock, Jane; Snuderl, Matija; Winer, Eric P.; Krop, Ian E.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative bevacizumab and chemotherapy may benefit a subset of breast cancer (BC) patients. To explore potential mechanisms of this benefit, we conducted a phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab (single dose) followed by combined bevacizumab and adriamycin/cyclophosphamide/paclitaxel chemotherapy in HER2-negative BC. The regimen was well-tolerated and showed a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in triple-negative (TN)BC (11/21 patients or 52%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 30,74]) than in hormone receptor-positive (HR)BC [5/78 patients or 6% (95%CI: 2,14)]. Within the HRBCs, basal-like subtype was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.007; Fisher exact test). We assessed interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and tissue biopsies before and after bevacizumab monotherapy and circulating plasma biomarkers at baseline and before and after combination therapy. Bevacizumab alone lowered IFP, but to a smaller extent than previously observed in other tumor types. Pathologic response to therapy correlated with sVEGFR1 postbevacizumab alone in TNBC (Spearman correlation 0.610, P = 0.0033) and pretreatment microvascular density (MVD) in all patients (Spearman correlation 0.465, P = 0.0005). Moreover, increased pericyte-covered MVD, a marker of extent of vascular normalization, after bevacizumab monotherapy was associated with improved pathologic response to treatment, especially in patients with a high pretreatment MVD. These data suggest that bevacizumab prunes vessels while normalizing those remaining, and thus is beneficial only when sufficient numbers of vessels are initially present. This study implicates pretreatment MVD as a potential predictive biomarker of response to bevacizumab in BC and suggests that new therapies are needed to normalize vessels without pruning. PMID:26578779

  6. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pires, L A; Hegg, R; Freitas, F R; Tavares, E R; Almeida, C P; Baracat, E C; Maranhão, R C

    2012-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy.

  7. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor in locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pires, L.A.; Hegg, R.; Freitas, F.R.; Tavares, E.R.; Almeida, C.P.; Baracat, E.C.; Maranhão, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors are overexpressed in most neoplastic cell lines and provide a mechanism for the internalization and concentration of drug-laden nanoemulsions that bind to these receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of standard chemotherapeutic schemes can alter the expression of LDL and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptors in breast carcinoma. Fragments of tumoral and normal breast tissue from 16 consecutive volunteer women with breast cancer in stage II or III were obtained from biopsies before the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after chemotherapy, from fragments excised during mastectomy. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for both receptors. Because complete response to treatment was achieved in 4 patients, only the tumors from 12 were analyzed. Before chemotherapy, there was overexpression of LDL receptor in the tumoral tissue compared to normal breast tissue in 8 of these patients. LRP-1 receptor overexpression was observed in tumors of 4 patients. After chemotherapy, expression of both receptors decreased in the tumors of 6 patients, increased in 4 and was unchanged in 2. Nonetheless, even when chemotherapy reduced receptors expression, the expression was still above normal. The fact that chemotherapy does not impair LDL receptors expression supports the use of drug carrier systems that target neoplastic cells by the LDL receptor endocytic pathway in patients on conventional chemotherapy. PMID:22570085

  8. Treadmill running frequency on anxiety and hippocampal adenosine receptors density in adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcelo S; Ardais, Ana Paula; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Portela, Luis Valmor; Souza, Diogo O; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2012-01-10

    Physical exercise protocols have varied widely across studies raising the question of whether there is an optimal intensity, duration and frequency that would produce maximal benefits in attenuating symptoms related to anxiety disorders. Although physical exercise causes modifications in neurotransmission systems, the involvement of neuromodulators such as adenosine has not been investigated after chronic exercise training. Anxiety-related behavior was assessed in the elevated plus-maze in adult and middle-aged rats submitted to 8 weeks of treadmill running 1, 3 or 7 days/week. The speed of running was weekly adjusted to maintain moderate intensity. The hippocampal adenosine A1 and A2A receptors densities were also assessed. Treadmill running protocol was efficient in increasing physical exercise capacity in adult and middle-aged rats. All frequencies of treadmill running equally decreased the time spent in the open arms in adult animals. Middle-aged treadmill control rats presented lower time spent in the open arms than adult treadmill control rats. However, treadmill running one day/week reversed this age effect. Adenosine A1 receptor was not changed between groups, but treadmill running counteracted the age-related increase in adenosine A2A receptors. Although treadmill running, independent from frequency, triggered anxiety in adult rats and treadmill running one day/week reversed the age-related anxiety, no consistent relationship was found with hippocampal adenosine receptors densities. Thus, our data suggest that as a complementary therapy in the management of mental disturbances, the frequency and intensity of physical exercise should be taken into account according to age. Besides, this is the first study reporting the modulation of adenosine receptors after chronic physical exercise, which could be important to prevent neurological disorders associated to increase in adenosine A2A receptors.

  9. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status.

  10. Histological and immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal human breast tissue in adult age groups vulnerable to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R; Gupta, T; Gupta, R; Aggarwal, A; Sahni, D; Singh, G

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of receptor status has become standard procedure for assessing breast cancer patients. Estrogen causes epithelial proliferation in breast tissue via the estrogen receptor (ER). The progesterone receptor (PR) is also regulated by the estrogen gene. Analyzing ER and PR together gives information regarding the likely response of carcinoma patients to hormonal therapy. The aim of the present study was to record the expression patterns of ER and PR in normal mammary tissue in different age groups to provide reference data to facilitate histological diagnosis. Breast tissues from the upper outer quadrant of each side of 27 adult female cadavers were examined after H & E staining. ER and PR were identified and examined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage area occupied by parenchyma relative to stromal tissue was calculated in different age groups and was about 4:6, 3.5:6.5, 3:7, 2:8, and 1.5:8.5 in the 3rd, 4th and 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, and 10th decades of life, respectively. Both ER and PR were present in all age groups and the numbers of both receptors were maximal during the 4th decade. The distribution and staining patterns for both ER and PR were recorded in different age groups. The contiguous pattern of ER, which is considered pathognomonic of breast carcinoma, was not seen except in one case in the 6th decade. Moderately stained ER and PR receptor sites predominated throughout. The study of normal breast tissue of similar age might provide comparisons that will help histopathologists to make clinical diagnoses from breast biopsies. Clin. Anat. 29:729-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038435

  11. Evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, J P; Yan, L; Huang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. Birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (ME) 12.7 MJ/kg and crude protein (CP) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; ME 13.2 MJ/kg and CP 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or low nutrient density (ME 12.1 MJ/kg and CP 220.2 g/kg for 0-7 d; ME 12.6 MJ/kg and CP 209.8 g/kg for 8-28 d)] and 0 or 2 g/kg probiotics (1.0 × 10(10) viable spores/g of Bacillus subtilis endospores and 1.0 × 10(9) viable spores/g of Clostridium butyricum). 3. The high-nutrient-density diet increased body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration relative to the low-nutrient-density diet. High-nutrient-density diet reduced water loss ratio of breast muscle, liver and fat relative to body weight compared to low-nutrient density-diet. The inclusion of probiotics increased BWG and feed intake throughout the experiment. Dietary probiotics increased the percentage of blood lymphocytes and relative weight of spleen and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-probiotic treatment. The inclusion of probiotics decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and lightness (L*) value of breast meat compared to the non-probiotic-supplemented diet. 4. In conclusion, high dietary nutrient density increased growth performance and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics increased growth performance but reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The positive effect of probiotic supplementation on growth performance was reduced by the high-nutrient-density diet during the first week of life.

  12. A study of sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a North Indian young adult population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ngangom, Chitrabala

    2013-05-01

    Fingerprints have considerable value in morphological, biological, anthropological and forensic studies. Fingerprints collected from the crime scene and from the items of evidence of crime have been successfully used to identify suspects, victims or any other person who had touched the surface in question. The thickness of epidermal ridges varies between individuals; females are supposed to have finer ridges than males and therefore a greater ridge density. The present research is an attempt to distinguish sex from fingerprint ridge density in the radial, ulnar and lower areas of a fingerprint in a North Indian population. A total of 194 individuals (97 males and 97 females) aged between 18 and 25 years were included in the study and fingerprints were collected from each finger of the participants. Thus, a total of 1940 fingerprints were obtained and epidermal ridges were counted in the radial, ulnar, and lower areas of each fingerprint. The radial and ulnar areas are the 5 mm × 5 mm areas on the radial and ulnar side of the central core respectively while the lower area is designated as 5 mm × 5 mm area adjoining the flexion crease of the terminal phalanx on a fingerprint. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and lower areas and between sexes was compared statistically using t-test. The results indicate that the females tend to have a significantly higher ridge density than males in the three areas analyzed in the study. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints is significantly higher than the lower area. The present study suggests that the fingerprint ridge density can be a relevant and useful morphological parameter in distinguishing sex of a latent fingerprint of unknown origin from the scene of crime. The findings can also be useful in identification of mutilated remains when a dismembered hand is brought for medico-legal examination.

  13. The effects of visibility conditions, traffic density, and navigational challenge on speed compensation and driving performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Trick, Lana M; Toxopeus, Ryan; Wilson, David

    2010-11-01

    Research on how older drivers react to natural challenges in the driving environment is relevant for both the research on mental workload and that on age-related compensation. Older adults (M age=70.8 years) were tested in a driving simulator to assess the impact of three driving challenges: a visibility challenge (clear day, fog), a traffic density challenge (low density, high density) and a navigational challenge (participants followed the road to arrive at their destination, participants had to use signs and landmarks). The three challenge manipulations induced different compensatory speed adjustments. This complicated interpretation of the other measures of driving performance. As a result, speed adjustment indices were calculated for each condition and participant and composite measures of performance were created to correct for speed compensation. (These speed adjustment indices correlated with vision test scores and subscales of the Useful Field of View.) When the composite measures of driving performance were analyzed, visibility x density x navigational challenge interactions emerged for hazard RT and SD of lane position. Effects were synergistic: the impact of the interaction of challenge variables was greater than the sum of independent effects. The directions of the effects varied depending on the performance measure in question though. For hazard RT, the combined effects of high-density traffic and navigational challenge were more deleterious in good visibility conditions than in fog. For or SD of lane position, the opposite pattern emerged: combined effects of high-density traffic and navigational challenge were more deleterious in fog than in clear weather. This suggests different aspects of driving performance tap different resources.

  14. Chronic cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55,212-2) exposure alters hippocampal dentate gyrus spine density in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Candelaria-Cook, Felicha Teresa; Hamilton, Derek Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Chronic abuse of drugs can result in vast negative repercussions on behavioral and biological systems by altering underlying neurocircuitry. Long-term cannabinoid administration in rats leads to detrimental cellular and dendritic morphology changes. Previous studies have found that chronic treatment with delta-9-THC selectively decreases dendritic morphology and spine density in the dentate gyrus of young rats (Rubino et al., 2009), however, whether these changes are specific to a particular developmental age is not known. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic exposure (7 or 21 days) to WIN 55, 212-2 (i.p., 3.7 mg/kg), a potent cannabinoid agonist, on dendritic morphology of dentate gyrus neurons in adult rats. Upon completion of treatment brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. No significant effects of WIN 55, 212-2 exposure were observed for dendritic branching or length. Spine density was quantified in the inner (proximal), middle, and outer (distal) thirds of the dendritic fields selected to approximate the spatial loci of afferents comprising the associational-commissural pathway, medial perforant path, and lateral perforant path, respectively. Compared to vehicle controls there was a significant reduction in spine density (~1 spine/10μm) in the inner and middle dendritic segments. The spine density reduction was significant in inner segments following 7 days of treatment. These results suggest that chronic cannabinoid treatment specifically alters spine density in the dendritic targets of the associational-commissural afferents and medial perforant path projections, but not lateral perforant path. The resulting loss of dendritic spine density may be an important factor underlying cannabinoid induced memory impairments. PMID:24183783

  15. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising obesity rates have been linked to the consumption of energy-dense diets. We examined whether dietary energy density was associated with obesity and related disorders, including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative ...

  16. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  17. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  18. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk. PMID:22277587

  19. Density-dependence in the establishment of juvenile Allium ursinum individuals in a monodominant stand of conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morschhauser, Tamás; Rudolf, Kinga; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Oborny, Beáta

    2009-09-01

    We studied the establishment of new genets in a wild garlic population ( Allium ursinum L.) in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest. We tested whether establishment could be successful in relatively small gaps (25 cm) surrounded by adult individuals. Furthermore, we asked whether more empty space in the neighborhood would increase the success. Newly germinated individuals were selected, and observed throughout the growth season. The success of establishment was characterized by the biomass of the bulb at the end of the season. The surrounding vegetation cover was recorded in a 25 cm resolution. We found that the success of establishment had a peak at intermediate neighborhood density. At higher densities, a significant, linear decline was found, indicating competition with the neighbors. At lower values, this trend did not continue, but a plateau was observed, indicating the effect of inverse density-dependence (an Allee effect). The results suggest that a rather broad radius (>25 cm) should be considered when predicting the establishment of new genets in A. ursinum, and beside competition, facilitative interactions should also be taken into consideration. This may explain the tendency of the species for maintaining high, often monodominant cover in the herb layer. Due to the observed efficiency of gap-filling and lateral spreading by sexual reproduction, we predict considerable genetic diversity even in high-cover A. ursinum patches.

  20. Dynamic changes in high and low mammographic density human breast tissues maintained in murine tissue engineering chambers during various murine peripartum states and over time.

    PubMed

    Chew, G L; Huang, D; Huo, C W; Blick, T; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Southey, M D; Hopper, J L; Henderson, M A; Haviv, I; Thompson, E W

    2013-07-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong heritable risk factor for breast cancer, and may decrease with increasing parity. However, the biomolecular basis for MD-associated breast cancer remains unclear, and systemic hormonal effects on MD-associated risk is poorly understood. This study assessed the effect of murine peripartum states on high and low MD tissue maintained in a xenograft model of human MD. Method High and low MD human breast tissues were precisely sampled under radiographic guidance from prophylactic mastectomy specimens of women. The high and low MD tissues were maintained in separate vascularised biochambers in nulliparous or pregnant SCID mice for 4 weeks, or mice undergoing postpartum involution or lactation for three additional weeks. High and low MD biochamber material was harvested for histologic and radiographic comparisons during various murine peripartum states. High and low MD biochamber tissues in nulliparous mice were harvested at different timepoints for histologic and radiographic comparisons. Results High MD biochamber tissues had decreased stromal (p = 0.0027), increased adipose (p = 0.0003) and a trend to increased glandular tissue areas (p = 0.076) after murine postpartum involution. Stromal areas decreased (p = 0.042), while glandular (p = 0.001) and adipose areas (p = 0.009) increased in high MD biochamber tissues during lactation. A difference in radiographic density was observed in high (p = 0.0021) or low MD biochamber tissues (p = 0.004) between nulliparous, pregnant and involution groups. No differences in tissue composition were observed in high or low MD biochamber tissues maintained for different durations, although radiographic density increased over time. Conclusion High MD biochamber tissues had measurable histologic changes after postpartum involution or lactation. Alterations in radiographic density occurred in biochamber tissues between different peripartum states and over time. These findings

  1. Breast Cancer Screening in the Era of Density Notification Legislation: Summary of 2014 Massachusetts Experience and Suggestion of An Evidence-Based Management Algorithm by Multi-disciplinary Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Freer, Phoebe E.; Slanetz, Priscilla J.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tung, Nadine M.; Hughes, Kevin S.; Armstrong, Katrina; Semine, A. Alan; Troyan, Susan L.; Birdwell, Robyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stemming from breast density notification legislation in Massachusetts effective 2015, we sought to develop a collaborative evidence-based approach to density notification that could be used by practitioners across the state. Our goal was to develop an evidence-based consensus management algorithm to help patients and health care providers follow best practices to implement a coordinated, evidence-based, cost-effective, sustainable practice and to standardize care in recommendations for supplemental screening. Methods We formed the Massachusetts Breast Risk Education and Assessment Task Force (MA-BREAST) a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary panel of expert radiologists, surgeons, primary care physicians, and oncologists to develop a collaborative approach to density notification legislation. Using evidence-based data from the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), the Cochrane review, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, American Cancer Society (ACS) recommendations, and American College of Radiology (ACR) appropriateness criteria, the group collaboratively developed an evidence-based best-practices algorithm. Results The expert consensus algorithm uses breast density as one element in the risk stratification to determine the need for supplemental screening. Women with dense breasts and otherwise low risk (<15% lifetime risk), do not routinely require supplemental screening per the expert consensus. Women of high risk (>20% lifetime) should consider supplemental screening MRI in addition to routine mammography regardless of breast density. Conclusion We report the development of the multi-disciplinary collaborative approach to density notification. We propose a risk stratification algorithm to assess personal level of risk to determine the need for supplemental screening for an individual woman. PMID:26290416

  2. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  3. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  4. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Young Adult Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ubesie, Agozie C; Heubi, James E; Kocoshis, Samuel A; Henderson, Carol J; Mezoff, Adam G; Rao, Marepalli B; Cole, Conrad R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and predisposing factors for vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with intestinal failure (IF). Methods A retrospective review of patients with IF managed at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. IF was defined as history of parenteral nutrition (PN) >30 days. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-OH vitamin D [25(OH) D] < 20ng/dL. Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) was defined using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) Z-score ≤− 2. A binary logistic regression model was used to test for association of significant risk factors and the outcome variables after univariate analyses. Results One hundred and twenty three patients with median age of 4 years (range 3–22 years) were evaluated. Forty-nine (39.8%) patients had at least a documented serum 25 (OH) D deficiency during the study interval while 10 out of 80 patients (12.5%) with DXA scans done had a low BMD Z-score. Age at study entry was associated with both 25 (OH) D deficiency (P= 0. 01) and low BMD Z-score (P = 0. 03). Exclusive PN at study entry was associated with reduced bone mass (P=0.03). There was no significant association between vitamin D deficiency and low BMD Z-score (P=0.31). Conclusion The risk of 25 (OH) D deficiency and low BMD Z-score increases with age among patients with IF. Strategies for monitoring and preventing abnormal bone health in older children receiving exclusive PN need to be developed and evaluated. PMID:23698025

  6. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.

  7. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI < or > or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain.

  8. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI < or > or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain. PMID:19138440

  9. Tumors with high-density tumor infiltrating lymphocytes constitute a favorable entity in breast cancer: a pooled analysis of four prospective adjuvant trials

    PubMed Central

    Kotoula, Vassiliki; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Lakis, Sotiris; Alexopoulou, Zoi; Timotheadou, Eleni; Zagouri, Flora; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Galani, Eleni; Efstratiou, Ioannis; Zaramboukas, Thomas; Koutras, Angelos; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Samantas, Epaminontas; Psyrri, Amanda; Kourea, Helen; Bobos, Mattheos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are considered in the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) patients. Here, we investigated the prognostic/predictive effect of TILs in patients treated in the frame of four prospective trials with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in the pre- and post-trastuzumab era. Methods TILs density was histologically assessed as percentage of stromal area on whole routine sections of 2613 BC (1563 Luminal A/B; 477 Luminal HER2; 246 HER2-enriched; 327 triple negative [TNBC]) and were evaluated as high/low at three cut-offs (c/o; 50% [lymphocytic predominance, LP], 35% and 25%), in separate training and validation sets. Results High TILs were present in 3.5%, 6.5% and 11.5% of all tumors, using the 50%, 35% and 25% c/o, respectively. TILs status did not interact with BC subtypes or trastuzumab treatment. LPBC patient outcome was not affected by nodal status, while high TILs were favorable in TNBC with unfavorable nodal status. When adjusted for standard clinicopathological parameters and treatment, high TILs independently predicted for favorable outcome, e.g., disease-free survival with the 35% c/o in the entire cohort (HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.69, p < 0.001) and in specific subtypes. Conclusions High TILs tumors, especially LPBC seem worthy validating as a separate entity of favorable prognosis in breast cancer. PMID:26506242

  10. Measured adolescent body mass index and adult breast cancer in a cohort of 951,480 women.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levine, Hagai; Derazne, Estela; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, studied predominantly as a self-reported risk factor for breast cancer (BC), may have been subjected to recall bias. We examined the association between measured BMI in adolescence and the incidence of BC by menopausal status. 951,480 Jewish Israeli females aged 16-19 who underwent anthropometric measurements in 1967-2011 were followed up to 31.12.2012 for BC incidence. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between adolescent BMI (as age-specific CDC percentiles) and time to BC diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. The analysis was also subdivided by age at diagnosis. 9619 BC cases diagnosed during 18,078,941 person-years of follow-up were included in multivariable analyses: 4901 premenopausal, 3809 perimenopausal, and 909 postmenopausal. Compared with 'healthy' BMI (5th-<85th percentiles) and adjusted for country of origin, education, and height, adolescent BMI was largely negatively associated with BC: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.057 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.955-1.169, p = 0.286) in underweight (<5th percentile); HR = 0.918 (95 % CI 0.849-0.993, p = 0.032) in overweight (85th-<95th percentiles); and HR = 0.682 (95 % CI 0.552-0.843, p = 0.00004) in obese (≥95th percentile) women. In premenopausal, but not peri- and postmenopausal BC, associations were statistically significant; underweight was associated with increased risk of premenopausal BC (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.01-1.31, p = 0.037), and overweight and obesity with significantly lower risk. Adolescent thinness was associated with increased risk for early BC. Overweight and obesity were protectively associated with premenopausal but not postmenopausal BC. The lack of an association of adolescent overweight/obesity with increased peri- and postmenopausal BC suggests a causal role for adult weight gain. PMID:27306419

  11. High-density lipoprotein remains elevated despite reductions in total cholesterol in fasting adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Tift, Michael S; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2011-08-01

    We examined changes in lipid profiles of 40 adult northern elephant seal bulls over the 3-month breeding fast and the 1-month molting fast to investigate impacts of fasting on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and lipoproteins. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were initially high (3930 ± 190mgL(-1)and 1610 ± 170mgL(-1), respectively) and decreased significantly over the breeding season. Total cholesterol and LDL declined significantly with adipose tissue reserves (p<0.001), and LDL levels as low as 43 mgL(-1) were measured in seals late in the breeding fast. Less dramatic but similar changes in lipid metabolism were observed across the molting fast. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remained consistently elevated (>1750 mgL(-1)) suggesting that elephant seals defend HDL concentrations, despite significant depletion of TC and LDL across the breeding fast. Triglyceride levels were significantly higher during the molt, consistent with lower rates of lipid oxidation needed to meet metabolic energy demands during this period. The maintenance of HDL during breeding is consistent with its role in delivering cholesterol from adipose tissue for steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis and potentially mitigates oxidative stress associated with fasting.

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone, interleukin-1, and bone density in adult women.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Joseph G; Cortez-Cooper, Miriam; Meaders, Eric; Stallings, Judith; Haddow, Sara; Kraj, Barbara; Sloan, Gloria; Mulloy, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have indicated that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes bone loss. The present study tested the hypothesis that FSH enhances the activity of bone-resorbing cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6], either by inducing their secretion or by altering their receptor expression. Thirty-six women between the ages of 20 and 50 were assessed for bone mineral density (BMD), reproductive hormone, cytokine ligand and soluble receptor concentrations, and surface expression of cytokine receptors on monocytes. In addition, isolated mononuclear cells were incubated in vitro with exogenous FSH. Univariate regression analyses indicated that BMD was inversely related to serum FSH (r = -0.29 to -0.51, P = 0.03-0.001, depending upon the skeletal site). Physical activity and body composition were also identified as significant factors by multiple regressions. Exogenous FSH induced isolated cells to secrete IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in proportion to the surface expression of FSH receptors on the monocytes. Endogenous (serum) FSH concentrations correlated with the circulating concentrations of these cytokines. None of these individual cytokines was related to BMD, but the IL-1beta to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) ratio was inversely related to BMD (r = -0.53, P = 0.002) in all but the most physically active women, who had significantly lower expression of IL-1 type I receptors relative to type II (decoy receptors, P = 0.01). Physical activity also correlated positively with secretion of inhibitory soluble IL-1 receptors (r = 0.53, P = 0.003). Moreover, IL-1Ra correlated strongly with percent body fat (r = 0.66, P < 0.0001). These results indicate that BMD is related to FSH concentration, physical activity, and body composition. Although each of these factors likely has direct effects on bone, the present study suggests that each may also influence BMD by modulating the activity of the osteoresorptive cytokine IL-1beta.

  13. Teriparatide Increases Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Irene S.; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Misra, Madhusmita; Lee, Hang; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a prevalent psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting women, is characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Increased clinical fractures are common, and most women have low bone mineral density (BMD). Previously investigated treatments have led to no or modest increases in BMD in AN. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of teriparatide (TPT; human PTH[1–34]), an anabolic agent, on low bone mass in women with AN. Design, Setting, and Patients: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial at a clinical research center included 21 women with AN: 10 (mean age ± SEM, 47 ± 2.7 years) treated with TPT and 11 (47.1 ± 2.3 years) treated with placebo. Interventions: TPT (20 μg SC) or placebo was administered for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome measure was change in BMD of the spine and hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), C-terminal collagen cross-links, sclerostin, and IGF-1 levels. Results: At 6 months, spine BMD increased significantly more with TPT (posteroanterior spine, 6.0% ± 1.4%; lateral spine, 10.5% ± 2.5%) compared with placebo (posteroanterior spine, 0.2% ± 0.7%, P < .01; lateral spine, −0.6% ± 1.0%; P < .01). The results remained significant after controlling for baseline body mass index, P1NP, and IGF-1. Changes in femoral neck (P = .4) and total hip (P = 0.8) BMD were comparable in both groups, as were changes in weight. Serum P1NP levels increased after 3 months of TPT treatment and remained at this higher level at 6 months, whereas P1NP levels were unchanged in the placebo group (P = .02). TPT was well-tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that TPT administration increases spine BMD substantially after only 6 months of therapy in women with AN. PMID:24456286

  14. Influence of radiation therapy on the lung-tissue in breast cancer patients: CT-assessed density changes and associated symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rotstein, S.; Lax, I.; Svane, G. )

    1990-01-01

    The relative electron density of lung tissue was measured from computer tomography (CT) slices in 33 breast cancer patients treated by various techniques of adjuvant radiotherapy. The measurements were made before radiotherapy, 3 months and 9 months after completion of radiation therapy. The changes in lung densities at 3 months and 9 months were compared to radiation induced radiological (CT) findings. In addition, subjective symptoms such as cough and dyspnoea were assessed before and after radiotherapy. It was observed that the mean of the relative electron density of lung tissue varied from 0.25 when the whole lung was considered to 0.17 when only the anterior lateral quarter of the lung was taken into account. In patients with positive radiological (CT) findings the mean lung density of the anterior lateral quarter increased 2.1 times 3 months after radiotherapy and was still increased 1.6 times 6 months later. For those patients without findings, in the CT pictures the corresponding values were 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. The standard deviation of the pixel values within the anterior lateral quarter of the lung increased 3.8 times and 3.2 times at 3 months and 9 months, respectively, in the former group, as opposed to 1.2 and 1.1 in the latter group. Thirteen patients had an increase in either cough or dyspnoea as observed 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. In eleven patients these symptoms persisted 6 months later. No significant correlation was found between radiological findings and subjective symptoms. However, when three different treatment techniques were compared among 29 patients the highest rate of radiological findings was observed in patients in which the largest lung volumes received the target dose. A tendency towards an increased rate of subjective symptoms was also found in this group.

  15. Maternal Dietary Loads of Alpha-Tocopherol Increase Synapse Density and Glial Synaptic Coverage in the Hippocampus of Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Salucci, S.; Ambrogini, P.; Lattanzi, D.; Betti, M.; Gobbi, P.; Galati, C.; Galli, F.; Cuppini, R.; Minelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Gliasynapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses) was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional Tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant gliasynapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning. PMID:24998923

  16. Susceptibility of juvenile and adult blood–brain barrier to endothelin-1: regulation of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and transport activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play a critical role in keeping neurotoxic substances from entering the brain. We and others have previously reported an impact of inflammation on the regulation of adult blood–brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters. However, studies in children have not been done. From the pediatric clinical perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) and BBB drug efflux transporters differ in childhood from those of adults under normal and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we examined and compared the regulation of P-gp and BCRP expression and transport activity in young and adult BBB and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses. Methods Rats at postnatal day (P) P21 and P84, corresponding to the juvenile and adult stages of human brain maturation, respectively, were treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) given by the intracerebroventricular (icv) route. Twenty-four hours later, we measured P-gp and BCRP protein expression in isolated brain capillary by immunoblotting as well as by transport activity in vivo by measuring the unbound drug partitioning coefficient of the brain (Kp,uu,brain) of known efflux transporter substrates administered intravenously. Glial activation was measured by immunohistochemistry. The release of cytokines/chemokines (interleukins-1α, 1-β (IL-1β), -6 (IL-6), -10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), fractalkine and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)) were simultaneously measured in brain and serum samples using the Agilent Technology cytokine microarray. Results We found that juvenile and adult BBBs exhibited similar P-gp and BCRP transport activities in the normal physiological conditions. However, long-term exposure of the juvenile brain to low-dose of ET-1 did not change BBB P-gp transport activity but tended to decrease BCRP transport activity in the juvenile brain, while a

  17. Calibrating the High Density Magnetic Port within Tissue Expanders to Achieve more Accurate Dose Calculations for Postmastectomy Patients with Immediate Breast Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jasmine; Zhang, Rui; Heins, David; Castle, Katherine

    In postmastectomy radiotherapy, an increasing number of patients have tissue expanders inserted subpectorally when receiving immediate breast reconstruction. These tissue expanders are composed of silicone and are inflated with saline through an internal metallic port; this serves the purpose of stretching the muscle and skin tissue over time, in order to house a permanent implant. The issue with administering radiation therapy in the presence of a tissue expander is that the port's magnetic core can potentially perturb the dose delivered to the Planning Target Volume, causing significant artifacts in CT images. Several studies have explored this problem, and suggest that density corrections must be accounted for in treatment planning. However, very few studies accurately calibrated commercial TP systems for the high density material used in the port, and no studies employed fusion imaging to yield a more accurate contour of the port in treatment planning. We compared depth dose values in the water phantom between measurement and TPS calculations, and we were able to overcome some of the inhomogeneities presented by the image artifact by fusing the KVCT and MVCT images of the tissue expander together, resulting in a more precise comparison of dose calculations at discrete locations. We expect this method to be pivotal in the quantification of dose distribution in the PTV. Research funded by the LS-AMP Award.

  18. Osteoporosis and Prevalent Fractures among Adult Filipino Men Screened for Bone Mineral Density in a Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Amy A.; Valdez, Valerie Ann U.; Mercado-Asis, Leilani B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis in men is markedly underdiagnosed and undertreated despite higher morbidity and mortality associated with fractures. This study aimed to characterize adult Filipino men with osteopenia, osteoporosis and prevalent fractures. Methods A cross-sectional study of 184 Filipino men ≥50 years screened for bone mineral density was performed. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) score, smoking status, family history of fracture, diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, and T-score were considered. Results Of the 184 patients, 40.2% and 29.9% have osteopenia and osteoporosis. Sixteen (21.6%) and 18 (32.1%) osteopenic and osteoporotic men have fragility hip, spine, or forearm fractures. Men aged 50 to 69 years have the same risk of osteoporosis and fractures as those ≥70 years. While hip fractures are higher in osteoporotic men, vertebral fractures are increased in both osteopenic and osteoporotic men. Mere osteopenia predicts the presence of prevalent fractures. A high risk OSTA score can predict fracture. A BMI <21 kg/m2 (P<0.05) and current smoking are associated with osteoporosis. Conclusion A significant fraction of Filipino men with osteopenia and osteoporosis have prevalent fractures. Our data suggest that fractures occur in men <70 years even before osteoporosis sets in. Low BMI, high OSTA score, and smoking are significant risk factors of osteoporosis. PMID:27546872

  19. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  20. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  1. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  2. Effect of methionine replacement by homocystine in cultures containing both malignant rat breast carcinosarcoma (Walker-256) cells and normal adult rat liver fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Halpern, B C; Ezzell, R; Hardy, D N; Clark, B R; Ashe, H; Halpern, R M; Smith, R A

    1975-01-01

    When malignant W-256 rat breast carcinosarcoma cells are mixed with an equal number of normal adult rat liver fibroblasts and allowed to grow in a medium containing sufficient L-methionine and an excess of vitamin B12 and of folic acid, the malignant cells outgrow the normal cells, and within 2 weeks the tissue culture flasks contain only neoplastic cells. However, when ample DL-homocystine or homocysteine replaces methionine in the medium containing the same amount of vitamin B12 and folic acid, and seeded with the same type and number of malignant and normal cells, the malignant cells die and the normal cells thrive. Substantiating this conclusion are the results of injections into rats of comparable numbers of cells from each group after 3 weeks of growth in tissue culture. Fatal malignancies are produced by the homocystein-cultivated cells.

  3. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  4. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Greenwood, Maria A.; Brewer, Jacob S.; Rozofsky, John P.; Parise, Eric M.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional or physical stress on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day [PD] 35) or adult (eight-week old) mice were exposed to emotional (ES) or physical stress (PS) using a vicarious social defeat paradigm. Twenty-four hours after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted ERK2, reduced transcription of ΔFosB, and had no effect on CREB mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent-exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice, and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  5. On-line learning from input versus off-line memory evolution in adult word learning: Effects of neighborhood density and phonologically-related practice

    PubMed Central

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically-related training sets influence on-line learning from input during training versus off-line memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low or high density nonwords. Within each density condition, participants were trained on one set of words and then were trained on a second set of words, consisting of phonological neighbors of the first set. Learning was measured in a picture-naming test. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling and spline regression. Results Steep learning during input was observed, with new words from dense neighborhoods and new words that were neighbors of recently learned words (i.e., second set words) being learned better than other words. In terms of memory evolution, large and significant forgetting was observed during 1-week gaps in training. Effects of density and practice during memory evolution were opposite of those during input. Specifically, forgetting was greater for high density and second set words than for low density and first set words. Conclusion High phonological similarity, regardless of source (i.e., known words or recent training), appears to facilitate on-line learning from input but seems to impede off-line memory evolution. PMID:24686841

  6. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-11-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (p<0.05). The risk for osteoporosis was decreased as vitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C).

  7. High-density lipoprotein of patients with breast cancer complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes cancer cells adhesion to vascular endothelium via ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dan; Ming, Jia; He, Yubin; Zhou, Champion; Ren, Hui; He, Xin; Wang, Chenguang; Jin, Jingru; Ji, Liang; Willard, Belinda; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion of disseminating tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal starting point in the metastasis cascade. We have shown previously that diabetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has the capability of promoting breast cancer metastasis, and this report summarizes our more recent work studying the role of abnormal HDL in facilitating the adhesion of the circulating tumor cells to the endothelium. This is an initiating step in breast cancer metastasis, and this work assesses the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in this process. MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal HDL from healthy controls (N-HDL), HDL from breast cancer patients (B-HDL), or HDL from breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BD-HDL), and the cell adhesion abilities were determined. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. The effect of PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA on adhesion was also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin from breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined. Our results indicate that BD-HDL promoted an increase in breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the cells surface of both breast cancer and HUVEC cells, along with the activation of PKC. Increased tumor cell (TC)-HUVEC adhesion, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by BD-HDL, could be inhibited by staurosporine and PKC siRNA. In addition, a Db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model has more TC-Vascular Endothelium adhesion compared to a normal model. However, BD patients have a lower expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in their tumor tissues. BD-HDL facilitates the adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, thereby promoting the initial progression of breast cancer metastasis

  8. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species. PMID:23702338

  9. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species.

  10. Degree of urbanization and mammographic density in Dutch breast cancer screening participants: results from the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Marleen J; Bakker, Marije F; Beelen, Rob M J; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that women living in urban areas have a higher mammographic density (MD) compared to women living in rural areas. This association might be explained by regional differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or perhaps by variation in exposure to ambient air pollution as air pollution particles have been described to show estrogenic activity. We investigated the association between degree of urbanization and MD, and aimed to unravel the underlying etiology. 2,543 EPIC-NL participants were studied, and general linear models were used. Urbanization was categorized into five categories according to the number of addresses/km(2). Information on reproductive and lifestyle factors was obtained from the recruitment questionnaire. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression models. MD was expressed as percent density (PD) and dense area (DA), and was quantified using Cumulus. Women living in extremely urbanized areas had a higher PD (21.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.5-22.3%) compared to women living in not urbanized areas (16.1, 95% CI 14.5-17.8%, P trend < 0.01).The association persisted after adjustment for reproductive and lifestyle factors as well as for individual exposure to air pollution (adjusted PDextremely_urbanized = 22.1%, 95% CI 18.0-26.5% versus adjusted PDnot_urbanized = 16.9%, 95% CI 13.0-21.2, P trend < 0.01).The results for DA showed close similarity to the results for PD. We found evidence that degree of urbanization is associated with MD. The association could not be explained by differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or by variation in air pollution exposure.

  11. Effects of Exemestane and Tamoxifen treatment on bone texture analysis assessed by TBS in comparison with bone mineral density assessed by DXA in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalder, Matthias; Hans, Didier; Kyvernitakis, Ioannis; Lamy, Olivier; Bauer, Martina; Hadji, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    We performed an analysis of a substudy of the randomized Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational trial to determine the effects of exemestane (EXE) and tamoxifen (TAM) adjuvant treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry compared with the trabecular bone score, a novel grey-level texture measurement that correlates with 3-dimensional parameters of bone texture in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer for the first time. In total, 36 women were randomized to receive TAM (n = 17) or EXE (n = 19). Patients receiving TAM showed a mean increase of BMD in lumbar spine from baseline of 1.0%, 1.5%, and 1.9% and in trabecular bone score of 2.2%, 3.5%, and 3.3% at 6-, 12-, and 24-mo treatment, respectively. Conversely, patients receiving EXE showed a mean decrease from baseline in lumbar spine BMD of -2.3%, -3.6%, and -5.3% and in trabecular bone score of -0.9%, -1.7%, and -2.3% at 6-, 12-, and 24-mo treatment, respectively. Changes in trabecular bone score from baseline at spine were also significantly different between EXE and TAM: p = 0.05, 0.007, and 0.006 at 6, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. TAM induced an increase in BMD and bone texture analysis, whereas EXE resulted in decreases. The results were independent from each other.

  12. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  13. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  14. Breast pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  15. The influence of stocking density on body weight, egg weight, and feed intake of adult broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Nephawe, K A; Nesamvuni, A E; Benyi, K

    2007-08-01

    The influence of stocking density on BW, egg weight (EW), and feed intake (FI) in Ross broiler breeder hens (n = 120) was investigated during the late medium egg production period (from 50 to 54 wk of age). Birds were randomly allocated to 6 pens in densities of 15, 20, and 25 birds/pen, giving rise to a floor space allowance of 5, 6.67, and 8.33 birds/m(2), respectively. Each density was replicated twice, and the order among the 6 pens was chosen at random. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures techniques of the Statistical Analysis System, considering the covariance structure of the observed data. There was a significant effect attributable to stocking density, time (in days), and their interaction for BW, EW, and FI. Birds in density of 6.67 per m(2) were lighter but had heavier eggs than birds in density of 5 per m(2); however, birds in density of 8.33 per m(2) had similar BW and EW with birds in the other 2 groups. The mean FI were statistically different among the 3 groups, with a reduction in FI as density increases. Total egg production within the 3 density groups and average egg production per bird were also analyzed using categorical data techniques. The results indicated that stocking density influenced egg production, with birds at higher density producing fewer eggs per bird. Although generous floor space allowances were allocated per bird in this experiment, stocking density influenced the performance of broiler breeder hens.

  16. Reconstituted high density lipoprotein mediated targeted co-delivery of HZ08 and paclitaxel enhances the efficacy of paclitaxel in multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangrong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xiangting; Li, Min; Zhou, Jianping; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-20

    In the past decades, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) has been successfully developed as a drug carrier since the enhanced HDL-lipids uptake is demonstrated in several human cancers. In this paper, rHDL, for the first time, was utilized to co-encapsulate two hydrophobic drugs: an anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), and a new reversal agent for P-gp (P-glycoprotein)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer, N-cyano-1-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-N'-octyl-2(1H)-isoquinoline-carboximidamide (HZ08). We proposed this drug co-delivery strategy to reverse PTX resistance. The study aimed to develop a biomimetic nanovector, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL), mediating targeted PTX-HZ08 delivery for cancer therapy. Using sodium cholate dialysis method, we successfully formulated dual-agent co-delivering rHDL nanoparticles (PTX-HZ08-rHDL NPs) with a typical spherical morphology, well-distributed size (~100nm), high drug encapsulation efficiency (approximately 90%), sustained drug release properties and exceptional stability even after storage for 1month or incubation in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) DMEM for up to 2days. Results demonstrated that PTX-HZ08-rHDL NPs significantly enhanced anticancer efficacy in vitro, including higher cytotoxicity and better ability to induce cell apoptosis against both PTX-sensitive and -resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-7/PTX cells). Mechanism studies demonstrated that these improvements could be correlated with increased cellular uptake of PTX mediated by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) as well as prolonged intracellular retention of PTX due to the HZ08 mediated drug-efflux inhibition. In addition, in vivo investigation showed that the PTX-HZ08-rHDL NPs were substantially safer, have higher tumor-targeted capacity and have stronger antitumor activity than the corresponding dosage of paclitaxel injection. These findings suggested that rHDL NPs could

  17. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  18. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  19. From innervation density to tactile acuity 2: embryonic and adult pre- and postsynaptic somatotopy in the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Millecchia, Ronald; Lawson, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alan G; Koerber, H Richard; Culberson, James; Stephens, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dorsal horn laminae III-IV cell receptive fields (RFs) are initially established in three steps: cutaneous axons penetrate the dorsal horn near their rostrocaudal (RC) levels of entry into the spinal cord. Their terminal branches distribute mediolaterally (ML) according to their relative distoproximal RF locations on the leg, and form nonselective synapses with nearby dorsal horn cell dendrites, establishing the initial dorsal horn cell RFs. Rootlet axon RFs in adult cats were used to approximate the RC entry levels of hindlimb skin input. Cord dorsum recordings of monosynaptic field potentials evoked by electrical skin stimulation provided the RC distributions of synaptic input. These were in close agreement. Simulated projections of all 22,000 hindlimb axons were similar to projections predicted from EPSP distributions, and with the observed projections of dorsal roots, cutaneous nerves, and individual axons. The simulated terminals were connected nonselectively to nearby dendrites of 135,000 simulated lamina III-IV cells whose dendritic surface area distributions were based on intracellularly stained cells. There was an overall similarity among pre- and postsynaptic embryonic and adult somatotopies, with a progressive transformation of RF angular location as a function of RC, ML dorsal horn location from an initial embryonic presynaptic concentric pattern to an adult postsynaptic radial one. The initial embryonic dorsal horn cell RF assembly hypothesis was supported by the simulations, as was the additional hypothesis that further refinement of connections would be necessary to establish sufficient selectivity to account for observed adult RFs and somatotopy. PMID:16125155

  20. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  1. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  2. Dense Breasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman’s breasts. It is most commonly determined using mammography, a diagnostic test that uses low dose x- ... woman’s breasts, which is most commonly determined through mammography. The breast is made up of glandular, connective, ...

  3. Breast lump

    MedlinePlus

    Breast mass ... males and females of all ages have normal breast tissue. This tissue responds to hormone changes. Because of this, lumps can come and go. Breast lumps may appear at any age: Both male ...

  4. Breast Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  5. Sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a Turkish young adult population: a sample of Baskent University.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Hale; Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Ismail Can; Yazici, Ayse Canan; Aktaş, Gulnihal; Altunay, Fikret

    2015-05-01

    Fingerprints are considered to be one of the most reliable methods of identification. Identification of an individual plays a vital part of any medico-legal investigations. Dermatoglyphics is a branch of science that studies epidermal ridges and ridge patterns. Epidermal ridges are polygenic characteristics that form intrauterine 10-18 weeks and considered fully developed by the sixth month of fetal growth. Fingerprints are permanent morphological characteristics and criminal detection based on fingerprints is based on the principle that no two people can have identical fingerprints. Sex determination from fingerprints has been examined in different population. In this study we aimed to study fingerprint ridge density in Turkish population sample of Baskent University students. Fingerprints were obtained from 118 women, 88 men a total of 206 students aged between 17 and 28 years old by means of simple inking method. Fingerprints from all right and left hands fingers were collected in three different area of each. The ridges on fingerprints were counted diagonally on squares measuring 5 mm × 5 mm on radial, ulnar and inferior areas. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and inferior areas and between sexes was compared statistically Mann Whitney U test and Friedman test. The ridge density was significantly greater in women in every region studied and in all fingers when compared to men. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints was significantly greater than the lower area. Fingerprint ridge density can be used by medico-legal examination for sex identification.

  6. Secretory breast cancer. Case report

    PubMed Central

    LOMBARDI, A.; MAGGI, S.; BERSIGOTTI, L.; LAZZARIN, G.; NUCCETELLI, E.; AMANTI, C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 – year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma. PMID:23660165

  7. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  8. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... the same breast or the other breast after breast cancer has been diagnosed Distinguish between scar tissue and ...

  9. Birth weight and mammographic density among postmenopausal women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Rulla M; Eriksson, Louise; Lagiou, Pagona; Czene, Kamila; Ekbom, Anders; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Adami, Hans-Olov; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hall, Per

    2010-02-15

    Birth weight is a significant predictor of breast cancer risk in adult life and mammary gland mass could be an intermediate stage in this long process. We have studied the association of birth size measurements with mammographic density, a marker of mammary gland mass. For a population-based sample of 893 postmenopausal women without previous cancer in Sweden, we retrieved information on birth size from birth records and their most recent mammography. Film mammograms of the medio-lateral oblique view were digitized and the Cumulus software was used for computer-assisted semi-automated thresholding of mammographic density. Results were analyzed using generalized linear models controlling for possible confounders. Mean percent mammographic density increased when comparing the extreme categories of birth weight (from 15.6% to 18.6%) and head circumference (from 15.5% to 20.4%), and the corresponding linear trends were statistically significant (p values 0.02 and 0.007, respectively). The associations were particularly strong when the cutoff for high versus low mammographic density was set at the relatively high value of 50%. Compared to women weighing 3001-3500 grams at birth, women with birth weights >4000g were at almost 3-fold risk of developing high mammographic density (odds ratio: 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 7.9). No association with mammographic density was evident with respect to birth length which, however, is known to be less accurately measured. These results indicate that adult breast density, a powerful predictor of breast cancer risk, has intrauterine roots, as reflected in birth size. PMID:19642103

  10. Influence of neighbourhood ethnic density, diet and physical activity on ethnic differences in weight status: a study of 214,807 adults in Australia.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Croteau, Karen; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised multilevel modelling of BMI for 38 ethnic and country of birth groups. Physical activity was ascertained using the Active Australia Survey. Dietary measures included self-reported consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat and cheese. Ethnic density was objectively measured using 2006 Australian Census data. Possible confounders included age, gender, household income, educational qualifications, economic status, couple status, language, duration of residence, neighbourhood affluence and remoteness. Compared to Australian-born Australians (age-gender adjusted mean BMI = 27.1, 95%CI 27.1, 27.2), overseas-born groups often had lower mean BMI, especially the Chinese born in China (23.2, 23.0, 23.4). Exceptions included the Italians (BMI = 28.1), Greeks (28.5), Maltese (27.6), Lebanese (28.4) and Croatians (27.8) born in their ethnic-country of origin. Regardless of birthplace, BMI was lower for the English, Scottish, and Chinese, but higher for Italians and Greeks. Some ethnic differences reflected the 'healthy migrant' hypothesis, whereas others did not. These differences were only partially attenuated by controls for portions of fruit and vegetables, meat and cheese, frequency of participation in physical activity, and other explanatory variables. Ethnic density was associated with lower BMI for the English and Irish (p < 0.05), regardless of whether they were born in the UK, Ireland, or Australia. Ethnic differences in adult weight status in Australia do not appear to be fully explained by conventional risk factors. For some groups, but not all, living among others of the same ethnic group may proxy unmeasured health

  11. Fibroadenoma - breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you notice: Any new breast lumps A breast lump that your provider has checked before that grows or changes Bruising on your breast for no reason Dimpled or wrinkled skin (like an orange) on your breast Nipple changes or nipple discharge

  12. Increases in the Numerical Density of GAT-1 Positive Puncta in the Barrel Cortex of Adult Mice after Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Siucinska, Ewa; Hamed, Adam; Jasinska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Three days of fear conditioning that combines tactile stimulation of a row of facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) expands the representation of “trained” vibrissae, which can be demonstrated by labeling with 2-deoxyglucose in layer IV of the barrel cortex. We have also shown that functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) increases GABAergic markers in the hollows of “trained” barrels of the adult mouse. This study investigated how whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS) affected the expression of puncta of a high-affinity GABA plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in the barrel cortex of mice 24 h after associative learning paradigm. We found that whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS) led to increase expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta in the “trained” row compared to controls: Pseudoconditioned, CS-only, UCS-only and Naïve animals. These findings suggest that fear conditioning specifically induces activation of systems regulating cellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. PMID:25333489

  13. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Results: Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the CPP groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus. PMID:27563418

  14. Physical activity benefits bone density and bone-related hormones in adult men with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chain, Amina; Koury, Josely C; Bezerra, Flávia Fioruci

    2012-09-01

    Severe bone loss is a recognized complication of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Physical exercise contributes to bone health; however, its influence on bone mass of cervical SCI individuals has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on bone mass, bone metabolism, and vitamin D status in quadriplegics. Total, lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur and radius bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed in active (n = 15) and sedentary (n = 10) quadriplegic men by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, IGF1, osteocalcin and NTx were measured in serum. After adjustments for duration of injury, total body mass, and habitual calcium intake, bone indices were similar between groups, except for L1-L4 BMD Z score that was higher in the sedentary group (P < 0.05). Hours of physical exercise per week correlated positively with 25(OH)D (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) and negatively with PTH (r = -0.50; P < 0.05). Femur BMD was negatively associated with the number of months elapsed between the injury and the onset of physical activity (r = -0.60; P < 0.05). Moreover, in the active subjects, both L1-L4 BMD Z score (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and radius BMD (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) were positively associated with calcium intake. In this cross-sectional study, both the onset of physical activity after injury and the number of hours dedicated to exercise were able to influence bone density and bone-related hormones in quadriplegic men. Our results also suggest a positive combined effect of exercise and calcium intake on bone health of quadriplegic individuals.

  15. Comparisons of bone mineral density and bone quality in adult rock climbers, resistance-trained men, and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2010-09-01

    The nature of muscular contractions and episodes of impact loading during technical rock climbing are often varied and complex, and the resulting effects on bone health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibia and forearm bone quality in male rock climbers (RC) (n = 15), resistance trained men (RT) (n = 16), and untrained male controls (CTR) (n = 16). Total body, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm aBMD and body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy, v. 10.50.086; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.). Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone content, bone area, and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the tibia and forearm were measured using pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Stratec XCT 3000, Pforzheim, Germany). No significant group differences were seen in bone-free lean body mass. CTR had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body fat % than RC and RT and significantly (p < 0.05) greater fat mass than RC. Lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in RT compared to both RC and CTR. RC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower aBMD at the 33% radius site than CTR. Forearm MCSA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CTR than in the other groups. No significant differences were seen between groups for vBMD or bone area of the tibia and forearm. In conclusion, resistance-trained men had higher bone density at the central skeletal sites than rock climbers; however, bone quality variables of the peripheral limbs were similar in rock climber and resistance-trained groups.

  16. Does phenotypic plasticity for adult size versus food level in Drosophila melanogaster evolve in response to adaptation to different rearing densities?

    PubMed

    Mueller, Laurence D; Cabral, Larry G

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies with Drosophila have suggested that there is extensive genetic variability for phenotypic plasticity of body size versus food level. If true, we expect that the outcome of evolution at very different food levels should yield genotypes whose adult size show different patterns of phenotypic plasticity. We have tested this prediction with six independent populations of Drosophila melanogaster kept at extreme densities for 125 generations. We found that the phenotypic plasticity of body size versus food level is not affected by selection or the presence of competitors of a different genotype. However, we document increasing among population variation in phenotypic plasticity due to random genetic drift. Several reasons are explored to explain these results including the possibility that the use of highly inbred lines to make inferences about the evolution of genetically variable populations may be misleading.

  17. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  18. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosong; Weinger, Jason G.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Xue, Feng; Sadeghpour, Safa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a major problem in elderly, affecting quality of life. Pre-clinical studies show that MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, is effective at reversing cognitive decline in aging rodents. Objective: Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50–70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated. Overall cognitive ability was determined by a composite score of tests in four major cognitive domains. Results: With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant. Due to the strong placebo effects on sleep and anxiety, the effects of MMFS-01 on sleep and anxiety could not be determined. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the potential of MMFS-01 for treating cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:26519439

  19. Study of the relationship between Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti egg and adult densities, dengue fever and climate in Mirassol, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chierotti, Ana Patricia; Ferrari, Mariana Silveira; Mendonça, Adriano Luis; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Aedes aegypti egg and adult density indices, dengue fever and climate in Mirassol, state of São Paulo, Brazil, between November 2004-November 2005. Weekly collections of adults and eggs were made using, respectively, manual aspirators and oviposition traps that produced four entomological indices (positivity and average of females and eggs). Weekly incidence coefficients were calculated based on dengue cases. Each week, the data obtained from entomological indices were related to each other, dengue, and climate variables. The first index to show an association with dengue transmission was the female average, followed by female positivity and egg average. Egg positivity did not show a relationship with risk for dengue, but was sensitive to identifying the presence of the vector, principally in dry seasons. The relationship between climatic factors, the vector and the disease found in this study can be widely employed in planning and undertaking dengue surveillance and control activities, but it is a tool that has not been considered by the authorities responsible for controlling the disease. In fact, this relationship permits the use of information about climate for early detection of epidemics and for establishing more effective prevention strategies than currently exist.

  20. Effect of nutritional counseling on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Thai HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Chotivichien, Saipin; Arab, Lenore; Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sinawat, Sangsom; Detels, Roger

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy have increased risk of metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia. In this study, we determined whether individual nutritional counseling reduced dyslipidemia, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia not currently taking lipid-lowering medication. We conducted a randomized 24-week trial among HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia who were on antiretroviral therapy and were eligible to initiate therapeutic lifestyle changes according to the Thai National Cholesterol Education Program. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received individual counseling with a nutritionist for seven sessions (baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24) and a control group that received standard verbal diet information at baseline and nutritional counseling only at week 24. A 24-h recall technique was used to assess dietary intake for both groups at baseline and week 24. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride) was measured at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. An intention-to-treat and linear mixed model were used. Seventy-two patients were randomly assigned, and 62 (86%) participants completed their lipid profile test. After 12 weeks of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the intervention group for total cholesterol (-14.4 ± 4.6 mg/dL, P = .002), LDL cholesterol (-13.7 ± 4.1 mg/dL, P = .001), and triglyceride (-30.4 ± 13.8 mg/dL, P = .03). A significant reduction in LDL cholesterol was also observed in the control group (-7.7 ± 3.8 mg/dL, P = .04), but there were no significant differences in change of mean lipid levels between the groups at 12 weeks of follow-up. After 24 weeks, participants assigned to the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater decreases in serum total cholesterol (-19.0 ± 4.6 vs. 0.2

  1. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    Background Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. Objective The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30–60 years with age average of 41.2±4.9. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (47 males, 53 females; age range 30–60 years) were recruited for this study. Based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan analysis, the participants were classified into three groups: normal (n=30), osteopenic (n=40), and osteoporotic (n=30). Following, 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), BMD, T-score, and trace elements such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Significant improvement in serum BAP level, T-score, and BMD were observed in all participants following 12 weeks of moderate exercise. Participants with osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in serum Ca and Mn, along with decrease in serum Cu and Zn levels following 12 weeks of aerobic training. In control group, the improvements in serum trace elements and body mass index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05) with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups

  2. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  3. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  4. Adolescent social isolation enhances the plasmalemmal density of NMDA NR1 subunits in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, J O; Bowline, E; Lourenco, F S; Pickel, V M

    2014-01-31

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation manifested by abnormalities in adult behaviors that require emotional processing. The affected brain regions may include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in principal neurons plays a role in conditioned emotional responses. This plasticity is dependent on NMDA receptor trafficking denoted by intracellular mobilization of the obligatory NR1 NMDA subunit. We tested the hypothesis that the psychosocial stress of adolescent social isolation (ASI) produces a lasting change in NMDA receptor distribution in principal neurons in the BLA of adults that express maladaptive emotional responses to sensory cues. For this, we used behavioral testing and dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of NR1 and calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a protein predominantly expressed in principal neurons of the BLA in adult C57Bl/6 mice housed in isolation or in social groups from post-weaning day 22 until adulthood (∼3 months of age). The isolates showed persistent deficits in sensorimotor gating evidenced by altered prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment. Immunogold-silver labeling for NR1 alone or together with CaMKII was seen in many somatodendritic profiles in the BLA of all mice irrespective of rearing conditions. However, isolates compared with group-reared mice had a significantly lower cytoplasmic (4.72 ± 0.517 vs 6.31 ± 0.517) and higher plasmalemmal (0.397 ± 0.0779 vs 0.216 ± 0.026) density of NR1 immunogold particles in CaMKII-containing dendritic spines. There was no rearing-dependent difference in the size or number of these spines or those of other dendritic profiles within the neuropil, which also failed to show an impact of ASI on NR1 immunogold labeling. These results provide the first evidence that ASI enhances the surface trafficking of NMDA receptors

  5. Adolescent social isolation enhances the plasmalemmal density of NMDA NR1 subunits in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Jerylin O.; Bowline, Everett; Lourenco, Frederico S.; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation manifested by abnormalities in adult behaviors that require emotional processing. The affected brain regions may include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in principal neurons plays a role in conditioned emotional responses. This plasticity is dependent on NMDA receptor trafficking denoted by intracellular mobilization of the obligatory NR1 NMDA subunit. We tested the hypothesis that the psychosocial stress of adolescent social isolation (ASI) produces a lasting change in NMDA receptor distribution in principal neurons in the BLA of adults that express maladaptive emotional responses to sensory cues. For this, we used behavioral testing and dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of NR1 and CaMKII, a protein predominantly expressed in principal neurons of the BLA in adult C57Bl/6 mice housed in isolation or in social groups from post-weaning day 22 until adulthood (~3 months of age). The isolates showed persistent deficits in sensorimotor gating evidenced by altered prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment. Immunogold-silver labeling for NR1 alone or together with CaMKII was seen in many somatodendritic profiles in the BLA of all mice irrespective of rearing conditions. However, isolates compared with group-reared mice had a significantly lower cytoplasmic (4.72±0.517 vs 6.31 ± 0.517) and higher plasmalemmal (0.397±0.0779 vs 0.216±0.026) density of NR1 immunogold particles in CaMKII-containing dendritic spines. There were no rearing-dependent difference is the size or number of these spines or those of other dendritic profiles within the neuropil, which also failed to show an impact of ASI on NR1 immunogold labeling. These results provide the first evidence that ASI enhances the surface trafficking of NMDA receptors in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the BLA of

  6. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George L; Copeland, Trisha; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Buckley, Rita B

    2003-03-01

    Obesity, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle-all common conditions in breast cancer patients-are likely to be associated with poor survival and poor quality of life in women with breast cancer. Diet-related factors are thought to account for about 30% of cancers in developed countries. Most studies of diet and healthcare have focused on the role of single nutrients, foods, or food groups in disease prevention or promotion. Recent cancer guidelines on nutrition and physical activity emphasize diets that promote maintenance of a healthy body weight and a prudent dietary pattern that is low in red and processed meats and high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Except for dietary fat, few nutritional factors in adult life have been associated with breast cancer. Extensive data from animal model research, international correlations linking fat intake and breast cancer rates, and case-control studies support the hypothesis that a high-fat diet is conducive to the development of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Conflicting findings from cohort studies, however, have created uncertainty over the role of dietary fat in breast cancer growth and recurrence. Results from large-scale nutritional intervention trials are expected to resolve such issues. As new and improved data on dietary factors and patterns accumulate, dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction will become more focused.

  7. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Cancer.gov

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  8. Association of dietary and serum vitamin E with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-qi; Liu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Ying-ying; Guan, Ke; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E (VE) may affect bone health, but the findings have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between VE status (in both diet and serum) and bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese adults. This community-based study included 3203 adults (2178 women and 1025 men) aged 40-75 years from Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. General and dietary intake information were collected using structured questionnaire interviews. The serum α-tocopherol (TF) level was quantified by reversed-phase HPLC. The BMD of the whole body, the lumbar spine and left hip sites (total, neck, trochanter, intertrochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In women, the dietary intake of VE was significantly and positively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, intertrochanter and femur neck sites after adjusting for covariates (P(trend): 0·001-0·017). Women in quartile 3 of VE intake typically had the highest BMD; the covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 2·5, 3·06, 3·41 and 3·54% higher, respectively, in quartile 3 (v. 1) at the four above-mentioned sites. Similar positive associations were observed between cholesterol-adjusted serum α-TF levels and BMD at each of the studied bone sites (P(trend): 0·001-0·022). The covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 1·24-4·83% greater in quartile 4 (v. 1) in women. However, no significant associations were seen between the VE levels (dietary or serum) and the BMD at any site in men. In conclusion, greater consumption and higher serum levels of VE are associated with greater BMD in Chinese women but not in Chinese men.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Association Between Bone Mineral Density and Parathyroid Hormone and Other Biomarkers in Community-Dwelling Young Adults: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Lynda E.; Hurley, Daniel L.; Gross, Myron D.; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Most association studies of bone-related biomarkers (BBMs) with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conducted in postmenopausal women. Objective: We tested whether the following BBMs were cross-sectionally associated with BMD among young adults: serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), PTH, osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine. Setting and Participants: We studied 319 individuals (134 women, 149 black, 24–36 years) recruited during 1992 through 1993 in Oakland, California. BMD was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression models estimated the association between BMD and each BBM. Results: 1,25(OH)2D was inversely associated with all BMDs. 25OHD was positively, and PTH inversely, associated with lumbar spine, total hip, and whole-body BMD. BAP was inversely associated with left arm, right arm, and whole-body BMD but not with spine or hip BMD. Neither osteocalcin nor urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine was associated with BMD. When we placed all BBMs (including 1,25(OH)2D) in one model, the pattern and magnitude of association was similar except for PTH, which was attenuated. The association of BMD and BBMs did not differ significantly by race or sex. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study of healthy young men and women who had PTH levels considered normal in clinical practice, higher PTH was associated with lower BMD, particularly in weight-bearing sites (ie, spine and hip). The inverse association of 1,25(OH)2D, together with the attenuation of PTH, suggests that the observed association of PTH is mediated by 1,25(OH)2D. BAP was inversely associated with arm BMD. BBMs can be important markers of skeletal activity in young adults, but their clinical role on bone health among this population is yet to be fully determined. PMID:23966240

  10. Eigenbreasts for statistical breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Tward, Daniel J.; Ketcha, M.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.; Park, Subok; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2016-03-01

    To facilitate rigorous virtual clinical trials using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation, we demonstrated a method of defining statistical models, based on 177 sets of breast CT patient data, in order to generate tens of thousands of unique digital breast phantoms. In order to separate anatomical texture from variation in breast shape, each training set of breast phantoms were deformed to a consistent atlas compressed geometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then performed on the shape-matched breast CT volumes to capture the variation of patient breast textures. PCA decomposes the training set of N breast CT volumes into an N-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts. By summing weighted combinations of eigenbreasts, a large ensemble of different breast phantoms can be newly created. Different training sets can be used in eigenbreast analysis for designing basis models to target sub-populations defined by breast characteristics, such as size or density. In this work, we plan to generate ensembles of 30,000 new phantoms based on glandularity for an upcoming virtual trial of lesion detectability in digital breast tomosynthesis. Our method extends our series of digital and physical breast phantoms based on human subject anatomy, providing the capability to generate new, unique ensembles consisting of tens of thousands or more virtual subjects. This work represents an important step towards conducting future virtual trials for tasks-based assessment of breast imaging, where it is vital to have a large ensemble of realistic phantoms for statistical power as well as clinical relevance.

  11. Relation of Combined Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B With Atherosclerosis in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bjornstad, Petter; Eckel, Robert H; Pyle, Laura; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2015-10-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are cardiovascular disease risk markers, although data in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are limited. We hypothesized that elevated apoB and non-HDL-C would be associated with greater odds of coronary artery calcification progression (CACp), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis, than either category alone in adults with type 1 DM. We grouped subjects with type 1 DM (n = 652) into 4 groups: elevated apoB (≥90 mg/dl) and elevated non-HDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), elevated non-HDL-C alone, elevated apoB alone, and normal apoB and non-HDL-C. We used logistic regression to examine the associations between the groups and CACp for a period of 6 years. We performed sensitivity analyses with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C redefined as at or more than the cohort means (91.4 and 119.0 mg/dl, respectively). Subjects with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C had greater odds of CACp compared with those with normal apoB and non-HDL-C (odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.15) and compared with subjects with elevated apoB alone (odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 5.74) adjusting for age, gender, duration, hemoglobin A1c, and statins. Similar results were obtained with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C defined as at or more than the cohort means. In conclusion, elevated apoB and non-HDL-C carry a greater risk of atherosclerosis than elevated apoB in the absence of elevated non-HDL-C in adults with type 1 DM. These data suggest that apoB and non-HDL-C should be viewed as complementary rather than competitive indexes of cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 DM. PMID:26251001

  12. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11 835 male and 12 561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004 kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

  13. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  14. Sex differences in myelin-associated protein levels within and density of projections between the orbital frontal cortex and dorsal striatum of adult rats: implications for inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Bayless, D W; Daniel, J M

    2015-08-01

    Impulsive actions and decisions often lead to undesirable outcomes. Lesion and neuroimaging studies have revealed that the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum (dSTR) play key roles in inhibitory control. It has been proposed that greater OFC input into the dSTR reflects enhanced top-down cognitive control and less impulsive responding. We previously reported a sex difference in inhibitory control, such that female rats make fewer impulsive errors than do male rats. The goal of the present study was to investigate differences in the OFC and dSTR of young adult male and female rats. In Experiment 1, we measured levels of two myelin-associated proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), in the OFC and dSTR. Western blot data revealed that females had significantly higher levels of both MBP and PLP in the OFC but similar levels in the dSTR as compared to males. In Experiment 2, we infused the anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), into the OFC and measured the density of BDA in the dSTR. BDA was visualized using histochemistry followed by light microscopy imaging and densitometry analysis. Density of BDA in the dSTR was significantly greater in females as compared to males indicating that the projections from the OFC to dSTR may be greater in females as compared to males. Our results suggest a potential neuroanatomical sex difference that may contribute to the reported differences in inhibitory control levels of male and female rats. PMID:26002313

  15. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  16. Effects of oral temazepam on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep in healthy young adults: A high-density EEG investigation.

    PubMed

    Plante, D T; Goldstein, M R; Cook, J D; Smith, R; Riedner, B A; Rumble, M E; Jelenchick, L; Roth, A; Tononi, G; Benca, R M; Peterson, M J

    2016-03-01

    Slow waves are characteristic waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep that play an integral role in sleep quality and brain plasticity. Benzodiazepines are commonly used medications that alter slow waves, however, their effects may depend on the time of night and measure used to characterize slow waves. Prior investigations have utilized minimal scalp derivations to evaluate the effects of benzodiazepines on slow waves, and thus the topography of changes to slow waves induced by benzodiazepines has yet to be fully elucidated. This study used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to evaluate the effects of oral temazepam on slow wave activity, incidence, and morphology during NREM sleep in 18 healthy adults relative to placebo. Temazepam was associated with significant decreases in slow wave activity and incidence, which were most prominent in the latter portions of the sleep period. However, temazepam was also associated with a decrease in the magnitude of high-amplitude slow waves and their slopes in the first NREM sleep episode, which was most prominent in frontal derivations. These findings suggest that benzodiazepines produce changes in slow waves throughout the night that vary depending on cortical topography and measures used to characterize slow waves. Further research that explores the relationships between benzodiazepine-induced changes to slow waves and the functional effects of these waveforms is indicated.

  17. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  18. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  19. A high-density EEG study of differences between three high speeds of simulated forward motion from optic flow in adult participants

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Kenneth; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2015-01-01

    A high-density EEG study was conducted to investigate evoked and oscillatory brain activity in response to high speeds of simulated forward motion. Participants were shown an optic flow pattern consisting of a virtual road with moving poles at either side of it, simulating structured forward motion at different driving speeds (25, 50, and 75 km/h) with a static control condition between each motion condition. Significant differences in N2 latencies and peak amplitudes between the three speeds of visual motion were found in parietal channels of interest P3 and P4. As motion speed increased, peak latency increased while peak amplitude decreased which might indicate that higher driving speeds are perceived as more demanding resulting in longer latencies, and as fewer neurons in the motion sensitive areas of the adult brain appear to be attuned to such high visual speeds this could explain the observed inverse relationship between speed and amplitude. In addition, significant differences between alpha de-synchronizations for forward motion and alpha synchronizations in the static condition were found in the parietal midline (PM) source. It was suggested that the alpha de-synchronizations reflect an activated state related to the visual processing of simulated forward motion, whereas the alpha synchronizations in response to the static condition reflect a deactivated resting period. PMID:26578903

  20. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  2. Breast self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Self-examination of the breast; BSE; Breast cancer - BSE; Breast cancer screening - self exam ... American Cancer Society. Recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms. Revised October 20, ... ...

  3. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  4. Interaction of estradiol and high density lipoproteins on proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 adapted to grow in serum free conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jozan, S.; Faye, J.C.; Tournier, J.F.; Tauber, J.P.; David, J.F.; Bayard, F.

    1985-11-27

    The responsiveness of the human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 to estradiol and tamoxifen treatment has been studied in different culture conditions. Cells from exponentially growing cultures were compared with cells in their initial cycles after replating from confluent cultures (''confluent-log'' cells). It has been observed that estradiol stimulation of tritiated thymidine incorporation decreases with cell density and that ''confluent-log'' cells are estrogen unresponsive for a period of four cell cycles in serum-free medium conditions. On the other hand, growth of cells replated from exponentially growing, as well as from confluent cultures, can be inhibited by tamoxifen or a combined treatment with tamoxifen and the progestin levonorgestrel. This growth inhibitory effect can be rescued by estradiol when cells are replated from exponentially growing cultures. The growth inhibitory effect cannot be rescued by estradiol alone (10(-10) to 10(-8) M) when cells are replated from confluent cultures. In this condition, the addition of steroid depleted serum is necessary to reverse the state of estradiol unresponsiveness. Serum can be replaced by high density lipoproteins but not by low density lipoproteins or lipoprotein deficient serum. The present data show that estradiol and HDL interact in the control of MCF-7 cell proliferation.

  5. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  6. Knowledge and preference for breast conservation therapy among women without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lazovich, D; Raab, K K; Gurney, J G; Chen, H

    2000-01-01

    We interviewed 419 adult women in Minnesota, who were selected at random and without a history of breast cancer, to ascertain what percentage could correctly report that cure was the same for breast conservation therapy and mastectomy, what percentage would state a preference for breast conservation therapy rather than mastectomy, and characteristics associated with these outcomes. Nearly all women (n = 360; 86%) had heard of both mastectomy and breast conservation therapy; among these women, 37% correctly reported that the two treatments were equally efficacious. Given a scenario where they were diagnosed with breast cancer amenable to either treatment, 58% of participants stated a preference for breast conservation therapy. Older women were less likely than younger women to know that cure was the same for breast conservation therapy and mastectomy (adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2, 1.0), and women residing in urban areas were more likely to prefer breast conservation therapy over mastectomy compared to rural residents (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1. 3, 3.8). Comparing these findings to women diagnosed with breast cancer in Minnesota, breast conservation therapy was found to be performed less frequently than preference for such therapy among women in our study would suggest. Educating women prior to diagnosis about breast cancer treatment options, and exploring reasons for the gap between actual utilization of breast conservation therapy and prediagnosis preference, may be indicated.

  7. RO4929097 and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Bone Mineral Density Changes among HIV-Uninfected Young Adults in a Randomised Trial of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Placebo in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kasonde, Michael; Niska, Richard W.; Rose, Charles; Henderson, Faith L.; Segolodi, Tebogo M.; Turner, Kyle; Smith, Dawn K.; Thigpen, Michael C.; Paxton, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD) loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women. Method We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18–29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the hip, spine, and forearm. Results A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo) had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8%) participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of <−2.0 at any anatomic site), including 3/114 women (2.6%) and 12/106 men (11.3%) (p = 0.02). Low baseline BMD was associated with being underweight (p = 0.02), having high blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.02) or high alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.03), and low creatinine clearance (p = 0.04). BMD losses of >3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0%) TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9%) placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm −0.84% (p = 0.01), spine −1.62% (p = 0.0002), hip −1.51% (p = 0.003)]. Conclusion Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8%) of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons. Trial

  9. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  10. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  11. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, derived from fitting unconditional logistic regression models. Association between somatotype at age 7 and tumour characteristics were evaluated in a case-only analysis where P values for heterogeneity were obtained by performing one degree of freedom trend tests. Results A large somatotype at age 7 was found to be associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Although strongly associated with other risk factors such as age of menarche, adult body mass index and mammographic density, somatotype at age 7 remained a significant protective factor (odds ratio (OR) comparing large to lean somatotype at age 7 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.91, P trend = 0.004) after adjustment. The significant protective effect was observed within all subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, with a stronger effect for ER-negative (0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, P trend = 0.002), than for ER-positive (0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05, P trend = 0.062), tumours (P heterogeneity = 0.046). Somatotype at age 7 was not associated with tumour size, histology, grade or the presence or absence of metastatic nodes. Conclusions Greater body size at age 7 is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the associated protective effect is stronger for the ER-negative breast cancer subtype than for the ER-positive subtype. PMID:20398298

  12. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women.

    PubMed

    Weyers, S; Villeirs, G; Vanherreweghe, E; Verstraelen, H; Monstrey, S; Van den Broecke, R; Gerris, J

    2010-06-01

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women.

  13. The European Medicines Agency Review of Pertuzumab for the Treatment of Adult Patients With HER2-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Unresectable Breast Cancer: Summary of the Scientific Assessment of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use

    PubMed Central

    Borregaard, Jeanett; Jensen, Kristina Bech; Ersbøll, Jens; Galluzzo, Sara; Giuliani, Rosa; Ciceroni, Cinzia; Melchiorri, Daniela; Salmonson, Tomas; Bergh, Jonas; Schellens, Jan H.; Pignatti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pertuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular dimerization domain (subdomain II) of HER2. Based on the positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on March 4, 2013, a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union (EU) was issued for pertuzumab (Perjeta) for use in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of adult patients with HER2-positive metastatic or locally recurrent unresectable breast cancer who have not received previous anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy for their metastatic disease. The demonstration of clinical benefit for pertuzumab was based on a single, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel in previously untreated patients with locally advanced or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. In the primary analysis, median progression-free survival was 18.5 months in the pertuzumab group compared with 12.4 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51–0.75; p < .0001). For the secondary endpoints, overall survival (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.52–0.84; p = .0008) and objective response rate (80.2% vs. 69.3%) were also favored in the pertuzumab group. Toxicity was similar between groups except for higher incidence of diarrhea, rash, mucosal inflammation, dry skin, and neutropenia for pertuzumab compared with placebo. This paper summarizes the scientific review of the application leading to approval in the EU. The detailed scientific assessment report and product information, including the summary of product characteristics, are available on the EMA website (http://www.ema.europa.eu). PMID:24928613

  14. Effects of juvenile host density and food availability on adult immune response, parasite resistance and virulence in a Daphnia-parasite system.

    PubMed

    Schoebel, Corine N; Auld, Stuart K J R; Spaak, Piet; Little, Tom J

    2014-01-01

    Host density can increase infection rates and reduce host fitness as increasing population density enhances the risk of becoming infected either through increased encounter rate or because host condition may decline. Conceivably, potential hosts could take high host density as a cue to up-regulate their defence systems. However, as host density usually covaries with food availability, it is difficult to examine the importance of host density in isolation. Thus, we performed two full-factorial experiments that varied juvenile densities of Daphnia magna (a freshwater crustacean) and food availability independently. We also included a simulated high-density treatment, where juvenile experimental animals were kept in filtered media that previously maintained Daphnia at high-density. Upon reaching adulthood, we exposed the Daphnia to their sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa, and examined how the juvenile treatments influenced the likelihood and severity of infection (Experiment I) and host immune investment (Experiment II). Neither juvenile density nor food treatments affected the likelihood of infection; however, well-fed hosts that were well-fed as juveniles produced more offspring prior to sterilization than their less well-fed counterparts. By contrast, parasite growth was independent of host juvenile resources or host density. Parasite-exposed hosts had a greater number of circulating haemocytes than controls (i.e., there was a cellular immune response), but the magnitude of immune response was not mediated by food availability or host density. These results suggest that density dependent effects on disease arise primarily through correlated changes in food availability: low food could limit parasitism and potentially curtail epidemics by reducing both the host's and parasite's reproduction as both depend on the same food.

  15. Increased breast density correlates with the proliferation-seeking radiotracer (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA uptake in florid epithelial hyperplasia and in mixed ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma but not in pure invasive ductal carcinoma or in mild epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Vassilios; Valsamaki, Pipitsa; Sotiropoulou, Evangelia; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Kounadi, Evangelia; Karianos, Theodore; Fothiadaki, Athina; Archontaki, Aikaterini; Syrgiannis, Konstantinos; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Makris, Nikolaos; Limouris, Georgios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of mammographic breast density (BD) and cell proliferation/focal adhesion kinase activation-seeking radiotracer technetium 99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) uptake in women with different breast histologies, that is, mild epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), florid epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), mixed ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma (DCIS + IDC), and pure IDC. Fifty-five women with histologically confirmed mammary pathologies were submitted preoperatively to mammography and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintimammography. The percentage and intensity of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake and the percentage of BD were calculated by computer-assisted methods and compared (t-test) between the breast pathologies. In breasts with increased BD, FEH and DCIS + IDC were found. On the contrary, pure IDC and MEH were identified in breasts with significantly lower BD values. In breasts with increased 99mTc(V)-DMSA area and intensity of uptake, FEH was the main lesion found compared to all other histologies. Linear regression analysis between BD and 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake area and intensity revealed significant coefficients of correlation (r  =  .689, p < .001 and r  =  .582, p < .001, respectively). Increased BD correlates with the presence of FEH and mixed DCIS + IDC but not with pure IDC or MEH. Its close relationship to 99mTc(V)-DMSA, which also showed an affinity to FEH, indicates that stromal microenvironment may constitute a specific substrate leading to progression to different subtypes of cancerous lesions originating from different pathways.

  16. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  17. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  18. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  19. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  20. Fibrocystic breast disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... FF, Fort GG, et al, eds. Fibrocystic breast disease. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . ...

  1. Premenstrual breast changes

    MedlinePlus

    Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual ... Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to ... most severe just before each menstrual period Improve during ...

  2. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  3. The density conundrum: does legislation help or hurt?

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Lou

    2013-12-01

    Breast density and breast density legislation are controversial and potentially emotional issues in breast screening. Informing individual patients of their breast density status is an extremely important and highly personal conversation that must focus on patients' specific situations. The unanswered questions about converting population risk make it difficult to provide an individual woman with an explanation of what breast density means to her individual risk for developing breast cancer now or in the future. There are no standards or guidelines for what doctors should tell patients about their risk with dense breasts, and legislating the conversation may not improve it or a woman's response to the information. It is necessary to learn more about breast density, understand its meaning, and communicate clearly and compassionately with patients about what we know and what we do not know about breast cancer risk. Precipitous legislation can, in fact, undermine both the patient-physician relationship and the need for more evidence that would expand our understanding of the risk associated with breast density. PMID:24295939

  4. The density conundrum: does legislation help or hurt?

    PubMed

    Smith, Mary Lou

    2013-12-01

    Breast density and breast density legislation are controversial and potentially emotional issues in breast screening. Informing individual patients of their breast density status is an extremely important and highly personal conversation that must focus on patients' specific situations. The unanswered questions about converting population risk make it difficult to provide an individual woman with an explanation of what breast density means to her individual risk for developing breast cancer now or in the future. There are no standards or guidelines for what doctors should tell patients about their risk with dense breasts, and legislating the conversation may not improve it or a woman's response to the information. It is necessary to learn more about breast density, understand its meaning, and communicate clearly and compassionately with patients about what we know and what we do not know about breast cancer risk. Precipitous legislation can, in fact, undermine both the patient-physician relationship and the need for more evidence that would expand our understanding of the risk associated with breast density.

  5. Duodenal Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haibo; Song, Hongliang; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Duodenal adenocarcinoma, a very rare malignant gastrointestinal tumor, mainly metastasizes via the lymphatic system. Metastases from duodenal adenocarcinomas to the breast are very uncommon. A 31-year-old woman presented at our department with a left breast tumor. She had a past medical history of duodenal adenocarcinoma. Physical examination on admission confirmed a 2.5-cm-diameter tumor in the outer lower quadrant of the left breast. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed a soft lesion with tissue-like density and enlarged axillary lymph nodes. Local excision was performed to remove the breast lesion. The findings of cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemistry examination indicated a breast metastasis from the previous duodenal adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with palliative chemotherapy. Metastases from duodenal adenocarcinoma to the breast are rare. The diagnosis depends on medical history, imaging, and pathologic examination including immunohistochemistry. An accurate diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:26986146

  6. Effects of Chemotherapy on the Brain in Women With Newly Diagnosed Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-12

    Breast Cancer; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Fatigue; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Neurotoxicity; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment

  7. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Hacker NF, Friedland ML. Breast disease. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 30. Harvey ...

  8. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are made to accommodate a higher position for the areola and nipple, as well as to remove excess skin and breast tissue. Stitches usually follow the circumference of the areola, the natural lower crease ...

  9. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink per day (women at high risk for breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) ... Services Task Force. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and ... cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date ...

  10. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  11. Auditory Short-Term Memory Capacity Correlates with Gray Matter Density in the Left Posterior STS in Cognitively Normal and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…

  12. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts.

  13. Associations between body mass index, shopping behaviors, amenity density, and characteristics of the neighborhood food environment among female adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Carr, Lucas J; Wu, Qiang; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    We examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and the food environment among adult female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (N = 197) in eastern North Carolina. Food venue proximity to residential addresses was calculated using a geographic information system. Walk Score was used as a measure of amenity density. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between BMI and distance to and use of food venues, and residential amenity density. Frequency of supercenter use was significantly inversely associated with distance to supercenters. Walk Score was significantly inversely associated with BMI. BMI was not associated with distance to or use of any particular food venue. Future studies should examine specific health-promoting elements of amenity-dense neighborhoods accessible to limited-income populations.

  14. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván, H. A.; Pérez-Badillo, M. P.; Villaseñor, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the "Quality assurance programme for digital mammography", where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  15. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  16. Safety and Immunomodulatory Effects of Three Probiotic Strains Isolated from the Feces of Breast-Fed Infants in Healthy Adults: SETOPROB Study

    PubMed Central

    Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Matencio, Esther; Ortuño, Inmaculada; Martínez-Silla, Rosario; Gomez-Gallego, Carlos; Periago, Maria Jesús; Ros, Gaspar; Chenoll, Empar; Genovés, Salvador; Casinos, Beatriz; Silva, Ángela; Corella, Dolores; Portolés, Olga; Romero, Fernando; Ramón, Daniel; Perez de la Cruz, Antonio; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers’ feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543 PMID:24205115

  17. Long-lasting impairments in adult neurogenesis, spatial learning and memory from a standard chemotherapy regimen used to treat breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Sheriff, Andrew; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Gogola, Joseph V; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Chen, Hong; Helferich, William G; Roy, Edward J; Rhodes, Justin S

    2016-12-15

    The negative impact of chemotherapy on cognitive function in cancer patients has gained increasing attention in the last decade. Whilst the short-term acute effects on cognition are expected following chemotherapy, the persistence of such impairments in the long-term is still in question. This is despite clinical evidence indicating cognitive difficulties may persist well beyond treatment and affect quality of life. In the present study, we assessed the long-term (3 months) cognitive impact of chemotherapy in a mouse model intended to mimic the human female post-menopausal population receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Ovariectomized, female, C57BL/6J mice received two doses of Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, and 5-Fluorouracil or saline vehicle (control), separated by one week. During this interval, mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells. Results indicate a persistent impairment in learning and recall (1h, 24h and 48h) on the Morris water maze, reduced survival and differentiation of new neurons (BrdU+/NeuN+), and a persistent decline in proliferation of new cells (Ki67(+)) in the dentate gyrus. Locomotor activity, motor performance, and anxiety-like behavior were unaffected. We further evaluated the efficacy of a diet enriched in omega-3-fatty acids (DHA+EPA+DPA), in reversing long-term chemotherapy deficits but no rescue was observed. The model described produces long-term cognitive and cellular impairments from chemotherapy that mimic those observed in humans. It could be useful for identifying mechanisms of action and to test further the ability of lifestyle interventions (e.g., diet) for ameliorating chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments.

  18. Long-lasting impairments in adult neurogenesis, spatial learning and memory from a standard chemotherapy regimen used to treat breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Sheriff, Andrew; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Gogola, Joseph V; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Chen, Hong; Helferich, William G; Roy, Edward J; Rhodes, Justin S

    2016-12-15

    The negative impact of chemotherapy on cognitive function in cancer patients has gained increasing attention in the last decade. Whilst the short-term acute effects on cognition are expected following chemotherapy, the persistence of such impairments in the long-term is still in question. This is despite clinical evidence indicating cognitive difficulties may persist well beyond treatment and affect quality of life. In the present study, we assessed the long-term (3 months) cognitive impact of chemotherapy in a mouse model intended to mimic the human female post-menopausal population receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Ovariectomized, female, C57BL/6J mice received two doses of Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, and 5-Fluorouracil or saline vehicle (control), separated by one week. During this interval, mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells. Results indicate a persistent impairment in learning and recall (1h, 24h and 48h) on the Morris water maze, reduced survival and differentiation of new neurons (BrdU+/NeuN+), and a persistent decline in proliferation of new cells (Ki67(+)) in the dentate gyrus. Locomotor activity, motor performance, and anxiety-like behavior were unaffected. We further evaluated the efficacy of a diet enriched in omega-3-fatty acids (DHA+EPA+DPA), in reversing long-term chemotherapy deficits but no rescue was observed. The model described produces long-term cognitive and cellular impairments from chemotherapy that mimic those observed in humans. It could be useful for identifying mechanisms of action and to test further the ability of lifestyle interventions (e.g., diet) for ameliorating chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairments. PMID:27478140

  19. Mammography and breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bassett, L W; Manjikian, V; Gold, R H

    1990-08-01

    Breast radiography should be performed only with film-screen mammography or xeromammography. At least two views of each breast should be obtained, and for film-screen mammography, at least one of these should be the oblique view. Quality assurance is becoming a significant concern in breast cancer screening. The ACR Mammography Accreditation Program takes into account the qualifications of the personnel, the performance of the x-ray equipment, and a peer review of the final product: the diagnostic image. The mammographic signs of malignancy can be divided into primary, secondary, and indirect. The accuracy of mammography depends on several factors, but the greatest limitation is the density of the breast tissue. Very dense tissue makes detection of breast cancer difficult, and a negative mammogram should never deter one from a biopsy of a clinically suspect mass. New consensus guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed to bring uniformity to the recommendations of the American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, and various professional medical societies. These new guidelines reflect the encouraging results from recent clinical trials, as well as some discouraging reports on breast self-examination and the baseline mammogram. The underutilization of screening mammography is a problem of significant concern to both private and public health agencies. Barriers to mammographic screening include lack of awareness of the benefits of screening, physicians' misconceptions about patient compliance, concerns about radiation risk and overdiagnosis, fear of mastectomy, a perception that a mammogram involves great discomfort, and relatively high cost. Nationwide educational programs are under way to counter misconceptions about mammography, and various strategies are evolving to overcome the other barriers. Sonography is a useful adjunct to mammography for cyst-solid differentiation, but mammography is the only imaging modality effective for the early

  20. Do social interactions explain ethnic differences in psychological distress and the protective effect of local ethnic density? A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Background A frequently proposed, but under-researched hypothesis is that ethnic density benefits mental health through increasing social interactions. We examined this hypothesis in 226 487 adults from 19 ethnic groups aged 45 years and older in Australia. Methods Multilevel logit regression was used to measure the association between ethnicity, social interactions, own-group ethnic density and scores of 22+ on the Kessler scale of psychological distress. Self-reported ancestry was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Measures of social interactions included a number of times in the past week were (i) spent with friends or family participants did not live with; (ii) talked to someone on the telephone; (iii) attended meetings of social groups and (iv) how many people could be relied upon outside their home, but within 1 h of travel. Per cent own-group ethnic density was measured at the Census Collection District scale. Results Psychological distress was reported by 11% of Australians born in Australia. The risk of experiencing psychological distress varied among ethnic minorities and by country of birth (eg, 33% for the Lebanese born in Lebanon and 4% for the Swiss born in Switzerland). These differences remained after full adjustment. Social interactions varied between ethnic groups and were associated with lower psychological distress and ethnic density. Ethnic density was associated with reduced psychological distress for some groups. This association, however, was explained by individual and neighbourhood characteristics and not by social interactions. Conclusions Social interactions are important correlates of mental health, but fully explain neither the ethnic differences in psychological distress nor the protective effect of own-group density. PMID:23645917

  1. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  2. Factors affecting recall rate and false positive fraction in breast cancer screening with breast tomosynthesis - A statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Aldana; Lång, Kristina; Petersson, Ingemar F; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors affect the false positive fraction (FPF) for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to digital mammography (DM) in a screening population by using classification and regression trees (C&RT) and binary marginal generalized linear models. The data was obtained from the Malmö Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial, which aimed to compare the performance of DBT to DM in breast cancer screening. By using data from the first half of the study population (7500 women), a tree with the recall probability for different groups was calculated. The effect of age and breast density on the FPF was estimated using a binary marginal generalized linear model. Our results show that breast density and breast cancer were the main factors influencing recall. The FPF is mainly affected by breast density and increases with breast density for DBT and DM. In conclusion, the results obtained with C&RT are easy to interpret and similar to those obtained using binary marginal generalized linear models. The FPF is approximately 40% higher for DBT compared to DM for all breast density categories.

  3. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have breast cancer . Two main types of breast cancer may be found: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this ... Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast called lobules, ...

  4. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have breast cancer. Two main types of breast cancer may be found: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that move milk from the breast to the nipple. Most breast cancers are of this ... Lobular carcinoma starts in parts of the breast called lobules, ...

  5. Prevalence of Mammographically Dense Breasts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gangnon, Ronald E.; Burt, Veronica; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M.; Wellman, Robert D.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Background National legislation is under consideration that would require women with mammographically dense breasts to be informed of their breast density and encouraged to discuss supplemental breast cancer screening with their health care providers. The number of US women potentially affected by this legislation is unknown. Methods We determined the mammographic breast density distribution by age and body mass index (BMI) using data from 1518 599 mammograms conducted from 2007 through 2010 at mammography facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). We applied these breast density distributions to age- and BMI-specific counts of the US female population derived from the 2010 US Census and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the number of US women with dense breasts. Results Overall, 43.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 43.1% to 43.4%) of women 40 to 74 years of age had heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts, and this proportion was inversely associated with age and BMI. Based on the age and BMI distribution of US women, we estimated that 27.6 million women (95% CI = 27.5 to 27.7 million) aged 40 to 74 years in the United States have heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts. Women aged 40 to 49 years (N = 12.3 million) accounted for 44.3% of this group. Conclusion The prevalence of dense breasts among US women of common breast cancer screening ages exceeds 25 million. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider this large prevalence when debating breast density notification legislation and designing strategies to ensure that women who are notified have opportunities to evaluate breast cancer risk and discuss and pursue supplemental screening options if deemed appropriate. PMID:25217577

  6. Breast Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    If you need a mastectomy, you have a choice about whether or not to have surgery to rebuild the shape of the breast. Instead of ... be done at the same time as the mastectomy, or it may be done later on. If ...

  7. Breast pain

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Breast pain may be cyclical (worse before a period) or non-cyclical, originating from the breast or the chest wall, and occurs at some time in 70% of women. Cyclical breast pain resolves spontaneously in 20-30% of women, but tends to recur in 60% of women. Non-cyclical pain responds poorly to treatment but tends to resolve spontaneously in half of women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for breast pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 22 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: a low-fat diet, antibiotics, bromocriptine, danazol, diuretics, evening primrose oil, gestrinone, gonadorelin analogues, hormone replacement therapy, lisuride, progestogens, pyridoxine, tamoxifen, tibolone, topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, toremifene, and vitamin E. PMID:19454068

  8. Breast pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Breast pain may be cyclical (worse before a period) or non-cyclical, originating from the breast or the chest wall, and occurs at some time in 70% of women. Cyclical breast pain resolves spontaneously in 20% to 30% of women, but tends to recur in 60% of women. Non-cyclical pain responds poorly to treatment but tends to resolve spontaneously in half of women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for breast pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 24 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, bromocriptine, combined oral contraceptive pill, danazol, diuretics, evening primrose oil, gestrinone, gonadorelin analogues, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), lisuride, low-fat diet, progestogens, pyridoxine, tamoxifen, tibolone, topical or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), toremifene, and vitamin E. PMID:21477394

  9. Breast pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast pain may be cyclical (worse before a period) or non-cyclical, originating from the breast or the chest wall, and occurs at some time in 70% of women. Cyclical breast pain resolves spontaneously in 20% to 30% of women, but tends to recur in 60% of women. Non-cyclical pain responds poorly to treatment but tends to resolve spontaneously in half of women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for breast pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bra wearing, combined oral contraceptive pill, danazol, gonadorelin analogues, progestogens, tamoxifen, and topical or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

  10. Exposure to breast milk in infancy and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hampton, John M.; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Early life exposures, such as being breastfed in infancy, may influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. We evaluated the risk of breast cancer in relation to ever having been breastfed in infancy among 9,442 women who participated in a population-based, case-control study. Cases were identified through cancer registries in three states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin); controls were identified through statewide drivers’ license lists or Medicare lists. Data on known and suspected risk factors were obtained through telephone interview. We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the relation of breast cancer with ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding (available for only 19% of breastfed women) in premenopausal women (1,986 cases and 1,760 controls) and postmenopausal women (2,600 cases and 2,493 controls). We found no evidence that ever having been breastfed in infancy was associated with breast cancer risk in either premenopausal women (odds ratio [OR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.83–1.10) or postmenopausal women (OR=0.98; 95% CI=0.87–1.10). The association did not differ according to breast cancer stage, mother’s history of breast cancer, or any other reproductive factor assessed. Likewise, we found no association between breastfeeding duration and risk of breast cancer. Our results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to breast milk in infancy influences the risk of adult breast cancer. PMID:19330531

  11. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  12. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  13. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing. PMID:26939775

  14. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  15. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. Risks of Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... larger and longer than these conducted so far. Breastfeeding Some women who undergo breast augmentation can successfully ... breast implant silicone shell into breast milk during breastfeeding. Although there are currently no established methods for ...

  17. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  18. Breast lump removal

    MedlinePlus

    Lumpectomy; Wide local excision; Breast conservation surgery; Breast-sparing surgery; Partial mastectomy ... If the breast cancer can be seen on imaging tests but the doctor cannot feel it when examining you, a wire ...

  19. New insights in gut microbiota establishment in healthy breast fed neonates.

    PubMed

    Jost, Ted; Lacroix, Christophe; Braegger, Christian P; Chassard, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of a pioneer gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a crucial stage in neonatal development influencing health throughout life. While current knowledge is mainly based on either culture or molecular analysis of feces, we opted for a comprehensive approach complementing culture with state-of-the-art molecular methods. The bacterial composition in feces from seven healthy vaginally-delivered, breast-fed neonates was analyzed at days 4-6, 9-14 and 25-30 postnatal, using culture, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of isolates, quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing. Anaerobes outnumbered facultative anaerobes in all seven neonates within the first days of life, owing to high levels of Bifidobacterium and unexpectedly also Bacteroides, which were inversely correlated. Four neonates harbored maternal Bacteroides levels, comprising typical adult species, throughout the neonatal period, while in three only subdominant levels were detected. In contrast, the major adult-type butyrate-producing anaerobic populations, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium, remained undetectable during the neonatal period. The presence of Bacteroidetes as pioneer bacteria in the majority of neonates studied demonstrates that adult-type strict anaerobes may reach adult-like population densities within the first week of life. Consequently the switch from facultative to strict anaerobes may occur earlier than previously assumed in breast-fed neonates, and the establishment of the major butyrate-producing populations may be limited by other factors than the absence of anaerobic conditions. The impact of breast milk components on the timing of establishment of anaerobic pioneer bacteria, as well as opportunistic pathogens should be further studied in regard to priming of the gut-associated immune system and consequences on later health. PMID:22957008

  20. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Gao, Kai; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is an emerging imaging modality to reconstruct the sound speed, density, and ultrasound attenuation of the breast in addition to ultrasound reflection/beamforming images for breast cancer detection and characterization. We recently designed and manufactured a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography prototype with two parallel transducer arrays consisting of a total of 768 transducer elements. The transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the breast in a warm water tank from the chest wall/axillary region to the nipple region to acquire ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound tomography imaging. The distance of these two ultrasound transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. We use our breast ultrasound tomography prototype to acquire phantom and in vivo patient ultrasound data to study its feasibility for breast imaging. We apply our recently developed ultrasound imaging and tomography algorithms to ultrasound data acquired using our breast ultrasound tomography system. Our in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that our breast ultrasound tomography can detect breast lesions shown on clinical ultrasound and mammographic images.

  1. Antidepressant-like Potentials of Buchholzia Coriacea Seed Extract: Involvement of Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Systems, and Neuronal Density in the Hippocampus of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, S A; Faborode, S O; Ilenre, K O

    2016-01-01

    Buchholzia coriacea, taken by elderly, has phytochemicals that have neuro-active metabolites, and the folkloredocumented its use in neuro-behavioral despairs. Previous study in our laboratory shows that methanol extracts of Buchholziacoriacea (MEBC) seeds possess antidepressant-like potentials in laboratory rodents. This present study was conducted toinvestigate the probable mechanism(s) of action by which MEBC potentiates its effects using laboratory rodents.Involvements of serotonergic, cholinergic and adrenergic systems were studied using Forced Swimming Test (FST) and TailSuspension Test (TST) models of behavioral despair. Antagonists which including: Prazosin, an alpha-1-adrenergic receptorblocker (62.5 μg/kg, i.p.), metergoline, a 5HT2 receptor blocker (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and atropine, a -muscarinic cholinergicreceptor blocker (1mg/kg i.p.) were administered before effective dose of MEBC (50mg/kg). Also, the hippocampi of theanimals were studied for changes in neuronal density using Nissl Staining. Our findings showed that mobility was reversedin animals pre-treated with atropine, prazosin, and metergoline significantly (P˂0.05), showing a possible involvement ofthe corresponding systems. However, there was a significant reduction in immobility time (P<0.001) during FST afterchronic administration of the MEBC. The hippocampus showed no significant changes (P<0.05) in neuronal density. Inconclusion, MEBC probably potentiates its antidepressant-like potentials via the cholinergic, adrenergic and partly byserotonergic systems. PMID:27574770

  2. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  3. [Current Development of Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) Technique].

    PubMed

    Sun, Da; Chen, Weijun

    2015-03-01

    Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) is an improved and optimizing nuclear medicine breast imaging technique on the basis of traditional gamma camera. It uses a high resolution, small field-of-view scintilla detector. The detector is designed with 3 073 individual detector crystals and 48 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The FOV of detector is 15 cm x 20 cm, and optimal system resolution for breast imaging is 3 mm, can detect the diameter of only 2-3 mm small lesions. BSGI has better sensitivity in detecting subcentimetre or nonpalpable breast cancer. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of breast cancer is high, not influenced by the density of the breast tissue, implants, architectural distortion-or scars from prior surgery or radiation. So it is called a high resolution, small field-of-view breast-specific gamma camera. PMID:26204740

  4. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Karen; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V® ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation. PMID:24387528

  5. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  6. Assessing the reliability of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in malaria diagnosis in areas with varying parasite density among older children and adult patients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, EE; Ukwe, CV; Nna, EO

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current malaria control strategies are based on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of malaria cases. The study aimed at comparing the performance of blood film microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in Plasmodium falciparum detection in patients ≥6 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 consecutive pyretic patients aged 6-62 years were enrolled, sampled, and tested for malaria using RDT (first response) and microscopy by Giemsa staining. Genomic DNA was extracted after saponin hemolysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum. The endpoints were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: Of the 154 patients, 80 (51.9%) had fever of ≥37.5°C. 106 (68.8%) were positive by First response®, 132 (85.7%) by microscopy, and 121 (78.6%) by PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of first response compared to microscopic method were 82.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 34.3%, respectively, while it was 75.4%, 75.0%, 95.3%, and 31.2%, respectively, when compared to PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the microscopic method compared to PCR were 92.3%, 50.0%, 90.91%, and 54.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the performance of RDT and film microscopy methods (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Microscopy performed better and is more reliable than first response (RDT) in areas with low parasite density among patients ≥6 years of age. Rapid diagnostic tests could be useful in aareas with high parasite density as an alternative to smear microscopy PMID:27241807

  7. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  8. The generation of C-3α epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its biological effects on bone mineral density in adult rodents.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Christina; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-05-01

    The source and function of C-3α epimer of 25(OH)D (C-3 epimer) is unknown. The objectives were to (1) establish if increasing doses of vitamin D (VD) results in a proportionate dose-response in C-3 epimer; and (2) determine the biological response of bone to C-3 epimer treatment. Sprague Dawley rats (12 weeks, n = 36 female, n = 36 male) were randomized to control AIN93-M diet (1 IU VD3/g diet) or an experimental diet for 8 weeks containing VD3 at 2 or 4 IU/g diet, C-3 epimer at 0.5 or 1 IU/g diet or 25(OH)D (0.5 IU/g diet). BW and food consumption were measured weekly. Blood was sampled at week 0, 4, and 8 for assessment of VD metabolites and bone metabolism biomarkers. DXA (week 0, 4, and 8) and in vivo micro CT (μCT) (week 0 and 8) were performed in vivo plus ex vivo μCT imaging and bone biomechanics. Dietary intake and anthropometry did not differ among diet groups. The dose-response of VD generated significantly elevated C-3 epimer only in females with concentrations of 4 IU VD diet group [mean 84.6 (62.5) nmol/L] exceeding control [mean 21.4 (18.5) nmol/L, p = 0.005]. Both sexes in the 25(OH)D group did not show significant increases in C-3 epimer, whereas 0.5 and 1 IU epimer groups exceeded 100 nmol/L of C-3 epimer by 8 weeks. These data suggest C-3 epimer is endogenously generated with higher intakes of VD. Endogenous and exogenous C-3 epimer accumulates in serum without impact upon bone health outcomes in a healthy young adult model over 8 weeks.

  9. Volume and tissue composition preserving deformation of breast CT images to simulate breast compression in mammographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Chen, Lingyun; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Images of mastectomy breast specimens have been acquired with a bench top experimental Cone beam CT (CBCT) system. The resulting images have been segmented to model an uncompressed breast for simulation of various CBCT techniques. To further simulate conventional or tomosynthesis mammographic imaging for comparison with the CBCT technique, a deformation technique was developed to convert the CT data for an uncompressed breast to a compressed breast without altering the breast volume or regional breast density. With this technique, 3D breast deformation is separated into two 2D deformations in coronal and axial views. To preserve the total breast volume and regional tissue composition, each 2D deformation step was achieved by altering the square pixels into rectangular ones with the pixel areas unchanged and resampling with the original square pixels using bilinear interpolation. The compression was modeled by first stretching the breast in the superior-inferior direction in the coronal view. The image data were first deformed by distorting the voxels with a uniform distortion ratio. These deformed data were then deformed again using distortion ratios varying with the breast thickness and re-sampled. The deformation procedures were applied in the axial view to stretch the breast in the chest wall to nipple direction while shrinking it in the mediolateral to lateral direction re-sampled and converted into data for uniform cubic voxels. Threshold segmentation was applied to the final deformed image data to obtain the 3D compressed breast model. Our results show that the original segmented CBCT image data were successfully converted into those for a compressed breast with the same volume and regional density preserved. Using this compressed breast model, conventional and tomosynthesis mammograms were simulated for comparison with CBCT.

  10. Survivin expression in breast lobular carcinoma: correlations with normal breast tissue and clinicomorphological parameters.

    PubMed

    Adamkov, Marian; Výbohová, Desanka; Horáček, Jaroslav; Kovalská, Mária; Furjelová, Martina

    2013-06-01

    The antiapoptotic protein survivin is rarely expressed in normal adult differentiated tissues, but it is often detected in their malignant counterparts. Immunohistochemically, we evaluated survivin expression in 19 cases of normal breast tissue and 64 cases of lobular breast carcinoma. The intensity of staining, percentage of labeled cells and subcellular location of survivin were assessed. We analyzed the quantitative differences of survivin expression between normal breast tissue and carcinomas. We also correlated survivin expression pattern in carcinomas with clinicomorphological parameters such as age of patients, grade, stage and size of primary tumor, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion as well as estrogen and progesterone status. Survivin was detected in 10/19 cases of normal breast tissue (52.6%) and in 55/64 cases of lobular breast carcinoma (86%). The statistical analysis confirmed significant correlations between the assessed parameters in normal breast and lobular carcinoma. Furthermore, the expression of estrogen correlated significantly with the subcellular localization and intensity of survivin in carcinoma. However, no significant correlation was shown with regard to other clinicomorphological parameters. Our results suggest that survivin may be a valuable diagnostic marker, as well as a new independent prognostic parameter, in lobular breast carcinoma. Finally, our data support the hypothesis that lobular and ductal breast carcinomas seem to be different clinicomorphological entities.

  11. Malignant hemangiopericytoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kudawara, I; Ueda, T; Araki, N; Mori, S

    2001-01-01

    A55-year-old woman presented with 1-year history of mass in the right breast. Incisional biopsy showed the tumor to be malignant hemangiopericytoma from its histology. The tumor showed low--intermediate density and peripheral contrast enhancement on CT, and inhomogeneous mixed-signal intensity both on T1W and T2W images, and peripheral enhancement with Gd-DTPA on MRI with no invasion of the duct.

  12. Health Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women with Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, J. Peter; Landfair, Angela Song; Shestak, Kenneth; Lane, Dorothy; Valoski, Alice; Chang, Yuefang; Tindle, Hilary A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Implant breast augmentation has long been a subject of controversy in both the plastic surgery and mainstream media. Methods We evaluated characteristics of women who had breast implant surgery in the Women's Health Initiative observational study (WHI OS) between 1993 and 1998. Most women in this study cohort had breast implant surgery 20 or more years prior to recruitment into the WHI OS. The women who were in the WHI OS who had not undergone breast implant surgery served as the comparison group. There were 86,686 women in the WHI OS who did not have breast implant surgery and an absent history of breast cancer, and 1,257 women who had breast implant surgery and no prior breast cancer. Results Total mortality rates were substantially lower among women with breast implant as was incidence of coronary heart disease. Women with breast implants in this study had a lower BMI throughout adult life and were more physically active than control subjects. After adjustment for these variables, differences in total mortality were no longer statistically significant. Women who had breast implants reported overall poorer quality of life and emotional well-being. Among women with breast implant surgery, 7% of deaths were due to suicide (n=3) versus 0.4% (n=20) in controls. Conclusion Significant differences in health characteristics and quality of life measures are seen in a cohort of women with breast implants decades following implant surgery. Further longitudinal studies need to focus on both physical and psychological health among women undergoing breast implant surgery. PMID:20195108

  13. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  15. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instagram YouTube 2,600 men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. Learn about risk factors, treatment options ... help hundreds of thousands of people affected by breast cancer. Donate Today Breast Cancer inFocus: Breast Cancer During ...

  16. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA densitometer for the measurement of total-body, lumbar spine, and femoral bone mineral density in adults.

    PubMed

    Hind, Karen; Oldroyd, Brian; Truscott, John G

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of precision is integral to the monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD) changes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the precision for bone measurements acquired using a GE Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) in self-selected men and women, with mean age of 34.8 yr (standard deviation [SD]: 8.4; range: 20.1-50.5), heterogeneous in terms of body mass index (mean: 25.8 kg/m(2); SD: 5.1; range: 16.7-42.7 kg/m(2)). Two consecutive iDXA scans (with repositioning) of the total body, lumbar spine, and femur were conducted within 1h, for each subject. The coefficient of variation (CV), the root-mean-square (RMS) averages of SDs of repeated measurements, and the corresponding 95% least significant change were calculated. Linear regression analyses were also undertaken. We found a high level of precision for BMD measurements, particularly for scans of the total body, lumbar spine, and total hip (RMS: 0.007, 0.004, and 0.007 g/cm(2); CV: 0.63%, 0.41%, and 0.53%, respectively). Precision error for the femoral neck was higher but still represented good reproducibility (RMS: 0.014 g/cm(2); CV: 1.36%). There were associations between body size and total-body BMD and total-hip BMD SD precisions (r=0.534-0.806, p<0.05) in male subjects. Regression parameters showed good association between consecutive measurements for all body sites (r(2)=0.98-0.99). The Lunar iDXA provided excellent precision for BMD measurements of the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip.

  17. Impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis, a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Loren W; Lo, Joseph Y; Segars, W Paul; Ghate, Sujata V; Solomon, Justin B; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to characterize the effect of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of irregular masses in breast tomosynthesis, while demonstrating the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementation, and performance analysis of virtual clinical trials (VCTs). Twenty breast phantoms from the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) family, generated based on dedicated breast computed tomography of human subjects, were used to extract a total of 2173 volumes of interest (VOIs) from simulated tomosynthesis images. Five different lesions, modeled after human subject tomosynthesis images, were embedded in the breasts and combined with the lesion absent condition yielded a total of [Formula: see text] VOIs. Effects of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of the lesions were studied by implementing a composite hypothesis signal detection paradigm with location known exactly, lesion known exactly or statistically, and background known statistically. Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, detection performance deteriorated as density was increased, yielding findings consistent with clinical studies. A human observer study was performed on a subset of the simulated tomosynthesis images, confirming the detection performance trends with respect to density and serving as a validation of the implemented detector. Performance of the implemented detector varied substantially across the 20 breasts. Furthermore, background tissue density and heterogeneity affected the log-likelihood ratio test statistic differently under lesion absent and lesion present conditions. Therefore, considering background tissue variability in tissue models can change the outcomes of a VCT and is hence of crucial importance. The XCAT breast phantoms have the potential to address this concern by offering realistic modeling of background tissue variability based on a wide range of human subjects, comprising

  18. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  19. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media Mammography Ultrasound - Breast Breast Cancer Screening Breast Cancer Treatment ...

  1. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ...

  2. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  3. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  4. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years). Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39) and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91) for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend) after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32) and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89) (P = 0.006 for linear trend), and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90) and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25) (P = 0.001 for linear trend). Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults. PMID:21605423

  5. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  6. Breast Imaging Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Odle, Teresa G

    2015-01-01

    Artifacts appear on breast images for a number of reasons. Radiologic technologists play an important role in identifying artifacts that can help or hinder breast cancer diagnosis and in minimizing artifacts that degrade image quality. This article describes various artifacts that occur in breast imaging, along with their causes. The article focuses on artifacts in mammography, with a heavy emphasis on digital mammography, and on magnetic resonance imaging of the breast. Artifacts in ultrasonography of the breast, digital breast tomosynthesis, and positron emission mammography also are discussed.

  7. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  8. SOX9 Regulates Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell Factor 4 (TCF4) Expression and Wnt/β-catenin Activation in Breast Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyun; He, Lingfeng; Ma, Fen; Regan, Meredith M.; Balk, Steven P.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Yuan, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has identified breast cancer (BCa) subtypes, including an aggressive basal-like (BL) subtype. The molecular signals underlying the behavior observed in BL-BCa group are largely unknown, although recent results indicate a prevalent increase in Wnt/β-catenin activity. Our immunohistochemistry study confirmed that SOX9, one of the BL-BCa signature genes, was expressed by most BL-BCa, and its expression correlated with indicators of poor prognosis. Importantly, BCa gene expression profiling strongly associated SOX9 with the expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, LRP6 and TCF4. In cancer cell lines, SOX9 silencing reduced cell proliferation and invasion, LRP6 and TCF4 transcription, and decreased Wnt/β-catenin activation. SOX9 expression was also increased by Wnt, indicating that SOX9 is at the center of a positive feedback loop that enhances Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Consistently, SOX9 overexpression in BCa cell lines and transgenic SOX9 expression in breast epithelium caused increased LRP6 and TCF4 expression and Wnt/β-catenin activation. These results identify SOX9-mediated Wnt/β-catenin activation as one of the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant Wnt/β-catenin activity in BCa, especially in the BL-BCa subgroup. PMID:23306204

  9. Synchronous bilateral primary breast malignant phyllodes tumor and carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoming; Sun, Suhong; Yang, Weiming; Kong, Fanli; Zeng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous bilateral primary breast malignant phyllodes tumor or/and carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease is rare. In the article, we present a case of bilateral carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease of the right breast and malignant phyllodes tumor of the left breast. A 44-years-old Chinese woman presented with a 1 month history of the right breast nipple with eczema and fester and growing and palpable mass of left breast. Molybdenum target X-ray revealed microcalcification in the right breast, which was highly suspected of malignant tumor, and round-like mass with smooth surface and homogeneous density in the left breast. Color ultrasound showed a lobulated lump which circumferential blood flows around in the left breast, and which did not show any mass in the right breast. The patient was undertaken the bilateral modified radical mastectomy. The histological diagnosis was Paget’s disease associated with infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the right breast and malignant phyllodes tumor the left breast. The patient also received 6 cycles of the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy by using T.T. regimen comprised docetaxel (100 mg) and pirarubicin (60 mg). PMID:26770378

  10. Effects of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development on dendritic length, branching, and spine density in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rice, James P; Suggs, Lisa E; Lusk, Alexandra V; Parker, Matthew O; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T; Akers, Katherine G; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Reductions in measures of dendritic morphology in the agranular insular cortex have been identified as consequences of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol in the rat. Motivated by the strong connectivity between this region of frontal cortex and the striatum and a growing body of data linking specific components of the mesocortical/limbic system to effects of ethanol and ethanol self-administration, the current study investigated the effects of moderate fetal ethanol exposure on the dendritic morphology of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in several regions of the striatum. Throughout gestation, pregnant rat dams either consumed a saccharin solution (control) or achieved average daily blood ethanol concentrations of 84 mg% via voluntary consumption of a 5% ethanol solution. The brains of adult male offspring were extracted and processed for Golgi-Cox staining. MSNs from the dorsomedial striatum, dorsolateral striatum and the nucleus accumbens core and shell were sampled for analysis. Relative to saccharin controls, robust reductions in dendritic length and branching, but not spine density, were observed in the shell of the nucleus accumbens in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats. No significant prenatal ethanol effects were found in the other regions of the striatum. These findings suggest that exposure to moderate levels of ethanol in utero can have profound effects on brain regions related to reward processing and provide possible clues relevant to understanding increased self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals exposed to ethanol during brain development.

  11. Density Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiter, Richard L.; Puzey, Whitney L.; Blitz, Erin A.

    2006-01-01

    Metal rods of high purity for many elements are now commercially available and may be used to construct a display of relative densities. We have constructed a display with nine metal rods (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Pb, and W) of equal mass whose densities vary from 1.74 to 19.3 g cm[superscript -3]. The relative densities of the metals may be…

  12. Computational Simulation of Breast Compression Based on Segmented Breast and Fibroglandular Tissues on Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Dongxu; Nie, Ke; Sun, Lizhi; Lin, Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a finite element based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of the breast and the fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression as used in mammography was applied. The geometry of whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo® 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the non-linear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc® software package. The model was tested in 4 cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these 4 cases at 60% compression ratio was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is the typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at 60% compression ratio was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on MRI, which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density measurements needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities – such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound, and molecular imaging – that are performed using different body positions and different compression conditions. PMID:20601773

  13. Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Dongxu; Nie, Ke; Sun, Lizhi; Lin, Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a finite element-based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of a breast and fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression, as used in mammography, was applied. The geometry of the whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo® 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the nonlinear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc® software package. The model was tested in four cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these four cases at a compression ratio of 60% was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is a typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at a compression ratio of 60% was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities--such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound and molecular imaging--that are performed using different body positions and under different compression

  14. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation

  15. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... a change in the shape of your breast, hardening of breast tissue, or some pain. Emotional risks ... starting 5 days after surgery. Massaging helps reduce hardening of the capsule that surrounds the implant. Ask ...

  16. Screening for Breast Problems

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  17. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a supplemental tool to breast screening with mammography or ultrasound. It may be used to screen ... following diagnosis, or further evaluate abnormalities seen on mammography. Breast MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and ...

  18. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  19. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts before submitting any insurance claims. For a list of companies that sell breast prostheses and other accessories, see Breast Prostheses and Hair Loss Accessories List . Going flat Some women who do not have ...

  20. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  1. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  2. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  3. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    Doctors use 7 main stages to describe breast cancer. Stage 0, also called carcinoma in situ. This is cancer that is confined to the lobules or ducts in the breast. It has not spread to surrounding tissue. ...

  4. Breast Reconstruction and Prosthesis

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel of the breast after a mastectomy. A plastic surgeon can do it at the same time ... want breast reconstruction. • Have you talked with your plastic surgeon about your options? You may not be ...

  5. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  6. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the breast in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Zils, Katja; Ebner, Florian; Ott, Michaela; Müller, Justus; Baumhoer, Daniel; Greulich, Michael; Rehnitz, Detlef; Rempen, Andreas; Schaetzle, Silvia; Wilhelm, Miriam; Bielack, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare malignancy, usually arising in older adults. We were unable to find reports of children or adolescents affected by an ESOS of the breast. Here, we present the case of a high-grade osteosarcoma arising in the breast of a 16-year-old girl. The tumor was treated with breast-conserving resections and adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy, based on a regimen of doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate, cisplatin, and ifosfamide. At last follow-up, the patient was in first complete remission, 29 months after initial diagnosis. PMID:22246152

  7. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  8. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs.

  9. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided pbreast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  10. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  11. Reference state estimation of breast computed tomography for registration with digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Ning, Ruola; Cha, Kenny; Helvie, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the deformation of the breast is a fundamental aspect to lesion localization in multi-view and multimodality imaging. Finite element methods (FEMs) are commonly used to model the deformation process of the breast. In FEM, ideally a reference state of the breast with no loading conditions is available as a starting point and then appropriate imaging-modality-based loading conditions for a specific application can be applied to the breast in the reference state. We propose an iterative method to estimate the reference state configuration between a gravity loaded uncompressed breast computed tomography (BCT) volume and a compressed breast using the corresponding digital mammograms (DM) as a guide. The reference state breast model is compressed between two plates similar to mammographic imaging. A DM-like image is generated by forward ray-tracing. The iterative method applies pressure in the anterior-to-posterior direction of the breast and uses information from the DM geometry and measurements to converge on a reference state of the breast. The process of reference state estimation and breast compression was studied using BCT cases from small to large breast sizes and breast densities consisting of scattered, heterogeneous and extremely dense categories. The breasts were assumed to be composed of non-linear materials based on Mooney-Rivlin models. The effects of the material properties on the estimation process were analyzed. The Fréchet distance between the edges of the DM-like image and the DM image was used as a performance measure.

  12. Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongseok; Jang, Sungok; Son, Heejeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3% for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDL-C25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. PMID:26824910

  13. Seven years of follow up of trabecular bone score, bone mineral density, body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency treated with rhGH replacement in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; Serraclara Plá, Alicia; Partida Muñoz, Myriam Lorena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by impaired physical activity, diminished quality of life (QoL), weight and fat mass gain, decreased muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment (7 years) with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), BMD, bone microarchitecture and QoL. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, BMD and BC were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone microarchitecture was assessed with the trabecular bone score (TBS). The QoL-AGHDA test was used to assess QoL. Results: A total of 18 AGHD patients (mean age, 37.39 ± 12.42) were included. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a significant increase after 7 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a significant tendency of body fat mass (BFM) (p = 0.028) and lean body mass (LBM) (p = 0.005) to increase during the 7 years of rhGH treatment. There was a significant increase in lumbar spine (LS) BMD (p = 0.01). TBS showed a nonsignificant decrease after 7 years of treatment, with a change of -0.86% ± 1.95. QoL showed a large and significant improvement (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Long-term rhGH treatment in AGHD patients induces a large and sustained improvement in QoL. Metabolic effects are variable with an increase in LBM as well as in BMI and BFM. There is a positive effect on BMD based on the increase in LS BMD, which stabilizes during long-term therapy and is not associated with a similar increase in bone microarchitecture. PMID:27293538

  14. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method. PMID:27353993

  15. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  16. Do adult eastern bluebird Sialia sialis males recognize juvenile-specific traits?

    PubMed Central

    LIGON, RUSSELL A.; HILL, GEOFFREY E.

    2009-01-01

    Juveniles of many avian species possess spotted or mottled plumage that is distinct from the plumage of adults. Such plumage has typically been assumed to aid in camouflaging vulnerable immature birds. Here, we propose that spotty plumage signals juvenile status, thereby decreasing aggression from territorial adults. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the aggressive responses of adult eastern bluebird males to different combinations of simultaneously presented taxidermic mounts. We found that territorial males attacked adult models significantly more than juvenile models, and that they attacked adult models with orange breasts (typical of adults) more frequently than they attacked adult models with spotty breasts (typical of juveniles). We found no difference in attack rates when models with white breasts (a novel trait) were presented with models possessing spotty breasts. These observations indicate that breast colour is a cue used by territorial adults when identifying conspecific intruders, but that adults do not recognize juvenile-specific plumage as such. Adults respond aggressively only to orange-breasted intruders. PMID:20161226

  17. [Post-treatment sequelae after breast cancer conservative surgery].

    PubMed

    Delay, E; Gosset, J; Toussoun, G; Delaporte, T; Delbaere, M

    2008-04-01

    Thanks to the earlier detection of breast cancer, the advent of neoadjuvant therapy and the development of more effective surgical procedures reducing treatment sequelae, conservative treatment has dramatically expanded over the past 15 years. Several factors have recognized negative aesthetic consequences for breast cancer patients: being overweight, having voluminous or on the contrary, very small breasts, having a tumor located in the lower quadrant, having high breast-tumor: breast-volume ratio. Tissue injuries induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, such as shrinking, fibrosis or induration, maximize the deleterious impact of surgery. The results of conservative treatment also deteriorate with time: weight gain is common and may result in increased breast asymmetry. Patients undergoing conservative treatment may experience sequelae including various degrees of the following dimorphisms, all possibly responsible for minor or even major breast deformity: breast asymmetry, loss of the nipple/areola complex, scar shrinkage and skin impairment, irregular shape and position of the nipple and areola. Various sensory symptoms have also been reported following conservative treatment, with patients complaining of hypo- or dysesthesia or even suffering actual pain. Breast lymphedema is also a common incapacitating after-effect that is believed to be largely underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Finally, like mastectomy, conservative breast surgery may induce serious psychological distress in patients who suffer the loss of physical integrity, womanhood or sexual arousal. Clinicians must be aware of the radiological changes indicative of late cancer recurrence. There are four types of modifications as follows: increased breast density, architectural distortion at the surgical site and formation of scar, mammary fat necrosis, and occurrence of microcalcifications. The management of sequelae of conservative breast treatment must therefore involve a multidisciplinary

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  20. The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, Christina M.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Due to its limited angular scan range, breast tomosynthesis has lower resolution in the depth direction, which may limit its accuracy in quantifying tissue density. This study assesses the quantitative potential of breast tomosynthesis using relatively simple reconstruction and image processing algorithms. This quantitation could allow improved characterization of lesions as well as image processing to present tomosynthesis images with the familiar appearance of mammography by preserving more low-frequency information. Methods: All studies were based on a Siemens prototype MAMMOMAT Novation TOMO breast tomo system with a 45 deg. total angular span. This investigation was performed using both simulations and empirical measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using the breast tomosynthesis geometry and tissue-equivalent, uniform, voxelized phantoms with cuboid lesions of varying density embedded within. Empirical studies were then performed using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms which were imaged on the actual prototype system. The material surrounding the lesions was set to either fat-equivalent or glandular-equivalent plastic. From the simulation experiments, the effects of scatter, lesion depth, and background material density were studied. The empirical experiments studied the effects of lesion depth, background material density, x-ray tube energy, and exposure level. Additionally, the proposed analysis methods were independently evaluated using a commercially available QA breast phantom (CIRS Model 11A). All image reconstruction was performed with a filtered backprojection algorithm. Reconstructed voxel values within each slice were corrected to reduce background nonuniformities. Results: The resulting lesion voxel values varied linearly with known glandular fraction (correlation coefficient R{sup 2}>0.90) under all simulated and empirical conditions, including for the independent tests with the QA phantom. Analysis of variance performed

  1. Mapping the CXCR4 receptor on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biran; Guo, Peng; Auguste, Debra T

    2015-07-01

    The CXCR4 receptor triggers cell migration and, in breast cancer, promotes metastasis. To date, the dynamic assembly of CXCR4 on the cell surface as a mediator of receptor binding is not well characterized. The objective of this work is to quantify the density, spatial organization, and magnitude of binding of the CXCR4 receptor on live metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cells. We measured the Young's modulus, the CXCR4 surface density, and CXCR4 unbinding force on MBC cells by atomic force microscopy. We conclude that the CXCR4 density, spatial organization, and matrix stiffness are paramount to achieve strong binding.

  2. Reproductive and Hormonal Factors Associated with Fatty or Dense Breast Patterns among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jei-Hun; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Oh, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Chang Yoon; Ko, Kyungran; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Dense breasts have been suggested as a risk factor for breast cancer, but controversy still remains. This study evaluates the association of reproductive and hormonal factors with dense breasts among Korean women. Materials and Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 516 women were recruited and classified for breast density patterns as being either fatty or dense, using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) of the American College of Radiology. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Results In univariate logistic regression, older age, higher body mass index, older age at menarche, and oral contraceptive use were associated with more fatty breasts. On the contrary, longer duration of education, alcohol consumption, lower parity, menopause and use of hormone replacement therapy were associated with dense breasts. After adjustment, age and body mass index were inversely associated with breast density (p-value for trend <0.01, respectively), whereas nulliparous and premenopausal status were positively associated. Compared to women who had ≥2 children, nulliparous women had an 11.8-fold increase of dense breasts (p-value for trend <0.01). Compared to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women had 2.4-fold increase of dense breasts (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 4.32). Conclusion Young age, lower body mass index, lower parity, and premenopausal status were significantly associated with dense breasts in Korea. PMID:21509162

  3. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  4. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  5. The role of tumor-associated macrophages in breast carcinoma invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ju; Li, Xiaojing; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Yongjuan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in normal and malignant breast tissue and the draining lymph nodes, and to explore its effect on breast cancer invasion and metastasis. The infiltration densities of TAMs was observed using immunohistochemical staining of CD68 in 100 cases of breast cancer specimens and its paired adjacent non-cancer breast tissues and draining lymph modes, and then to evaluate the relation of TAMs to various clinicopathological features including patients prognosis in breast carcinoma. We observed the infiltration densities of TAMs were significantly higher in breast carcinoma tissue than in adjacent normal tissue and significantly higher in much larger size and higher stage cases. Furthermore, infiltration densities of TAMs have negative correlation with the 5-year survival rates of breast cancer patients. But in matched lymph-nodes, the infiltration densities of TAMs were significantly lower in cancerous metastatic lymph-node samples than in non-metastatic one. Therefore, our data suggests that TAMs infiltration in primary tumor promote invasion and lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and have negative correlation with patients prognosis in breast cancer, but in lymph-node TAMs may play another role and need further study in the future.

  6. IN VIVO BREAST SOUND-SPEED IMAGING WITH ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cuiping; Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1 through 4. Our analysis showed that the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m · s)−1) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4-fold compared with the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422±9 m/s (mean±SD) and 1487±21 m/s, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions 1548±17 m/s was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513±27 m/s) (one-sided p < 0.001). These results suggest that, clinically, sound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor the clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19647920

  7. Task-based assessment and optimization of digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stefano

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a new technology for breast cancer screening that promises to complement mammography or supersede it to become the standard for breast imaging. DBT involves taking multiple images in order to synthesize a new image that represents a slice through the breast volume---hence the term tomosynthesis. The primary advantage of this paradigm is that it can reduce the amount of overlapping anatomy in the data, leading to improved visualization of potentially-cancerous findings. The difficulty in DBT is quantifying the advantages of the technology and determining the optimal conditions for its clinical use. This dissertation describes a virtual trial framework for assessing and optimizing DBT technology for the specific task of detecting small, low-contrast masses in the breast. It addresses each component of the imaging chain to some degree, from the patients/phantoms to the imaging hardware to the model observers used to measure signal detectability. The main focus, however, is on quantifying tradeoffs between three key parameters that affect image quality: (1) scan angle, (2) number of projections, and (3) exposure. We show that in low-density breast phantoms, detectability generally increases with both scan angle and number of projections in the anatomical-variability-limited (high-exposure) regime. We also investigate how breast density affects the optimal DBT scan parameters. We show task-specific results that support using an adaptive paradigm in DBT, where the imaging system reconfigures itself in response to information about the patient's breast density. The virtual framework described in this dissertation provides a platform for further investigations of image quality in 3D breast imaging.

  8. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  12. A Community-Oriented Approach to Breast Cancer in a Low-Resource Setting: Improving Awareness, Early Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Talib, Zohray; Shukurbekova, Irina; Sadonshoeva, Guldarbogh; Alibekov, Alibek; Jamshedov, Nekruz; Moloo, Zahir; Welji, Almas; Amersi, Farin; Muhammad, Aliya Amin; Jiwani, Aliya; Rais, Sheliza; Nazrishoeva, Akoyat; Ilnazarova, Surayo; Nuridinova, Shifo; Ukani, Hafiza; Alwani, Shireen; Saleh, Mansoor

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and causes of death in females in Tajikistan; yet less than half of the adult women in Tajikistan have heard of breast cancer. Limited access to health care contributes to late stage presentation. We developed a public-private partnership to implement a breast cancer awareness intervention in a low-resource community in Khorog, Tajikistan. We trained local health professionals in clinical breast care and conducted a breast cancer screening and treatment program. The partnership involved visiting USA-based health professionals working alongside local health care providers (HCP) in the continuum of breast care-from education to the diagnostic evaluation and management of detected breast abnormalities. Patient data were collected using a web-based program (VirtualDoc). Twenty-four HCP received didactic and clinical breast examination training. 441 women underwent clinical breast evaluation. 74 (17%) had abnormal exams and underwent additional diagnostic procedures. We identified six (1.4%) cases of breast cancer (all locally advanced) and two women had benign fibroadenomas. All women with cancer underwent modified radical mastectomy, while the fibroadenomas were treated by cosmetically appropriate lumpectomy. Five of six subjects with cancer were previously aware of their breast lump and three had recently seen a family medicine (FM) doctor. Health systems assessment revealed availability of diagnostic equipment but lack of well-trained operators and clinician interpreters. We were successful in integrating clinical breast exams into the routine care of female patients by local FM doctors and in the process, achieved a better understanding of existing risk factors and barriers to breast cancer care. This public-private partnership, leveraging the technical expertise of visiting health professionals, demonstrates how a focused onsite training and awareness program can provide sustained improvements in breast care in a low

  13. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  14. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  15. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness.

  16. Circulatory Estrogen Level Protects Against Breast Cancer in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Literary data suggest apparently ambiguous interaction between menopausal status and obesity-associated breast cancer risk based on the principle of the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen. Before menopause, breast cancer incidence is relatively low and adiposity is erroneously regarded as a protective factor against this tumor conferred by the obesity associated defective estrogen-synthesis. By contrast, in postmenopausal cases, obesity presents a strong risk factor for breast cancer being mistakenly attributed to the presumed excessive estrogen-production of their adipose-tissue mass. Obesity is associated with dysmetabolism and endangers the healthy equilibrium of sexual hormone-production and regular menstrual cycles in women, which are the prerequisites not only for reproductive capacity but also for somatic health. At the same time, literary data support that anovulatory infertility is a very strong risk for breast cancer in young women either with or without obesity. In the majority of premenopausal women, obesity associated insulin resistance is moderate and may be counteracted by their preserved circulatory estrogen level. Consequently, it is not obesity but rather the still sufficient estrogen-level, which may be protective against breast cancer in young adult females. In obese older women, never using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the breast cancer risk is high, which is associated with their continuous estrogen loss and increasing insulin-resistance. By contrast, obese postmenopausal women using HRT, have a decreased risk for breast cancer as the protective effect of estrogen-substitution may counteract to their obesity associated systemic alterations. The revealed inverse correlation between circulatory estrogen-level and breast cancer risk in obese women should advance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and promotes primary prevention measures. New patents recommend various methods for the prevention and treatment of obesity

  17. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  18. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction.

  19. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breastfeeding; Breast-non-feeding jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... of jaundice that is caused by too little breastfeeding by making sure your baby is getting enough ...

  20. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice.