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Sample records for adult breast density

  1. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  2. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguaña, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer™ (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31–82 years and 41 girls aged 8–18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women’s most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=−0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=−0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=−0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=−0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10–25, 26–50, 51–75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1–4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  3. Childhood body mass index and adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L; Nguyen, Tuong L; Stone, Jennifer; Aujard, Kelly; Matheson, Melanie C; Abramson, Michael J; Burgess, John A; Walters, E Haydn; Dite, Gillian S; Bui, Minh; Evans, Christopher; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Ward, Gail; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Apicella, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with the breast cancer risk factor 'adult mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI'. In 1968, the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study studied every Tasmanian school child born in 1961. We obtained measured heights and weights from annual school medical records across ages 7-15 years and imputed missing values. Between 2009 and 2012, we administered to 490 women a questionnaire that asked current height and weight and digitised at least one mammogram per woman. Absolute and percent mammographic densities were measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS. We used linear regression and adjusted for age at interview and log current BMI. The mammographic density measures were negatively associated: with log BMI at each age from 7 to 15 years (all p < 0.05); with the average of standardised log BMIs across ages 7-15 years (p < 0.0005); and more strongly with standardised log BMI measures closer to age 15 years (p < 0.03). Childhood BMI measures explained 7 and 10 % of the variance in absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively, and 25 and 20 % of the association between current BMI and absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively. Associations were not altered by adjustment for age at menarche. There is a negative association between BMI in late childhood and the adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. This could explain, at least in part, why BMI in adolescence is negatively associated with breast cancer risk. PMID:26907766

  4. Breast Density and Your Breast Mammogram Report

    MedlinePlus

    Breast Density and Your Mammogram Report Regular mammograms are the best way to find breast cancer early. But if ... But in some women, there’s little change. Breast density is very common, and is not abnormal. How ...

  5. Adolescent and Young Adult Exposure to Physical Activity and Breast Density

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Klifa, Catherine; Pérez, Adriana; Kriska, Andrea M.; High, Robin R.; Snetselaar, Linda; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of early lifetime exposure to physical activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determined breast density measures. Methods Associations of adolescent [high school (ages 14–17 years) and early adulthood [post high school (ages 18–21 years) and past year] leisure-time physical activity, as well as a principal component score including all three estimates, were examined with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in a cross-sectional analysis of 182 healthy women, aged 25–29 years enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-up Study (DISC06). Generalized linear mixed (GLM) models were used to examine associations after adjustment for relevant covariates for the entire analytic sample. Analyses were repeated in nulliparous women and hormonal contraceptive non-users. Results Physical activity during high school and post high school were not statistically significantly related to %DBV or ADBV in multivariable models. Past year physical activity was positively related to %DBV in the unadjusted and partially adjusted models (p<0.001 and p=0.01, respectively) that did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). After additional adjustment for childhood and early adulthood BMI, this association became non-statistically significant. The relation between past year physical activity and ADBV was not statistically significant. These findings were similar in non-users of hormonal contraceptives. No statistically significant relationships were found in nulliparous women or between the principal component score and %DBV or ADBV. Conclusion Results from this study are consistent with previous research suggesting that physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood is unrelated to breast density. PMID:23377838

  6. Breast density and breast cancer risk: a practical review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy T; Vachon, Celine M; Brandt, Kathleen R; Ghosh, Karthik

    2014-04-01

    New legislation in several states requiring breast density notification in all mammogram reports has increased awareness of breast density. Estimates indicate that up to 50% of women undergoing mammography will have high breast density; thus, with increased attention and high prevalence of increased breast density, it is crucial that primary care clinicians understand the implications of dense breasts and are able to provide appropriate counseling. This review provides an overview of breast density, specifically by defining breast density, exploring the association between breast density and breast cancer risk, both from masking and as an independent risk factor, and reviewing supplemental screening options as part of a larger framework for counseling patients with dense breasts. PMID:24684876

  7. Mammographic breast density: effect on imaging and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Renee W; Helvie, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Mammographic breast density has been studied for more than 30 years. Greater breast density not only is related to decreased sensitivity of mammograms because of a masking effect but also is a major independent risk factor for breast cancer. This article defines breast density and reviews literature on quantification of mammographic density that is key to future clinical and research protocols. Important influences on breast density are addressed, including age, menopausal status, exogenous hormones, and genetics of density. Young women with dense breasts benefit from digital mammographic technique. The potential use of supplemental MRI and ultrasound screening techniques in high-risk women and women with dense breasts is explored, as are potential risk reduction strategies. PMID:20971840

  8. Breast Density Analysis Using an Automatic Density Segmentation Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Arnau; Tortajada, Meritxell; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Ganau, Sergi; Tortajada, Lidia; Vilagran, Mariona; Sentís, Melcior; Martí, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper, we present an automated approach for breast density segmentation in mammographic images based on a supervised pixel-based classification and using textural and morphological features. The objective of the paper is not only to show the feasibility of an automatic algorithm for breast density segmentation but also to prove its potential application to the study of breast density evolution in longitudinal studies. The database used here contains three complete screening examinations, acquired 2 years apart, of 130 different patients. The approach was validated by comparing manual expert annotations with automatically obtained estimations. Transversal analysis of the breast density analysis of craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views of both breasts acquired in the same study showed a correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.96 between the mammographic density percentage for left and right breasts, whereas a comparison of both mammographic views showed a correlation of ρ = 0.95. A longitudinal study of breast density confirmed the trend that dense tissue percentage decreases over time, although we noticed that the decrease in the ratio depends on the initial amount of breast density. PMID:25720749

  9. Breast density: clinical implications and assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Nicole S; Raza, Sughra; Mackesy, Meaghan; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    Breast density assessment is an important component of the screening mammography report and conveys information to referring clinicians about mammographic sensitivity and the relative risk for developing breast cancer. These topics have gained substantial attention because of recent legislation in several states that requires patients to be informed of dense breast tissue and the potential for associated breast cancer risk and decreased mammographic sensitivity. Because of the considerable implications of diagnosing a woman with dense breast tissue, radiologists should strive to be as consistent as possible when assessing breast density. Commonly used methods of breast density assessment range from subjective visual estimation to quantitative calculations of area and volume density percentages made with complex computer algorithms. The basic principles of currently available commercial methods of calculating fibroglandular density are described and illustrated. There is no criterion standard for determining breast density, but understanding the pros and cons of the various assessment methods will allow radiologists to make informed decisions. Radiologists should understand the basic factors involved in breast density assessment, the changes related to density assessment described in the fifth edition of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon, and the capabilities of currently available software. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25763719

  10. Breast density characterization using texton distributions.

    PubMed

    Petroudi, Styliani; Brady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Breast density has been shown to be one of the most significant risks for developing breast cancer, with women with dense breasts at four to six times higher risk. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) has a four class classification scheme that describes the different breast densities. However, there is great inter and intra observer variability among clinicians in reporting a mammogram's density class. This work presents a novel texture classification method and its application for the development of a completely automated breast density classification system. The new method represents the mammogram using textons, which can be thought of as the building blocks of texture under the operational definition of Leung and Malik as clustered filter responses. The new proposed method characterizes the mammographic appearance of the different density patterns by evaluating the texton spatial dependence matrix (TDSM) in the breast region's corresponding texton map. The TSDM is a texture model that captures both statistical and structural texture characteristics. The normalized TSDM matrices are evaluated for mammograms from the different density classes and corresponding texture models are established. Classification is achieved using a chi-square distance measure. The fully automated TSDM breast density classification method is quantitatively evaluated on mammograms from all density classes from the Oxford Mammogram Database. The incorporation of texton spatial dependencies allows for classification accuracy reaching over 82%. The breast density classification accuracy is better using texton TSDM compared to simple texton histograms. PMID:22255462

  11. Transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS): a biomarker of breast tissue density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Kristina M.; Knight, Julia A.; Jong, Roberta; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-08-01

    A primary goal of preventive oncology is the identification of women at increased risk for breast cancer who would benefit most from risk reducing interventions. An established physical risk assessment technique is the use of mammography to quantify the dense tissue content of the breast. Women with a majority of the breast occupied by dense tissue are at four to six times greater risk of breast cancer than women with the least density. The main drawback of mammography is that it requires exposure to ionising radiation and there are concerns regarding use in young women. Another potential physical risk assessment is Transillumination Breast Spectroscopy (TIBS). TIBS uses non-ionizing optical radiation to measure bulk tissue properties and thus is applicable to women of any age. This study examines the feasibility of using TIBS in vivo to detect mammographic density as an interim indicator of breast cancer risk. TIBS measurements were completed on 300 women with radiological normal mammograms. White light (625 to 1060 nm) was delivered to the breast tissue and transmitted light was detected on the opposite side of the breast. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the spectral data and generate individual 'risk' scores. Agreement between the obtained 'risk' scores and mammographic density was established using density cluster analysis, the Kappa statistic and logistic regression. The agreement between breast density assessed by mammography and by TIBS was statistically significant for all 'risk' scores. Logistic regression indicated a strong association between the TIBS scores and mammographic density. TIBS provides an alternative to x-ray derived mammographic density as a biomarker of breast density and hence cancer risk.

  12. Mammographic Breast Density and Breast Cancer Risk: Implications of the Breast Density Legislation for Health Care Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Green, Victoria L

    2016-06-01

    Breast density has emerged as a critical phenotypic marker of increased breast cancer risk. The breast density legislation, passed in multiple states, requires patient notification of the implications of the breast density on breast cancer risk and screening. Supplemental screening may be suggested in the state regulation; however, there are limited data to guide conversations with patients. This article will review the current state of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts and discuss theories of the mechanism of action. Guidance is provided to assist in shared decision making and appropriate patient counseling. PMID:26992182

  13. Automatic breast density classification using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefan, D.; Talebpour, A.; Ahmadinejhad, N.; Kamali Asl, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to studies, the risk of breast cancer directly associated with breast density. Many researches are done on automatic diagnosis of breast density using mammography. In the current study, artifacts of mammograms are removed by using image processing techniques and by using the method presented in this study, including the diagnosis of points of the pectoral muscle edges and estimating them using regression techniques, pectoral muscle is detected with high accuracy in mammography and breast tissue is fully automatically extracted. In order to classify mammography images into three categories: Fatty, Glandular, Dense, a feature based on difference of gray-levels of hard tissue and soft tissue in mammograms has been used addition to the statistical features and a neural network classifier with a hidden layer. Image database used in this research is the mini-MIAS database and the maximum accuracy of system in classifying images has been reported 97.66% with 8 hidden layers in neural network.

  14. The California breast density information group: a collaborative response to the issues of breast density, breast cancer risk, and breast density notification legislation.

    PubMed

    Price, Elissa R; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Lipson, Jafi A; Sickles, Edward A; Brenner, R James; Lindfors, Karen K; Joe, Bonnie N; Leung, Jessica W T; Feig, Stephen A; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Daniel, Bruce L; Kurian, Allison W; Love, Elyse; Ryan, Lauren; Walgenbach, Donna D; Ikeda, Debra M

    2013-12-01

    In anticipation of breast density notification legislation in the state of California, which would require notification of women with heterogeneously and extremely dense breast tissue, a working group of breast imagers and breast cancer risk specialists was formed to provide a common response framework. The California Breast Density Information Group identified key elements and implications of the law, researching scientific evidence needed to develop a robust response. In particular, issues of risk associated with dense breast tissue, masking of cancers by dense tissue on mammograms, and the efficacy, benefits, and harms of supplementary screening tests were studied and consensus reached. National guidelines and peer-reviewed published literature were used to recommend that women with dense breast tissue at screening mammography follow supplemental screening guidelines based on breast cancer risk assessment. The goal of developing educational materials for referring clinicians and patients was reached with the construction of an easily accessible Web site that contains information about breast density, breast cancer risk assessment, and supplementary imaging. This multi-institutional, multidisciplinary approach may be useful for organizations to frame responses as similar legislation is passed across the United States. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24023072

  15. Soy isoflavone supplementation and breast density in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer. Breast density, a marker for breast cancer risk, increases as a result of hormone replacement therapy. We examined the relation between isoflavone supplementation and breast density using the mammograms from 358 women who participated in the multi-s...

  16. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  17. The Problem of Mammographic Breast Density - The Position of the DEGUM Working Group on Breast Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M P; Brandenbusch, V C; Degenhardt, F; Duda, V; Madjar, H; Mundinger, A; Rathmann, R; Hahn, M

    2016-04-01

    Mammographic breast density correlates with breast cancer risk and also with the number of false-negative calls. In the USA these facts lead to the "Breast Density and Mammography Reporting Act" of 2011. In the case of mammographically dense breasts, the Working Group on Breast Ultrasound in Germany recommends explaining the advantages of adjunct imaging to women, depending on the individual breast cancer risk. Due to the particular structure of German healthcare, quality-assured breast ultrasound would be the first choice. Possible overdiagnosis, costs, potentially increased emotional stress should be addressed. In high familial breast cancer risk, genetic counselling and an intensified early detection program should be performed. PMID:26882482

  18. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Gulsen, Gultekin; Su, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature. PMID:26692524

  19. Exercise Doesn't Seem to Affect Breast Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... denser breasts. But, when they adjusted for other potential risk factors, the association was no longer significant, Azam said. The researchers also didn't find any big differences in breast density from walking or gardening, Azam ...

  20. Mammographic breast density: impact on breast cancer risk and implications for screening.

    PubMed

    Freer, Phoebe E

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is rapidly becoming a hot topic in both the medical literature and the lay press. In the United States, recent legislative changes in 19 states now require radiologists to notify patients regarding breast density as well as the possible need for supplemental screening. Federal legislation regarding breast density notification has been introduced, and its passage is likely on the horizon. An understanding of the context, scientific evidence, and controversies surrounding the topic of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer is critical for radiologists. The current state of evidence is presented regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, including the use of digital breast tomosynthesis, whole-breast ultrasonography, and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. A review of current practice guidelines and additional sources of information will improve radiologists' understanding of the relevant subject of breast density and enable them to respond appropriately to questions from patients, clinicians, and the media. PMID:25763718

  1. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, Sabee Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  2. Relationship between breast sound speed and mammographic percent density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Nebojsa; Boyd, Norman; Littrup, Peter; Myc, Lukasz; Faiz, Muhammad; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Despite some shortcomings, mammography is currently the standard of care for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. However, breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to overcome the drawbacks of mammography. It is known that women with high breast densities have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Measuring breast density is accomplished through the use of mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular to total breast area. Using an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype, we created sound speed images of the patient's breast, motivated by the fact that sound speed in a tissue is proportional to the density of the tissue. The purpose of this work is to compare the acoustic performance of the UST system with the measurement of mammographic percent density. A cohort of 251 patients was studied using both imaging modalities and the results suggest that the volume averaged breast sound speed is significantly related to mammographic percent density. The Spearman correlation coefficient was found to be 0.73 for the 175 film mammograms and 0.69 for the 76 digital mammograms obtained. Since sound speed measurements do not require ionizing radiation or physical compression, they have the potential to form the basis of a safe, more accurate surrogate marker of breast density.

  3. Evaluation of breast parenchymal density with QUANTRA software

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Shivani; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Angraal, Suveen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate breast parenchymal density using QUANTRA software and to correlate numerical breast density values obtained from QUANTRA with ACR BI-RADS breast density categories. Materials and Methods: Two-view digital mammograms of 545 consecutive women (mean age - 47.7 years) were categorized visually by three independent radiologists into one of the four ACR BI-RADS categories (D1-D4). Numerical breast density values as obtained by QUANTRA software were then used to establish the cutoff values for each category using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Numerical breast density values obtained by QUANTRA (range - 7-42%) were systematically lower than visual estimates. QUANTRA breast density value of less than 14.5% could accurately differentiate category D1 from the categories D2, D3, and D4 [area under curve (AUC) on ROC analysis - 94.09%, sensitivity - 85.71%, specificity - 84.21%]. QUANTRA density values of <19.5% accurately differentiated categories D1 and D2 from D3 and D4 (AUC - 94.4%, sensitivity - 87.50%, specificity - 84.60%); QUANTRA density values of <26.5% accurately differentiated categories D1, D2, and D3 from category D4 (AUC - 90.75%, sensitivity - 88.89%, specificity - 88.621%). Conclusions: Breast density values obtained by QUANTRA software can be used to obtain objective cutoff values for each ACR BI-RADS breast density category. Although the numerical density values obtained by QUANTRA are lower than visual estimates, they correlate well with the BI-RADS breast density categories assigned visually to the mammograms. PMID:26752820

  4. Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis—a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    McEntee, M F

    2014-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has gained acceptance as an adjunct to digital mammography in screening. Now that breast density reporting is mandated in several states in the USA, it is increasingly important that the methods of breast density measurement be robust, reliable and consistent. Breast density assessment with DBT needs some consideration since quantitative methods are modelled for two-dimensional (2D) mammography. A review of methods used for breast density assessment with DBT was performed. Existing evidence shows Cumulus has better reproducibility than that of the breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS®) but still suffers from subjective variability; MedDensity is limited by image noise, whilst Volpara and Quantra are robust and consistent. The reported BI-RADs inter-reader breast density agreement (k) ranged from 0.65 to 0.91, with inter-reader correlation (r) ranging from 0.70 to 0.93. The correlation (r) between BI-RADS and Cumulus ranged from 0.54–0.94, whilst that of BI-RADs and MedDensity ranged from 0.48–0.78. The reported agreement (k) between BI-RADs and Volpara is 0.953. Breast density correlation between DBT and 2D mammography ranged from 0.73 to 0.97, with agreement (k) ranging from 0.56 to 0.96. To avoid variability and provide more reliable breast density information for clinicians, automated volumetric methods are preferred. PMID:25146640

  5. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Klifa, Catherine; Deshmukh, Snehal; Egleston, Brian L.; Shepherd, John A.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan M.; Lasser, Norman L.; Hylton, Nola M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Breast density is strongly related to breast cancer risk, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of reproductive and menstrual characteristics with breast density measured by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 176 healthy women, 25–29 years old, using linear mixed effects models. Results Parity was significantly inversely associated with breast density. In multivariable adjusted models that included non-reproductive variables, mean percent dense breast volume (%DBV) decreased from 20.5 % in nulliparous women to 16.0 % in parous women, while mean absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) decreased from 85.3 to 62.5 cm3. Breast density also was significantly inversely associated with the age women started using hormonal contraceptives, whereas it was significantly positively associated with duration of hormonal contraceptive use. In adjusted models, mean %DBV decreased from 21.7 % in women who started using hormones at 12–17 years of age to 14.7 % in those who started using hormones at 22–28 years of age, while mean ADBV decreased from 86.2 to 53.7 cm3. The age at which women started using hormonal contraceptives and duration of hormone use were inversely correlated, and mean %DBV increased from 15.8 % in women who used hormones for not more than 2.0 years to 22.0 % in women who used hormones for more than 8 years, while mean ADBV increased from 61.9 to 90.4 cm3 over this interval. Conclusions Breast density in young women is inversely associated with parity and the age women started using hormonal contraceptives but positively associated with duration of hormone use. PMID:23933948

  6. Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Shepherd, John A.; Van Horn, Linda; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Paris, Kenneth; Klifa, Catherine; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and reflects epithelial and stromal content. Breast tissue is particularly sensitive to hormonal stimuli before it fully differentiates following the first full-term pregnancy. Few studies have examined associations between sex hormones and breast density among young women. Methods We conducted cross-sectional study among 180 women aged 25-29 years old who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children 2006 Follow-up Study. Eighty-five percent of participants attended a clinic visit during their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging measured the percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV), absolute dense breast volume (ADBV), and absolute nondense breast volume (ANDBV). Multiple-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with %DBV, ADBV, and ANDBV. Results Testosterone was significantly positively associated with %DBV and ADBV. The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV and ADBV across testosterone quartiles increased from 16.5% to 20.3% and from 68.6cm3 to 82.3cm3, respectively (Ptrend ≤ 0.03). There was no association of %DBV or ADBV with estrogens, progesterone, non-SHBG bound testosterone or SHBG (Ptrend ≥ 0.27). Neither sex hormones nor SHBG was associated with ANDBV except progesterone; however, the progesterone result was nonsignificant in analysis restricted to women in the luteal phase. Conclusions These findings suggest a modest positive association between testosterone and breast density in young women. Impact Hormonal influences at critical periods may contribute to morphological differences in the breast associated with breast cancer risk later in life. PMID:25371447

  7. Characterization of breast density in women from Lima, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Fanny L.; Manrique, Susan; Guerrero, Jorge; Pinto, Joseph; Ferrer, Jose; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Data from GLOBOCAN show that around 4,000 Peruvian women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. From these new cases, the clinical presentation of 36% corresponded to advanced stages (III and IV). Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen current screening and early detection strategies. The American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density classification is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool in mammography to standardize and facilitate report to non-radiologists. In our sample of Peruvian women, we found that 45.3% of women have a breast density classified as ACR II, 32.3% as ACR I, 19.7% as ACR III and only 2.7% as ACR IV. Also, premenopausal women are more likely to have breast density types ACR III and IV than postmenopausal women. These results show certain similarity to other populations showing that most breast densities are classified as ACR I and II, but shows a unique distribution when taking into account all four ACR types. Our results are consistent with epidemiological evidence suggesting that the Peruvian population may have a different stratification of risk based on its particular genetic and/or ethnic background. The present work will aid to develop novel strategies for screening and early detection of breast malignancies.

  8. Breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast density (United States)

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Kasales, Claudia; Weiss, Julia; Goodrich, Martha; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Carney, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate known breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast density. Methods We examined factors in relation to breast density in 144,018 New Hampshire (NH) women with at least one mammogram recorded in a statewide mammography registry. Mammographic breast density was measured by radiologists using the BI-RADS classification; risk factors of interest were obtained from patient intake forms and questionnaires. Results Initial analyses showed a strong inverse influence of age and body mass index (BMI) on breast density. In addition, women with late age at menarche, late age at first birth, premenopausal women, and those currently using hormone therapy (HT) tended to have higher breast density, while those with greater parity tended to have less dense breasts. Analyses stratified on age and BMI suggested interactions, which were formally assessed in a multivariable model. The impact of current HT use, relative to nonuse, differed across age groups, with an inverse association in younger women, and a positive association in older women (p < 0.0001 for the interaction). The positive effects of age at menarche and age at first birth, and the inverse influence of parity were less apparent in women with low BMI than in those with high BMI (p = 0.04, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively, for the interactions). We also noted stronger positive effects for age at first birth in postmenopausal women (p = 0.004 for the interaction). The multivariable model indicated a slight positive influence of family history of breast cancer. Conclusions The influence of age at menarche and reproductive factors on breast density is less evident in women with high BMI. Density is reduced in young women using HT, but increased in HT users of age 50 or more. PMID:17111260

  9. Misclassification of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Mammographic Density and Implications for Breast Density Reporting Legislation.

    PubMed

    Gard, Charlotte C; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Miglioretti, Diana L; Taplin, Stephen H; Rutter, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    USA states have begun legislating mammographic breast density reporting to women, requiring that women undergoing screening mammography who have dense breast tissue (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] density c or d) receive written notification of their breast density; however, the impact that misclassification of breast density will have on this reporting remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess reproducibility of the four-category BI-RADS density measure and examine its relationship with a continuous measure of percent density. We enrolled 19 radiologists, experienced in breast imaging, from a single integrated health care system. Radiologists interpreted 341 screening mammograms at two points in time 6 months apart. We assessed intra- and interobserver agreement in radiologists'; interpretations of BI-RADS density and explored whether agreement depended upon radiologist characteristics. We examined the relationship between BI-RADS density and percent density in a subset of 282 examinations. Intraradiologist agreement was moderate to substantial, with kappa varying across radiologists from 0.50 to 0.81 (mean = 0.69, 95% CI [0.63, 0.73]). Intraradiologist agreement was higher for radiologists with ≥10 years experience interpreting mammograms (difference in mean kappa = 0.10, 95% CI [0.01, 0.24]). Interradiologist agreement varied widely across radiologist pairs from slight to substantial, with kappa ranging from 0.02 to 0.72 (mean = 0.46, 95% CI [0.36, 0.55]). Of 145 examinations interpreted as "nondense" (BI-RADS density a or b) by the majority of radiologists, 82.8% were interpreted as "dense" (BI-RADS density c or d) by at least one radiologist. Of 187 examinations interpreted as "dense" by the majority of radiologists, 47.1% were interpreted as "nondense" by at least one radiologist. While the examinations of almost half of the women in our study were interpreted clinically as having BI-RADS density c or d, only about 10% of

  10. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  11. Simulation of optical breast density measurements using structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2014-02-01

    Breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and we propose using diffuse optical tomography with structured light illuminations (SLI) to quantify the percentage of the fibroglandular (dense) tissue within the breast. Segmentations of dense tissue from breast MRI cases were used to create a geometric model of the breast. COMSOL-generated Finite Element Method (FEM) meshes were used for simulating photon migration through the breast tissue and reconstructing the absorption maps. In these preliminary simulations, the absorption coefficients of the non-dense and dense tissue were assigned using literature values based on their concentrations of water, lipid, oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin as they are the main chromophores, or absorbers of light, within the breast. Synthetic SLI measurements were obtained using a FEMbased forward solver. During the simulation, 12 distinct patterns consisting of vertical stripes, horizontal stripes, and checkerboard patterns were used for illumination and detection. Using these simulated measurements, FEM-based inverse solvers were used to reconstruct the 3D absorption maps. In this study, the methods are applied to reconstruct the absorption maps for multiple wavelengths (780nm, 830nm, 900nm, 1000nm) using one case as an example. We are currently continuing these simulations with additional cases and reconstructing 3D concentration maps of the chromophores within the dense and non-dense breast tissue.

  12. Local mammographic density as a predictor of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Mayu; Harkness, Elaine F.; Chen, Xin; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Bydder, Megan; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit Y.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Evans, Gareth D.; Howell, Anthony; Stavrinos, Paula; Wilson, Mary; Astley, Susan M.

    2015-03-01

    High overall mammographic density is associated with both an increased risk of developing breast cancer and the risk of cancer being masked. We compared local density at cancer sites in diagnostic images with corresponding previous screening mammograms (priors), and matched controls. VolparaTM density maps were obtained for 54 mammograms showing unilateral breast cancer and their priors which had been previously read as normal. These were each matched to 3 controls on age, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy usage, body mass index and year of prior. Local percent density was computed in 15mm square regions at lesion sites and similar locations in the corresponding images. Conditional logistic regression was used to predict case-control status. In diagnostic and prior images, local density was increased at the lesion site compared with the opposite breast (medians 21.58%, 9.18%, p<0.001 diagnostic; 18.82%, 9.45%, p <0.001 prior). Women in the highest tertile of local density in priors were more likely to develop cancer than those in the lowest tertile (OR 42.09, 95% CI 5.37-329.94). Those in the highest tertile of VolparaTM gland volume were also more likely to develop cancer (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.30-6.42). Local density is increased where cancer will develop compared with corresponding regions in the opposite breast and matched controls, and its measurement could enhance computer-aided mammography.

  13. Volumetric breast density evaluation from ultrasound tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2008-09-15

    Previous ultrasound tomography work conducted by our group showed a direct correlation between measured sound speed and physical density in vitro, and increased in vivo sound speed with increasing mammographic density, a known risk factor for breast cancer. Building on these empirical results, the purpose of this work was to explore a metric to quantify breast density using our ultrasound tomography sound speed images in a manner analogous to computer-assisted mammogram segmentation for breast density analysis. Therefore, volumetric ultrasound percent density (USPD) is determined by segmenting high sound speed areas from each tomogram using a k-means clustering routine, integrating these results over the entire volume of the breast, and dividing by whole-breast volume. First, a breast phantom comprised of fat inclusions embedded in fibroglandular tissue was scanned four times with both our ultrasound tomography clinical prototype (with 4 mm spatial resolution) and CT. The coronal transmission tomograms and CT images were analyzed using semiautomatic segmentation routines, and the integrated areas of the phantom's fat inclusions were compared between the four repeated scans. The average variability for inclusion segmentation was {approx}7% and {approx}2%, respectively, and a close correlation was observed in the integrated areas between the two modalities. Next, a cohort of 93 patients was imaged, yielding volumetric coverage of the breast (45-75 sound speed tomograms/patient). The association of USPD with mammographic percent density (MPD) was evaluated using two measures: (1) qualitative, as determined by a radiologist's visual assessment using BI-RADS Criteria and (2) quantitative, via digitization and semiautomatic segmentation of craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms. A strong positive association between BI-RADS category and USPD was demonstrated [Spearman {rho}=0.69 (p<0.001)], with significant differences between all BI-RADS categories as assessed

  14. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  15. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. PMID:26831342

  16. Impact of Breast Density Notification Legislation on Radiologists' Practices of Reporting Breast Density: A Multi-State Study.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Manisha; Baker, Jay A; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Brandt, Eugenia K; Ghate, Sujata V

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of breast density notification legislation on breast density reporting by radiologists nationally. Materials and Methods The institutional review board exempted this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study from the requirement for informed consent. State-level data over a 5-year period on breast density categorization and breast cancer detection rate were collected from the National Mammography Database (NMD). Z tests were used to calculate differences in proportions. Results Facilities in 13 of 17 states that had breast density notification legislation as of 2014 submitted data to the NMD before and after law enactment. A total of 1 333 541 mammographic studies (hereafter called "mammograms") over a 30-month period, beginning 20 months before and continuing 10 months after law enactment, were included in the analysis. There was a small but statistically significant decrease in the percentage of mammograms reported as showing dense breast tissue (hereafter called "dense mammograms") in the month before law enactment compared with the month after (43.0% [22 338 of 52 000] vs 40.0% [18 604 of 46 464], P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of mammograms reported as dense in the month before law enactment compared with the 10th month after (43.0% [22 338 of 52 000] vs 42.8% [15 835 of 36 991], P = .65). There were no significant differences in the breast cancer detection rate between the month before and the month after law enactment (3.9 vs 3.8 cancers per 1000 mammograms, P = .79) or between the month before law enactment and the 10th month after (3.9 vs 4.2 cancers per 1000 mammograms, P = .55). In 21 analyzed states without breast density notification legislation, the percentage of mammograms reported as dense did not decrease below 42.8% (43 363 of 101 394) from 2010 to 2014, in contrast to 13 analyzed states with breast density notification legislation, which reached a nadir of 39.3% (20 965 of

  17. Estimation of Volumetric Breast Density from Digital Mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo-Proulx, Olivier

    Mammographic breast density (MBD) is a strong risk factor for developing breast cancer. MBD is typically estimated by manually selecting the area occupied by the dense tissue on a mammogram. There is interest in measuring the volume of dense tissue, or volumetric breast density (VBD), as it could potentially be a stronger risk factor. This dissertation presents and validates an algorithm to measure the VBD from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on an empirical calibration of the mammography system, supplemented by physical modeling of x-ray imaging that includes the effects of beam polychromaticity, scattered radation, anti-scatter grid and detector glare. It also includes a method to estimate the compressed breast thickness as a function of the compression force, and a method to estimate the thickness of the breast outside of the compressed region. The algorithm was tested on 26 simulated mammograms obtained from computed tomography images, themselves deformed to mimic the effects of compression. This allowed the determination of the baseline accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm was also used on 55 087 clinical digital mammograms, which allowed for the determination of the general characteristics of VBD and breast volume, as well as their variation as a function of age and time. The algorithm was also validated against a set of 80 magnetic resonance images, and compared against the area method on 2688 images. A preliminary study comparing association of breast cancer risk with VBD and MBD was also performed, indicating that VBD is a stronger risk factor. The algorithm was found to be accurate, generating quantitative density measurements rapidly and automatically. It can be extended to any digital mammography system, provided that the compression thickness of the breast can be determined accurately.

  18. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  19. Quantitative volumetric breast density estimation using phase contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Hauser, Nik; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Phase contrast mammography using a grating interferometer is an emerging technology for breast imaging. It provides complementary information to the conventional absorption-based methods. Additional diagnostic values could be further obtained by retrieving quantitative information from the three physical signals (absorption, differential phase and small-angle scattering) yielded simultaneously. We report a non-parametric quantitative volumetric breast density estimation method by exploiting the ratio (dubbed the R value) of the absorption signal to the small-angle scattering signal. The R value is used to determine breast composition and the volumetric breast density (VBD) of the whole breast is obtained analytically by deducing the relationship between the R value and the pixel-wise breast density. The proposed method is tested by a phantom study and a group of 27 mastectomy samples. In the clinical evaluation, the estimated VBD values from both cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) views are compared with the ACR scores given by radiologists to the pre-surgical mammograms. The results show that the estimated VBD results using the proposed method are consistent with the pre-surgical ACR scores, indicating the effectiveness of this method in breast density estimation. A positive correlation is found between the estimated VBD and the diagnostic ACR score for both the CC view (p=0.033 ) and AP view (p=0.001 ). A linear regression between the results of the CC view and AP view showed a correlation coefficient γ = 0.77, which indicates the robustness of the proposed method and the quantitative character of the additional information obtained with our approach.

  20. Reproductive factors related to childbearing and mammographic breast density.

    PubMed

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the associations of reproductive factors related to childbearing with percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas, by menopausal status. This study included 4110 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas were measured from digitized mammography film images with computerized techniques. All density measures were square root-transformed in all the analyses to improve normality. The data on reproductive variables and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires, at the time of the mammogram date. As compared to nulliparous women, parous postmenopausal women had lower percent density (β = -0.60, 95 % CI -0.84; -0.37), smaller absolute dense area (β = -0.66, 95 % CI -1.03; -0.29), and greater nondense area (β = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.27; 1.16). Among parous women, number of children was inversely associated with percent density in pre- (β per one child = -0.12, 95 % CI -0.20; -0.05) and postmenopausal women (β per one child = -0.07, 95 % CI -0.12; -0.02). The positive associations of breastfeeding with absolute dense and nondense areas were limited to premenopausal women, while the positive association of the age at first child's birth with percent density and the inverse association with nondense area were limited to postmenopausal women. Women with greater number of children and younger age at first child's birth have more favorable breast density patterns that could explain subsequent breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:27351801

  1. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  2. Using Clinical Factors and Mammographic Breast Density to Estimate Breast Cancer Risk: Development and Validation of a New Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    Tice, Jeffrey A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Ichikawa, Laura; Barlow, William E.; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Background Current models for assessing breast cancer risk are complex and do not include breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is routinely reported with mammography. Objective To develop and validate an easy-to-use breast cancer risk prediction model that includes breast density. Design Empirical model based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence, and relative hazards from a prospective cohort. Setting Screening mammography sites participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Patients 1 095 484 women undergoing mammography who had no previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Measurements Self-reported age, race or ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast biopsy. Community radiologists rated breast density by using 4 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. Results During 5.3 years of follow-up, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 14 766 women. The breast density model was well calibrated overall (expected–observed ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.06]) and in racial and ethnic subgroups. It had modest discriminatory accuracy (concordance index, 0.66 [CI, 0.65 to 0.67]). Women with low-density mammograms had 5-year risks less than 1.67% unless they had a family history of breast cancer and were older than age 65 years. Limitation The model has only modest ability to discriminate between women who will develop breast cancer and those who will not. Conclusion A breast cancer prediction model that incorporates routinely reported measures of breast density can estimate 5-year risk for invasive breast cancer. Its accuracy needs to be further evaluated in independent populations before it can be recommended for clinical use. PMID:18316752

  3. Bone mineral density and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Debjani; Cooke, Andrew L; Lix, Lisa; Metge, Colleen; Lu, Huimin; Leslie, William D

    2011-04-01

    To determine if higher bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for breast cancer in women age 50 years and older. 37,860 women ≥ 50-year old with no previous breast cancer diagnosis had baseline BMD assessment between January 1999 and December 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were created for time to a new breast cancer as a function of lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD quartile (1st = lowest as reference) with adjustment for relevant covariates. A secondary analysis was performed to look for an association with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers. 794 invasive and in situ breast cancers (484 ER-positive) occurred with a median follow up of 5.4 years. Increased breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd and 4th quartiles of lumbar spine BMD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.81), respectively and for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.64). A test for linear trend showed that lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.001) and femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04) were associated with increased risk. Higher lumbar spine BMD was also associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer with HR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08-1.94), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.24-2.27) for women in the 2nd and 4th quartiles, respectively. A test for linear trend showed lumbar spine BMD was associated with increasing risk of ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.003). Increased ER-positive breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.89). Higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women ≥50-year old. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:20838879

  4. Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity?

    PubMed Central

    Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H; Edelstein, S L; Tucker, J; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to determine whether breast-feeding is associated with increased longevity or cause-specific survival. METHODS. Teachers throughout California identified intellectually gifted children as part of a prospective study begun in the 1920s by Lewis Terman. Information on breast-feeding was available on 1170 subjects, who have been followed for more than 65 years. RESULTS. Survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model) indicated that breast-feeding was associated with increased longevity, even after adjustment for age at baseline, birthweight, infant health, and childhood socioeconomic status, but only among men, and the association was not significant (P = .15). Neither cardiovascular disease nor cancer survival was significantly associated with duration of breast-feeding for either sex. Survival from deaths due to injuries was positively associated with breast-feeding after adjustment (P = .03) and demonstrated a clear gradient with duration, but only among men. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, the present study does not provide strong evidence that breast-feeding is associated with adult longevity. The reduced risk of death from injury may reflect chance, in that the association was significant only for men, or it may reflect psychosocial correlates of breast-feeding practices. PMID:8092371

  5. Dietary Energy Density is Positively Associated with Breast Density among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Klifa, Catherine J.; Coffman, Donna L.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Snetselaar, Linda; Horn, Linda Van; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Himes, John; Shepherd, John; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is an established predictor of breast cancer risk, and there is considerable interest in associations of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, with breast density. Objective To determine if dietary energy density (ED) is associated with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in young women. Design A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study (DISC06). %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diet was assessed by three 24-hour recalls. Dietary ED (kcal/g) was calculated using three methods: (1) food only, (2) food and caloric beverages, and (3) food and all beverages. Participants/setting 172 women (25–29 years) who were enrolled in the DISC06 study. Subjects who reported breast augmentation or reduction surgery or were pregnant or lactating within three months before breast density assessment were excluded. Main outcome measures ADBV and %DBV. Statistical analyses performed Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used. Final models were adjusted for race, smoking status, education, parity, duration of sex hormone use, whole body percent fat, childhood BMI z-score, and energy from beverages. Results After adjustment, each 1 kcal/g unit increase in food-only ED was associated with a 25.9% (95% confidence interval = 6.2 to 56.8%) increase in %DBV (p=0.01). Childhood BMI z-score modified the association between food-only ED and %DBV such that a significant positive association was observed only in women who were heavier as children. Food-only ED was not associated with ADBV in all women, but a borderline significant positive association was observed in women who had higher childhood BMI z-scores. Conclusions This is the first report to suggest a potential role for dietary ED in breast density; the effects of long-term exposure to high ED diets on breast cancer risk remain unknown. PMID

  6. Can mammographic assessments lead to consider density as a risk factor for breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Colin, C; Prince, V; Valette, P J

    2013-03-01

    Admitting that mammographic breast density is an important independent risk factor for breast cancer in the general population, has a crucial economical health care impact, since it might lead to increasing screening frequency or reinforcing additional modalities. Thus, the impact of density as a risk factor has to be carefully investigated and might be debated. Some authors suggested that high density would be either a weak factor or confused with a masking effect. Others concluded that most of the studies have methodological biases in basic physics to quantify percentage of breast density, as well as in mammographic acquisition parameters. The purpose of this review is to evaluate mammographic procedures and density assessments in published studies regarding density as a breast cancer risk. No standardization was found in breast density assessments and compared density categories. High density definitions varied widely from 25 to 75% of dense tissues on mammograms. Some studies showed an insufficient follow-up to reveal masking effect related to mammographic false negatives. Evaluating breast density impact needs thorough studies with consensual mammographic procedures, methods of density measurement, breast density classification as well as a standardized definition of high breast density. Digital mammography, more effective in dense breasts, should help to re-evaluate the issue of density as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:20133095

  7. Does Mammographic Density Distribution Correlate with Location of Breast Cancer Tumors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Clare; Mitchell, James

    2013-03-01

    The risk of breast cancer is higher in women with denser, stiffer breasts. In mammograms, one measure of breast density is mammographic density. Mammograms involve x-rays, and radiodense material is characterized by white areas on a mammogram. The more white areas there are, the higher the mammographic density and the higher the risk of breast cancer. It is also known that most breast tumors occur in the upper half of the breast. Actually, about half of breast tumors occur in the upper outer quadrant of the breast near the armpit. We have analyzed mammograms and find that the mammographic density (white stuff) is higher in the upper half of the breast where there is more tissue. This work is supported by the National Cancer Institute through the Princeton Physical Sciences Oncology Center.

  8. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  9. First pregnancy characteristics, postmenopausal breast density, and salivary sex hormone levels in a population at high risk for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mockus, Mary; Prebil, LeeAnn; Ereman, Rochelle; Dollbaum, Charles; Powell, Mark; Yau, Christina; Benz, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background It remains unknown if later life breast cancer risk as determined by reproductive history is mediated by postmenopausal breast density and/or sex steroid levels. Methods Increased breast density is a strong surrogate for future breast cancer risk. A cross-sectional study with a longitudinal follow-up for breast health outcomes evaluated women without breast cancer (n = 1023; 682 = parous), drawn from a high risk postmenopausal population, with questionnaire- reported reproductive histories. The questionnaire was linked to prospective screening mammogram breast density measurements, and saliva biospecimens that were used to assess sex steroid hormone levels. Results Expected age- and postmenopause- related declines in salivary estradiol (E), progesterone (P), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T) levels were observed. This was most pronounced for DHEA and T, which were also the only postmenopausal hormone levels significantly associated with any reproductive characteristics: parity and breast feeding for DHEA, and age-at-first birth for T. Postmenopausal breast density was borderline significantly lower with parity and higher body mass index (BMI). After multivariate analysis, T was the only hormone level to retain any association (negative, p < 0.05) with breast density. Conclusions and general significance While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal breast density and E, P and DHEA levels, T levels showed concordant inverse associations with age-at-first birth and breast density. These findings suggest that reproductive effects and later life salivary sex steroid hormone levels may have independent effects on later life breast density and cancer risk. PMID:26317068

  10. RELATIONSHIP OF MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY AND GENE EXPRESSION: ANALYSIS OF NORMAL BREAST TISSUE SURROUNDING BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Williams, Tyisha; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wesolowska, Ewa; Boyd, Norman F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies of breast tissue gene expression have demonstrated that the extratumoral microenvironment has substantial variability across individuals, some of which can be attributed to epidemiologic factors. To evaluate how mammographic density (MD) and breast tissue composition relate to extratumoral microenvironment gene expression, we used data on 121 breast cancer patients from the population-based Polish Women's Breast Cancer Study. Design Breast cancer cases were classified based on a previously reported, biologically-defined extratumoral gene expression signature with two subtypes: an Active subtype, which is associated with high expression of genes related to fibrosis and wound response, and an Inactive subtype, which has high expression of cellular adhesion genes. MD of the contralateral breast was assessed using pre-treatment mammograms and a quantitative, reliable computer-assisted thresholding method. Breast tissue composition was evaluated based on digital image analysis of tissue sections. Results The Inactive extratumoral subtype was associated with significantly higher percentage mammographic density (PD) and dense area (DA) in univariate analysis (PD: p=0.001; DA: p=0.049) and in multivariable analyses adjusted for age and body mass index (PD: p=0.004; DA: p=0.049). Inactive/higher MD tissue was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of stroma and a significantly lower percentage of adipose tissue, with no significant change in epithelial content. Analysis of published gene expression signatures suggested that Inactive/higher MD tissue expressed increased estrogen response and decreased TGF-β signaling. Conclusions By linking novel molecular phenotypes with MD, our results indicate that MD reflects broad transcriptional changes, including changes in both epithelia- and stroma-derived signaling. PMID:23918601

  11. The contributions of breast density and common genetic variation to breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Celine M; Pankratz, V Shane; Scott, Christopher G; Haeberle, Lothar; Ziv, Elad; Jensen, Matthew R; Brandt, Kathleen R; Whaley, Dana H; Olson, Janet E; Heusinger, Katharina; Hack, Carolin C; Jud, Sebastian M; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Tice, Jeffrey A; Norman, Aaron D; Cunningham, Julie M; Purrington, Kristen S; Easton, Douglas F; Sellers, Thomas A; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fasching, Peter A; Couch, Fergus J

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated whether a 76-locus polygenic risk score (PRS) and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density were independent risk factors within three studies (1643 case patients, 2397 control patients) using logistic regression models. We incorporated the PRS odds ratio (OR) into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk-prediction model while accounting for its attributable risk and compared five-year absolute risk predictions between models using area under the curve (AUC) statistics. All statistical tests were two-sided. BI-RADS density and PRS were independent risk factors across all three studies (P interaction = .23). Relative to those with scattered fibroglandular densities and average PRS (2(nd) quartile), women with extreme density and highest quartile PRS had 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.74 to 4.12) increased risk, while those with low density and PRS had reduced risk (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.51). PRS added independent information (P < .001) to the BCSC model and improved discriminatory accuracy from AUC = 0.66 to AUC = 0.69. Although the BCSC-PRS model was well calibrated in case-control data, independent cohort data are needed to test calibration in the general population. PMID:25745020

  12. Breast metastasis in an adult woman with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid sinus

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Raj, Karuna M.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Brahmaroutu, Ashrita; Whitman, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    A new breast mass was identified in an adult woman undergoing treatment for a known ethmoid sinus alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Histopathological evaluation revealed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the breast. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, primarily described in adolescents and especially rare in adults, can uncommonly metastasize to the breast. PMID:27186248

  13. Comparative accuracy of mammography and ultrasound in women with breast symptoms according to age and breast density.

    PubMed

    Devolli-Disha, Emine; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Ymeri, Halit; Kutllovci, Arben

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women.The aim of this studywas to determine which is more accurate imaging test mammography or ultrasound for diagnosis of breast cancer based on the women's age and breast density. We examined 546 patients with breast symptoms, by clinical breast examination, mammography and ultrasound. A total of 546 breast lesions were examined by histopathology analyses. Histopathology results revealed the presence of 259 invasive cancers, and 287 benign lesions. Sensitivity varied significantly with age and breast density. In the 259 women who had both tests, ultrasound had a higher sensitivity than mammography in women younger than 45 years, whereas mammography had a higher sensitivity than ultrasound in women older than 60 years. The sensitivity according to age was 52,1% for mammography and 72,6% for ultrasound. The specificity according to age was 88, 5% for ultrasound and 73, 9% for mammography. Comparing the sensitivity of mammography and ultrasound according to the breast density indicates that mammographic sensitivity was 82,2% among women with predominantly fatty breast, but 23.7% in women with heterogeneous dense breasts, with the increase of fibro glandular density the level of sensitivity with mammography decreases, while ultrasonographic sensitivity was 71,1% among women with predominantly fatty breast and 57,0% for heterogeneous dense breasts. Our data indicate that sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound was statistically significantly greater than mammography in patients with breast symptoms for the detection of breast cancer and benign lesions particularly in dense breast and in young women. PMID:19485945

  14. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  15. Breast Cancer Patients with High Density Mammograms Do Not Have Increased Risk of Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, September 6, 2012 Breast cancer patients with high density mammograms do not have ... is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of ...

  16. Is there an influence of dietary habits on breast density as seen on digital mammograms?

    PubMed

    Voon, Noor Shatirah Mohd Fandi; Chelliah, Kanaga Kumari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary habit on breast density, which is an important risk factor for breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was performed on 64 Malaysian women of all races between the age of 35 to 70 years. All subjects underwent mammography and the breast density was analyzed from the images using BI-RADS by two independent radiologists. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the nutrient intake. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test to evaluate the association of dietary habits to breast density. Based on the results, mutton, pork, vegetables, sweets, snacks, soy bean and eggs intake showed associations with increased breast density (p < 0.05) while grains, meat, beverages, oil and fruits, did not show any association (p > 0.05). As a conclusion, this study showed diet may make changes to the breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:22292635

  17. Volumetric breast density evaluation by ultrasound tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myc, Lukasz; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Ranger, Bryan; Lupinacci, Jessica; Schmidt, Steven; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    Since a 1976 study by Wolfe, high breast density has gained recognition as a factor strongly correlating with an increased incidence of breast cancer. These observations have led to mammographic density being designated a "risk factor" for breast cancer. Clinically, the exclusive reliance on mammography for breast density measurement has forestalled the inclusion of breast density into statistical risk models. This exclusion has in large part been due to the ionizing radiation associated with the method. Additionally, the use of mammography as valid tool for measuring a three dimensional characteristic (breast density) has been criticized for its prima facie incongruity. These shortfalls have prompted MRI studies of breast density as an alternative three-dimensional method of assessing breast density. Although, MRI is safe and can be used to measure volumetric density, its cost has prohibited its use in screening. Here, we report that sound speed measurements using a prototype ultrasound tomography device have potential for use as surrogates for breast density measurement. Accordingly, we report a strong positive linear correlation between volume-averaged sound speed of the breast and percent glandular tissue volume as assessed by MR.

  18. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Density and Mass, and Visualization of Other Breast Anatomical Regions on Mammograms Using Graph Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer mostly arises from the glandular (dense) region of the breast. Consequently, breast density has been found to be a strong indicator for breast cancer risk. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system which can segment or classify dense breast areas. In a dense breast, the sensitivity of mammography for the early detection of breast cancer is reduced. It is difficult to detect a mass in a breast that is dense. Therefore, a computerized method to separate the existence of a mass from the glandular tissues becomes an important task. Moreover, if the segmentation results provide more precise demarcation enabling the visualization of the breast anatomical regions, it could also assist in the detection of architectural distortion or asymmetry. This study attempts to segment the dense areas of the breast and the existence of a mass and to visualize other breast regions (skin-air interface, uncompressed fat, compressed fat, and glandular) in a system. The graph cuts (GC) segmentation technique is proposed. Multiselection of seed labels has been chosen to provide the hard constraint for segmentation of the different parts. The results are promising. A strong correlation (r = 0.93) was observed between the segmented dense breast areas detected and radiological ground truth. PMID:24106523

  19. Breast density mapping based upon system calibration, x-ray techniques, and FFDM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Smith, Andrew P.; Jing, Zhenxue; Wu, Tao

    2007-03-01

    Clinical studies have correlated a high breast density to a women's risk of breast cancer. A breast density measurement that can quantitatively depict the volume distribution and percentage of dense tissues in breasts would be very useful for risk factor assessment of breast cancer, and might be more predictive of risks than the common but subjective and coarse 4-point BIRADS scale. This paper proposes to use a neural-network mapping to compute the breast density information based upon system calibration data, x-ray techniques, and Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. The mapping consists of four modules, namely, system calibration, generator of beam quality, generator of normalized absorption, and a multi-layer feed-forward neural network. As the core of breast density mapping, the network accepts x-ray target/filter combination, normalized x-ray absorption, pixel-wise breast thickness map, and x-ray beam quality during image acquisition as input elements, and exports a pixel-wise breast density distribution and a single breast density percentage for the imaged breast. Training and testing data sets for the design and verification of the network were formulated from calibrated x-ray beam quality, imaging data with a step wedge phantom under a variety x-ray imaging techniques, and nominal breast densities of tissue equivalent materials. The network was trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based back-propagation learning method. Various thickness and glandular density phantom studies were performed with clinical x-ray techniques. Preliminary results showed that the neural network mapping is promising in accurately computing glandular density distribution and breast density percentage.

  20. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  1. Breast density and parenchymal texture measures as potential risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of a woman's risk to develop specific subtypes of breast cancer is critical for appropriate utilization of chemopreventative measures, such as with tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. In this context, we investigate quantitative measures of breast density and parenchymal texture, measures of glandular tissue content and tissue structure, as risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view digital mammograms of the contralateral breast from 106 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast density and parenchymal texture were analyzed via fully-automated software. Logistic regression with feature selection and was performed to predict ER+ versus ER- cancer status. A combined model considering all imaging measures extracted was compared to baseline models consisting of density-alone and texture-alone features. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Delong's test were used to compare the models' discriminatory capacity for receptor status. The density-alone model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.62 AUC (p=0.05). The texture-alone model had a higher discriminatory capacity of 0.70 AUC (p=0.001), which was not significantly different compared to the density-alone model (p=0.37). In contrast the combined density-texture logistic regression model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.82 AUC (p<0.001), which was statistically significantly higher than both the density-alone (p<0.001) and texture-alone regression models (p=0.04). The combination of breast density and texture measures may have the potential to identify women specifically at risk for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer and could be useful in triaging women into appropriate risk-reduction strategies.

  2. Estimation of effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences for volumetric breast density measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue; Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andrew; Kshirsagar, Ashwini

    2014-03-01

    Breast density has been identified to be a risk factor of developing breast cancer and an indicator of lesion diagnostic obstruction due to masking effect. Volumetric density measurement evaluates fibro-glandular volume, breast volume, and breast volume density measures that have potential advantages over area density measurement in risk assessment. One class of volume density computing methods is based on the finding of the relative fibro-glandular tissue attenuation with regards to the reference fat tissue, and the estimation of the effective x-ray tissue attenuation differences between the fibro-glandular and fat tissue is key to volumetric breast density computing. We have modeled the effective attenuation difference as a function of actual x-ray skin entrance spectrum, breast thickness, fibro-glandular tissue thickness distribution, and detector efficiency. Compared to other approaches, our method has threefold advantages: (1) avoids the system calibration-based creation of effective attenuation differences which may introduce tedious calibrations for each imaging system and may not reflect the spectrum change and scatter induced overestimation or underestimation of breast density; (2) obtains the system specific separate and differential attenuation values of fibroglandular and fat for each mammographic image; and (3) further reduces the impact of breast thickness accuracy to volumetric breast density. A quantitative breast volume phantom with a set of equivalent fibro-glandular thicknesses has been used to evaluate the volume breast density measurement with the proposed method. The experimental results have shown that the method has significantly improved the accuracy of estimating breast density.

  3. Using ultrasound tomography to identify the distributions of density throughout the breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Sherman, Mark E.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-04-01

    Women with high breast density are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. Breast density has usually been defined using mammography as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue to total breast area. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging modality that can also be used to measure breast density. UST creates tomographic sound speed images of the patient's breast which is useful as sound speed is directly proportional to tissue density. Furthermore, the volumetric and quantitative information contained in the sound speed images can be used to describe the distribution of breast density. The work presented here measures the UST sound speed density distributions of 165 women with negative screening mammography. Frequency distributions of the sound speed voxel information were examined for each patient. In a preliminary analysis, the UST sound speed distributions were averaged across patients and grouped by various patient and density-related factors (e.g., age, body mass index, menopausal status, average mammographic breast density). It was found that differences in the distribution of density could be easily visualized for different patient groupings. Furthermore, findings suggest that the shape of the distributions may be used to identify participants with varying amounts of dense and non-dense tissue.

  4. Comparison of breast density measurements made using ultrasound tomography and mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Krycia, Mark; Sherman, Mark E.; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2015-03-01

    Women with elevated mammographic percent density, defined as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue area to total breast area on a mammogram are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of a patient's breast, which can then be used to measure breast density. These sound speed images are useful because physical tissue density is directly proportional to sound speed. The work presented here updates previous results that compared mammographic breast density measurements with UST breast density measurements within an ongoing study. The current analysis has been expanded to include 158 women with negative digital mammographic screens who then underwent a breast UST scan. Breast density was measured for both imaging modalities and preliminary analysis demonstrated strong and positive correlations (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.703). Additional mammographic and UST related imaging characteristics were also analyzed and used to compare the behavior of both imaging modalities. Results suggest that UST can be used among women with negative mammographic screens as a quantitative marker of breast density that may avert shortcomings of mammography.

  5. Diet across the Lifespan and the Association with Breast Density in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Jessica; Dorgan, Joanne; Savage-Williams, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna; Hartman, Terryl

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between dietary factors across the lifespan and breast density and breast cancer in women. Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, and the mechanism through which it influences cancer risk remains unclear. Breast density has been shown to be modifiable, potentially through dietary modifications. The goal of this paper is to summarize the current studies on diet and diet-related factors across all ages, determine which dietary factors show the strongest association with breast density, the most critical age of exposure, and identify future directions. We identified 28 studies, many of which are cross-sectional, and found that the strongest associations are among vitamin D, calcium, dietary fat, and alcohol in premenopausal women. Longitudinal studies with repeated dietary measures as well as the examination of overall diet over time are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23431461

  6. Diet across the Lifespan and the Association with Breast Density in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Jessica; Dorgan, Joanne; Savage-Williams, Jennifer; Coffman, Donna; Hartman, Terryl

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between dietary factors across the lifespan and breast density and breast cancer in women. Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, and the mechanism through which it influences cancer risk remains unclear. Breast density has been shown to be modifiable, potentially through dietary modifications. The goal of this paper is to summarize the current studies on diet and diet-related factors across all ages, determine which dietary factors show the strongest association with breast density, the most critical age of exposure, and identify future directions. We identified 28 studies, many of which are cross-sectional, and found that the strongest associations are among vitamin D, calcium, dietary fat, and alcohol in premenopausal women. Longitudinal studies with repeated dietary measures as well as the examination of overall diet over time are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23431461

  7. Adolescent Diet and Subsequent Serum Hormones, Breast Density and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Joanne F.; Liu, Lea; Klifa, Catherine; Hylton, Nola; Shepherd, John A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Van Horn, Linda; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Lasser, Norman L.; Himes, John H.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kriska, Andrea; Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent diet is hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of an intervention to lower fat intake among adolescent girls on biomarkers that are related to breast cancer risk in adults. Methods A follow-up study was conducted of 230 girls who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC), in which healthy, prepubertal 8-10 year olds were randomly assigned to usual care or to a behavioral intervention that promoted a reduced fat diet. Participants were 25-29 years old at follow-up visits. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results In analyses that did not take account of diet at the time of the follow-up visit, the only statistically significant treatment group difference was higher bone mineral content (BMC) in intervention group participants compared to usual care group participants; their mean BMCs were 2,444g and 2,377g, respectively. After adjustment for current diet, the intervention group also had statistically significantly higher bone mineral density and luteal phase serum estradiol concentrations. Serum progesterone concentrations and breast density did not differ by treatment group in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusion Results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of a lower fat diet during adolescence reduces breast cancer risk via effects on subsequent serum estradiol and progesterone levels, breast density or BMD. Impact Additional research is needed to clarify the association of adolescent diet with breast cancer risk and to determine if the results reported here are specific to the DISC intervention or more broadly applicable. PMID:20501774

  8. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p < 0.831). In anticipation of breast density legislation, 33% (16/48), 6% (3/48), and 6% (3/48) of facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p < 0.001). In response to breast density legislation, more than 33% of facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management. PMID:27296462

  9. The influence of mammographic density on breast tumor characteristics.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Rosenberg, Lena; Humphreys, Keith; Hall, Per

    2012-07-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer. Whether MD influences the tumor phenotype remains to be clarified. Previous studies are highly inconsistent and most lack important covariate information. This is a case-only study within a population-based case-control study. Cases were all postmenopausal women, aged 50-74 years, with incident breast cancer, diagnosed 1993-1995, and with no history of previous cancer (n = 2,720). 1,747 women with mammograms and information on tumor characteristics were included in analyses. MD was assessed using a computer-assisted thresholding technique. We used linear, logistic, and multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounders, to study density and tumor characteristics. PD was only statistically significantly associated with tumor size in our study (regression coefficient 0.031, p = 0.017). The effect of PD on tumor size was greater when mode of detection was excluded from the model (regression coefficient 0.043, p = 0.001). No other associations between PD and the tumor characteristics studied (lymph node metastasis, ER-status, PR-status, grade, and histopathological classification) were observed. In summary, PD was positively associated with tumor size in postmenopausal women. However, the relationship was at least partially confounded by mode of detection. Although there may be a true biological relationship between MD and more highly proliferative tumors, it also seems that part of this relationship is due to masking delaying diagnosis. In conclusion, PD does not seem to be differentially associated with tumor phenotype, except for tumor size, after taking mode of detection into consideration. PMID:22710708

  10. X-Ray Methods to Estimate Breast Density Content in Breast Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraghechi, Borna

    This work focuses on analyzing x-ray methods to estimate the fat and fibroglandular contents in breast biopsies and in breasts. The knowledge of fat in the biopsies could aid in their wide-angle x-ray scatter analyses. A higher mammographic density (fibrous content) in breasts is an indicator of higher cancer risk. Simulations for 5 mm thick breast biopsies composed of fibrous, cancer, and fat and for 4.2 cm thick breast fat/fibrous phantoms were done. Data from experimental studies using plastic biopsies were analyzed. The 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick plastic samples consisted of layers of polycarbonate (lexan), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA-lucite) and polyethylene (polyet). In terms of the total linear attenuation coefficients, lexan ≡ fibrous, lucite ≡ cancer and polyet ≡ fat. The detectors were of two types, photon counting (CdTe) and energy integrating (CCD). For biopsies, three photon counting methods were performed to estimate the fat (polyet) using simulation and experimental data, respectively. The two basis function method that assumed the biopsies were composed of two materials, fat and a 50:50 mixture of fibrous (lexan) and cancer (lucite) appears to be the most promising method. Discrepancies were observed between the results obtained via simulation and experiment. Potential causes are the spectrum and the attenuation coefficient values used for simulations. An energy integrating method was compared to the two basis function method using experimental and simulation data. A slight advantage was observed for photon counting whereas both detectors gave similar results for the 4.2 cm thick breast phantom simulations. The percentage of fibrous within a 9 cm diameter circular phantom of fibrous/fat tissue was estimated via a fan beam geometry simulation. Both methods yielded good results. Computed tomography (CT) images of the circular phantom were obtained using both detector types. The radon transforms were estimated via four energy integrating

  11. Increased vitamin D and calcium intake associated with reduced mammographic breast density among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Lewis, Toni J; Sanderson, Maureen; Dupont, William D; Fletcher, Sarah; Egan, Kathleen M; Disher, Anthony C

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as a weak protective factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (relative risk, ~0.9), whereas high breast density has been identified as a strong risk factor (relative risk, ~4-6). To test the hypothesis that there is an association between vitamin D intake, but not circulating vitamin D levels, and mammographic breast density among women in our study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 165 screening mammography patients at Nashville General Hospital's Breast Health Center, a public facility serving medically indigent and underserved women. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by the Harvard African American Food Frequency Questionnaire, and blood samples were analyzed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Average percent breast density for the left and right breasts combined was estimated from digitized films using an interactive thresholding method available through Cumulus software. After statistical adjustment for age, race, and body mass index, the results revealed that there were significant trends of decreasing breast density with increasing vitamin D and calcium intake among premenopausal but not among postmenopausal women. There was no association between serum vitamin D and breast density in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. Confirmation of our findings in larger studies may assist in clarifying the role of vitamin D in breast density. PMID:26321093

  12. Equol-producing status, isoflavone intake, and breast density in a sample of US Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marilyn; Byrne, Celia; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Fang, Carolyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differences in ability to metabolize daidzein to equol might help explain inconsistent findings regarding isoflavones and breast cancer. We examined equol producing status in relation to breast density, a marker of breast cancer risk, and evaluated whether an association of isoflavone intake with breast density differs by equol producing status in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Methods Participants were 224 women, age 36–58 years, enrolled in a study on diet and breast density. All women completed dietary recall interviews, underwent a soy challenge to assess equol producing status, and received a mammogram assessed for breast density using a computer-assisted method. Results In our sample, 30% were classified as equol producers. In adjusted linear regression models, equol producers had significantly lower mean dense tissue area (32.8 vs. 37.7 cm2, p=0.03) and lower mean percent breast density (32% vs. 35%, p=0.03) than non-producers. Significant, inverse associations of isoflavone intake with dense area and percent density were apparent, but only in equol producers (interaction p=0.05 for both). Conclusions These results support the possibility that equol producing status affects breast density, and that effects of isoflavones on breast density depend on ability to metabolize daidzein to equol. Impact While these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample, they offer a possible explanation for the inconsistent findings regarding soy intake and breast density and possibly also breast cancer risk. The findings further suggest the importance of identifying factors that influence equol producing status, and exploring appropriate targeting of interventions. PMID:24019393

  13. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Alfonso R.; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-07-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (˜1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material.

  14. Diffuse optical tomography with structured-light patterns to quantify breast density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-02-01

    Breast density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, where women with denser breasts are more likely to develop cancer. By identifying women at higher risk, healthcare providers can suggest screening at a younger age to effectively diagnose and treat breast cancer in its earlier stages. Clinical risk assessment models currently do not incorporate breast density, despite its strong correlation with breast cancer. Current methods to measure breast density rely on mammography and MRI, both of which may be difficult to use as a routine risk assessment tool. We propose to use diffuse optical tomography with structured-light to measure the dense, fibroglandular (FGT) tissue volume, which has a different chromophore signature than the surrounding adipose tissue. To test the ability of this technique, we performed simulations by creating numerical breast phantoms from segmented breast MR images. We looked at two different cases, one with a centralized FGT distribution and one with a dispersed distribution. As expected, the water and lipid volumes segmented at half-maximum were overestimated for the dispersed case. However, it was noticed that the recovered water and lipid concentrations were lower and higher, respectively, than the centralized case. This information may provide insight into the morphological distribution of the FGT and can be a correction in estimating the breast density.

  15. Vision 20/20: Mammographic breast density and its clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong Lau, Susie

    2015-12-15

    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are “dense” and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component.

  16. Vision 20/20: Mammographic breast density and its clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Lau, Susie

    2015-12-01

    Breast density is a strong predictor of the failure of mammography screening to detect breast cancer and is a strong predictor of the risk of developing breast cancer. The many imaging options that are now available for imaging dense breasts show great promise, but there is still the question of determining which women are "dense" and what imaging modality is suitable for individual women. To date, mammographic breast density has been classified according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories from visual assessment, but this is known to be very subjective. Despite many research reports, the authors believe there has been a lack of physics-led and evidence-based arguments about what breast density actually is, how it should be measured, and how it should be used. In this paper, the authors attempt to start correcting this situation by reviewing the history of breast density research and the debates generated by the advocacy movement. The authors review the development of breast density estimation from pattern analysis to area-based analysis, and the current automated volumetric breast density (VBD) analysis. This is followed by a discussion on seeking the ground truth of VBD and mapping volumetric methods to BI-RADS density categories. The authors expect great improvement in VBD measurements that will satisfy the needs of radiologists, epidemiologists, surgeons, and physicists. The authors believe that they are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward personalized breast screening, which is going to see many more cancers being detected early, with the use of automated density measurement tools as an important component. PMID:26632060

  17. Breast density measurements using ultrasound tomography for patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sak, Mark; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Sherman, Mark; Boyd, Norman; Gierach, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Women with high breast density have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women treated with the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer experience a 50% reduction in risk of contralateral breast cancer and overall reduction of similar magnitude has been identified among high-risk women receiving the drug for prevention. Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce mammographic density, and in the IBIS-1 chemoprevention trial, risk reduction and decline in density were significantly associated. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an imaging modality that can create tomographic sound speed images of the breast. These sound speed images are useful because breast density is proportional to sound speed. The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between USTmeasured breast density and the use of tamoxifen. So far, preliminary results for a small number of patients have been observed and are promising. Correlations between the UST-measured density and mammographic density are strong and positive, while relationships between UST density with some patient specific risk factors behave as expected. Initial results of UST examinations of tamoxifen treated patients show that approximately 45% of the patients have a decrease in density in the contralateral breast after only several months of treatment. The true effect of tamoxifen on UST-measured density cannot yet be fully determined until more data are collected. However, these promising results suggest that UST can be used to reliably assess quantitative changes in breast density over short intervals and therefore suggest that UST may enable rapid assessment of density changes associated with therapeutic and preventative interventions.

  18. Automatic breast density classification using a convolutional neural network architecture search procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Pablo; Mendoza, Julio; Wainer, Jacques; Ferrer, Jose; Pinto, Joseph; Guerrero, Jorge; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Breast parenchymal density is considered a strong indicator of breast cancer risk and therefore useful for preventive tasks. Measurement of breast density is often qualitative and requires the subjective judgment of radiologists. Here we explore an automatic breast composition classification workflow based on convolutional neural networks for feature extraction in combination with a support vector machines classifier. This is compared to the assessments of seven experienced radiologists. The experiments yielded an average kappa value of 0.58 when using the mode of the radiologists' classifications as ground truth. Individual radiologist performance against this ground truth yielded kappa values between 0.56 and 0.79.

  19. Quantification of breast density with dual energy mammography: An experimental feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Breast density, the percentage of glandular breast tissue, has been shown to be a strong indicator of breast cancer risk. A quantitative method to measure breast density with dual energy mammography was investigated using physical phantoms. Methods: The dual energy mammography system used a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a 50 {mu}m rhodium beam filter for low energy images and a 300 {mu}m copper beam filter for high energy images. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Four different phantom studies were used to evaluate the technique. The first study consisted of phantoms with thicknesses of 2.5-8.5 cm in 0.5 cm steps with variable densities centered at a mean of 28%. The second study consisted of phantoms at a fixed thickness of 4.0 cm, which ranged in densities from 0% to 100% in increments of 12.5%. The third study consisted of 4.0 cm thick phantoms at densities of 25%, 50% and 75% each imaged at three areal sizes, approximately 62.5, 125, and 250 cm{sup 2}, in order to assess the effect of breast size on density measurement. The fourth study consisted of step phantoms designed to more closely mimic the shape of a female breast with maximal thicknesses from 3.0 to 7.0 cm at a fixed density of 50%. All images were corrected for x-ray scatter. Results: The RMS errors in breast density measurements were 0.44% for the variable thickness phantoms, 0.64% for the variable density phantoms, 2.87% for the phantoms of different areal sizes, and 4.63% for step phantoms designed to closely resemble the shape of a breast. Conclusions: The results of the phantom studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to measure breast density with an RMS error of approximately 5%.

  20. Robustness of interactive intensity thresholding based breast density assessment in MR-mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Sa.; Ertas, G.; Doran, S.; Warren, R. M.; Leach, M. O.

    2010-03-01

    The efficiency of breast density assessment using interactive intensity thresholding applied to intensity uniformity corrected T1-weighted MR images is investigated for 20 healthy women who attended the UK multi-centre study of MRI screening for breast cancer. Mammographic density is estimated on the medial-lateral oblique X-ray mammograms using CUMULUS. MR density assessment is performed using both high and low-resolution T1-weighted images. The left and the right breast regions anterior to the pectoral muscle were segmented on these images using active contouring. For each region, intensity uniformities were corrected using proton density images and a user selected uniformity factor. An interactively selected threshold is applied to the corrected images to detect fibrogulandular tissue. The breast density is calculated as the ratio of the classified fibroglandular tissue to the segmented breast volume. There is no systematic difference, good consistency and a high correlation between the left and the right breast densities estimated from X-ray mammograms and the high and low-resolution MR images. The correlation is the highest and the consistency is the best for the low-resolution MR measurements (r=0.976, MeanAbsoluteDifference = 2.12%). Mean breast densities calculated over the left and the right breasts on high and low-resolution MR images are highly correlated with mammographic density (r=0.923 and 0.903, respectively) but are approximately 50% lower. Interactive intensity thresholding of T1-weighted MR images provides an easy, reproducible and reliable way to assess breast density. High and low-resolution measurements are both highly correlated with the mammographic density but the latter requires less processing and acquisition time.

  1. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aline; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies present association of low dietary energy density with higher intake of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, lower intake of fat, and better balance of macronutrients. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between dietary energy density and diet quality measured by an index of diet quality. This study used data from 496 adults and 445 older adults of cross-sectional population-based survey from São Paulo conducted in 2008-2009, Brazil. Dietary intake data was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary energy density values were calculated based on foods only method. Dietary energy density and revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components, were estimated by usual intake using Multiple Source Method. The relationship between dietary energy density and the total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components were assessed by Gaussian family log-link model for each age group. The analyses showed an inverse association between dietary energy density and total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index in adults (T2:β = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:β = 0.86, p < 0.001) and older adults (T2:β = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:β = 0.90, p < 0.001), and an inverse association between dietary energy density and nine of twelve revised Brazilian Health Eating Index components in adult and/or older adults groups. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults regardless of sex, per capita household income, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking habits status, alcohol beverage drinking status and usual energy intake (kilocalories) from beverages. PMID:26626824

  2. Quantification of breast density with dual energy mammography: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-12-15

    Breast density, the percentage of glandular breast tissue, has been identified as an important yet underutilized risk factor in the development of breast cancer. A quantitative method to measure breast density with dual energy imaging was investigated using a computer simulation model. Two configurations to measure breast density were evaluated: the usage of monoenergetic beams and an ideal detector, and the usage of polyenergetic beams with spectra from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a detector modeled after a digital mammography system. The simulation model calculated the mean glandular dose necessary to quantify the variability of breast density to within (1/3)%. The breast was modeled as a semicircle 10 cm in radius with equal homogenous thicknesses of adipose and glandular tissues. Breast thicknesses were considered in the range of 2-10 cm and energies in the range of 10-150 keV for the two monoenergetic beams, and 20-150 kVp for spectra with a tungsten anode x-ray tube. For a 4.2 cm breast thickness, the required mean glandular doses were 0.183 {mu}Gy for two monoenergetic beams at 19 and 71 keV, and 9.85 {mu}Gy for two polyenergetic spectra from a tungsten anode at 32 and 96 kVp with beam filtrations of 50 {mu}m Rh and 300 {mu}m Cu for the low and high energy beams, respectively. The results suggest that for either configuration, breast density can be precisely measured with dual energy imaging requiring only a small amount of additional dose to the breast. The possibility of using a standard screening mammogram as the low energy image is also discussed.

  3. A stepwedge-based method for measuring breast density: observer variability and comparison with human reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffey, Jenny; Berks, Michael; Hufton, Alan; Chung, Camilla; Verow, Rosanne; Morrison, Joanna; Wilson, Mary; Boggis, Caroline; Morris, Julie; Maxwell, Anthony; Astley, Susan

    2010-04-01

    Breast density is positively linked to the risk of developing breast cancer. We have developed a semi-automated, stepwedge-based method that has been applied to the mammograms of 1,289 women in the UK breast screening programme to measure breast density by volume and area. 116 images were analysed by three independent operators to assess inter-observer variability; 24 of these were analysed on 10 separate occasions by the same operator to determine intra-observer variability. 168 separate images were analysed using the stepwedge method and by two radiologists who independently estimated percentage breast density by area. There was little intra-observer variability in the stepwedge method (average coefficients of variation 3.49% - 5.73%). There were significant differences in the volumes of glandular tissue obtained by the three operators. This was attributed to variations in the operators' definition of the breast edge. For fatty and dense breasts, there was good correlation between breast density assessed by the stepwedge method and the radiologists. This was also observed between radiologists, despite significant inter-observer variation. Based on analysis of thresholds used in the stepwedge method, radiologists' definition of a dense pixel is one in which the percentage of glandular tissue is between 10 and 20% of the total thickness of tissue.

  4. Thermal distribution analysis of three-dimensional tumor-embedded breast models with different breast density compositions.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Asnida Abd; Salim, Maheza Irna Mohamad; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Manaf, Noraida Abd; Yunus, Jasmy; Lai, Khin Wee

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally, and the number of young women diagnosed with this disease is gradually increasing over the years. Mammography is the current gold-standard technique although it is known to be less sensitive in detecting tumors in woman with dense breast tissue. Detecting an early-stage tumor in young women is very crucial for better survival chance and treatment. The thermography technique has the capability to provide an additional functional information on physiological changes to mammography by describing thermal and vascular properties of the tissues. Studies on breast thermography have been carried out to improve the accuracy level of the thermography technique in various perspectives. However, the limitation of gathering women affected by cancer in different age groups had necessitated this comprehensive study which is aimed to investigate the effect of different density levels on the surface temperature distribution profile of the breast models. These models, namely extremely dense (ED), heterogeneously dense (HD), scattered fibroglandular (SF), and predominantly fatty (PF), with embedded tumors were developed using the finite element method. A conventional Pennes' bioheat model was used to perform the numerical simulation on different case studies, and the results obtained were then compared using a hypothesis statistical analysis method to the reference breast model developed previously. The results obtained show that ED, SF, and PF breast models had significant mean differences in surface temperature profile with a p value <0.025, while HD breast model data pair agreed with the null hypothesis formulated due to the comparable tissue composition percentage to the reference model. The findings suggested that various breast density levels should be considered as a contributing factor to the surface thermal distribution profile alteration in both breast cancer detection and analysis when using the thermography

  5. Comparison of volumetric breast density estimations from mammography and thorax CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geeraert, N.; Klausz, R.; Cockmartin, L.; Muller, S.; Bosmans, H.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Breast density has become an important issue in current breast cancer screening, both as a recognized risk factor for breast cancer and by decreasing screening efficiency by the masking effect. Different qualitative and quantitative methods have been proposed to evaluate area-based breast density and volumetric breast density (VBD). We propose a validation method comparing the computation of VBD obtained from digital mammographic images (VBDMX) with the computation of VBD from thorax CT images (VBDCT). We computed VBDMX by applying a conversion function to the pixel values in the mammographic images, based on models determined from images of breast equivalent material. VBDCT is computed from the average Hounsfield Unit (HU) over the manually delineated breast volume in the CT images. This average HU is then compared to the HU of adipose and fibroglandular tissues from patient images. The VBDMX method was applied to 663 mammographic patient images taken on two Siemens Inspiration (hospL) and one GE Senographe Essential (hospJ). For the comparison study, we collected images from patients who had a thorax CT and a mammography screening exam within the same year. In total, thorax CT images corresponding to 40 breasts (hospL) and 47 breasts (hospJ) were retrieved. Averaged over the 663 mammographic images the median VBDMX was 14.7% . The density distribution and the inverse correlation between VBDMX and breast thickness were found as expected. The average difference between VBDMX and VBDCT is smaller for hospJ (4%) than for hospL (10%). This study shows the possibility to compare VBDMX with the VBD from thorax CT exams, without additional examinations. In spite of the limitations caused by poorly defined breast limits, the calibration of mammographic images to local VBD provides opportunities for further quantitative evaluations.

  6. A breast density index for digital mammograms based on radiologists' ranking.

    PubMed

    Boone, J M; Lindfors, K K; Beatty, C S; Seibert, J A

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a computerized method of calculating a breast density index (BDI) from digitized mammograms that was designed specifically to model radiologists' perception of breast density. A set of 153 pairs of digitized mammograms (cranio-caudal, CC, and mediolateral oblique, MLO, views) were acquired and preprocessed to reduce detector biases. The sets of mammograms were ordered on an ordinal scale (a scale based only on relative rank-ordering) by two radiologists, and a cardinal (an absolute numerical score) BDI value was calculated from the ordinal ranks. The images were also assigned cardinal BDI values by the radiologists in a subsequent session. Six mathematical features (including fractal dimension and others) were calculated from the digital mammograms, and were used in conjunction with single value decomposition and multiple linear regression to calculate a computerized BDI. The linear correlation coefficient between different ordinal ranking sessions were as follows: intraradiologist intraprojection (CC/CC): r = 0.978; intraradiologist interprojection (CC/MLO): r = 0.960; and interradiologist intraprojection (CC/CC): r = 0.968. A separate breast density index was derived from three separate ordinal rankings by one radiologist (two with CC views, one with the MLO view). The computer derived BDI had a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.907 with the radiologists' ordinal BDI. A comparison between radiologists using a cardinal scoring system (which is closest to how radiologists actually evaluate breast density) showed r = 0.914. A breast density index calculated by a computer but modeled after radiologist perception of breast density may be valuable in objectively measuring breast density. Such a metric may prove valuable in numerous areas, including breast cancer risk assessment and in evaluating screening techniques specifically designed to improve imaging of the dense breast. PMID:9718500

  7. Novel Associations between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants and Risk-Predicting Mammographic Density Measures.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Deborah J; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Scott, Christopher; Tamimi, Rulla M; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hazra, Aditi; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Jensen, Matt; Cunningham, Julie; Olson, Janet E; Purrington, Kristen; Couch, Fergus J; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Warren, Ruth M L; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Smith, Paula; Wareham, Nicholas J; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W; Douglas, Julie A; Shah, Kaanan P; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Woolcott, Christy; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Haiman, Christopher; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Krishnan, Kavitha; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Ursin, Giske; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela N; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gram, Inger Torhild; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Fasching, Peter A; Pankratz, V Shane; Hopper, John L; Vachon, Celine M

    2015-06-15

    Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk, but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute nondense area adjusted for study, age, and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong support for established associations between rs10995190 (in the region of ZNF365), rs2046210 (ESR1), and rs3817198 (LSP1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas (all P < 10(-5)). Of 41 recently discovered breast cancer susceptibility variants, associations were found between rs1432679 (EBF1), rs17817449 (MIR1972-2: FTO), rs12710696 (2p24.1), and rs3757318 (ESR1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas, respectively. There were associations between rs6001930 (MKL1) and both adjusted absolute dense and nondense areas, and between rs17356907 (NTN4) and adjusted absolute nondense area. Trends in all but two associations were consistent with those for breast cancer risk. Results suggested that 18% of breast cancer susceptibility variants were associated with at least one mammographic density measure. Genetic variants at multiple loci were associated with both breast cancer risk and the mammographic density measures. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms at these loci could help identify etiologic pathways implicated in how mammographic density predicts breast cancer risk. PMID:25862352

  8. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  9. Premenopausal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mammographic density, and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Kimberly A; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A Heather; Hankinson, Susan E; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence for an association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer is inconsistent. Data are especially limited for premenopausal women and for associations with mammographic density. To test the hypothesis that plasma concentration of 25(OH)D is associated with mammographic density, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 835 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Studies. We measured 25(OH)D in blood samples and used multivariable linear regression to quantify the association of average percent density by quartile of plasma 25(OH)D. In a nested case-control analysis including 493 breast cancer cases, we evaluated risk of breast cancer associated with vitamin D status within tertiles of mammographic density. Women in the top quartile of plasma 25(OH)D levels had an average percent breast density 5.2 percentage points higher than women in the bottom quartile (95 % confidence interval: 1.8, 8.7; P trend <0.01), after adjusting for predictors of 25(OH)D and established breast cancer risk factors. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration was significantly inversely associated with breast cancer risk among women with high mammographic density (P trend < 0.01) but not among women in lower tertiles of mammographic density (P-interaction < 0.01). These results do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with percent mammographic density in premenopausal women. There was evidence that the association between premenopausal 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk varies by mammographic density, with an inverse association apparent only among women with high mammographic density. PMID:25543181

  10. Premenopausal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mammographic density, and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Willett, Walter; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic evidence for an association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and breast cancer is inconsistent. Data are especially limited for premenopausal women and for associations with mammographic density. Methods To test the hypothesis that plasma concentration of 25(OH)D is associated with mammographic density, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 835 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Studies. We measured 25(OH)D in blood samples and used multivariable linear regression to quantify the association of average percent density by quartile of plasma 25(OH)D. In a nested case-control analysis including 493 breast cancer cases, we evaluated risk of breast cancer associated with vitamin D status within tertiles of mammographic density. Results Women in the top quartile of plasma 25(OH)D levels had an average percent breast density 5.2 percentage points higher than women in the bottom quartile (95% confidence interval: 1.8, 8.7; P-trend <0.01), after adjusting for predictors of 25(OH)D and established breast cancer risk factors. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration was significantly inversely associated with breast cancer risk among women with high mammographic density (odds ratio comparing top to bottom tertile of 25(OH)D = 0.50; 95% confidence interval= 0.30, 0.83; P-trend <0.01) but not among women in lower tertiles of mammographic density (P-interaction <0.01). Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with percent mammographic density in premenopausal women. There was evidence that the association between premenopausal 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk varies by mammographic density, with an inverse association apparent only among women with high mammographic density. PMID:25543181

  11. Mammographic density and its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors in an Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C S; Lim, G H; Gao, F; Jakes, R W; Offman, J; Chia, K S; Duffy, S W

    2011-01-01

    Background: Joint effects of mammographic density and other risk factors on breast cancer risk remain unclear. Methods: From The Singapore Breast Screening Project, we selected 491 cases and 982 controls. Mammographic density was measured quantitatively. Data analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Results: Density was a significant risk factor, adjusting for other factors. Density of 76–100% had an odds ratio of 5.54 (95% CI 2.38–12.90) compared with 0–10%. Density had significant interactions with body mass index and oral contraceptive use (P=0.02). Conclusions: Percent density increases breast cancer risk in addition to effects of other risk factors, and modifies the effects of BMI and OCs. PMID:21245860

  12. Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darker, Iain T.; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2011-03-01

    Higher breast density is associated with a greater chance of developing breast cancer. Additionally, it is well known that higher mammographic breast density is associated with increased difficulty in accurately identifying breast cancer. However, comparatively little is known of the reliability of breast density judgements. All UK breast screeners (primarily radiologists and technologists) annually participate in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme where they make several judgements about series of challenging recent screening cases of known outcomes. As part of this process, for each case, they provide a radiological assessment of the likelihood of cancer on a confidence scale, alongside an assessment of case density using a three point scale. Analysis of the data from two years of the scheme found that the degree of agreement on case density was significantly greater than no agreement (p < .001). However, only a moderate degree of inter-rater reliability was exhibited (κ = .44) with significant differences between the occupational groups. The reasons for differences between the occupational groups and the relationship between agreement on density rating and case reading ability are explored.

  13. Reduction of Breast Density Following Tamoxifen Treatment Evaluated by 3-D MRI: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Chang, Daniel; Wang, Yi-Ting; Nie, Ke; Chang, Ruey-Feng; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the change of breast density in women receiving tamoxifen treatment using 3-D MRI. Sixteen women were studied. Each woman received breast MRI before and after tamoxifen. The breast and the fibroglandular tissue were segmented using a computer-assisted algorithm, based on T1-weighted images. The fibroglandular tissue volume (FV) and breast volume (BV) were measured and the ratio was calculated as the percent breast density (%BD). The changes in breast volume (ΔBV), fibroglandular tissue volume (ΔFV), and percent density (Δ%BD) between two MRI studies were analyzed and correlated with treatment duration and baseline breast density. The ΔFV showed a reduction in all 16 women. The Δ%BD showed a mean reduction of 5.8%. The reduction of FV was significantly correlated with baseline FV (P<0.001) and treatment duration (P=0.03). The percentage change in FV was correlated with duration (P=0.049). The reduction in %BD was positively correlated with baseline %BD (p=0.02). Women with higher baseline %BD showed more reduction of %BD. 3D MRI may be useful for the measurement of the small changes of ΔFV and Δ%BD after tamoxifen. These changes can potentially be used to correlate with the future reduction of cancer risk. PMID:20832226

  14. Reader Variability in Breast Density Estimation from Full-Field Digital Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, may be measured as either a relative percentage of dense (ie, radiopaque) breast tissue or as an absolute area from either raw (ie, “for processing”) or vendor postprocessed (ie, “for presentation”) digital mammograms. Given the increasing interest in the incorporation of mammographic density in breast cancer risk assessment, the purpose of this study is to determine the inherent reader variability in breast density assessment from raw and vendor-processed digital mammograms, because inconsistent estimates could to lead to misclassification of an individual woman’s risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Bilateral, mediolateral-oblique view, raw, and processed digital mammograms of 81 women were retrospectively collected for this study (N = 324 images). Mammographic percent density and absolute dense tissue area estimates for each image were obtained from two radiologists using a validated, interactive software tool. Results The variability of interreader agreement was not found to be affected by the image presentation style (ie, raw or processed, F-test: P > .5). Interreader estimates of relative and absolute breast density are strongly correlated (Pearson r > 0.84, P < .001) but systematically different (t-test, P < .001) between the two readers. Conclusion Our results show that mammographic density may be assessed with equal reliability from either raw or vendor postprocessed images. Furthermore, our results suggest that the primary source of density variability comes from the subjectivity of the individual reader in assessing the absolute amount of dense tissue present in the breast, indicating the need to use standardized tools to mitigate this effect. PMID:23465381

  15. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  16. Erythrocyte Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mammographic Breast Density

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Alana G.; Reeves, Katherine W.; Modugno, Francesmary; Wilson, John W.; Evans, Rhobert W.; Vogel, Victor G.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Simpson, Jennifer; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2013-01-01

    Diets low in omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high in omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs may protect against breast cancer development. Associations of PUFA intake with mammographic density, an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk, have been inconsistent; however, prior studies have relied on self-reported dietary PUFA intake. We examined the association between circulating erythrocyte n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with mammographic density in 248 postmenopausal women who were not taking exogenous hormones. PUFAs in erythrocytes were measured by gas-liquid chromatography, and mammographic density was assessed quantitatively by planimetry. Spearman’s correlation coefficients and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationships between PUFA measures and mammographic density. None of the erythrocyte n-6 or n-3 PUFA measures were associated with percent density or dense breast area. PMID:23530640

  17. Comparison of breast percent density estimation from raw versus processed digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Diane; Gavenonis, Sara; Conant, Emily; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    We compared breast percent density (PD%) measures obtained from raw and post-processed digital mammographic (DM) images. Bilateral raw and post-processed medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images from 81 screening studies were retrospectively analyzed. Image acquisition was performed with a GE Healthcare DS full-field DM system. Image post-processing was performed using the PremiumViewTM algorithm (GE Healthcare). Area-based breast PD% was estimated by a radiologist using a semi-automated image thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Comparison of breast PD% between raw and post-processed DM images was performed using the Pearson correlation (r), linear regression, and Student's t-test. Intra-reader variability was assessed with a repeat read on the same data-set. Our results show that breast PD% measurements from raw and post-processed DM images have a high correlation (r=0.98, R2=0.95, p<0.001). Paired t-test comparison of breast PD% between the raw and the post-processed images showed a statistically significant difference equal to 1.2% (p = 0.006). Our results suggest that the relatively small magnitude of the absolute difference in PD% between raw and post-processed DM images is unlikely to be clinically significant in breast cancer risk stratification. Therefore, it may be feasible to use post-processed DM images for breast PD% estimation in clinical settings. Since most breast imaging clinics routinely use and store only the post-processed DM images, breast PD% estimation from post-processed data may accelerate the integration of breast density in breast cancer risk assessment models used in clinical practice.

  18. Assessment of two mammographic density related features in predicting near-term breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Wang, Xingwei; Klym, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2012-02-01

    In order to establish a personalized breast cancer screening program, it is important to develop risk models that have high discriminatory power in predicting the likelihood of a woman developing an imaging detectable breast cancer in near-term (e.g., <3 years after a negative examination in question). In epidemiology-based breast cancer risk models, mammographic density is considered the second highest breast cancer risk factor (second to woman's age). In this study we explored a new feature, namely bilateral mammographic density asymmetry, and investigated the feasibility of predicting near-term screening outcome. The database consisted of 343 negative examinations, of which 187 depicted cancers that were detected during the subsequent screening examination and 155 that remained negative. We computed the average pixel value of the segmented breast areas depicted on each cranio-caudal view of the initial negative examinations. We then computed the mean and difference mammographic density for paired bilateral images. Using woman's age, subjectively rated density (BIRADS), and computed mammographic density related features we compared classification performance in estimating the likelihood of detecting cancer during the subsequent examination using areas under the ROC curves (AUC). The AUCs were 0.63+/-0.03, 0.54+/-0.04, 0.57+/-0.03, 0.68+/-0.03 when using woman's age, BIRADS rating, computed mean density and difference in computed bilateral mammographic density, respectively. Performance increased to 0.62+/-0.03 and 0.72+/-0.03 when we fused mean and difference in density with woman's age. The results suggest that, in this study, bilateral mammographic tissue density is a significantly stronger (p<0.01) risk indicator than both woman's age and mean breast density.

  19. The Effect of Raloxifene on Mammographic Density and Breast MRI in Premenopausal Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Orzano-Birgani, Jennifer; Chow, Catherine K.; Venzon, David; Yao, Jianhua; Galbo, Claudia E.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Prindiville, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammographic density (MD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. MD and breast MRI volume (MRIV) assess the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the breast. MD and MRIV can be modulated with hormonal interventions, suggesting that these imaging modalities may be useful as surrogate endpoint biomarkers for breast cancer chemoprevention trials. We evaluated the effect of raloxifene on MD and MRIV in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Mammograms and MRIs were obtained at baseline and after one and two years of raloxifene 60 mg by mouth daily for 27 premenopausal women. Mammographic percent dense area was calculated using a semi-quantitative thresholding technique. T1 weighted spoiled gradient-echo MRI with fat suppression was used to determine breast MRIV using a semiautomatic method. Mean change in MD and median change in MRIV were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results No significant change in MD was seen after treatment with raloxifene. Mean change after one year was 1% (95% CI -3 to +5) and after two years was 1% (95% CI -2 to +5). MRIV decreased on raloxifene. Median relative change in MRIV after one year was -17% (95% CI % -28 to -9; p=0.0017) and after two years was -16% (95% CI -31 to -4; p=0.0004). Conclusions In high risk premenopausal women MD did not change on raloxifene, while MRIV significantly declined. Our findings suggest that MRIV is a promising surrogate biomarker in premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer and should be investigated further in breast cancer prevention trials. PMID:18583470

  20. Comparison of Clinical and Automated Breast Density Measurements: Implications for Risk Prediction and Supplemental Screening.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Kathleen R; Scott, Christopher G; Ma, Lin; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir P; Jensen, Matthew R; Whaley, Dana H; Wu, Fang Fang; Malkov, Serghei; Hruska, Carrie B; Norman, Aaron D; Heine, John; Shepherd, John; Pankratz, V Shane; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To compare the classification of breast density with two automated methods, Volpara (version 1.5.0; Matakina Technology, Wellington, New Zealand) and Quantra (version 2.0; Hologic, Bedford, Mass), with clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density classifications and to examine associations of these measures with breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods In this study, 1911 patients with breast cancer and 4170 control subjects matched for age, race, examination date, and mammography machine were evaluated. Participants underwent mammography at Mayo Clinic or one of four sites within the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2006 and 2012 and provided informed consent or a waiver for research, in compliance with HIPAA regulations and institutional review board approval. Digital mammograms were retrieved a mean of 2.1 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) before cancer diagnosis, with the corresponding clinical BI-RADS density classifications, and Volpara and Quantra density estimates were generated. Agreement was assessed with weighted κ statistics among control subjects. Breast cancer associations were evaluated with conditional logistic regression, adjusted for age and body mass index. Odds ratios, C statistics, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Agreement between clinical BI-RADS density classifications and Volpara and Quantra BI-RADS estimates was moderate, with κ values of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.59) and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.47), respectively. Differences of up to 14% in dense tissue classification were found, with Volpara classifying 51% of women as having dense breasts, Quantra classifying 37%, and clinical BI-RADS assessment used to classify 43%. Clinical and automated measures showed similar breast cancer associations; odds ratios for extremely dense breasts versus scattered fibroglandular densities were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.5), and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) for Volpara, Quantra

  1. Automated volumetric breast density derived by shape and appearance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r2 = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  2. Automated Volumetric Breast Density derived by Shape and Appearance Modeling.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-22

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r(2) = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted. PMID:25083119

  3. Same task, same observers, different values: the problem with visual assessment of breast density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeant, Jamie C.; Walshaw, Lani; Wilson, Mary; Seed, Sita; Barr, Nicky; Beetles, Ursula; Boggis, Caroline; Bundred, Sara; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit; Whiteside, Sigrid; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2013-03-01

    The proportion of radio-opaque fibroglandular tissue in a mammographic image of the breast is a strong and modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Subjective, area-based estimates made by expert observers provide a simple and efficient way of measuring breast density within a screening programme, but the degree of variability may render the reliable identification of women at increased risk impossible. This study examines the repeatability of visual assessment of percent breast density by expert observers. Five consultant radiologists and two breast physicians, all with at least two years' experience in mammographic density assessment, were presented with 100 digital mammogram cases for which they had estimated density at least 12 months previously. Estimates of percent density were made for each mammographic view and recorded on a printed visual analogue scale. The level of agreement between the two sets of estimates was assessed graphically using Bland-Altman plots. All but one observer had a mean difference of less than 6 percentage points, while the largest mean difference was 14.66 percentage points. The narrowest 95% limits of agreement for the differences were -11.15 to 17.35 and the widest were -13.95 to 40.43. Coefficients of repeatability ranged from 14.40 to 38.60. Although visual assessment of breast density has been shown to be strongly associated with cancer risk, the lack of agreement shown here between repeat assessments of the same images by the same observers questions the reliability of using visual assessment to identify women at high risk or to detect moderate changes in breast density over time.

  4. Age- and race-dependence of the fibroglandular breast density analyzed on 3D MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ke; Su, Min-Ying; Chau, Man-Kwun; Chan, Siwa; Nguyen, Hoanglong; Tseng, Tiffany; Huang, Yuhong; McLaren, Christine E.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the age- and race-dependence of the breast fibroglandular tissue density based on three-dimensional breast MRI. Methods: The normal breasts of 321 consecutive patients including Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics were studied. The subjects were separated into three age groups: Younger than 45, between 45 and 55, and older than 55. Computer algorithms based on body landmarks were used to segment the breast, and fuzzy c-means algorithm was used to segment the fibroglandular tissue. Linear regression analysis was applied to compare mean differences among different age groups and race∕ethnicity groups. The obtained parameters were not normally distributed, and the transformed data, natural log (ln) for the fibroglandular tissue volume, and the square root for the percent density were used for statistical analysis. Results: On the average, the transformed fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density decreased significantly with age. Racial differences in mean transformed percent density were found among women older than 45, but not among women younger than 45. Mean percent density was higher in Asians compared to Caucasians and Hispanics; the difference remained significant after adjustment for age, but not significant after adjusted for both age and breast volume. There was no significant difference in the density between the Caucasians and the Hispanics. Conclusions: The results analyzed using the MRI-based method show age- and race-dependence, which is consistent with literature using mammography-based methods. PMID:20632587

  5. Breast Density in Mammography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in High Risk Women and Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Marissa; Schnabel, Freya; Chun, Jennifer; Schwartz, Shira; Lee, Jiyon; Leite, Ana Paula Klautau; Moy, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density (MBD), background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) in women with breast cancer (BC) and at high risk for developing BC. Methods Our institutional database was queried for patients who underwent mammography and MRI. Results 403 (85%) had BC and 72 (15%) were at high risk. MBD (p=0.0005), BPE (p<0.0001), and FGT (p=0.02) were all higher in high risk women compared to the BC group. Conclusions Higher levels of MBD, BPE and FGT are seen in women at higher risk for developing BC when compared to women with BC. PMID:26351036

  6. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. Results The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (p<0.05). The FIM score was also positively correlated with the BMD of femur (p<0.05). Moreover, CP patients with higher ambulatory function had significantly higher BMD of femur (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that BMI and functional levels such as FIM and ambulatory function can affect BMD in adults with CP. The results might be used as basic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP. PMID:23342308

  7. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN−). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45  μm) versus LN− (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07  μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN− cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis. PMID:23117811

  8. A Novel Automated Mammographic Density Measure and Breast 
Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammographic breast density is a strong breast cancer risk factor but is not used in the clinical setting, partly because of a lack of standardization and automation. We developed an automated and objective measurement of the grayscale value variation within a mammogram, evaluated its association with breast cancer, and compared its performance with that of percent density (PD). Methods Three clinic-based studies were included: a case–cohort study of 217 breast cancer case subjects and 2094 non-case subjects and two case–control studies comprising 928 case subjects and 1039 control subjects and 246 case subjects and 516 control subjects, respectively. Percent density was estimated from digitized mammograms using the computer-assisted Cumulus thresholding program, and variation was estimated from an automated algorithm. We estimated hazards ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards models for the cohort and logistic regression for case–control studies, with adjustment for age and body mass index. We performed a meta-analysis using random study effects to obtain pooled estimates of the associations between the two mammographic measures and breast cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The variation measure was statistically significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in all three studies (highest vs lowest quartile: HR = 7.0 [95% CI = 4.6 to 10.4]; OR = 10.7 [95% CI = 7.5 to 15.3]; OR = 2.6 [95% CI = 1.6 to 4.2]; all P trend < .001). In two studies, the risk estimates and AUCs for the variation measure were greater than those for percent density (AUCs for variation = 0.71 and 0.76; AUCs for percent density = 0.65 and 0.65), whereas in the third study, these estimates were similar (AUC for variation = 0.60 and AUC for percent density = 0.61). A meta-analysis of the three studies demonstrated a stronger

  9. Novel Associations between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants and Risk-Predicting Mammographic Density Measures

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Deborah J.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Scott, Christopher; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hazra, Aditi; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Jensen, Matt; Cunningham, Julie; Olson, Janet E.; Purrington, Kristen; Couch, Fergus J.; Brown, Judith; Leyland, Jean; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Smith, Paula; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Douglas, Julie A.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Woolcott, Christy; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Haiman, Christopher; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Krishnan, Kavitha; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Ursin, Giske; Grenaker Alnaes, Grethe I.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gram, Inger Torhild; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Simard, Jacques; Paroah, Paul; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Fasching, Peter A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hopper, John; Vachon, Celine M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute non-dense area adjusted for study, age and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong support for established associations between rs10995190 (in the region of ZNF365), rs2046210 (ESR1) and rs3817198 (LSP1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas (all p <10−5). Of 41 recently discovered breast cancer susceptibility variants, associations were found between rs1432679 (EBF1), rs17817449 (MIR1972-2: FTO), rs12710696 (2p24.1), and rs3757318 (ESR1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas, respectively. There were associations between rs6001930 (MKL1) and both adjusted absolute dense and non-dense areas, and between rs17356907 (NTN4) and adjusted absolute non-dense area. Trends in all but two associations were consistent with those for breast cancer risk. Results suggested that 18% of breast cancer susceptibility variants were associated with at least one mammographic density measure. Genetic variants at multiple loci were associated with both breast cancer risk and the mammographic density measures. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms at these loci could help identify etiological pathways implicated in how mammographic density predicts breast cancer risk. PMID:25862352

  10. The relationship between anatomic noise and volumetric breast density for digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Mainprize, James G.; Tyson, Albert H.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The appearance of parenchymal/stromal patterns in mammography have been characterized as having a Wiener power spectrum with an inverse power-law shape described by the exponential parameter, {beta}. The amount of fibroglandular tissue, which can be quantified in terms of volumetric breast density (VBD), influences the texture and appearance of the patterns formed in a mammogram. Here, a large study is performed to investigate the variations in {beta} in a clinical population and to indicate the relationship between {beta} and breast density. Methods: From a set of 2686 cranio-caudal normal screening mammograms, the parameter {beta} was extracted from log-log fits to the Wiener spectrum over the range 0.15-1 mm{sup -1}. The Wiener spectrum was calculated from regions of interest in the compression paddle contact region of the breast. An in-house computer program, Cumulus V, was used to extract the volumetric breast density and identify the compression paddle contact regions of the breast. The Wiener spectra were calculated with and without modulation transfer function (MTF) correction to determine the impact of VBD on the intrinsic anatomic noise. Results: The mean volumetric breast density was 25.5% ({+-}12.6%) over all images. The mean {beta} following a MTF correction which decreased the {beta} slightly ( Almost-Equal-To -0.08) was found to be 2.87. Varying the maximum of the spatial frequency range of the fits from 0.7 to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.5 mm{sup -1} showing small decreases in the result, although the effect of the quantum noise power component on reducing {beta} was clearly observed at 1.5 mm{sup -1}. Conclusions: The texture parameter, {beta}, was found to increase with VBD at low volumetric breast densities with an apparent leveling off at higher densities. The relationship between {beta} and VBD measured here can be used to create probabilistic models for computer simulations of detectability. As breast density is a known risk predictor for breast

  11. Effective radiation attenuation calibration for breast density: compression thickness influences and correction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calibrating mammograms to produce a standardized breast density measurement for breast cancer risk analysis requires an accurate spatial measure of the compressed breast thickness. Thickness inaccuracies due to the nominal system readout value and compression paddle orientation induce unacceptable errors in the calibration. Method A thickness correction was developed and evaluated using a fully specified two-component surrogate breast model. A previously developed calibration approach based on effective radiation attenuation coefficient measurements was used in the analysis. Water and oil were used to construct phantoms to replicate the deformable properties of the breast. Phantoms consisting of measured proportions of water and oil were used to estimate calibration errors without correction, evaluate the thickness correction, and investigate the reproducibility of the various calibration representations under compression thickness variations. Results The average thickness uncertainty due to compression paddle warp was characterized to within 0.5 mm. The relative calibration error was reduced to 7% from 48-68% with the correction. The normalized effective radiation attenuation coefficient (planar) representation was reproducible under intra-sample compression thickness variations compared with calibrated volume measures. Conclusion Incorporating this thickness correction into the rigid breast tissue equivalent calibration method should improve the calibration accuracy of mammograms for risk assessments using the reproducible planar calibration measure. PMID:21080916

  12. Metastatic breast cancer cells in lymph nodes increase nodal collagen density

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, Asif; Bulte, Camille; Kalaichelvan, Anusha; Cheng, Menglin; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Jiang, Lu; Glunde, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The most life-threatening aspect of breast cancer is the occurrence of metastatic disease. The tumor draining lymph nodes typically are the first sites of metastasis in breast cancer. Collagen I fibers and the extracellular matrix have been implicated in breast cancer to form avenues for metastasis. In this study, we have investigated extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen I fibers in the lymph nodes of mice bearing orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts. The lymph nodes in mice with metastatic MDA-MB-231 and SUM159 tumor xenografts and tumor xenografts grown from circulating tumor cell lines displayed an increased collagen I density compared to mice with no tumor and mice with non-metastatic T-47D and MCF-7 tumor xenografts. These results suggest that cancer cells that have metastasized to the lymph nodes can modify the extracellular matrix components of these lymph nodes. Clinically, collagen density in the lymph nodes may be a good marker for identifying lymph nodes that have been invaded by breast cancer cells. PMID:25950608

  13. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  14. Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo-Proulx, O; Packard, N; Boone, J M; Al-Mayah, A; Brock, K K; Shen, S Z; Yaffe, M J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an algorithm used to measure the volumetric breast density (VBD) from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on the calibration of the detector signal versus the thickness and composition of breast-equivalent phantoms. The baseline error in the density from the algorithm was found to be 1.25 ± 2.3% VBD units (PVBD) when tested against a set of calibration phantoms, of thicknesses 3–8 cm, with compositions equivalent to fibroglandular content (breast density) between 0% and 100% and under x-ray beams between 26 kVp and 32 kVp with a Rh/Rh anode/filter. The algorithm was also tested against images from a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanner acquired on 26 volunteers. The CT images were segmented into regions representing adipose, fibroglandular and skin tissues, and then deformed using a finite-element algorithm to simulate the effects of compression in mammography. The mean volume, VBD and thickness of the compressed breast for these deformed images were respectively 558 cm3, 23.6% and 62 mm. The displaced CT images were then used to generate simulated digital mammograms, considering the effects of the polychromatic x-ray spectrum, the primary and scattered energy transmitted through the breast, the anti-scatter grid and the detector efficiency. The simulated mammograms were analyzed with the VBD algorithm and compared with the deformed CT volumes. With the Rh/Rh anode filter, the root mean square difference between the VBD from CT and from the algorithm was 2.6 PVBD, and a linear regression between the two gave a slope of 0.992 with an intercept of −1.4 PVBD and a correlation with R2 = 0.963. The results with the Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh anode/filter were similar. PMID:20463377

  15. Validation of a method for measuring the volumetric breast density from digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Alonzo-Proulx, O; Packard, N; Boone, J M; Al-Mayah, A; Brock, K K; Shen, S Z; Yaffe, M J

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of an algorithm used to measure the volumetric breast density (VBD) from digital mammograms. The algorithm is based on the calibration of the detector signal versus the thickness and composition of breast-equivalent phantoms. The baseline error in the density from the algorithm was found to be 1.25 +/- 2.3% VBD units (PVBD) when tested against a set of calibration phantoms, of thicknesses 3-8 cm, with compositions equivalent to fibroglandular content (breast density) between 0% and 100% and under x-ray beams between 26 kVp and 32 kVp with a Rh/Rh anode/filter. The algorithm was also tested against images from a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanner acquired on 26 volunteers. The CT images were segmented into regions representing adipose, fibroglandular and skin tissues, and then deformed using a finite-element algorithm to simulate the effects of compression in mammography. The mean volume, VBD and thickness of the compressed breast for these deformed images were respectively 558 cm(3), 23.6% and 62 mm. The displaced CT images were then used to generate simulated digital mammograms, considering the effects of the polychromatic x-ray spectrum, the primary and scattered energy transmitted through the breast, the anti-scatter grid and the detector efficiency. The simulated mammograms were analyzed with the VBD algorithm and compared with the deformed CT volumes. With the Rh/Rh anode filter, the root mean square difference between the VBD from CT and from the algorithm was 2.6 PVBD, and a linear regression between the two gave a slope of 0.992 with an intercept of -1.4 PVBD and a correlation with R(2) = 0.963. The results with the Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh anode/filter were similar. PMID:20463377

  16. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  17. Short term high density systemic therapy for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tormey, D C; Kline, J C; Palta, M; Davis, T E; Love, R R; Carbone, P P

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with metastatic breast carcinoma were induced with a complex systemic therapy regimen in an attempt to ascertain if a complete remission rate greater than 50% could be obtained with intensive drug exposure. The durability of the remissions was observed by discontinuing therapy after 3 cycles in complete remission or after 6 cycles of treatment, whichever was longer. In 13 patients consolidation radiation therapy to the pre-treatment sites of disease was administered after discontinuing systemic therapy. Each 28 day cycle of the drug regimen consisted of pulses of adriamycin, vincristine, dibromodulcitol, prednisone, methotrexate with leukovorin rescue, hexamethylmelamine, bleomycin (discontinued after entry #17), fluoxymesterone, and tamoxifen. Eighteen of the 23 patients achieved complete remissions (78%) and 3 had partial remissions. The median times to treatment failure and survival were, respectively, 12.3 and 19.4 mos. The times for complete remission patients were, respectively, 13.5 and 23.9 mos. Consolidation radiotherapy at greater than or equal to 40 Gy to drug induced pre-study sites of complete remission was associated with first relapses at pre-study sites in 5/30 (17%) instances, compared to 21/35 (60%) in sites not receiving radiotherapy. Side-effects were commensurate with the intensity of the treatment program and are detailed in the text. Although the achievement of a high complete remission rate is promising, the failure to extend their duration beyond that of historical data suggests that additional conceptual and therapeutic approaches need to be explored. PMID:2410072

  18. Mammographic Breast Density Evaluation in Korean Women Using Fully Automated Volumetric Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to present mean breast density of Korean women according to age using fully automated volumetric assessment. This study included 5,967 screening normal or benign mammograms (mean age, 46.2 ± 9.7; range, 30–89 years), from cancer-screening program. We evaluated mean fibroglandular tissue volume, breast tissue volume, volumetric breast density (VBD), and the results were 53.7 ± 30.8 cm3, 383.8 ± 205.2 cm3, and 15.8% ± 7.3%. The frequency of dense breasts and mean VBD by age group were 94.3% and 19.1% ± 6.7% for the 30s (n = 1,484), 91.4% and 17.2% ± 6.8% for the 40s (n = 2,706), 72.2% and 12.4% ± 6.2% for the 50s (n = 1,138), 44.0% and 8.6% ± 4.3% for the 60s (n = 89), 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.8% for the 70s (n = 138), and 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.5% for the 80s (n = 12). The frequency of dense breasts was higher in younger women (n = 4,313, 92.3%) than older women (n = 1,654, 59.8%). Mean VBD decreased with aging or menopause, and was about 16% for 46-year-old-Korean women, much higher than in other countries. The proportion of dense breasts sharply decreases in Korean women between 40 and 69 years of age. PMID:26955249

  19. Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities.

    PubMed

    Gierach, Gretchen L; Patel, Deesha A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Johnson, Jason M; Chicoine, Rachael E; Herschorn, Sally D; Shepherd, John A; Wang, Jeff; Malkov, Serghei; Vacek, Pamela M; Weaver, Donald L; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Palakal, Maya; Xiang, Jackie; Oh, Hannah; Horne, Hisani N; Sprague, Brian L; Hewitt, Stephen M; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLU), the histologic source of most breast cancers, has been associated with higher MD and breast cancer risk. We investigated relationships of TDLU involution with area and volumetric MD, measured throughout the breast and surrounding biopsy targets (perilesional). Three measures inversely related to TDLU involution (TDLU count/mm(2), median TDLU span, median acini count/TDLU) assessed in benign diagnostic biopsies from 348 women, ages 40-65, were related to MD area (quantified with thresholding software) and volume (assessed with a density phantom) by analysis of covariance, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, TDLU count was directly associated with percent perilesional MD (P trend = 0.03), but not with absolute dense area/volume. Greater TDLU span was associated with elevated percent dense area/volume (P trend<0.05) and absolute perilesional MD (P = 0.003). Acini count was directly associated with absolute perilesional MD (P = 0.02). Greater TDLU involution (all metrics) was associated with increased nondense area/volume (P trend ≤ 0.04). Among postmenopausal women, TDLU measures were not significantly associated with MD. Among premenopausal women, reduced TDLU involution was associated with higher area and volumetric MD, particularly in perilesional parenchyma. Data indicating that TDLU involution and MD are correlated markers of breast cancer risk suggest that associations of MD with breast cancer may partly reflect amounts of at-risk epithelium. If confirmed, these results could suggest a prevention paradigm based on enhancing TDLU involution and monitoring efficacy by assessing MD reduction. PMID:26645278

  20. Consumption of sweet foods and mammographic breast density: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing consumption of sugar worldwide seems to lead to several health problems, including some types of cancer. While some studies reported a positive association between sweet foods intake and breast cancer risk, little is known about their relation to mammographic density (MD), a strong breast cancer risk factor. This study examined the association of sweet foods and drinks intake with MD among 776 premenopausal and 779 postmenopausal women recruited at mammography. Methods A food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of sweet foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and spoonsful of sugar added. Percent and absolute breast density were estimated using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to evaluate associations. All models were adjusted for potential confounders, including age and body mass index. Results For increasing quartiles of sugar-sweetened beverages intake, adjusted-mean absolute density was respectively 32, 34, 32 and 36 cm2 among all women (Ptrend = 0.040) and 43, 46, 44 and 51 cm2 among premenopausal women (Ptrend = 0.007). For increasing quartiles of sweet foods intake, adjusted-mean percent density was respectively 16, 16, 17 and 19% among postmenopausal women (Ptrend = 0.036). No association was shown between intake of spoonsful of sugar added and MD. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increase in sweet foods or sugar-sweetened beverage intake is associated with higher MD. PMID:24969543

  1. JNK1 stress signaling is hyper-activated in high breast density and the tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Michael P; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Pavlides, Stephanos; Reeves, Kimberley Jayne; Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Chadwick, Amy L; Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Lamb, Rebecca; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is an important screening modality for the early detection of DCIS and breast cancer lesions. More specifically, high mammographic density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. However, the biological processes underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Here, we re-interrogated genome-wide transcriptional profiling data obtained from low-density (LD) mammary fibroblasts (n = 6 patients) and high-density (HD) mammary fibroblasts (n = 7 patients) derived from a series of 13 female patients. We used these raw data to generate a “breast density” gene signature consisting of >1250 transcripts that were significantly increased in HD fibroblasts, relative to LD fibroblasts. We then focused on the genes that were increased by ≥ 1.5-fold (P < 0.05) and performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), using the molecular signatures database (MSigDB). Our results indicate that HD fibroblasts show the upregulation and/or hyper-activation of several key cellular processes, including the stress response, inflammation, stemness, and signal transduction. The transcriptional profiles of HD fibroblasts also showed striking similarities to human tumors, including head and neck, liver, thyroid, lung, and breast cancers. This may reflect functional similarities between cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and HD fibroblasts. This is consistent with the idea that the presence of HD fibroblasts may be a hallmark of a pre-cancerous phenotype. In these biological processes, GSEA predicts that several key signaling pathways may be involved, including JNK1, iNOS, Rho GTPase(s), FGF-R, EGF-R, and PDGF-R-mediated signal transduction, thereby creating a pro-inflammatory, pro-proliferative, cytokine, and chemokine-rich microenvironment. HD fibroblasts also showed significant overlap with gene profiles derived from smooth muscle cells under stress (JNK1) and activated/infected macrophages (iNOS). Thus, HD fibroblasts may behave like activated

  2. Background risk of breast cancer influences the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T; Christensen, S E; Brand, J S; Cuzick, J; Czene, K; Sjölander, A; Bälter, K; Hall, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption has been suggested to increase risk of breast cancer through a mechanism that also increases mammographic density. Whether the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density is modified by background breast cancer risk has, however, not been studied. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 53 060 Swedish women aged 40–74 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed using a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Mammographic density was measured using the fully-automated volumetric Volpara method. The Tyrer–Cuzick prediction model was used to estimate risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and volumetric mammographic density and the potential influence of Tyrer–Cuzick breast cancer risk. Results: Overall, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher absolute dense volume (cm3) and per cent dense volume (%). The association between alcohol consumption and absolute dense volume was most pronounced among women with the highest (⩾5%) Tyrer–Cuzick 10-year risk. Among high-risk women, women consuming 5.0–9.9, 10.0–19.9, 20.0–29.9, and 30.0–40.0 g of alcohol per day had 2.6 cm3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–4.9), 2.9 cm3 (95% CI, −0.6 to 6.3), 4.6 cm3 (95% CI, 1.5–7.7), and 10.8 cm3 (95% CI, 4.8–17.0) higher absolute dense volume, respectively, as compared with women abstaining from alcohol. A trend of increasing alcohol consumption and higher absolute dense volume was seen in women at low (⩽3%) risk, but not in women at moderate (3.0–4.9%) risk. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption may increase breast cancer risk through increasing mammographic density, particularly in women at high background risk of breast cancer. PMID:26035701

  3. Plasma Leptin levels, LEPR Q223R Polymorphism and Mammographic Breast Density: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dallal, Cher; Garte, Seymour; Ragin, Camille; Chen, Jiangying; Lloyd, Stacy; Modugno, Francesmary; Weissfeld, Joel; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with breast cancer in post-menopausal women, and breast density is a marker of breast cancer risk. Leptin is produced by the adipose tissue, acts through receptors that are polymorphic in nature, and is considered a cancer growth factor. The relationship between Body Mass Index, leptin, leptin receptors and breast density is not well studied. A cross-sectional analysis in 392 post-menopausal healthy women was conducted; participants provided permission to obtain copies of their most recent screening mammogram. Nonfasting plasma leptin levels were determined using a commercially available leptin ELISA kit. The Q223R genotypes of the LEPR gene were performed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using DNA extracted from buffy coat samples. A statistically significant positive relationship was observed between leptin levels and body mass index (P value<0.0001); leptin was significantly positively associated with mammography total breast area and non-dense breast area (P-value<0.0001), while was significantly inversely associated with percent breast density (P-value<0.0001). Leptin levels varied across the LEPR Q223R polymorphism, and were higher in women homozygous for the AA variant. Percent breast density decreased across the LEPR Q223R genotype, with lower percent density in women with the AA genotype. When dense area was considered for quartiles of leptin by LEPR Q223R, a significant inverse trend between leptin levels and dense breast area was observed only among women with the G/G genotype (P-trend<0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, leptin levels were significantly inversely associated with percent breast density (p=0.01). A significant interaction between body mass index and leptin levels on percent breast density was observed (p=0.03). These findings suggest that the association between leptin and breast density may vary by LEPR Q223R genotype, and that body mass index

  4. A volumetric method for estimation of breast density on digitized screen-film mammograms.

    PubMed

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Augustine, Bindu J; Yaffe, Martin J; Rico, Dan; Yang, Jiwei; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Boyd, Norman F

    2003-03-01

    A method is described for the quantitative volumetric analysis of the mammographic density (VBD) from digitized screen-film mammograms. The method is based on initial calibration of the imaging system with a tissue-equivalent plastic device and the subsequent correction for variations in exposure factors and film processing characteristics through images of an aluminum step wedge placed adjacent to the breast during imaging. From information about the compressed breast thickness and technique factors used for taking the mammogram as well as the information from the calibration device, VBD is calculated. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert images to Log relative exposure. Second, the images are corrected for x-ray field inhomogeneity using a spherical section PMMA phantom image. The effectiveness of using the aluminum step wedge in tracking down the variations in exposure factors and film processing was tested by taking test images of the calibration device, aluminum step wedge and known density phantoms at various exposure conditions and also at different times over one year. Results obtained on known density phantoms show that VBD can be estimated to within 5% accuracy from the actual value. A first order thickness correction is employed to correct for inaccuracy in the compression thickness indicator of the mammography units. Clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate whether VBD can be a better indicator for breast cancer risk. PMID:12674236

  5. Semi-automated and fully automated mammographic density measurement and breast cancer risk prediction.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Rafael; Pollán, Marina; Antón, Joaquín; Miranda-García, Josefa; Casals, María; Martínez, Inmaculada; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pérez-Cortés, Juan-Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The task of breast density quantification is becoming increasingly relevant due to its association with breast cancer risk. In this work, a semi-automated and a fully automated tools to assess breast density from full-field digitized mammograms are presented. The first tool is based on a supervised interactive thresholding procedure for segmenting dense from fatty tissue and is used with a twofold goal: for assessing mammographic density (MD) in a more objective and accurate way than via visual-based methods and for labeling the mammograms that are later employed to train the fully automated tool. Although most automated methods rely on supervised approaches based on a global labeling of the mammogram, the proposed method relies on pixel-level labeling, allowing better tissue classification and density measurement on a continuous scale. The fully automated method presented combines a classification scheme based on local features and thresholding operations that improve the performance of the classifier. A dataset of 655 mammograms was used to test the concordance of both approaches in measuring MD. Three expert radiologists measured MD in each of the mammograms using the semi-automated tool (DM-Scan). It was then measured by the fully automated system and the correlation between both methods was computed. The relation between MD and breast cancer was then analyzed using a case-control dataset consisting of 230 mammograms. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to compute reliability among raters and between techniques. The results obtained showed an average ICC=0.922 among raters when using the semi-automated tool, whilst the average correlation between the semi-automated and automated measures was ICC=0.838. In the case-control study, the results obtained showed Odds Ratios (OR) of 1.38 and 1.50 per 10% increase in MD when using the semi-automated and fully automated approaches respectively. It can therefore be concluded that the automated and semi

  6. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  7. The Impact of Acquisition Dose on Quantitative Breast Density Estimation with Digital Mammography: Results from ACRIN PA 4006.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Ray, Shonket; Keller, Brad M; Pertuz, Said; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of radiation dose on breast density estimation in digital mammography. Materials and Methods With institutional review board approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance under waiver of consent, a cohort of women from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network Pennsylvania 4006 trial was retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent breast screening with a combination of dose protocols, including standard full-field digital mammography, low-dose digital mammography, and digital breast tomosynthesis. A total of 5832 images from 486 women were analyzed with previously validated, fully automated software for quantitative estimation of density. Clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density assessment results were also available from the trial reports. The influence of image acquisition radiation dose on quantitative breast density estimation was investigated with analysis of variance and linear regression. Pairwise comparisons of density estimations at different dose levels were performed with Student t test. Agreement of estimation was evaluated with quartile-weighted Cohen kappa values and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Results Radiation dose of image acquisition did not significantly affect quantitative density measurements (analysis of variance, P = .37 to P = .75), with percent density demonstrating a high overall correlation between protocols (r = 0.88-0.95; weighted κ = 0.83-0.90). However, differences in breast percent density (1.04% and 3.84%, P < .05) were observed within high BI-RADS density categories, although they were significantly correlated across the different acquisition dose levels (r = 0.76-0.92, P < .05). Conclusion Precision and reproducibility of automated breast density measurements with digital mammography are not substantially affected by variations in radiation dose; thus, the use of low-dose techniques for the purpose of density estimation

  8. Robust estimation of mammographic breast density: a patient-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heese, Harald S.; Erhard, Klaus; Gooßen, Andre; Bulow, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Breast density has become an established risk indicator for developing breast cancer. Current clinical practice reflects this by grading mammograms patient-wise as entirely fat, scattered fibroglandular, heterogeneously dense, or extremely dense based on visual perception. Existing (semi-) automated methods work on a per-image basis and mimic clinical practice by calculating an area fraction of fibroglandular tissue (mammographic percent density). We suggest a method that follows clinical practice more strictly by segmenting the fibroglandular tissue portion directly from the joint data of all four available mammographic views (cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique, left and right), and by subsequently calculating a consistently patient-based mammographic percent density estimate. In particular, each mammographic view is first processed separately to determine a region of interest (ROI) for segmentation into fibroglandular and adipose tissue. ROI determination includes breast outline detection via edge-based methods, peripheral tissue suppression via geometric breast height modeling, and - for medio-lateral oblique views only - pectoral muscle outline detection based on optimizing a three-parameter analytic curve with respect to local appearance. Intensity harmonization based on separately acquired calibration data is performed with respect to compression height and tube voltage to facilitate joint segmentation of available mammographic views. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM) on the joint histogram data with a posteriori calibration guided plausibility correction is finally employed for tissue separation. The proposed method was tested on patient data from 82 subjects. Results show excellent correlation (r = 0.86) to radiologist's grading with deviations ranging between -28%, (q = 0.025) and +16%, (q = 0.975).

  9. Classification of breast tissue density by optical transillumination spectroscopy: optical and physiological effects governing predictive value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle K.; Jong, Roberta A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-12-01

    Preventive oncology is in need of a risk assessment technique that can identify individuals at high risk for breast cancer and that has the ability to monitor the efficacy of a risk reducing intervention. Optical transillumination spectroscopy (OTS) was shown to give information about breast tissue composition and tissue density. OTS is non-invasive, and in contrast to mammography, uses non-ionizing radiation. It is safe and can be used frequently on younger women, potentially permitting early risk detection and thus increasing the time available for risk reduction interventions to assert their influence. Before OTS can be used as a risk assessment and/or monitoring technique, its predictive ability needs to be demonstrated and maximized through the construction of mathematical models relating OTS and risk. To establish a correlation between OTS and mammographic density, Principle Components Analysis (PCA), using risk classification, is employed. PCA scores are presented in 3D cluster plots and a plane of differentiation that separates high and low tissue density is used to calculate the predictive value. Stratificaiton of PCA for measurement position on the breast in cranial-caudal projection is introduced. Analysis of PCA scores as a function of the volunteer's age and body mass index (BMI) is examined. A small but significant correlation between the component scores and age or BMI is noted but the correlation is dependnet on the tissue density category examined. Correction of the component scores for age and BMI is not recommended, since a priori knowledge of a women's tissue density is required. Stratification for the center and distal measurement positions provides a predictive value for OTS above 96%.

  10. Aromatase inhibitor-induced modulation of breast density: clinical and genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    Henry, N L; Chan, H-P; Dantzer, J; Goswami, C P; Li, L; Skaar, T C; Rae, J M; Desta, Z; Khouri, N; Pinsky, R; Oesterreich, S; Zhou, C; Hadjiiski, L; Philips, S; Robarge, J; Nguyen, A T; Storniolo, A M; Flockhart, D A; Hayes, D F; Helvie, M A; Stearns, V

    2013-01-01

    Background: Change in breast density may predict outcome of women receiving adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer. We performed a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the impact of inherited variants in genes involved in oestrogen metabolism and signalling on change in mammographic percent density (MPD) with aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Methods: Postmenopausal women with breast cancer who were initiating adjuvant AI therapy were enrolled onto a multicentre, randomised clinical trial of exemestane vs letrozole, designed to identify associations between AI-induced change in MPD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes. Subjects underwent unilateral craniocaudal mammography before and following 24 months of treatment. Results: Of the 503 enrolled subjects, 259 had both paired mammograms at baseline and following 24 months of treatment and evaluable DNA. We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean MPD from 17.1 to 15.1% (P<0.001), more pronounced in women with baseline MPD ⩾20%. No AI-specific difference in change in MPD was identified. No significant associations between change in MPD and inherited genetic variants were observed. Conclusion: Subjects with higher baseline MPD had a greater average decrease in MPD with AI therapy. There does not appear to be a substantial effect of inherited variants in biologically selected candidate genes. PMID:24084768

  11. Prognosis of invasive breast cancer after adjuvant therapy evaluated with VEGF microvessel density and microvascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Wei, Xi; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ultrasonographic microvascular imaging in the evaluation of prognosis of patients with invasive breast cancer treated by adjuvant therapies. A total of 121 patients with invasive breast cancer underwent ultrasonographic contrast-enhanced imaging, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) staining, and microvessel density (MVD) counts. The parameters of microvascular imaging and the expression of VEGF and MVD in primary breast cancer were calculated. The correlation between these factors and the overall and progression-free survival rate were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among 121 cases, the positive VEGF cases were 75 and negative ones were 46. The cut point of 52.3 was calculated by the regressive curve for MVD counts. The data showed the mean intensity (MI) was positively associated with both the MVD counts (r = .51, p < .001) and VEGF expression (r = .35, p < .001). For the prognosis of patients, high VEGF expression and MVD counts were associated with reduced progressive and survival times (PFS, p = .032 and p = .034; OS, p = .041 and p = .038, respectively). The correlation between parameters of microvascular imaging, VEGF expressive status, and the MVD counts were established. The cut point of mean intensity (MI = 40) was used to investigate as an independent predictor for PFS (p = .021) and OS (p = .025), respectively, due to a strong correlation between MVD counts and VEGF expression in patients with invasive breast cancer. The microvascular imaging could be a visual and helpful tool to predict the prognosis of patients with invasive breast cancer treated by adjuvant therapies. PMID:26052072

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  13. Content of low density lipoprotein receptors in breast cancer tissue related to survival of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rudling, M J; Ståhle, L; Peterson, C O; Skoog, L

    1986-01-01

    The content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in tissue from primary breast cancers was determined and its prognostic information compared with that of variables of established prognostic importance. Frozen tumour specimens were selected, and tissue from 72 patients (32 of whom had died) were studied. The LDL receptor content showed an inverse correlation with the survival time. Analysis by a multivariate statistical method showed that the presence of axillary metastasis, content of receptors for oestrogen and LDL, diameter of the tumour, and DNA pattern were all of prognostic value with regard to patient survival. Improved methods of predicting survival time in patients with breast cancer may be of value in the choice of treatment for individual patients. PMID:3081176

  14. Area and Volumetric Density Estimation in Processed Full-Field Digital Mammograms for Risk Assessment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheddad, Abbas; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei; Easton, Douglas; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. Methods The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area) and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol). The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. Results All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p<0.025 for breast cancer risk and p<1×10−6 for rs10995190). After adjusting for one of the measures there remained little or no evidence of residual association with the remaining density measures (p>0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190). Conclusions Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of

  15. Assessment of change in breast density: reader performance using synthetic mammographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Sue; Swayamprakasam, Chitra; Berks, Michael; Sergeant, Jamie; Morris, Julie; Wilson, Mary; Barr, Nicky; Boggis, Caroline

    2012-02-01

    A recent study has shown that breast cancer risk can be reduced by taking Tamoxifen, but only if this results in at least a 10% point reduction in mammographic density. When mammographic density is quantified visually, it is impossible to assess reader accuracy using clinical images as the ground truth is unknown. Our aim was to compare three models of assessing density change and to determine reader accuracy in identifying reductions of 10% points or more. We created 100 synthetic, mammogram-like images comprising 50 pairs designed to simulate natural reduction in density within each pair. Model I: individual images were presented to readers and density assessed. Model II: pairs of images were displayed together, with readers assessing density for each image. Model III: pairs of images were displayed together, and readers asked whether there was at least a 10% point reduction in density. Ten expert readers participated. Readers' estimates of percentage density were significantly closer to the truth (6.8%-26.4%) when images were assessed individually rather than in pairs (9.6%-29.8%). Measurement of change was significantly more accurate in Model II than Model I (p<0.005). Detecting density changes of at least 10% points in image pairs, mean accuracy was significantly (p<0.005) lower (58%-88%) when change was calculated from density assessments than in Model III (74%-92%). Our results suggest that where readers need to identify change in density, images should be displayed alongside one another. In our study, less accurate assessors performed better when asked directly about the magnitude of the change.

  16. Amount of stroma is associated with mammographic density and stromal expression of oestrogen receptor in normal breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Chiesa, Flaminia; Paulsson, Janna; Strell, Carina; Behmer, Catharina; Rönnow, Katarina; Czene, Kamila; Östman, Arne; Hall, Per

    2016-07-01

    Following female sex and age, mammographic density is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Despite the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk, little is known about the underlying histology and biological basis of breast density. To better understand the mechanisms behind mammographic density we assessed morphology, proliferation and hormone receptor status in relation to mammographic density in breast tissues from healthy women. Tissues were obtained from 2012-2013 by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy from 160 women as part of the Karma (Karolinska mammography project for risk prediction for breast cancer) project. Mammograms were collected through routine mammography screening and mammographic density was calculated using STRATUS. The histological composition, epithelial and stromal proliferation status and hormone receptor status were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Higher mammographic density was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stromal and epithelial tissue and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial expression levels of Ki-67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were not associated with mammographic density. Epithelial Ki-67 was associated with a greater proportion of epithelial tissue, and epithelial PR was associated with a greater proportion of stromal and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial ER was not associated with any tissues. In contrast, expression of ER in the stroma was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stroma, and negatively associated with the amount of adipose tissue. High mammographic density is associated with higher amount of stroma and epithelium and less amount of fat, but is not associated with a change in epithelial proliferation or receptor status. Increased expressions of both epithelial PR and stromal ER are associated with a greater proportion of stroma, suggesting hormonal involvement

  17. Mammographic Density Phenotypes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Rebecca E.; Ursin, Giske; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie; Baglietto, Laura; Vachon, Celine; Bakker, Marije F.; Giles, Graham G.; Chia, Kee Seng; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Louise; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; Warren, Ruth M. L.; Hislop, Greg; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Hopper, John L.; Krishnan, Kavitha; Li, Jingmei; Li, Qing; Pagano, Ian; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wong, Chia Siong; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Boyd, Norman F.; van Gils, Carla H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case–control studies providing results from logistic regressions for associations between one standard deviation (SD) increments in mammographic density phenotypes and breast cancer risk. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All tests were two-sided with P less than .05 considered to be statistically significant. Results Among premenopausal women (n = 1776 case patients; n = 2834 control subjects), summary odds ratios were 1.37 (95% CI = 1.29 to 1.47) for absolute dense area, 0.78 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.86) for absolute nondense area, and 1.52 (95% CI = 1.39 to 1.66) for percentage dense area when pooling estimates adjusted for age, body mass index, and parity. Corresponding odds ratios among postmenopausal women (n = 6643 case patients; n = 11187 control subjects) were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.31 to 1.44), 0.79 (95% CI = 0.73 to 0.85), and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.44 to 1.64). After additional adjustment for absolute dense area, associations between absolute nondense area and breast cancer became attenuated or null in several studies and summary odds ratios became 0.82 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94; P heterogeneity = .02) for premenopausal and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75 to 0.96; P heterogeneity < .01) for postmenopausal women. Conclusions The results suggest that percentage dense area is a stronger breast cancer risk factor than absolute dense area. Absolute nondense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk, but it is unclear whether the association is independent of absolute dense area. PMID:24816206

  18. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV. Conclusion Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with

  19. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations. PMID

  20. Adult human mesenchymal stem cells enhance breast tumorigenesis and promote hormone independence

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Lyndsay V.; Muir, Shannon E.; Elliott, Steven; Guillot, Lori M.; Antoon, James W.; Penfornis, Patrice; Tilghman, Syreeta L.; Salvo, Virgilio A.; Fonseca, Juan P.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Beckman, Barbara S.; McLachlan, John A.; Rowan, Brian G.; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been shown to home to sites of breast cancer and integrate into the tumor stroma. We demonstrate here the effect of hMSCs on primary breast tumor growth and the progression of these tumors to hormone independence. Co-injection of bone marrow-derived hMSCs enhances primary tumor growth of the estrogen receptor-positive, hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 in the presence or absence of estrogen in SCID/beige mice. We also show hormone-independent growth of MCF-7 cells when co-injected with hMSCs. These effects were found in conjunction with increased immunohistochemical staining of the progesterone receptor in the MCF-7/hMSC tumors as compared to MCF-7 control tumors. This increase in PgR expression indicates a link between MCF-7 cells and MSCs through ER-mediated signaling. Taken together, our data reveal the relationship between tumor microenvironment and tumor growth and the progression to hormone independence. This tumor stroma-cell interaction may provide a novel target for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, hormone-independent, and endocrine-resistant breast carcinoma. PMID:19597705

  1. Seed availability and insect herbivory limit recruitment and adult density of native tall thistle.

    PubMed

    Russell, F Leland; Rose, Karen E; Louda, Svata M

    2010-10-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in factors influencing plant regeneration is critical to predicting plant population growth. We experimentally evaluated seed limitation, insect herbivory, and their interaction in the regeneration and density of tall thistle (Cirsium altissimum) across a topographic ecosystem productivity gradient in tallgrass prairie over two years. On ridges and in valleys, we used a factorial experiment manipulating seed availability and insect herbivory to quantify effects of: seed input on seedling density, insect herbivory on juvenile density, and cumulative impacts of both seed input and herbivory on reproductive adult density. Seed addition increased seedling densities at three of five sites in 2006 and all five sites in 2007. Insect herbivory reduced seedling survival across all sites in both years, as well as rosette survival from the previous year's seedlings. In both years, insecticide treatment of seed addition plots led to greater adult tall thistle densities in the following year, reflecting the increase in juvenile thistle densities in the experimental year. Seedling survival was not density dependent. Our analytical projection model predicts a significant long-term increase in adult densities from seed input, with a greater increase under experimentally reduced insect herbivory. While plant community biomass and water stress varied significantly between ridges and valleys, the effects of seed addition and insect herbivory did not vary with gradient position. These results support conceptual models that predict seedling and adult densities of short-lived monocarpic perennial plants should be seed limited. Further, the experiment demonstrates that even at high juvenile plant densities, at which density dependence potentially could have overridden herbivore effects on plant survival, insect herbivory strongly affected juvenile thistle performance and adult densities of this native prairie species. PMID:21058567

  2. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with both mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Sara; Thompson, Deborah J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Li, Jingmei; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Douglas, Julie A.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Verghase, Jajini; Smith, Paula; Brown, Judith; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Heit, John A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; deAndrade, Mariza; Vierkant, Robert A.; Czene, Kamila; Fasching, Peter A.; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Pollan, Marina; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hopper, John L.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Boyd, Norman F.; Vachon, Celine M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density reflects the amount of stromal and epithelial tissues in relation to adipose tissue in the breast and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we report the results from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of three mammographic density phenotypes: dense area, non-dense area and percent density in up to 7,916 women in stage 1 and an additional 10,379 women in stage 2. We identify genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) loci for dense area (AREG, ESR1, ZNF365, LSP1/TNNT3, IGF1, TMEM184B, SGSM3/MKL1), non-dense area (8p11.23) and percent density (PRDM6, 8p11.23, TMEM184B). Four of these regions are known breast cancer susceptibility loci, and four additional regions were found to be associated with breast cancer (P<0.05) in a large meta-analysis. These results provide further evidence of a shared genetic basis between mammographic density and breast cancer and illustrate the power of studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes to identify putative disease susceptibility loci. PMID:25342443

  4. Simulation study of diffuse photon density waves traveling through normal and abnormal breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoyuan; Xing, Da

    1999-09-01

    Diffuse Photon Density Waves (DPDW) is new concept and principle, which takes advantage of the difference of absorption and scattering coefficients of different tissues to study the law of photon density fluctuation during a modulated light traveling through the tissues, thus to explore the structure and function of tissues. With the combination of image reconstruction technology, we can directly `visualize' the tissues. As a non- invasive exam, it has highly extensive applied prospect in medical field and brain cognition study. In this paper, the behavior of DPDW traveling through simulated breast tissue is tentatively examined. Under various conditions, we observed the characteristics of DPDW. We observed the reasonability of the distribution of sources and detectors, the factors that influence the distortion of DPDW. Simulation results could be used as a good theoretical guideline for experiments.

  5. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  6. The effect of larval density on adult demographic traits in Ambystoma opacum

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Factors that affect traits of aquatic larvae of amphibians may have long-lasting effects on terrestrial juveniles and adults. I manipulated larval densities of marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, in large-scale field enclosures during 2 yr, released the juveniles that metamorphosed from these enclosures, and tested for effects on adults that returned to the pond during 6-7 subsequent breeding seasons. Individuals from low larval density treatments tended to have greater lipid stores at metamorphosis than those from high densities and survived longer in a laboratory inanition study. In the field, individuals that experienced low larval density returned for their first reproductive bout as larger adults than those from high-density treatments. For 5-yr-old females released in 1986, low larval density was linked to greater clutch size; clutch size in 4-yr-old animals from the 1987 cohort did not differ between larval treatment groups. Larval density also influenced age at first reproduction, as animals rared at low densities returned to breed at younger ages. Averaged across both cohorts, the proportion of animals that returned to breed at least once was 21% for low-density groups compared to 6% for the high density groups. The larval environment exerted a strong influence on postmetamorphic traits, and thus larval density likely plays an important role of population regulation in both the aquatic and terrestrial phase of the life cycle. 81 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. High Mammographic Breast Density Is Independent Predictor of Local But Not Distant Recurrence After Lumpectomy and Radiotherapy for Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Catherine C. Rembert, James; Chew, Karen; Moore, Dan; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Biologically meaningful predictors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) are lacking. Tissue components, including extracellular matrix, could confer resistance to ionizing radiation. Fibroglandular and extracellular matrix components of breast tissue relative to adipose tissue can be quantified by the mammographic breast density (MBD), the proportion of dense area relative to the total breast area on mammography. We hypothesized that the MBD might be a predictor of LRR after BCS and RT for invasive breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of 136 women with invasive breast cancer who had undergone BCS and RT and had had the MBD ascertained before, or at, diagnosis. Women with known recurrence were matched to women without recurrence by year of diagnosis. The median follow-up was 7.7 years. The percentage of MBD was measured using a computer-based threshold method. Results: Patients with a high MBD ({>=}75% density) vs. low ({<=}25%) were at increased risk of LRR (hazard ratio, 4.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-021.0; p = 0.071) but not distant recurrence. In addition, we found a complete inverse correlation between high MBD and obesity (body mass index, {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, patients with MBD in the greatest quartile were at significantly greater risk of LRR (hazard ratio, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-27.7; p = 0.01). Obesity without a high MBD also independently predicted for LRR (hazard ratio, 19.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-81.7; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that a high MBD and obesity are significant independent predictors of LRR after BCS and RT for invasive breast cancer. Additional studies are warranted to validate these findings.

  8. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  9. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  10. The network of antigen-antibody reactions in adult women with breast cancer or benign breast pathology or without breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network's state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  11. The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network’s state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  12. Impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on adult children's cognitive and emotional coherence.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, John P; Soliday, Elizabeth; Cole, Brenda; Dawson, Erica; Henderson, Brent N

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether adult children of recently diagnosed breast cancer patients experience heightened general and major stressor-related distress, and identified a potential mediator between these two forms of distress. Unique from other stress studies, the current study proposed a novel intrapsychic construct, the extent to which one understands and recognizes his or her thoughts and feelings related to a major stressor, for which we coined the term cognitive and emotional coherence. Albeit preliminary, findings supported study hypotheses and argue that this construct may represent an important mediator of distress as well as a pivotal target for psychosocial intervention. PMID:19197677

  13. Influence of Obesity on Breast Density Reduction by Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Evidence from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Narinder; Schetter, Susann E; Liao, Jason; Hartman, Terryl J; Richie, John P; McGinley, John; Thompson, Henry J; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; DuBrock, Cynthia; Signori, Carina; Hamilton, Christopher; Calcagnotto, Ana; Trushin, Neil; Aliaga, Cesar; Demers, Laurence M; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Manni, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical data indicate that omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) potentiate the chemopreventive effect of the antiestrogen (AE) tamoxifen against mammary carcinogenesis. The role of n-3FA in breast cancer prevention in humans is controversial. Preclinical and epidemiologic data suggest that n-3FA may be preferentially protective in obese subjects. To directly test the protective effect of n-3FA against breast cancer, we conducted a 2-year, open-label randomized clinical trial in 266 healthy postmenopausal women (50% normal weight, 30% overweight, 20% obese) with high breast density (BD; ≥25%) detected on their routine screening mammograms. Eligible women were randomized to one of the following five groups (i) no treatment, control; (ii) raloxifene 60 mg; (iii) raloxifene 30 mg; (iv) n-3FA lovaza 4 g; and (v) lovaza 4 g plus raloxifene 30 mg. The 2-year change in BD, a validated biomarker of breast cancer risk, was the primary endpoint of the study. In subset analysis, we tested the prespecified hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) influences the relationship between plasma n-3FA on BD. While none of the interventions affected BD in the intention-to-treat analysis, increase in plasma DHA was associated with a decrease in absolute breast density but only in participants with BMI >29. Our results suggest that obese women may preferentially experience breast cancer risk reduction from n-3FA administration. PMID:26714774

  14. Correlation of white female breast cancer incidence trends with nitrogen dioxide emission levels and motor vehicle density patterns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fan; Bina, William F

    2012-02-01

    The long-term trend of female breast cancer incidence rates in the United States and some European countries demonstrates a similar pattern: an increasing trend in the last century followed by a declining trend in this century. The well-known risk factors cannot explain this trend. We compared the breast cancer incidence trends obtained from SEER data with the trend of nitrogen dioxides (NOx) emission and monitoring data as well as motor vehicle density data. The upward followed by downward trend of NOx is similar to the breast cancer incidence trend but with an offset of 20 years earlier. Motor vehicles are the major source of NOx emissions. The geographic distribution of motor vehicles density in 1970 in the observed US counties is positively correlated with breast cancer incidence rates (R(2) 0.8418, the correlation coefficient = 0.9175) in 1980-1995. Because both the time trend and geographic pattern are associated with breast cancer incidence rates, further studies on the relationship between breast cancer and air pollution are needed. PMID:22076479

  15. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth. PMID:14521517

  16. Matching spatial scales of variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities across southwestern Atlantic rocky shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Lorena P.; Bagur, María; Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of aquatic invertebrate larvae often differs in space and time thus contributing to variation in the abundance of adults. In the present study, we examined spatial scales of variation in mussel (Brachidontes spp.) recruitment and adult abundance across rocky intertidal areas in the Southwestern Atlantic. Recruitment and adult densities were compared between two regions separated ca. 700 km from each other, two locations (10-20 km from each other) within each region, and two sites (100-500 m from each other) within each location. Variance components analysis indicates that most variation in mussel recruitment and adult densities occurs at the scale of locations, irrespective of if mussel recruitment is quantified on mussel bed samples or artificial substrates (plastic mesh collectors). Increased mussel recruitment and adult densities at this scale are associated with higher time-averaged chlorophyll a concentration and wave exposure, which can potentially affect the supply of larvae to rocky shores by increasing their survival and delivery rates. There was close correspondence between the spatial patterns of variation in cumulative recruitment on natural substrates during the study period and the density of adults at its end. This suggests that differences in mussel abundance along Southwestern Atlantic rocky shores could be primarily determined by larval recruitment.

  17. Consistency of visual assessments of mammographic breast density from vendor-specific "for presentation" images.

    PubMed

    Abdolell, Mohamed; Tsuruda, Kaitlyn; Lightfoot, Christopher B; Barkova, Eva; McQuaid, Melanie; Caines, Judy; Iles, Sian E

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of percent breast density (PD) and breast cancer risk implicitly assume that visual assessments of PD are comparable between vendors despite differences in technology and display algorithms. This study examines the extent to which visual assessments of PD differ between mammograms acquired from two vendors. Pairs of "for presentation" digital mammography images were obtained from two mammography units for 146 women who had a screening mammogram on one vendor unit followed by a diagnostic mammogram on a different vendor unit. Four radiologists independently visually assessed PD from single left mediolateral oblique view images from the two vendors. Analysis of variance, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), scatter plots, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate PD assessments between vendors. The mean radiologist PD for each image was used as a consensus PD measure. Overall agreement of the PD assessments was excellent between the two vendors with an ICC of 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 0.97). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated narrow upper and lower limits of agreement between the vendors with only a small bias (2.3 percentage points). The results of this study support the assumption that visual assessment of PD is consistent across mammography vendors despite vendor-specific appearances of "for presentation" images. PMID:26870747

  18. Density dependent growth in adult brown frogs Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria - A field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loman, Jon; Lardner, Björn

    2009-11-01

    In species with complex life cycles, density regulation can operate on any of the stages. In frogs there are almost no studies of density effects on the performance of adult frogs in the terrestrial habitat. We therefore studied the effect of summer density on the growth rate of adult frogs during four years. Four 30 by 30 m plots in a moist meadow were used. In early summer, when settled after post-breeding migration, frogs ( Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria that have a very similar ecology and potentially compete) were enclosed by erecting a fence around the plots. Frogs were captured, measured, marked and partly relocated to create two high density and two low density plots. In early autumn the frogs were again captured and their individual summer growth determined. Growth effects were evaluated in relation to two density measures: density by design (high/low manipulation), and actual (numerical) density. R. arvalis in plots with low density by design grew faster than those in high density plots. No such effect was found for R. temporaria. For none of the species was growth related to actual summer density, determined by the Lincoln index and including the density manipulation. The result suggests that R. arvalis initially settled according to an ideal free distribution and that density had a regulatory effect (mediated through growth). The fact that there were no density effects on R. temporaria (and a significant difference in its response to that of R. arvalis) suggests it is a superior competitor to R. arvalis during the terrestrial phase. There were no density effects on frog condition index, suggesting that the growth rate modifications may actually be an adaptive trait of R. arvalis. The study demonstrates that density regulation may be dependent on resources in frogs' summer habitat.

  19. Assessment of Content-Based Image Retrieval Approaches for Mammography Based on Breast Density Patterns.

    PubMed

    Purwadi, Nabila Sabatini; Atay, Hüseyin Tanzer; Kurt, Kenan Kaan; Turkeli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study is trying to assess methods commonly used in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) for screening mammography analysis. A database consists of 12 different BI-RADS classes related to breast density patterns of mammogram patches which are taken from IRMA database is used in this study. Three feature extraction methods, namely grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), principal component analysis (PCA), and scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) are being investigated and compared with prior studies. Two retrieval methods are also used in this study, namely k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and mutual information (MI) to measure the similarity between query image and images in database. The result will be evaluated using positive count rate in each query for each class. The result of this study is expected to contribute more towards better Computed-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) and specifically screening mammography analysis in clinical cases. PMID:27577481

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy for older adults with breast cancer: making the standard a standard.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sumanta Kumar; Mortimer, Joanne

    2009-09-01

    Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT et al.: Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 2055-2065 (2009). To date, only two prospective trials evaluating adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in older adults have been published. The second and more recent trial, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 49907, provides substantial evidence supporting the use of standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimens (doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide or cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil) as opposed to simplified oral regimens (capecitabine). In this trial, both the risk of relapse (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.38-3.17; p < 0.001) and the risk of death (hazard ratio: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.08; p = 0.02) were significantly higher with capecitabine compared with standard chemotherapy. The current review explores both the implications and potential caveats of this innovative trial. CALGB 49907 represents a paradigm for further studies of adjuvant cancer therapy in older adults. PMID:19702447

  1. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight. PMID:22480489

  2. Determinants of the reliability of ultrasound tomography sound speed estimates as a surrogate for volumetric breast density

    SciTech Connect

    Khodr, Zeina G.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Sak, Mark A.; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Ali, Haythem; Vallieres, Patricia; Sherman, Mark E.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: High breast density, as measured by mammography, is associated with increased breast cancer risk, but standard methods of assessment have limitations including 2D representation of breast tissue, distortion due to breast compression, and use of ionizing radiation. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is a novel imaging method that averts these limitations and uses sound speed measures rather than x-ray imaging to estimate breast density. The authors evaluated the reproducibility of measures of speed of sound and changes in this parameter using UST. Methods: One experienced and five newly trained raters measured sound speed in serial UST scans for 22 women (two scans per person) to assess inter-rater reliability. Intrarater reliability was assessed for four raters. A random effects model was used to calculate the percent variation in sound speed and change in sound speed attributable to subject, scan, rater, and repeat reads. The authors estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these measures based on data from the authors’ experienced rater. Results: Median (range) time between baseline and follow-up UST scans was five (1–13) months. Contributions of factors to sound speed variance were differences between subjects (86.0%), baseline versus follow-up scans (7.5%), inter-rater evaluations (1.1%), and intrarater reproducibility (∼0%). When evaluating change in sound speed between scans, 2.7% and ∼0% of variation were attributed to inter- and intrarater variation, respectively. For the experienced rater’s repeat reads, agreement for sound speed was excellent (ICC = 93.4%) and for change in sound speed substantial (ICC = 70.4%), indicating very good reproducibility of these measures. Conclusions: UST provided highly reproducible sound speed measurements, which reflect breast density, suggesting that UST has utility in sensitively assessing change in density.

  3. LCN2 Promoter Methylation Status as Novel Predictive Marker for Microvessel Density and Aggressive Tumor Phenotype in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Meka, Phanni bhushann; Jarjapu, Sarika; Nanchari, Santhoshi Rani; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Edathara, Prajitha Mohandas; Gorre, Manjula; Cingeetham, Anuradha; Vuree, Sugunakar; Annamaneni, Sandhya; Dunna, Nageswara Rao; Mukta, Srinivasulu; B, Triveni; Satti, Vishnupriya

    2015-01-01

    LCN2 (Lipocalin 2) is a 25 KD secreted acute phase protein, reported to be a novel regulator of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Up regulation of LCN2 had been observed in multiple cancers including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer. However, the role of LCN2 promoter methylation in the formation of microvessels is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of LCN 2 promoter methylation with microvessel formation and tumor cell proliferation in breast cancer patients. The LCN2 promoter methylation status was studied in 64 breast cancer tumors by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Evaluation of microvessel density (MVD) and Ki67 cell proliferation index was achieved by immunohistochemical staining using CD34 and MIB-1 antibodies, respectively. LCN2 promoter unmethylation status was observed in 43 (67.2%) of breast cancer patients whereas LCN2 methylation status was seen in 21 (32.8%). Further, LCN2 promoter unmethylation status was associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and elevated mean MVD in breast cancer patients. PMID:26163623

  4. Collagen density and alignment in responsive and resistant trastuzumab-treated breast cancer xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Lee, Jae H.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-02-01

    Tumor collagen characteristics influence tumor malignancy, invasion, and metastasis. This study investigates the effects of trastuzumab (Tz) on the collagen of Tz-responsive (BT474) and Tz-resistant (HR6) breast cancer xenografts. Collagen content was assessed by in vivo second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and histological trichrome staining of tumor sections. Collagen SHG imaging of control BT474 and HR6 tumors demonstrated increased collagen density after 14 days of treatment (p<0.05). Trichrome staining revealed decreased collagen in Tz-treated BT474 and HR6 tumors at 2, 5, and 14 days of treatment, suggesting that Tz affects the tumor microenvironment independent of epithelial cell response. Additionally, collagen alignment analysis revealed significantly less aligned collagen in the Tz-treated BT474 tumors at day 14 compared with control BT474 tumors. There was no correlation between SHG endpoints (collagen density and alignment) and trichrome staining (p>0.05), consistent with the physically distinctive nature of these measurements. There was also no correlation between tumor size and collagen endpoints (p>0.05). These results identify changes within the collagen compartment of the tumor microenvironment following Tz treatment, which are independent from the tumor cell response to Tz, and demonstrate that intravital collagen SHG imaging is capable of measuring dynamic changes in tumor microenvironment following treatment that complements trichrome staining.

  5. Controlled Breast Cancer Microarrays for the Deconvolution of Cellular Multilayering and Density Effects upon Drug Responses

    PubMed Central

    Håkanson, Maria; Kobel, Stefan; Lutolf, Matthias P.; Textor, Marcus; Cukierman, Edna; Charnley, Mirren

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence shows that the cancer microenvironment affects both tumorigenesis and the response of cancer to drug treatment. Therefore in vitro models that selectively reflect characteristics of the in vivo environment are greatly needed. Current methods allow us to screen the effect of extrinsic parameters such as matrix composition and to model the complex and three-dimensional (3D) cancer environment. However, 3D models that reflect characteristics of the in vivo environment are typically too complex and do not allow the separation of discrete extrinsic parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel-based microwell array to model breast cancer cell behavior in multilayer cell clusters that allows a rigorous control of the environment. The innovative array fabrication enables different matrix proteins to be integrated into the bottom surface of microwells. Thereby, extrinsic parameters including dimensionality, type of matrix coating and the extent of cell-cell adhesion could be independently studied. Our results suggest that cell to matrix interactions and increased cell-cell adhesion, at high cell density, induce independent effects on the response to Taxol in multilayer breast cancer cell clusters. In addition, comparing the levels of apoptosis and proliferation revealed that drug resistance mediated by cell-cell adhesion can be related to altered cell cycle regulation. Conversely, the matrix-dependent response to Taxol did not correlate with proliferation changes suggesting that cell death inhibition may be responsible for this effect. Conclusions/Significance The application of the PEG hydrogel platform provided novel insight into the independent role of extrinsic parameters controlling drug response. The presented platform may not only become a useful tool for basic research related to the role of the cancer microenvironment but could also serve as a complementary platform for in

  6. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Adults With Down Syndrome, Intellectual Disability, and Nondisabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geijer, Justin R.; Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.; Dengel, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) or Down syndrome (DS) may be at greater risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of DS, ID, and non-intellectually disabled (NID) populations. In each group, 33 participants between the ages of 28 and 60 years were compared. BMD was measured with…

  8. The relationship between semaphorin 3C and microvessel density in the progression of breast and oral neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Cole-Healy, Zachary; Vergani, Patricia; Hunter, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Reed, Malcolm W R; Staton, Carolyn A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the expression of semaphorin 3C (SEMA3C) in the normal-metastatic spectrum of breast and oral cancers, and correlate expression with microvessel density (MVD, CD31), a surrogate marker of angiogenesis. Histological analysis revealed that SEMA3C expression was reduced in the development of oral cancer from normal oral tissue (P<0.0001) and expression was inversely correlated with MVD (r=-0.394, P=0.05). In contrast, SEMA3C expression increased in the transition from normal to invasive breast disease in epithelial/tumour cells (P=0.001) and endothelial cells (P=0.006), with both correlating weakly with MVD (r=0.35, p=0.03 and r=0.243, p=0.041 respectively). Furthermore, histological analysis of a breast cancer tissue microarray revealed a weak positive correlation with tumour grade (r=0.305, P=<0.001) and biological phenotype (r=0.237, p=0.004) with tumour cell expression of SEMA3C highest in triple negative and ER-, PR-, HER2+ subtypes. These data suggest that SEMA3C expression is differentially regulated in the development and progression of breast versus oral neoplasia, and that increased expression of SEMA3C may be modulating breast cancer progression and angiogenesis, and could represent a biomarker of metastatic disease. PMID:25910410

  9. Technical Note: Contrast solution density and cross section errors in inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for breast balloon brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Leonard H.; Zhang Miao; Howell, Roger W.; Yue, Ning J.; Khan, Atif J.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Recent recommendations by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 186 emphasize the importance of understanding material properties and their effect on inhomogeneity-corrected dose calculation for brachytherapy. Radiographic contrast is normally injected into breast brachytherapy balloons. In this study, the authors independently estimate properties of contrast solution that were expected to be incorrectly specified in a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm. Methods: The mass density and atomic weight fractions of a clinical formulation of radiographic contrast solution were determined using manufacturers' data. The mass density was verified through measurement and compared with the density obtained by the treatment planning system's CT calibration. The atomic weight fractions were used to determine the photon interaction cross section of the contrast solution for a commercial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source and compared with that of muscle. Results: The density of contrast solution was 10% less than that obtained from the CT calibration. The cross section of the contrast solution for the HDR source was 1.2% greater than that of muscle. Both errors could be addressed by overriding the density of the contrast solution in the treatment planning system. Conclusions: The authors estimate the error in mass density and cross section parameters used by a commercial brachytherapy dose calculation algorithm for radiographic contrast used in a clinical breast brachytherapy practice. This approach is adaptable to other clinics seeking to evaluate dose calculation errors and determine appropriate density override values if desired.

  10. Fully Automated Quantitative Estimation of Volumetric Breast Density from Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Images: Preliminary Results and Comparison with Digital Mammography and MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pertuz, Said; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Weinstein, Susan P; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To assess a fully automated method for volumetric breast density (VBD) estimation in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to compare the findings with those of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Bilateral DBT images, FFDM images, and sagittal breast MR images were retrospectively collected from 68 women who underwent breast cancer screening from October 2011 to September 2012 with institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant protocols. A fully automated computer algorithm was developed for quantitative estimation of VBD from DBT images. FFDM images were processed with U.S. Food and Drug Administration-cleared software, and the MR images were processed with a previously validated automated algorithm to obtain corresponding VBD estimates. Pearson correlation and analysis of variance with Tukey-Kramer post hoc correction were used to compare the multimodality VBD estimates. Results Estimates of VBD from DBT were significantly correlated with FFDM-based and MR imaging-based estimates with r = 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74, 0.90) and r = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.93), respectively (P < .001). The corresponding correlation between FFDM and MR imaging was r = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.90). However, statistically significant differences after post hoc correction (α = 0.05) were found among VBD estimates from FFDM (mean ± standard deviation, 11.1% ± 7.0) relative to MR imaging (16.6% ± 11.2) and DBT (19.8% ± 16.2). Differences between VDB estimates from DBT and MR imaging were not significant (P = .26). Conclusion Fully automated VBD estimates from DBT, FFDM, and MR imaging are strongly correlated but show statistically significant differences. Therefore, absolute differences in VBD between FFDM, DBT, and MR imaging should be considered in breast cancer risk assessment. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26491909

  11. Tibolone increases bone mineral density but also relapse in breast cancer survivors: LIBERATE trial bone substudy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Livial Intervention Following Breast Cancer: Efficacy, Recurrence and Tolerability Endpoints (LIBERATE: Clinical http://Trials.gov number NCT00408863), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that demonstrated that tibolone (Livial), a tissue-selective hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), increased breast cancer (BC) recurrence HR 1.40 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.70; P = 0.001). A subgroup of women was entered into a study of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Women with surgically excised primary BC (T1-3, N0-2, M-0) within the last 5 years, complaining of vasomotor symptoms, were assigned to tibolone, 2.5 mg daily, or placebo treatment for a maximum of 5 years. The BMD substudy enrolled 763 patients, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning at baseline and at 2 years. Results In the bone substudy, 699 of 763 women were eligible (345 allocated to tibolone, and 354, to placebo). After undergoing DXA scans, 300 (43%) women had normal BMD; 317 (45%), osteopenia; and 82 (11.7%), osteoporosis. Low body-mass index (P < 0.001), Asian race (P < 0.001), and late age at menarche (P < 0.04) predicted low bone mass at baseline. Tibolone increased BMD by 3.2% at the lumbar spine and 2.9% at the hip compared with placebo (both P < 0.001). The majority of fractures (55%) occurred in osteopenic patients. Women with normal BMD had increased recurrence with tibolone, 22 (15.6%) of 141 compared with placebo, 11 (6.9%) of 159 (P = 0.016), whereas no increased BC recurrence was seen in women with low BMD; 15 (7.4%) of 204 taking tibolone versus 13 (6.7%) of 195 taking placebo. Conclusions Tibolone is contraindicated after BC treatment, as it increases BMD and BC recurrence. Risk of BC recurrence was elevated in BC women with normal BMD (compared with low) who took tibolone. PMID:22251615

  12. Digital versus screen-film mammography: impact of mammographic density and hormone therapy on breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Prummel, Maegan V; Muradali, Derek; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Done, Susan J; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Most studies that have examined the effects of mammographic density and hormone therapy use on breast cancer detection have included screen-film mammography. This study further examines this association in post-menopausal women screened by digital mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified 688,418 women of age 50-74 years screened with digital or screen-film mammography from 2008 to 2009 within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Of 2993 eligible women with invasive breast cancer, 2450 were contacted and 1421 participated (847 screen-film mammography, 574 digital direct radiography). Mammographic density was measured by study radiologists using the standard BI-RADS classification system and by a computer-assisted method. Information on hormone therapy use was collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression and two-tailed tests for significance evaluated associations between factors and detection method by mammography type. Women with >75 % radiologist-measured mammographic density compared to those with <25 % were more likely to be diagnosed with an interval than screen-detected cancer, with the difference being greater for those screened with screen-film (OR = 6.40, 95 % CI 2.30-17.85) than digital mammography (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 0.67-8.58) and aged 50-64 years screened with screen-film mammography (OR = 10.86, 95 % CI 2.96-39.57). Recent former hormone therapy users were also at an increased risk of having an interval cancer with the association being significant for women screened with digital mammography (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.17-3.71). Breast screening using digital mammography lowers the risk of having an interval cancer for post-menopausal women aged 50-64 with greater mammographic density. PMID:26518019

  13. Weight in infancy and adult calcium absorption as determinants of bone mineral density in adult men: the Hertfordshire cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patel, M B R; Makepeace, A E; Jameson, K A; Masterson, L M; Holt, R I G; Swaminathan, R; Javaid, M K; Cooper, C; Arden, N K

    2012-12-01

    Adult bone mass is modified by early life environmental influences, but the mechanism of this association is uncertain. Data support an inverse relationship between intestinal calcium absorption (αCa) and birth weight in women. However, little is known regarding determinants in men. This study examines the association between weight in infancy and adult αCa in healthy men and whether this could be a mechanism by which the early life environment may influence bone mass. Men were recruited from the MRC Hertfordshire Cohort Study, for whom detailed early life records were available. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine. We randomly selected 123 men stratified by birth weight and assessed αCa using the stable strontium absorption test. The mean age was 63.6 (SD 2.5) years. αCa was not associated with birth weight or weight at 1 year. FN aBMD was associated with both weight at 1 year (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) and αCa (r = 0.20, p = 0.03). Both of these associations remained statistically significant in a mutually adjusted, multivariable model but would account for only ~4 % variance in BMD. We demonstrated a positive association between weight at 1 year and aBMD and between αCa and FN BMD, but no association was found between birth weight and αCa. This suggests that in men, although αCa is a contributing factor in FN bone density, it is not the main mechanism whereby the early environment modifies adult BMD. PMID:23010962

  14. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  15. 3D electron density imaging using single scattered x rays with application to breast CT and mammographic screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uytven, Eric Peter

    Screening mammography is the current standard in detecting breast cancer. However, its fundamental disadvantage is that it projects a 3D object into a 2D image. Small lesions are difficult to detect when superimposed over layers of normal tissue. Commercial Computed Tomography (CT) produces a true 3D image yet has a limited role in mammography due to relatively low resolution and contrast. With the intent of enhancing mammography and breast CT, we have developed an algorithm which can produce 3D electron density images using a single projection. Imaging an object with x rays produces a characteristic scattered photon spectrum at the detector plane. A known incident beam spectrum, beam shape, and arbitrary 3D matrix of electron density values enable a theoretical scattered photon distribution to be calculated. An iterative minimization algorithm is used to make changes to the electron density voxel matrix to reduce regular differences between the theoretical and the experimentally measured distributions. The object is characterized by the converged electron density image. This technique has been validated in simulation using data produced by the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. At both mammographic and CT energies, a scanning polychromatic pencil beam was used to image breast tissue phantoms containing lesion-like inhomogeneities. The resulting Monte Carlo data is processed using a Nelder-Mead iterative algorithm (MATLAB) to produce the 3D matrix of electron density values. Resulting images have confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect various 1x1x2.5 mm3 lesions with calcification content as low as 0.5% (p<0.005) at a dose comparable to mammography.

  16. Consumption Patterns of Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Dietary Nutrient Density among French Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Francou, Aurée; Hebel, Pascale; Braesco, Véronique; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). PMID:26213964

  17. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then

  18. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., “FOR PROCESSING”) and vendor postprocessed (i.e., “FOR PRESENTATION”), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which

  19. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults living along streets with high traffic density.

    PubMed Central

    Oosterlee, A; Drijver, M; Lebret, E; Brunekreef, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the population living along streets with high traffic density has a higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A sample of 673 adults and 106 children (0-15 years), living along busy traffic streets in the city of Haarlem was compared with a control sample of 812 adults and 185 children living along quiet streets. Exposed and control streets were selected on the basis of model calculations of NO2 concentrations. A postal questionnaire containing questions about respiratory symptoms and several potential confounders was used to collect information from the study subjects. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, children living along busy streets were found to have a higher prevalence of most respiratory symptoms than children living along quiet streets. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for wheeze and for respiratory medication used. Risk ratios were higher for girls than for boys, with significant adjusted odds ratios between 2.9 and 15.8 for girls. In adults, only mild dyspnoea was more often reported by subjects living along streets with high traffic density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that living along busy streets increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory symptoms in children. PMID:8664961

  20. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  1. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562

  2. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Elci, Okan; McCormack, Shana E; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2016-04-01

    Using adult identified bone mineral density (BMD) loci, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) to determine if they were associated with changes in BMD during childhood. Longitudinal data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study were analyzed (N = 798, 54% female, all European ancestry). Participants had up to 6 annual dual energy X-ray scans, from which areal BMD (aBMD) Z-scores for the spine, total hip, and femoral neck were estimated, as well as total body less head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC) Z-scores. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, and the percentage of BMD-lowering alleles carried was calculated (overall adult GRS). Subtype GRS that include SNPs associated with fracture risk, pediatric BMD, WNT signaling, RANK-RANKL-OPG, and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation were also calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between each GRS and bone Z-scores, and if any association differed by sex and/or chronological age. The overall adult, fracture, and WNT signaling GRS were associated with lower Z-scores (eg, spine aBMD Z-score: βadult  = -0.04, p = 3.4 × 10(-7) ; βfracture = -0.02, p = 8.9 × 10(-6) ; βWNT  = -0.01, p = 3.9 × 10(-4) ). The overall adult GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores in females (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The fracture GRS was more strongly associated with lower Z-scores with increasing age (p-interaction ≤ 0.05 for all sites). The WNT GRS associations remained consistent for both sexes and all ages (p-interaction > 0.05 for all sites). The RANK-RANKL-OPG GRS was more strongly associated in females with increasing age (p-interaction < 0.05 for all sites). The mesenchymal stem cell GRS was associated with lower total hip and femoral neck Z-scores, in both boys and girls, across all ages. No associations were observed between the pediatric GRS and bone Z-scores. In conclusion, adult identified BMD loci associated with BMD and

  3. Online Learning from Input versus Offline Memory Evolution in Adult Word Learning: Effects of Neighborhood Density and Phonologically Related Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Pak, Natalie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated adult word learning to determine how neighborhood density and practice across phonologically related training sets influence online learning from input during training versus offline memory evolution during no-training gaps. Method: Sixty-one adults were randomly assigned to learn low- or…

  4. Combined effects of endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density on postmenopausal breast cancer risk: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study

    PubMed Central

    Schoemaker, M J; Folkerd, E J; Jones, M E; Rae, M; Allen, S; Ashworth, A; Dowsett, M; Swerdlow, A J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mammographic density and sex hormone levels are strong risk factors for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether they represent the same aetiological entity or are independent risk factors. Methods: Within the Breakthrough Generations Study cohort, we conducted a case–control study of 265 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 343 controls with prediagnostic mammograms and blood samples. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and mammographic density assessed by Cumulus. Results: Oestradiol and testosterone were negatively and SHBG positively associated with percentage density and absolute dense area, but after adjusting for body mass index the associations remained significant only for SHBG. Breast cancer risk was independently and significantly positively associated with percentage density (P=0.002), oestradiol (P=0.002) and testosterone (P=0.007) levels. Women in the highest tertile of both density and sex hormone level were at greatest risk, with an odds ratio of 7.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.89–21.1) for oestradiol and 4.57 (95% CI: 1.75–11.9) for testosterone and high density compared with those who were in the lowest tertiles. The cumulative risk of breast cancer in the highest oestradiol and density tertiles, representing 8% of controls, was estimated as 12.8% at ages 50–69 years and 19.4% at ages 20–79 years, and in the lowest tertiles was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Associations of breast cancer risk with tertiles of mammographic dense area were less strong than for percentage density. Conclusions: Endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density are independent risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, which in combination can identify women who might benefit from increased frequency of screening and chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24518596

  5. Comparison of fully and semi-automated area-based methods for measuring mammographic density and predicting breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Sovio, U; Li, J; Aitken, Z; Humphreys, K; Czene, K; Moss, S; Hall, P; McCormack, V; dos-Santos-Silva, I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer but the lack of valid fully automated methods for quantifying it has precluded its use in clinical and screening settings. We compared the performance of a recently developed automated approach, based on the public domain ImageJ programme, to the well-established semi-automated Cumulus method. Methods: We undertook a case-control study within the intervention arm of the Age Trial, in which ∼54 000 British women were offered annual mammography at ages 40–49 years. A total of 299 breast cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up and 422 matched (on screening centre, date of birth and dates of screenings) controls were included. Medio-lateral oblique (MLO) images taken closest to age 41 and at least one year before the index case's diagnosis were digitised for each participant. Cumulus readings were performed in the left MLO and ImageJ-based readings in both left and right MLOs. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine density–breast cancer associations. Results: The association between density readings taken from one single MLO and breast cancer risk was weaker for the ImageJ-based method than for Cumulus (age–body mass index-adjusted odds ratio (OR) per one s.d. increase in percent density (95% CI): 1.52 (1.24–1.86) and 1.61 (1.33–1.94), respectively). The ImageJ-based density–cancer association strengthened when the mean of left–right MLO readings was used: OR=1.61 (1.31–1.98). Conclusions: The mean of left–right MLO readings yielded by the ImageJ-based method was as strong a predictor of risk as Cumulus readings from a single MLO image. The ImageJ-based method, using the mean of two measurements, is a valid automated alternative to Cumulus for measuring density in analogue films. PMID:24556624

  6. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  7. Comparison of vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Seong; Lee, Jae Hong; Min, Dong Ki; Shin, So Hong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed vertebral and femoral bone mineral density in adult females. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 314 females in their 40s to 70s were divided into normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups and their vertebral and femoral bone mineral densities were compared. [Results] Comparisons of T scores revealed significant differences among measurements of the third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femoral trochanter. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess differences between the vertebral and femoral measurements, and significant differences and positive correlations were observed among third lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and femur trochanter in the normal group. [Conclusion] Females in the normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups showed significant differences in their third lumbar vertebrae. The lack of significant differences among measurements in the osteoporosis group in this study suggests that patients with osteoporosis require careful and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27390449

  8. Computed organ doses to an Indian reference adult during brachytherapy treatment of esophagus, breast, and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Keshavkumar, Biju

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to generate the normalized mean organ dose factors (mGy min-1 GBq-1) to healthy organs during brachytherapy treatment of esophagus, breast, and neck cancers specific to the patient population in India. This study is in continuation to the earlier published studies on the estimation of organ doses during uterus brachytherapy treatments. The results are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport through MIRD type anthropomorphic mathematical phantom representing reference Indian adult with 192Ir and 60Co high dose rate sources in the esophagus, breast, and neck of the phantom. The result of this study is compared with a published computational study using voxel-based phantom model. The variation in the organ dose of this study to the published values is within 50%. PMID:22973082

  9. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  10. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2) in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029). BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057). The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range). There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored. PMID:26904470

  11. Wide Variation Seen in 'Dense' Breast Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... defined mammography patients' breasts as dense. Higher breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, experts ... could have implications for the so-called breast density notification laws that have been passed in about ...

  12. The effects of the adult density of Macoma balthica on the recruitment of juvenile bivalves: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M.; Edwards, F.; Huxham, M.

    2002-02-01

    Populations of intertidal bivalves are patchily distributed at a variety of scales, and the distributions of adults and juveniles are often different. Adult-juvenile interactions may help explain this patchiness. In this study, the effects of different densities of adult Macoma balthica (L.) on the numbers of re-locating juvenile M. balthica and Cerastoderma edule (L.) were examined. Two field experiments were conducted, which established three densities of adult M. balthica (reflecting the range of values found on the study site) and allowed recruitment of bivalves into experimental plots for two tidal cycles. Both experiments were run at peak summer arrival of juveniles at this site. The first was open to predators, the second was protected from larger epibenthic and avian predators by cages. The mean number of juvenile C. edule found in the high-density treatment was significantly lower than in the other density treatments in the first (open) experiment. There was also evidence of density-dependent predation by Carcinus maenas (L.). There were no significant effects of adult M. balthica density on the numbers of juvenile bivalves in the caged experiment. These results were compared with those from a small-scale field survey, which showed a negative correlation between juvenile M. balthica ≤1.6 mm and individuals ≥1.6 mm. Our study suggests that densities of M. balthica ≥1.6 mm may have an impact on the numbers of juvenile bivalves (in particular, C. edule) re-locating at this site, but that this effect is not the result of direct adult-juvenile interactions, but is caused indirectly by density-dependent predation by C. maenas.

  13. Biologic and clinical characteristics of adolescent and young adult cancers: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, James V; Blair, Donald G; Anders, Carey K; Bleyer, W Archie; Boardman, Lisa A; Khan, Javed; Kummar, Shivaani; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Hunger, Stephen P; Merchant, Melinda; Seibel, Nita L; Thurin, Magdalena; Willman, Cheryl L

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have not attained the same improvements in overall survival as either younger children or older adults. One possible reason for this disparity may be that the AYA cancers exhibit unique biologic characteristics, resulting in differences in clinical and treatment resistance behaviors. This report from the biologic component of the jointly sponsored National Cancer Institute and LiveStrong Foundation workshop entitled "Next Steps in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology" summarizes the current status of biologic and translational research progress for 5 AYA cancers; colorectal cancer breast cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, melanoma, and sarcoma. Conclusions from this meeting included the need for basic biologic, genomic, and model development for AYA cancers as well as translational research studies to elucidate any fundamental differences between pediatric, AYA, and adult cancers. The biologic questions for future research are whether there are mutational or signaling pathway differences (for example, between adult and AYA colorectal cancer) that can be clinically exploited to develop novel therapies for treating AYA cancers and to develop companion diagnostics. Cancer 2016;122:1017-1028. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26849082

  14. Model-based estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full-field digital mammography images from image-acquisition physics and patient-image characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    Breast percent density (PD%), as measured mammographically, is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. While the majority of studies to date have focused on PD% assessment from digitized film mammograms, digital mammography (DM) is becoming increasingly common, and allows for direct PD% assessment at the time of imaging. This work investigates the accuracy of a generalized linear model-based (GLM) estimation of PD% from raw and postprocessed digital mammograms, utilizing image acquisition physics, patient characteristics and gray-level intensity features of the specific image. The model is trained in a leave-one-woman-out fashion on a series of 81 cases for which bilateral, mediolateral-oblique DM images were available in both raw and post-processed format. Baseline continuous and categorical density estimates were provided by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Regression analysis is performed and Pearson's correlation, r, and Cohen's kappa, κ, are computed. The GLM PD% estimation model performed well on both processed (r=0.89, p<0.001) and raw (r=0.75, p<0.001) images. Model agreement with radiologist assigned density categories was also high for processed (κ=0.79, p<0.001) and raw (κ=0.76, p<0.001) images. Model-based prediction of breast PD% could allow for a reproducible estimation of breast density, providing a rapid risk assessment tool for clinical practice.

  15. When uncommon and common coalesce: adult onset Still's disease associated with breast augmentation as part of autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

    PubMed

    Dagan, A; Kogan, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Segal, G

    2016-06-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an uncommon, multisystemic, auto-inflammatory disorder, while breast augmentation is a very common cosmetic procedure. We describe a case in which these two coalesce, AOSD, manifested with pleuritis and pericarditis, developed after breast mammoplasty. The pathogenetic, missing link, behind the development of AOSD following mammoplasty, is thought to be the autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). We reviewed other cases of AOSD associated with breast mammoplasty published to date and the literature regarding AOSD and ASIA syndrome. The review is followed by a short debate of whether silicone implants should be explanted in similar, future cases. PMID:25604318

  16. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  17. A fully-automated software pipeline for integrating breast density and parenchymal texture analysis for digital mammograms: parameter optimization in a case-control breast cancer risk assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yan; Keller, Brad M.; Conant, Emily; Gee, James C.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-02-01

    Estimating a woman's risk of breast cancer is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Mammographic density, estimated as the percent of dense (PD) tissue area within the breast, has been shown to be a strong risk factor. Studies also support a relationship between mammographic texture and breast cancer risk. We have developed a fullyautomated software pipeline for computerized analysis of digital mammography parenchymal patterns by quantitatively measuring both breast density and texture properties. Our pipeline combines advanced computer algorithms of pattern recognition, computer vision, and machine learning and offers a standardized tool for breast cancer risk assessment studies. Different from many existing methods performing parenchymal texture analysis within specific breast subregions, our pipeline extracts texture descriptors for points on a spatial regular lattice and from a surrounding window of each lattice point, to characterize the local mammographic appearance throughout the whole breast. To demonstrate the utility of our pipeline, and optimize its parameters, we perform a case-control study by retrospectively analyzing a total of 472 digital mammography studies. Specifically, we investigate the window size, which is a lattice related parameter, and compare the performance of texture features to that of breast PD in classifying case-control status. Our results suggest that different window sizes may be optimal for raw (12.7mm2) versus vendor post-processed images (6.3mm2). We also show that the combination of PD and texture features outperforms PD alone. The improvement is significant (p=0.03) when raw images and window size of 12.7mm2 are used, having an ROC AUC of 0.66. The combination of PD and our texture features computed from post-processed images with a window size of 6.3 mm2 achieves an ROC AUC of 0.75.

  18. Oral contraceptive use and bone density in adolescent and young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Delia; Ichikawa, Laura; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Spangler, Leslie; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Reed, Susan; Ott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the millions of oral contraceptive (OC) users are under age 30 years and in the critical period for bone mass accrual. Study Design This cross-sectional study of 606 women aged 14–30 years examined both OC duration and estrogen dose and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and whole-body (DEXA). Results Of 389 OC users and 217 nonusers enrolled, 50% were adolescents (14–18 years). Of OC users, 38% used “low-dose” OCs [<30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)]. In adolescents, mean BMD differed by neither OC duration nor EE dose. However, 19–30 year-old women’s mean BMD was lower with longer OC use for spine and whole-body (p=0.004, p=0.02, respectively) and lowest for >12 months of low-dose OCs for the hip, spine and whole-body (p=0.02, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Prolonged use of today’s OCs, particularly <30 mcg EE, may adversely impact young adult women’s bone density while ingesting these agents. PMID:20004271

  19. Purification and properties of the very high density lipoprotein from the hemolymph of adult Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, O J; Soulages, J L; González, S M; Peluffo, R O; Brenner, R R

    1989-06-01

    The very high density lipoprotein (VHDL) of Triatoma infestans hemolymph from adult males has been isolated and purified by two-step density gradient ultracentrifugation. It appears to be homogeneous as judged by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The content of VHDL in hemolymph was estimated to be 8 mg protein/ml. The purified protein has a molecular weight (Mr) of 450,000, is composed of six subunits of Mr approximately equal to 77,000, and possesses a high content of aromatic amino acids. This protein is glycosylated and contains 3% of lipids by weight with a remarkable amount of free fatty acids (25% of total lipids). The T. infestans VHDL has a different lipid and amino acid composition from lipophorin. The lipid composition and the spectroscopic studies using cis-parinaric acid indicated a high fatty acid binding affinity. It has nine binding sites per mol of VHDL. Competence studies revealed that VHDL has its highest affinity for the binding of palmitic acid followed by stearic and arachidonic acids. PMID:2677201

  20. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation ofr = 0

  1. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's paired t-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation of r = 0

  2. Calibrated breast density methods for full field digital mammography: A system for serial quality control and inter-system generalization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, B.; Smallwood, A. M.; Sellers, T. A.; Drukteinis, J. S.; Heine, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing a system for calibrated breast density measurements using full field digital mammography (FFDM). Breast tissue equivalent (BTE) phantom images are used to establish baseline (BL) calibration curves at time zero. For a given FFDM unit, the full BL dataset is comprised of approximately 160 phantom images, acquired prior to calibrating prospective patient mammograms. BL curves are monitored serially to ensure they produce accurate calibration and require updating when calibration accuracy degrades beyond an acceptable tolerance, rather than acquiring full BL datasets repeatedly. BL updating is a special case of generalizing calibration datasets across FFDM units, referred to as cross-calibration. Serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques were developed and evaluated. Methods: BL curves were established for three Hologic Selenia FFDM units at time zero. In addition, one set of serial phantom images, comprised of equal proportions of adipose and fibroglandular BTE materials (50/50 compositions) of a fixed height, was acquired biweekly and monitored with the cumulative sum (Cusum) technique. These 50/50 composition images were used to update the BL curves when the calibration accuracy degraded beyond a preset tolerance of ±4 standardized units. A second set of serial images, comprised of a wide-range of BTE compositions, was acquired biweekly to evaluate serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques. Results: Calibration accuracy can degrade serially and is a function of acquisition technique and phantom height. The authors demonstrated that all heights could be monitored simultaneously while acquiring images of a 50/50 phantom with a fixed height for each acquisition technique biweekly, translating into approximately 16 image acquisitions biweekly per FFDM unit. The same serial images are sufficient for serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration. Serial calibration accuracy was

  3. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. PMID:26979897

  4. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life. PMID:25792237

  5. Functional Consequences of Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density in Humans across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Arash; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Rotenberg, David J.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Rathi, Yogesh; Michailovich, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    As humans age, a characteristic pattern of widespread neocortical dendritic disruption coupled with compensatory effects in hippocampus and other subcortical structures is shown in postmortem investigations. It is now possible to address age-related effects on gray matter (GM) neuritic organization and density in humans using multishell diffusion-weighted MRI and the neurite-orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model. In 45 healthy individuals across the adult lifespan (21–84 years), we used a multishell diffusion imaging and the NODDI model to assess the intraneurite volume fraction and neurite orientation-dispersion index (ODI) in GM tissues. We also determined the functional correlates of variations in GM microstructure by obtaining resting-state fMRI and behavioral data. We found a significant age-related deficit in neocortical ODI (most prominently in frontoparietal regions), whereas increased ODI was observed in hippocampus and cerebellum with advancing age. Neocortical ODI outperformed cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy for the prediction of chronological age in the same individuals. Higher GM ODI sampled from resting-state networks with known age-related susceptibility (default mode and visual association networks) was associated with increased functional connectivity of these networks, whereas the task-positive networks tended to show no association or even decreased connectivity. Frontal pole ODI mediated the negative relationship of age with executive function, whereas hippocampal ODI mediated the positive relationship of age with executive function. Our in vivo findings align very closely with the postmortem data and provide evidence for vulnerability and compensatory neural mechanisms of aging in GM microstructure that have functional and cognitive impact in vivo. PMID:25632148

  6. SU-E-T-129: Dosimetric Evaluation of the Impact of Density Correction On Dose Calculation of Breast Cancer Treatment: A Study Based On RTOG 1005 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J; Yu, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: RTOG 1005 requires density correction in the dose calculation of breast cancer radiation treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of density correction on the dose calculation. Methods: Eight cases were studied, which were planned on an XiO treatment planning system with pixel-by-pixel density correction using a superposition algorithm, following RTOG 1005 protocol requirements. Four were protocol Arm 1 (standard whole breast irradiation with sequential boost) cases and four were Arm 2 (hypofractionated whole breast irradiation with concurrent boost) cases. The plans were recalculated with the same monitor units without density correction. Dose calculations with and without density correction were compared. Results: Results of Arm 1 and Arm 2 cases showed similar trends in the comparison. The average differences between the calculations with and without density correction (difference = Without - With) among all the cases were: -0.82 Gy (range: -2.65∼−0.18 Gy) in breast PTV Eval D95, −0.75 Gy (range: −1.23∼0.26 Gy) in breast PTV Eval D90, −1.00 Gy (range: −2.46∼−0.29 Gy) in lumpectomy PTV Eval D95, −0.78 Gy (range: −1.30∼0.11 Gy) in lumpectomy PTV Eval D90, −0.43% (range: −0.95∼−0.14%) in ipsilateral lung V20, −0.81% (range: −1.62∼−0.26%) in V16, −1.95% (range: −4.13∼−0.84%) in V10, −2.64% (−5.55∼−1.04%) in V8, −4.19% (range: −6.92∼−1.81%) in V5, and −4.95% (range: −7.49∼−2.01%) in V4, respectively. The differences in other normal tissues were minimal. Conclusion: The effect of density correction was observed in breast target doses (an average increase of ∼1 Gy in D95 and D90, compared to the calculation without density correction) and exposed ipsilateral lung volumes in low dose region (average increases of ∼4% and ∼5% in V5 and V4, respectively)

  7. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  8. Relationship Between Breast Density and Selective Estrogen-Receptor Modulators, Aromatase Inhibitors, Physical Activity, and Diet: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, Ernest U; Brennan, Patrick C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-06-01

    Background Lower breast density (BD) is associated with lower risk of breast cancer and may serve as a biomarker for the efficacy of chemopreventive strategies. This review explores parameters that are thought to be associated with lower BD. We conducted a systematic review of articles published to date using the PRISMA strategy. Articles that assessed change in BD with estrogen-receptor modulators (tamoxifene [TAM], raloxifene [RLX], and tibolone) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs), as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (LSs) that assessed association between BD and physical activity (PA) or diet were reviewed. Results Ten studies assessed change in BD with TAM; all reported TAM-mediated BD decreases. Change in BD with RLX was assessed by 11 studies; 3 reported a reduction in BD. Effect of tibolone was assessed by 5 RCTs; only 1 reported change in BD. AI-mediated BD reduction was reported by 3 out of 10 studies. The association between PA and BD was assessed by 21 studies; 4 reported an inverse association. The relationship between diet and BD was assessed in 34 studies. All studies on calcium and vitamin D as well as vegetable intake reported an inverse association with BD in premenopausal women. Two RCTs demonstrated BD reduction with a low-fat, high-carbohydrate intervention. Conclusion TAM induces BD reduction; however, the effect of RLX, tibolone, and AIs on BD is unclear. Although data on association between diet and BD in adulthood are contradictory, intake of vegetables, vitamin D, and calcium appear to be associated with lower BD in premenopausal women. PMID:27130722

  9. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale for early post-treatment breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Levine, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The end of primary treatment for cancer patients is increasingly recognized as an important time of adjustment that may impact quality of life (QoL). A psychometrically sound QoL instrument that assesses the mix of acute and longer-term concerns present during this unique time has not yet been identified. This article evaluates the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale, originally developed for long-term (≥5 years) cancer survivors, as an appropriate QoL measure for this transition period. Methods Psychometric properties of the QLACS were evaluated in a sample of post-treatment breast cancer survivors 18–24 months post-diagnosis. This observational study consisted of women (n = 552) aged 25 years and older (mean = 55.4 years) who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III breast cancer. The 47 items of the QLACS comprise 12 domains: seven domains are generic, and five are cancer specific. Results The QLACS demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha for the 12 domains ranged from 0.79 to 0.91) and good convergent and divergent validity (assessed by comparison with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and other measures). Conclusions The QLACS appears to be consistent with other widely accepted measures in capturing QoL, while also allowing for more inclusive measurement of specific issues relevant to post-treatment cancer survivors. These data, in addition to previous data supporting use of the QLACS across different cancer sites, suggest that the QLACS is a promising comprehensive QoL measure appropriate for breast cancer survivors transitioning off active treatment. PMID:24996392

  10. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  11. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  12. Predictions of adult Anopheles albimanus densities in villages based on distances to remotely sensed larval habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rejmankova, E.; Roberts, D. R.; Pawley, A.; Manguin, S.; Polanco, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral System Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult collections near larval habitats, we defined a landing rate of 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min from 6:30 PM to 8:00 PM as the threshold for high (> or = 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) versus low (< 0.5 mosquitoes/human/min) densities of An. albimanus. Sites located less than 500 m from the habitat were predicted as having values higher than this threshold, while lower values were predicted for sites located greater than 1,500 m from the habitat. Predictions were verified by collections of mosquitoes landing on humans. The predictions were 100% accurate for sites in the > 1,500-m category and 89% accurate for sites in the < 500-m category.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity

    PubMed Central

    Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years), parity (1–13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  14. Bone mineral density in gravida: effect of pregnancies and breast-feeding in women of differing ages and parity.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Ehud; Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20-46 years), parity (1-13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  15. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women. PMID:26473521

  16. The relationships between the burden of adult parasites, host age and the microfilarial density in human onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Duerr, H P; Dietz, K; Schulz-Key, H; Büttner, D W; Eichner, M

    2004-03-29

    We investigate the relationship between the microfilarial density in the skin and the burden of adult female Onchocerca volvulus by analysing pre-control nodulectomy data which allow for a direct approach, independent of exposure. The data of 169 patients in Burkina Faso and 182 patients in Liberia represent savannah and forest onchocerciasis in West Africa, respectively. Whereas in Burkina Faso, a saturating relationship between microfilarial density and worm burden suggests the operation of density-dependent processes within human hosts, the Liberian data show a linear relationship implying no density dependence. The differences may derive from differences between both parasite strains, i.e. the savannah or the forest strain of O. volvulus. Consistently for both parasite strains and independent of the worm burden, the microfilarial density increases with host age emphasising the concept of the acquisition of immunological tolerance. In male hosts in Liberia, the microfilarial density increases stronger with the worm burden than in female hosts, whereas such sex-specific differences cannot be found in Burkina Faso. In the methodological part of this investigation, we suggest the beta-distribution to be most appropriate for describing variability in microfilarial densities and we present an approach to consider the uncertainty in the adult parasite burden which cannot be determined precisely in helminth infections. Implications of density dependence are discussed with respect to immunological processes in the human host and with respect to the success of control programs. The relationships described show that regulatory processes between the parasite and the human host are multi-dimensional, operating within a high degree of biological variability. PMID:15013736

  17. SU-D-204-01: Dual-Energy Calibration for Breast Density Measurement Using Spectral Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H; Cho, H; Kumar, N; Sennung, D; Molloi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of minimizing the systematic errors in dual-energy breast density quantification induced by the use of tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms as the calibration basis materials. Methods: Dual-energy calibration using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms was performed on a spectral mammography system based on scanning multi-slit Si strip photon-counting detectors. The plastic phantom calibration used plastic water and adipose-equivalent phantoms as the basis materials, which have different x-ray attenuation properties compared to water and lipid in actual breast tissue. Two methods were used to convert the dual-energy decomposition measurements in plastic phantom thicknesses into true water and lipid basis. The first method was based entirely on the theoretical x-ray attenuation coefficients of the investigated materials in the mammographic energy range. The conversion matrix was determined from least-squares fitting of the target material using the reported attenuation coefficients of water and lipid. The second method was developed based on experimental calibrations, which measured the low-and high-energy signals of pure water and lipid of known thicknesses. A non-linear rational function was used to correlate the decomposed thicknesses to the known values, so that the conversion coefficients can be determined. Both methods were validated using independent measurements of water and lipid mixture phantoms. The correlation of the dual-energy decomposition measurements and the known values were studied with linear regression analysis. Results: There was an excellent linear correlation between the converted water thicknesses and the known values. The slopes of the linear fits were determined to be 0.63 and 1.03 for the simulation and experimental results, respectively. The non-linear fitting in the experimental approach reduced the root-mean-square (RMS) errors from approximately 3.4 mm to 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The results suggested

  18. Immature Animals Have Higher Cellular Density in the Healing Anterior Cruciate Ligament than Adolescent or Adult Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Haus, Brian M.; Vavken, Patrick; Palmer, Matthew P.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the biologic stimulation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. However, the effect of age on the ability of ligaments to heal has not yet been defined. In this study, we hypothesized that skeletal maturity would significantly affect the cellular and vascular repopulation rate of an ACL wound site. Skeletally Immature (open physes), Adolescent (closing physes), and Adult (closed physes) Yucatan minipigs underwent bilateral ACL transection and suture repair using a collagen-platelet composite. The response to repair was evaluated histologically at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. All three groups of animals had completely populated the ACL wound site with fibroblasts at 1 week. The Immature animals had a higher cellular density in the wound site than the Adult animals at weeks 2 and 4. Cells in the Immature ligament wounds were larger and more ovoid than in the Adult wounds. There were no significant differences in the vascular density in the wound site. Animal age had a significant effect on the density of cells populating the ACL wound site. Whether this observed cellular difference has an effect on the later biomechanical function of the repaired ACL requires further study. PMID:20127960

  19. Role of vascular density and normalization in response to neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tolaney, Sara M; Boucher, Yves; Duda, Dan G; Martin, John D; Seano, Giorgio; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Barry, William T; Goel, Shom; Lahdenrata, Johanna; Isakoff, Steven J; Yeh, Eren D; Jain, Saloni R; Golshan, Mehra; Brock, Jane; Snuderl, Matija; Winer, Eric P; Krop, Ian E; Jain, Rakesh K

    2015-11-17

    Preoperative bevacizumab and chemotherapy may benefit a subset of breast cancer (BC) patients. To explore potential mechanisms of this benefit, we conducted a phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab (single dose) followed by combined bevacizumab and adriamycin/cyclophosphamide/paclitaxel chemotherapy in HER2-negative BC. The regimen was well-tolerated and showed a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in triple-negative (TN)BC (11/21 patients or 52%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 30,74]) than in hormone receptor-positive (HR)BC [5/78 patients or 6% (95%CI: 2,14)]. Within the HRBCs, basal-like subtype was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.007; Fisher exact test). We assessed interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and tissue biopsies before and after bevacizumab monotherapy and circulating plasma biomarkers at baseline and before and after combination therapy. Bevacizumab alone lowered IFP, but to a smaller extent than previously observed in other tumor types. Pathologic response to therapy correlated with sVEGFR1 postbevacizumab alone in TNBC (Spearman correlation 0.610, P = 0.0033) and pretreatment microvascular density (MVD) in all patients (Spearman correlation 0.465, P = 0.0005). Moreover, increased pericyte-covered MVD, a marker of extent of vascular normalization, after bevacizumab monotherapy was associated with improved pathologic response to treatment, especially in patients with a high pretreatment MVD. These data suggest that bevacizumab prunes vessels while normalizing those remaining, and thus is beneficial only when sufficient numbers of vessels are initially present. This study implicates pretreatment MVD as a potential predictive biomarker of response to bevacizumab in BC and suggests that new therapies are needed to normalize vessels without pruning. PMID:26578779

  20. Role of vascular density and normalization in response to neoadjuvant bevacizumab and chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tolaney, Sara M.; Boucher, Yves; Duda, Dan G.; Martin, John D.; Seano, Giorgio; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Barry, William T.; Goel, Shom; Lahdenrata, Johanna; Isakoff, Steven J.; Yeh, Eren D.; Jain, Saloni R.; Golshan, Mehra; Brock, Jane; Snuderl, Matija; Winer, Eric P.; Krop, Ian E.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative bevacizumab and chemotherapy may benefit a subset of breast cancer (BC) patients. To explore potential mechanisms of this benefit, we conducted a phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab (single dose) followed by combined bevacizumab and adriamycin/cyclophosphamide/paclitaxel chemotherapy in HER2-negative BC. The regimen was well-tolerated and showed a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in triple-negative (TN)BC (11/21 patients or 52%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 30,74]) than in hormone receptor-positive (HR)BC [5/78 patients or 6% (95%CI: 2,14)]. Within the HRBCs, basal-like subtype was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.007; Fisher exact test). We assessed interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and tissue biopsies before and after bevacizumab monotherapy and circulating plasma biomarkers at baseline and before and after combination therapy. Bevacizumab alone lowered IFP, but to a smaller extent than previously observed in other tumor types. Pathologic response to therapy correlated with sVEGFR1 postbevacizumab alone in TNBC (Spearman correlation 0.610, P = 0.0033) and pretreatment microvascular density (MVD) in all patients (Spearman correlation 0.465, P = 0.0005). Moreover, increased pericyte-covered MVD, a marker of extent of vascular normalization, after bevacizumab monotherapy was associated with improved pathologic response to treatment, especially in patients with a high pretreatment MVD. These data suggest that bevacizumab prunes vessels while normalizing those remaining, and thus is beneficial only when sufficient numbers of vessels are initially present. This study implicates pretreatment MVD as a potential predictive biomarker of response to bevacizumab in BC and suggests that new therapies are needed to normalize vessels without pruning. PMID:26578779

  1. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status. PMID:27109636

  2. Histological and immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal human breast tissue in adult age groups vulnerable to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R; Gupta, T; Gupta, R; Aggarwal, A; Sahni, D; Singh, G

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of receptor status has become standard procedure for assessing breast cancer patients. Estrogen causes epithelial proliferation in breast tissue via the estrogen receptor (ER). The progesterone receptor (PR) is also regulated by the estrogen gene. Analyzing ER and PR together gives information regarding the likely response of carcinoma patients to hormonal therapy. The aim of the present study was to record the expression patterns of ER and PR in normal mammary tissue in different age groups to provide reference data to facilitate histological diagnosis. Breast tissues from the upper outer quadrant of each side of 27 adult female cadavers were examined after H & E staining. ER and PR were identified and examined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage area occupied by parenchyma relative to stromal tissue was calculated in different age groups and was about 4:6, 3.5:6.5, 3:7, 2:8, and 1.5:8.5 in the 3rd, 4th and 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, and 10th decades of life, respectively. Both ER and PR were present in all age groups and the numbers of both receptors were maximal during the 4th decade. The distribution and staining patterns for both ER and PR were recorded in different age groups. The contiguous pattern of ER, which is considered pathognomonic of breast carcinoma, was not seen except in one case in the 6th decade. Moderately stained ER and PR receptor sites predominated throughout. The study of normal breast tissue of similar age might provide comparisons that will help histopathologists to make clinical diagnoses from breast biopsies. Clin. Anat. 29:729-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038435

  3. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  4. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising obesity rates have been linked to the consumption of energy-dense diets. We examined whether dietary energy density was associated with obesity and related disorders, including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative ...

  5. Density-dependence in the establishment of juvenile Allium ursinum individuals in a monodominant stand of conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morschhauser, Tamás; Rudolf, Kinga; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Oborny, Beáta

    2009-09-01

    We studied the establishment of new genets in a wild garlic population ( Allium ursinum L.) in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest. We tested whether establishment could be successful in relatively small gaps (25 cm) surrounded by adult individuals. Furthermore, we asked whether more empty space in the neighborhood would increase the success. Newly germinated individuals were selected, and observed throughout the growth season. The success of establishment was characterized by the biomass of the bulb at the end of the season. The surrounding vegetation cover was recorded in a 25 cm resolution. We found that the success of establishment had a peak at intermediate neighborhood density. At higher densities, a significant, linear decline was found, indicating competition with the neighbors. At lower values, this trend did not continue, but a plateau was observed, indicating the effect of inverse density-dependence (an Allee effect). The results suggest that a rather broad radius (>25 cm) should be considered when predicting the establishment of new genets in A. ursinum, and beside competition, facilitative interactions should also be taken into consideration. This may explain the tendency of the species for maintaining high, often monodominant cover in the herb layer. Due to the observed efficiency of gap-filling and lateral spreading by sexual reproduction, we predict considerable genetic diversity even in high-cover A. ursinum patches.

  6. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Kimberly L; Yackulic, Charles B; Kennedy, Theodore A; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-12-01

    Rainbow and brown trout have been intentionally introduced into tailwaters downriver of dams globally and provide billions of dollars in economic benefits. At the same time, recruitment and maximum length of trout populations in tailwaters often fluctuate erratically, which negatively affects the value of fisheries. Large recruitment events may increase dispersal downriver where other fish species may be a priority (e.g., endangered species). There is an urgent need to understand the drivers of trout population dynamics in tailwaters, in particular the role of flow management. Here, we evaluate how flow, fish density, and other physical factors of the river influence recruitment and mean adult length in tailwaters across western North America, using data from 29 dams spanning 1-19 years. Rainbow trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high annual, summer, and spring flow and dam latitude, and positively correlated with high winter flow, subadult brown trout catch, and reservoir storage capacity. Brown trout recruitment was negatively correlated with high water velocity and daily fluctuations in flow (i.e., hydropeaking) and positively correlated with adult rainbow trout catch. Among these many drivers, rainbow trout recruitment was primarily correlated with high winter flow combined with low spring flow, whereas brown trout recruitment was most related to high water velocity. The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics

  7. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  8. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  9. Integrated analysis of copy number and loss of heterozygosity in primary breast carcinomas using high-density SNP array.

    PubMed

    Ching, Ho Ching; Naidu, Rakesh; Seong, Mun Kein; Har, Yip Cheng; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, marked by extensive chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we aimed to explicate the underlying chromosomal copy number (CN) alterations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) implicated in a cohort of Malaysian hospital-based primary breast carcinoma samples using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform. The analysis was conducted by hybridizing the extracted DNA of 70 primary breast carcinomas and 37 normal peripheral blood samples to the Affymetrix 250K Sty SNP arrays. Locus-specific CN aberrations and LOH were statistically summarized using the binary segmentation algorithm and hidden Markov model. Selected genes from the SNP array analysis were also validated using quantitative real-time PCR. The merging of CN and LOH data fabricated distinctive integrated alteration profiles, which were comprised of finely demarcated minimal sites of aberrations. The most prevalent gains (≥ 30%) were detected at the 8q arm: 8q23.1, 8q23.3, 8q24.11, 8q24.13, 8q24.21, 8q24.22, 8q24.23 and 8q24.3, whilst the most ubiquitous losses (≥ 20%) were noted at the 8p12, 8p21.1, 8p21.2, 8p21.1-p21.2, 8p21.3, 8p22, 8p23.1, 8p23.1‑p23.2, 8p23.3, 17p11.2, 17p12, 17p11.2-p12, 17p13.1 and 17p13.2 regions. Copy-neutral LOH was characterized as the most prevailing LOH event, in which the most frequent distributions (≥ 30%) were revealed at 3p21.31, 5q33.2, 12q24.12, 12q24.12‑q24.13 and 14q23.1. These findings offer compre-hensive genome-wide views on breast cancer genomic changes, where the most recurrent gain, loss and copy-neutral LOH events were harboured within the 8q24.21, 8p21.1 and 14q23.1 loci, respectively. This will facilitate the uncovering of true driver genes pertinent to breast cancer biology and the develop-ment of prospective therapeutics. PMID:21687935

  10. Abnormal functional connectivity density in first-episode, drug-naive adult patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ke; Gao, Qing; Long, Zhiliang; Xu, Fei; Sun, Xiao; Chen, Huafu; Sun, Xueli

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have found evidence of brain functional connectivity (FC) changes with pre-selected region-of-interest (ROI) method in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these studies could not completely exclude personal inequality when drawing ROIs manually and did not measure the total number of FC for each voxel. Here, we firstly applied functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a voxel-based analysis to locate the hubs with amount changes of FC between 22 first-episode, drug-naive adult MDD patients and 22 healthy control (HC) subjects. Both short-range (local) FCD and long-range (distal) FCD were measured. The relationships of FCD changes with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores and illness duration were also explored. Compared with the HC group, MDD patients showed significantly decreased short-range FCD in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral precuneus, while significantly decreased long-range FCD was found in bilateral middle occipital gyrus (MOG), superior occipital gyrus (SOG) and right calcarine. These results firstly demonstrated both local and distal alterations of connection amount at voxel level, and highlighted that the OFC, the precuneus, the STG and the visual cortex were important brain network hubs for first-episode, drug-naive adult MDD patients. Our findings were complementary for previous structural and functional studies in MDD patients, and provided new evidence of the dysfunction of connection hubs in the pathophysiology of MDD at voxel level. PMID:26826535

  11. Breast cancer screening in the era of density notification legislation: summary of 2014 Massachusetts experience and suggestion of an evidence-based management algorithm by multi-disciplinary expert panel.

    PubMed

    Freer, Phoebe E; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Haas, Jennifer S; Tung, Nadine M; Hughes, Kevin S; Armstrong, Katrina; Semine, A Alan; Troyan, Susan L; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2015-09-01

    Stemming from breast density notification legislation in Massachusetts effective 2015, we sought to develop a collaborative evidence-based approach to density notification that could be used by practitioners across the state. Our goal was to develop an evidence-based consensus management algorithm to help patients and health care providers follow best practices to implement a coordinated, evidence-based, cost-effective, sustainable practice and to standardize care in recommendations for supplemental screening. We formed the Massachusetts Breast Risk Education and Assessment Task Force (MA-BREAST) a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary panel of expert radiologists, surgeons, primary care physicians, and oncologists to develop a collaborative approach to density notification legislation. Using evidence-based data from the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Cochrane review, National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, American Cancer Society recommendations, and American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria, the group collaboratively developed an evidence-based best-practices algorithm. The expert consensus algorithm uses breast density as one element in the risk stratification to determine the need for supplemental screening. Women with dense breasts and otherwise low risk (<15% lifetime risk), do not routinely require supplemental screening per the expert consensus. Women of high risk (>20% lifetime) should consider supplemental screening MRI in addition to routine mammography regardless of breast density. We report the development of the multi-disciplinary collaborative approach to density notification. We propose a risk stratification algorithm to assess personal level of risk to determine the need for supplemental screening for an individual woman. PMID:26290416

  12. Measured adolescent body mass index and adult breast cancer in a cohort of 951,480 women.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levine, Hagai; Derazne, Estela; Molina-Hazan, Vered; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, studied predominantly as a self-reported risk factor for breast cancer (BC), may have been subjected to recall bias. We examined the association between measured BMI in adolescence and the incidence of BC by menopausal status. 951,480 Jewish Israeli females aged 16-19 who underwent anthropometric measurements in 1967-2011 were followed up to 31.12.2012 for BC incidence. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between adolescent BMI (as age-specific CDC percentiles) and time to BC diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. The analysis was also subdivided by age at diagnosis. 9619 BC cases diagnosed during 18,078,941 person-years of follow-up were included in multivariable analyses: 4901 premenopausal, 3809 perimenopausal, and 909 postmenopausal. Compared with 'healthy' BMI (5th-<85th percentiles) and adjusted for country of origin, education, and height, adolescent BMI was largely negatively associated with BC: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.057 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.955-1.169, p = 0.286) in underweight (<5th percentile); HR = 0.918 (95 % CI 0.849-0.993, p = 0.032) in overweight (85th-<95th percentiles); and HR = 0.682 (95 % CI 0.552-0.843, p = 0.00004) in obese (≥95th percentile) women. In premenopausal, but not peri- and postmenopausal BC, associations were statistically significant; underweight was associated with increased risk of premenopausal BC (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.01-1.31, p = 0.037), and overweight and obesity with significantly lower risk. Adolescent thinness was associated with increased risk for early BC. Overweight and obesity were protectively associated with premenopausal but not postmenopausal BC. The lack of an association of adolescent overweight/obesity with increased peri- and postmenopausal BC suggests a causal role for adult weight gain. PMID:27306419

  13. Energy density and 6-year anthropometric changes in a middle-aged adult cohort.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Estaquio, Carla; Czernichow, Sébastien; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) may be a good predictor of weight gain because of its association with the regulation of appetite control signals. Among the participants of the 'SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants' prospective study, 2707 subjects were included in the present study. Changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio were calculated using measured data collected in 1995/1996 and 2001/2002. The mean changes in various anthropometric indicators according to baseline body-weight status (BMI < or > or = 25 kg/m2) and sex-specific tertiles of baseline ED level or 6-year changes in ED were compared by covariance analysis. In overweight subjects, weight gain was positively associated with high dietary ED at baseline (P for trend = 0.03) and with increasing ED during the follow-up (P for trend = 0.0008). Both the WC and HC changes were also positively related to baseline ED and change in ED in overweight subjects. However, the relationships observed for the WC and HC changes were no longer significant after adjustment for weight change. These results support the hypothesis of a deleterious effect of high-energy-dense diets on weight change for overweight subjects. This relationship could be mediated by physical activity level. Further research needs to be performed in other populations to determine whether ED could be effective strategies to prevent weight gain. PMID:19138440

  14. Relationship of Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Adult Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 64 men divided into three BMI groups. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements were done in all the study participants. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between weight and BMI and BMD in femur neck and in total hip, and a significant negative correlation between age and femur neck BMD. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that weight and BMI had a significant positive association with BMD levels. Conclusion: Although the results show significant relationship between BMI and BMD, the negative relationship between age and femur neck BMD may serve as guidance to initiate early assessment of the BMD in this region as well as preventive measures of osteoporosis and fractures among ageing men population PMID:25568627

  15. A Single-Array-Based Method for Detecting Copy Number Variants Using Affymetrix High Density SNP Arrays and its Application to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Wen, Yalu; Fu, Wenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence has shown that structural variations, due to insertions, deletions, and inversions of DNA, may contribute considerably to the development of complex human diseases, such as breast cancer. High-throughput genotyping technologies, such as Affymetrix high density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, have produced large amounts of genetic data for genome-wide SNP genotype calling and copy number estimation. Meanwhile, there is a great need for accurate and efficient statistical methods to detect copy number variants. In this article, we introduce a hidden-Markov-model (HMM)-based method, referred to as the PICR-CNV, for copy number inference. The proposed method first estimates copy number abundance for each single SNP on a single array based on the raw fluorescence values, and then standardizes the estimated copy number abundance to achieve equal footing among multiple arrays. This method requires no between-array normalization, and thus, maintains data integrity and independence of samples among individual subjects. In addition to our efforts to apply new statistical technology to raw fluorescence values, the HMM has been applied to the standardized copy number abundance in order to reduce experimental noise. Through simulations, we show our refined method is able to infer copy number variants accurately. Application of the proposed method to a breast cancer dataset helps to identify genomic regions significantly associated with the disease. PMID:26279618

  16. Tumors with high-density tumor infiltrating lymphocytes constitute a favorable entity in breast cancer: a pooled analysis of four prospective adjuvant trials

    PubMed Central

    Kotoula, Vassiliki; Chatzopoulos, Kyriakos; Lakis, Sotiris; Alexopoulou, Zoi; Timotheadou, Eleni; Zagouri, Flora; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Galani, Eleni; Efstratiou, Ioannis; Zaramboukas, Thomas; Koutras, Angelos; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Samantas, Epaminontas; Psyrri, Amanda; Kourea, Helen; Bobos, Mattheos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are considered in the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) patients. Here, we investigated the prognostic/predictive effect of TILs in patients treated in the frame of four prospective trials with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in the pre- and post-trastuzumab era. Methods TILs density was histologically assessed as percentage of stromal area on whole routine sections of 2613 BC (1563 Luminal A/B; 477 Luminal HER2; 246 HER2-enriched; 327 triple negative [TNBC]) and were evaluated as high/low at three cut-offs (c/o; 50% [lymphocytic predominance, LP], 35% and 25%), in separate training and validation sets. Results High TILs were present in 3.5%, 6.5% and 11.5% of all tumors, using the 50%, 35% and 25% c/o, respectively. TILs status did not interact with BC subtypes or trastuzumab treatment. LPBC patient outcome was not affected by nodal status, while high TILs were favorable in TNBC with unfavorable nodal status. When adjusted for standard clinicopathological parameters and treatment, high TILs independently predicted for favorable outcome, e.g., disease-free survival with the 35% c/o in the entire cohort (HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.69, p < 0.001) and in specific subtypes. Conclusions High TILs tumors, especially LPBC seem worthy validating as a separate entity of favorable prognosis in breast cancer. PMID:26506242

  17. Mu-Opioid Receptor Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer in a Korean Female Adult Population: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chung-Sik; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bum; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mu-opioid receptor 1 gene (OPRM1) differs with ethnicity. We assessed the distribution of this SNP in Korean women with breast cancer and compared it with that in women of other ethnicities with breast cancer. Distribution of SNP genotypes was as follows: 49.8% for AG genotype, 40.6% for AA genotype, and 9.6% for GG genotype. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between the presence of the G allele at position 118 of OPRM1 and breast cancer in the studied population (odds ratios [OR], 0.635; p=0.002). However, the AG and GG genotypes were not associated with breast cancer in the studied population (OR, 0.719; p=0.130). The proportions of the AG and GG genotypes of the OPRM1 SNP were higher in Korean women with breast cancer than in those of other ethnicities. PMID:27382398

  18. The Association between Muscle Mass Deficits Estimated from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Kye-Bong; Cho, Sul-Bit; Im, In Jae; Kim, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by many factors. Despite the reported association between body components and BMD, most of these studies investigated the relationship between absolute muscle mass or fat mass and BMD in postmenopausal women or elderly subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between muscle mass deficits (MMD) estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and lumbar spinal BMD in Korean adults 20 to 49 years of age. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,765 men and women who visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. The lumbar spinal BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition analysis was performed using BIA. Results The mean age of the subjects was 40.2±6.3 years. Ten thousand subjects (56.7%) were males and 126 subjects (7.1%) belonged to the low BMD (Z-score ≤-2.0). MMD had the strongest influence on BMD after adjusting for all covariates. The adjusted odds ratio of Group 3 (MDD >2.6 kg) for low BMD was 2.74 (95% CI, 1.46-5.15) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, height, and smoking. Conclusions MMD estimated by BIA showed a significant association with BMD and could be regarded as an independent risk factor for low BMD in adults 20 to 49 years of age. These findings support that interventions such as physical activity or lifestyle changes may simultaneously modify both muscle and bone health in this age group. PMID:27294081

  19. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer according to tumor characteristics and mode of detection: a Spanish population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It is not clear whether high mammographic density (MD) is equally associated with all subtypes of breast cancer (BC). We investigated the association between MD and subsequent BC, considering invasiveness, means of detection, pathologic subtype, and the time elapsed since mammographic exploration and BC diagnosis. Methods BC cases occurring in the population of women who attended screening from 1997 through 2004 in Navarre, a Spanish region with a fully consolidated screening program, were identified via record linkage with the Navarre Cancer Registry (n = 1,172). Information was extracted from the records of their first attendance at screening in that period. For each case, we randomly selected four controls, matched by screening round, year of birth, and place of residence. Cases were classified according to invasiveness (ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus invasive tumors), pathologic subtype (considering hormonal receptors and HER2), and type of diagnosis (screen-detected versus interval cases). MD was evaluated by a single, experienced radiologist by using a semiquantitative scale. Data on BC risk factors were obtained by the screening program in the corresponding round. The association between MD and tumor subtype was assessed by using conditional logistic regression. Results MD was clearly associated with subsequent BC. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest MD category (MD >75%) compared with the reference category (MD <10%) was similar for DCIS (OR = 3.47; 95% CI = 1.46 to 8.27) and invasive tumors (OR = 2.95; 95% CI = 2.01 to 4.35). The excess risk was particularly high for interval cases (OR = 7.72; 95% CI = 4.02 to 14.81) in comparison with screened detected tumors (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.40 to 3.36). Sensitivity analyses excluding interval cases diagnosed in the first year after MD assessment or immediately after an early recall to screening yielded similar results. No differences were seen regarding pathologic subtypes. The excess risk

  20. Adverse effect of pregnancy on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in young adult women. The CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Funkhouser, E; Raczynski, J M; Sidney, S; Bild, D E; Howard, B V

    1996-08-01

    The authors analyzed data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study in order to examine associations between parity and lipoproteins. Of 2,787 women recruited in 1985-1986, 2,534 (91%) returned in 1987-1988 and 2,393 (86%) returned in 1990-1991 for repeat evaluations. Two-year change (1987-1988 to 1985-1986) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly different among the parity groups. HDL cholesterol decreased in women who had their first pregnancy of at least 28 weeks duration during follow-up (mean +/- standard error, -3.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dl), and this change was significantly different from the increase in women parous at baseline who had no further pregnancies (2.5 +/- 0.3 mg/dl) and in nullipara (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg/dl). There was a nonsignificant trend for a greater decrease in HDL2 cholesterol fraction in the primipara compared with the other groups. The HDL cholesterol decrease remained significant after controlling for race, age, education, oral contraceptive use, and changes in body mass index, waist-hip ratio, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Change in HDL cholesterol was also significantly different among the parity groups in analyses of pregnancies that occurred during the subsequent 3 years of follow-up. There were no differences for change in LDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Potential mechanisms for a detrimental effect of pregnancy on HDL cholesterol include hormonal, body composition, or life-style/behavioral changes. PMID:8686693

  1. Maternal Dietary Loads of Alpha-Tocopherol Increase Synapse Density and Glial Synaptic Coverage in the Hippocampus of Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Salucci, S.; Ambrogini, P.; Lattanzi, D.; Betti, M.; Gobbi, P.; Galati, C.; Galli, F.; Cuppini, R.; Minelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of the antioxidant α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) is recommended in complicated pregnancies, to prevent free radical damage to mother and fetus. However, the anti-PKC and antimitotic activity of α-Tocopherol raises concerns about its potential effects on brain development. Recently, we found that maternal dietary loads of α-Tocopherol through pregnancy and lactation cause developmental deficit in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rat offspring. The defect persisted into adulthood, with behavioral alterations in hippocampus-dependent learning. Here, using the same rat model of maternal supplementation, ultrastructural morphometric studies were carried out to provide mechanistic interpretation to such a functional impairment in adult offspring by the occurrence of long-term changes in density and morphological features of hippocampal synapses. Higher density of axo-spinous synapses was found in CA1 stratum radiatum of α-Tocopherol-exposed rats compared to controls, pointing to a reduced synapse pruning. No morphometric changes were found in synaptic ultrastructural features, i.e., perimeter of axon terminals, length of synaptic specializations, extension of bouton-spine contact. Gliasynapse anatomical relationship was also affected. Heavier astrocytic coverage of synapses was observed in Tocopherol-treated offspring, notably surrounding axon terminals; moreover, the percentage of synapses contacted by astrocytic endfeet at bouton-spine interface (tripartite synapses) was increased. These findings indicate that gestational and neonatal exposure to supranutritional Tocopherol intake can result in anatomical changes of offspring hippocampus that last through adulthood. These include a surplus of axo-spinous synapses and an aberrant gliasynapse relationship, which may represent the morphological signature of previously described alterations in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning. PMID:24998923

  2. Influence of radiation therapy on the lung-tissue in breast cancer patients: CT-assessed density changes and associated symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rotstein, S.; Lax, I.; Svane, G. )

    1990-01-01

    The relative electron density of lung tissue was measured from computer tomography (CT) slices in 33 breast cancer patients treated by various techniques of adjuvant radiotherapy. The measurements were made before radiotherapy, 3 months and 9 months after completion of radiation therapy. The changes in lung densities at 3 months and 9 months were compared to radiation induced radiological (CT) findings. In addition, subjective symptoms such as cough and dyspnoea were assessed before and after radiotherapy. It was observed that the mean of the relative electron density of lung tissue varied from 0.25 when the whole lung was considered to 0.17 when only the anterior lateral quarter of the lung was taken into account. In patients with positive radiological (CT) findings the mean lung density of the anterior lateral quarter increased 2.1 times 3 months after radiotherapy and was still increased 1.6 times 6 months later. For those patients without findings, in the CT pictures the corresponding values were 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. The standard deviation of the pixel values within the anterior lateral quarter of the lung increased 3.8 times and 3.2 times at 3 months and 9 months, respectively, in the former group, as opposed to 1.2 and 1.1 in the latter group. Thirteen patients had an increase in either cough or dyspnoea as observed 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. In eleven patients these symptoms persisted 6 months later. No significant correlation was found between radiological findings and subjective symptoms. However, when three different treatment techniques were compared among 29 patients the highest rate of radiological findings was observed in patients in which the largest lung volumes received the target dose. A tendency towards an increased rate of subjective symptoms was also found in this group.

  3. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  4. Calibrating the High Density Magnetic Port within Tissue Expanders to Achieve more Accurate Dose Calculations for Postmastectomy Patients with Immediate Breast Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jasmine; Zhang, Rui; Heins, David; Castle, Katherine

    In postmastectomy radiotherapy, an increasing number of patients have tissue expanders inserted subpectorally when receiving immediate breast reconstruction. These tissue expanders are composed of silicone and are inflated with saline through an internal metallic port; this serves the purpose of stretching the muscle and skin tissue over time, in order to house a permanent implant. The issue with administering radiation therapy in the presence of a tissue expander is that the port's magnetic core can potentially perturb the dose delivered to the Planning Target Volume, causing significant artifacts in CT images. Several studies have explored this problem, and suggest that density corrections must be accounted for in treatment planning. However, very few studies accurately calibrated commercial TP systems for the high density material used in the port, and no studies employed fusion imaging to yield a more accurate contour of the port in treatment planning. We compared depth dose values in the water phantom between measurement and TPS calculations, and we were able to overcome some of the inhomogeneities presented by the image artifact by fusing the KVCT and MVCT images of the tissue expander together, resulting in a more precise comparison of dose calculations at discrete locations. We expect this method to be pivotal in the quantification of dose distribution in the PTV. Research funded by the LS-AMP Award.

  5. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score < 0) across a season. Energy intake (EI) and exercise energy expenditure during preseason (PS), competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); < 30 kcal · kg fat-free mass (FFM) (-1) · day(-1)] during PS, 90% during C, and 80% during OS (range: 3-37 kcal · kg FFM(-1) · day(-1)). Ninety percent of cyclists had LEA during ≥ 1 training period, and 70% had LEA across the season. Seventy percent of cyclists were identified as restrained eaters who consciously restrict EI as a means of weight control. Mean daily carbohydrate intake was below sport nutrition recommendations during each training period (PS: 3.9 ± 1.1 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p < .001; C: 4.3 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .005; OS: 3.7 ± 1.4 g · kg(-1) · day(-1), p = .01). There were no differences in EA and EI · kg(-1) between male and female cyclists and road and off-road cyclists. Low EI, and specifically low carbohydrate intake, appears to be the main contributor to chronic LEA in these cyclists. Adult male and female competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes. PMID:26131616

  6. Bone turnover and mineral density in adult thalassemic patients: relationships with growth hormone secretory status and circulating somatomedins.

    PubMed

    Scacchi, Massimo; Danesi, Leila; Cattaneo, Agnese; Sciortino, Giovanna; Radin, Raffaella; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Vitale, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Mirra, Nadia; Zanaboni, Laura; Arvigo, Marica; Boschetti, Mara; Ferone, Diego; Marzullo, Paolo; Baldini, Marina; Cassinerio, Elena; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Persani, Luca; Cavagnini, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Previous evidence supports a role for growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I deficiency in the pathophysiology of osteopenia/osteoporosis in adult thalassemia. Moreover, serum IGF-II has never been studied in this clinical condition. Thus, we elected to study the GH secretory status and the levels of circulating somatomedins, correlating these parameters with bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. A hundred and thirty-nine normal weight adult thalassemic patients (72 men and 67 women) were studied. Lumbar and femoral neck BMD were measured in 106/139 patients. Sixty-eight patients underwent growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine testing. Measurement of baseline IGF-I and IGF-II was performed in all patients, while osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) were assayed in 95 of them. Femoral and lumbar osteoporosis/Z score below the expected range for age were documented in 61.3 and in 56.6 % of patients, respectively. Severe GH deficiency (GHD) was demonstrated in 27.9 % of cases, whereas IGF-I SDS was low in 86.3 %. No thalassemic patients displayed circulating levels of IGF-II below the reference range. GH peaks were positively correlated with femoral, but not lumbar, Z score. No correlations were found between GH peaks and osteocalcin, CTx and NTx. GH peaks were positively correlated with IGF-I values, which in their turn displayed a positive correlation with osteocalcin, CTx, and NTx. No correlations emerged between IGF-I values and either femoral or lumbar Z scores. No correlations were found between IGF-II and any of the following parameters: GH peaks, osteocalcin, CTx, NTx, femoral Z score, and lumbar Z score. Our study, besides providing for the first time evidence of a normal IGF-II production in thalassemia, contributes to a better understanding of the involvement of the somatotropin-somatomedin axis in the

  7. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Greenwood, Maria A.; Brewer, Jacob S.; Rozofsky, John P.; Parise, Eric M.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional or physical stress on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day [PD] 35) or adult (eight-week old) mice were exposed to emotional (ES) or physical stress (PS) using a vicarious social defeat paradigm. Twenty-four hours after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted ERK2, reduced transcription of ΔFosB, and had no effect on CREB mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent-exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice, and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  8. Dietary intake of vitamin K in relation to bone mineral density in Korea adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kim, Eun-Soo; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin K nutritional status has been associated with increased risk of fracture, however inconsistent results exist to support the role of vitamin K on bone mineral density depending on ethnic difference and gender. Our objective was to determine vitamin K intake in Korean adults, examine correlation between vitamin K intake and bone mineral density. This study analyzed raw data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults (2,785 men, 4,307 women) aged over 19 years. Cross-sectional analyses showed only positive association between vitamin K intake and femur bone mineral density in men after adjusting bone-related factors. However, women in high tertiles of vitamin K intake had a significantly higher bone mineral density both in femur and lumber as compared to women in lowest tertiles (p<0.05). The risk for osteoporosis was decreased as vitamin K intake increased in women, but this effect was not persisted after adjusting factors. The findings of this study indicate that low dietary vitamin K intake was associated with low bone mineral density in subjects. From these results we may suggest an increase in dietary vitamin K intakes for maintaining bone mineral density. (2010-02CON-21-C, 2011-02CON-06-C) PMID:26566308

  9. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  10. Higher sika deer density is associated with higher local abundance of Haemaphysalis longicornis nymphs and adults but not larvae in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hideharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Kamio, Tsugihiko; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Matsuda, Naoko; Maruyama, Tetsuya; Ohba, Takahiro; Nagata, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae) is one of the most common and important arthropod disease vectors in Japan, carrying Japanese spotted fever and bovine theileriosis. The recent expansion of sika deer (Cervus nippon, Artiodactyla: Cervidae) populations, the most common wild host of H. longicornis, has also caused concern about increasing the risk of vector-borne diseases in Japan. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis to determine the relative contribution of deer density and other biological and abiotic factors on the abundance of H. longicornis ticks questing at each developmental stage. A total of 6223 H. longicornis adults, nymphs, and larvae were collected from 70 sites in three regions of central Japan. The abundance of questing adult and nymphal ticks was associated with deer density and other biotic and abiotic factors. However, the abundance of questing larvae showed no association with deer density but did show an association with other biotic and abiotic factors. These findings show that a high density of deer along with other biotic and abiotic factors is associated with increased risk of vector-borne diseases through amplified local abundance of questing nymphal and adult H. longicornis. Further, questing larvae abundance is likely regulated by environmental conditions and is likely correlated with survival potential or the distribution of other host species. PMID:23702338

  11. High-density lipoprotein of patients with breast cancer complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus promotes cancer cells adhesion to vascular endothelium via ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dan; Ming, Jia; He, Yubin; Zhou, Champion; Ren, Hui; He, Xin; Wang, Chenguang; Jin, Jingru; Ji, Liang; Willard, Belinda; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion of disseminating tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal starting point in the metastasis cascade. We have shown previously that diabetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has the capability of promoting breast cancer metastasis, and this report summarizes our more recent work studying the role of abnormal HDL in facilitating the adhesion of the circulating tumor cells to the endothelium. This is an initiating step in breast cancer metastasis, and this work assesses the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in this process. MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal HDL from healthy controls (N-HDL), HDL from breast cancer patients (B-HDL), or HDL from breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BD-HDL), and the cell adhesion abilities were determined. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. The effect of PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA on adhesion was also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin from breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined. Our results indicate that BD-HDL promoted an increase in breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the cells surface of both breast cancer and HUVEC cells, along with the activation of PKC. Increased tumor cell (TC)-HUVEC adhesion, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by BD-HDL, could be inhibited by staurosporine and PKC siRNA. In addition, a Db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model has more TC-Vascular Endothelium adhesion compared to a normal model. However, BD patients have a lower expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in their tumor tissues. BD-HDL facilitates the adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, thereby promoting the initial progression of breast cancer metastasis

  12. The effect of vegetation density on male mate guarding and extra-territorial forays in the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Herman L.; Ritchison, Gary

    Extra-pair paternity is widely documented in birds, but the behaviors that lead to extra-pair copulations (EPCs) have been less well studied, particularly in territorial songbirds. We studied the behaviors associated with extra-territorial forays (ETFs) and male mate guarding in a socially monogamous, but genetically promiscuous, neotropical migrant passerine, the yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens). Focal observations and radiotelemetry revealed that both males and females engaged in ETFs. 65% of the females in our study engaged in at least one foray onto a neighboring territory. 50% of males also were observed engaging in ETFs, but males were much more conspicuous during these intrusions compared to females. Females preferred to remain close to the ground in areas where vegetation was the densest. Female behavior was difficult to observe during ETFs but females sometimes interacted with neighboring extra-pair males. Males attempted to guard their mates by remaining close to them and following them during extra-territorial intrusions. We observed instances in which a male attacked his mate and appeared to herd her back to his territory. However a male's ability to maintain close proximity to his mate was significantly and negatively correlated with vegetation density. Our results suggest that the behaviors which lead to extra-pair encounters are influenced by the behavior of all participants and are modified by the characteristics of the habitat.

  13. The influence of density on adults and juveniles of the estuarine fish, the sheepshead minnow (cyprinodon variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population density and demographic rates (e.g. survival, reproduction, growth) is critical to understand population dynamics and has been widely studied in fishes. Estuarine species are regularly exposed to dramatic changes in density with daily, monthly,...

  14. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  15. Breast pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  16. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery ... the position of the areola and nipple. Description Cosmetic breast surgery can be done at an outpatient ...

  17. Adult body size and physical activity in relation to risk of breast cancer according to tumor androgen receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Eliassen, A. Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hazra, Aditi; Beck, Andrew H.; Brown, Myles; Collins, Laura C.; Rosner, Bernard; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and physical activity have been hypothesized to affect breast cancer risk partly via the androgen signaling pathway. We conducted the first study to evaluate these associations by tumor androgen receptor (AR) status. Methods Height, weight, and physical activity were assessed using questionnaires in the Nurses’ Health Study. AR, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status were determined using immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue and medical/pathology reports. Results 1,701 AR+ and 497 AR- cases were documented during 26 years of follow-up of 103,577 women. After adjusting for ER/PR status and other risk factors, the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI) were 1.07(1.01–1.13) for AR+ and 1.16(1.05–1.29) for AR- tumors (p-heterogeneity=0.17). The RRs(95%CIs) per 5 hours of brisk walking/week were 0.87(0.73–1.04) for AR+ and 0.67(0.45–0.99) for AR- tumors (p-heterogeneity=0.22). Further, BMI, but not physical activity, associations differed significantly across ER/PR/AR subtypes (p-heterogeneity=0.04 and 0.63, respectively). The RRs(95%CIs) for 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI were 1.23(1.04–1.45) for ER+PR+AR−, 1.19(1.01–1.39) for ER−PR−AR−, 1.15(1.08–1.23) for ER+PR+AR+, 0.88(0.75–1.03) for ER+PR−AR+ tumors. Conclusions Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of both AR+ and AR− breast tumors in postmenopausal women, while physical activity, including brisk walking, was associated with a reduced risk of both subtypes. Additionally, a significant positive association was observed between higher BMI and ER−PR−AR− tumors. Impact The similar associations observed by AR status suggest that mechanisms other than androgen signaling underlie these two breast cancer risk factors. PMID:25855627

  18. Very old adults with better memory function have higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios: KOCOA project

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yuriko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, D. Craig; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined cross-sectionally which lipid profiles are associated with better cognitive function among those aged 80 and older-free of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 0.5), functionally independent and community-dwelling. Our cohort consisted of 193 participants from the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) Project”, a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratios were associated with higher scores in memory performance after controlling for confounders. Further research is required to clarify the associations among LDL-C levels, TG/HDL-C ratios, and healthy cognitive aging. PMID:23207484

  19. Altered gene expression and spine density in nucleus accumbens of adolescent and adult male mice exposed to emotional and physical stress.

    PubMed

    Warren, Brandon L; Sial, Omar K; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Greenwood, Maria A; Brewer, Jacob S; Rozofsky, John P; Parise, Eric M; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Stressful early life experiences are implicated in lifelong health. However, little is known about the consequences of emotional stress (ES) or physical stress (PS) on neurobiology. Therefore, the following set of experiments was designed to assess changes in transcription and translation of key proteins within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male adolescent (postnatal day 35) or adult (8-week-old) mice were exposed to ES or PS using a witness social defeat paradigm. Then, 24 h after the last stress session, we measured levels of specific mRNAs and proteins within the NAc. Spine density was also assessed in separate groups of mice. Exposure to ES or PS disrupted extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), reduced transcription of ΔFosB and had no effect on cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA. Western blots revealed that exposure to ES or PS decreased ERK2 phosphorylation in adolescents, whereas the same stress regimen increased ERK2 phosphorylation in adults. Exposure to ES or PS had no effect on ΔFosB or CREB phosphorylation. ES and PS increased spine density in the NAc of adolescent exposed mice, but only exposure to PS increased spine density in adults. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to ES or PS is a potent stressor in adolescent and adult mice and can disturb the integrity of the NAc by altering transcription and translation of important signaling molecules in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, exposure to ES and PS induces substantial synaptic plasticity of the NAc. PMID:24943326

  20. Sugary, High-Fat Western Diet Tied to Denser Breast Tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denser Breast Tissue Previous research has linked higher density to increased risk of breast cancer To use ... reported data about diet. They also rated the density of the women's breast tissue as seen on ...

  1. Flow management and fish density regulate salmonid recruitment and adult size in tailwaters across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Budy, Phaedra E.

    2015-01-01

    The mean lengths of adult rainbow and brown trout were influenced by similar flow and catch metrics. Length in both species was positively correlated with high annual flow but declined in tailwaters with high daily fluctuations in flow, high catch rates of conspecifics, and when large cohorts recruited to adult size. Whereas brown trout did not respond to the proportion of water allocated between seasons, rainbow trout length increased in rivers that released more water during winter than in spring. Rainbow trout length was primarily related to high catch rates of conspecifics, whereas brown trout length was mainly related to large cohorts recruiting to the adult size class. Species-specific responses to flow management are likely attributable to differences in seasonal timing of key life history events such as spawning, egg hatching, and fry emergence.

  2. The development and implementation of a patient-centered radiology consultation service: a focus on breast density and additional screening options.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Courtney L; Pandya, Ankur; Min, Robert J; Drotman, Michele; Hentel, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, states are mandating notification to patients if they are found to have dense breast tissue. Information describes the increased risk of cancer and limitations of mammography for this patient group. Such notification often creates anxiety and results in uncertainty as no evidence-based guidelines for additional screening of dense breasts are available. Through an organized consultation service, patients and physicians were provided consultations with radiologists in order to ensure an appropriate screening plan based on individualized histories and preferences. This manuscript describes our dense breast consultation program, examines initial data, and provides lessons for practices interested in providing similar service. PMID:25655643

  3. Detection and quantification of a very high density lipoprotein in different tissues of Triatoma infestans during the last nymphal and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, O J; Córsico, B; González, M S; Brenner, R R

    1996-07-01

    The presence of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL), an hexameric protein, was explored in different tissues of Triatoma infestans throughout the last nymphal and adult stages, and in egg extracts by Western blot assays. The VHDL was always detected in both, hemolymph and fat body, during the above mentioned stages and it was also observed in the buffer soluble fraction of testis and egg homogenates. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the VHDL titer in these tissues. Hemolymph VHDL reaches a maximum value before the last molt, then it abruptly declines in males and females just after emergence, but during adult life it increases again. Fat body VHDL decreases slowly and continuously during the nymph growth reaching a minimum value prior to molting, and in the first week of adult life the values were even two-fold lower; then, it shows a different cycle of accumulation and depletion in males and females. In adult testis the VHDL undergoes a cycle similar to the one observed in male fat body. This protein increases progressively during embryonic development and, at the time of larval hatching it reaches its maximum value. The hexameric protein presents homologies in its N-terminal sequence with storage hexamerins of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:8995792

  4. Reconstituted high density lipoprotein mediated targeted co-delivery of HZ08 and paclitaxel enhances the efficacy of paclitaxel in multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangrong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xiangting; Li, Min; Zhou, Jianping; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-20

    In the past decades, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) has been successfully developed as a drug carrier since the enhanced HDL-lipids uptake is demonstrated in several human cancers. In this paper, rHDL, for the first time, was utilized to co-encapsulate two hydrophobic drugs: an anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), and a new reversal agent for P-gp (P-glycoprotein)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer, N-cyano-1-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-N'-octyl-2(1H)-isoquinoline-carboximidamide (HZ08). We proposed this drug co-delivery strategy to reverse PTX resistance. The study aimed to develop a biomimetic nanovector, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL), mediating targeted PTX-HZ08 delivery for cancer therapy. Using sodium cholate dialysis method, we successfully formulated dual-agent co-delivering rHDL nanoparticles (PTX-HZ08-rHDL NPs) with a typical spherical morphology, well-distributed size (~100nm), high drug encapsulation efficiency (approximately 90%), sustained drug release properties and exceptional stability even after storage for 1month or incubation in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) DMEM for up to 2days. Results demonstrated that PTX-HZ08-rHDL NPs significantly enhanced anticancer efficacy in vitro, including higher cytotoxicity and better ability to induce cell apoptosis against both PTX-sensitive and -resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-7/PTX cells). Mechanism studies demonstrated that these improvements could be correlated with increased cellular uptake of PTX mediated by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) as well as prolonged intracellular retention of PTX due to the HZ08 mediated drug-efflux inhibition. In addition, in vivo investigation showed that the PTX-HZ08-rHDL NPs were substantially safer, have higher tumor-targeted capacity and have stronger antitumor activity than the corresponding dosage of paclitaxel injection. These findings suggested that rHDL NPs could

  5. Prepubertal Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Alters Sertoli and Leydig Cell Function and Lowers Bone Density in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Bielanowicz, Amanda; Johnson, Rachelle W; Goh, Hoey; Moody, Sarah C; Poulton, Ingrid J; Croce, Nic; Loveland, Kate L; Hedger, Mark P; Sims, Natalie A; Itman, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Phthalate exposure impairs testis development and function; however, whether phthalates affect nonreproductive functions is not well understood. To investigate this, C57BL/6J mice were fed 1-500 mg di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in corn oil, or vehicle only, daily from 4 to 14 days, after which tissues were collected (prepubertal study). Another group was fed 1-500 mg/kg·d DBP from 4 to 21 days and then maintained untreated until 8 weeks for determination of adult consequences of prepubertal exposure. Bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and T by RIA. DBP exposure decreased prepubertal femur length, marrow volume, and mean moment of inertia. Adult animals exposed prepubertally to low DBP doses had lower bone mineral content and bone mineral density and less lean tissue mass than vehicle-treated animals. Altered dynamics of the emerging Leydig population were found in 14-day-old animals fed 100-500 mg/kg·d DBP. Adult mice had variable testicular T and serum T and LH concentrations after prepubertal exposure and a dose-dependent reduction in cytochrome p450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1. Insulin-like 3 was detected in Sertoli cells of adult mice administered the highest dose of 500 mg/kg·d DBP prepubertally, a finding supported by the induction of insulin-like 3 expression in TM4 cells exposed to 50 μM, but not 5 μM, DBP. We propose that low-dose DBP exposure is detrimental to bone but that normal bone mineral density/bone mineral content after high-dose DBP exposure reflects changes in testicular somatic cells that confer protection to bones. These findings will fuel concerns that low-dose DBP exposure impacts health beyond the reproductive axis. PMID:27058814

  6. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density. PMID:26277917

  7. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  8. Reducing the Risk of Bone Fracture: A Review of the Research for Adults with Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone density is a condition where the tissue inside your bones begins to thin, or becomes less ... include: Dairy foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt. Dark green leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale. Bread, ...

  9. Numerically simulated cardiac exposure to electric current densities induced by TASER X-26 pulses in adult men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Niedermayr, F.; Neubauer, R.; Loos, G.

    2010-10-01

    There is still an ongoing debate whether or not electronic stun devices (ESDs) induce cardiac fibrillation. To assess the ventricular fibrillation risk of law enforcing electronic control devices, quantitative estimates of cardiac electric current densities induced by delivered electric pulses are essential. Numerical simulations were performed with the finite integration technique and the anatomical model of a standardized European man (NORMAN) segmented into 2 mm voxels and 35 different tissues. The load-dependent delivery of TASER X-26 pulses has been taken into account. Cardiac exposure to electric current densities of vertically and horizontally aligned dart electrodes was quantified and different hit scenarios compared. Since fibrillation thresholds critically depend on exposed volume, the provided quantitative data are essential for risk assessment. The maximum cardiac rms current densities amounted to 7730 A m-2. Such high current densities and exposed cardiac volumes do not exclude ventricular fibrillation.

  10. From innervation density to tactile acuity 2: embryonic and adult pre- and postsynaptic somatotopy in the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Millecchia, Ronald; Lawson, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alan G; Koerber, H Richard; Culberson, James; Stephens, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dorsal horn laminae III-IV cell receptive fields (RFs) are initially established in three steps: cutaneous axons penetrate the dorsal horn near their rostrocaudal (RC) levels of entry into the spinal cord. Their terminal branches distribute mediolaterally (ML) according to their relative distoproximal RF locations on the leg, and form nonselective synapses with nearby dorsal horn cell dendrites, establishing the initial dorsal horn cell RFs. Rootlet axon RFs in adult cats were used to approximate the RC entry levels of hindlimb skin input. Cord dorsum recordings of monosynaptic field potentials evoked by electrical skin stimulation provided the RC distributions of synaptic input. These were in close agreement. Simulated projections of all 22,000 hindlimb axons were similar to projections predicted from EPSP distributions, and with the observed projections of dorsal roots, cutaneous nerves, and individual axons. The simulated terminals were connected nonselectively to nearby dendrites of 135,000 simulated lamina III-IV cells whose dendritic surface area distributions were based on intracellularly stained cells. There was an overall similarity among pre- and postsynaptic embryonic and adult somatotopies, with a progressive transformation of RF angular location as a function of RC, ML dorsal horn location from an initial embryonic presynaptic concentric pattern to an adult postsynaptic radial one. The initial embryonic dorsal horn cell RF assembly hypothesis was supported by the simulations, as was the additional hypothesis that further refinement of connections would be necessary to establish sufficient selectivity to account for observed adult RFs and somatotopy. PMID:16125155

  11. Breast lump

    MedlinePlus

    ... new lumps or breast changes. Ask about your risk factors for breast cancer, and screening and prevention for breast cancer. When ... from you. You will be asked about your factors that may increase the risk of breast cancer . The provider will perform a thorough breast exam. ...

  12. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  13. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  14. Sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a Turkish young adult population: a sample of Baskent University.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Hale; Kurkcuoglu, Ayla; Pelin, Ismail Can; Yazici, Ayse Canan; Aktaş, Gulnihal; Altunay, Fikret

    2015-05-01

    Fingerprints are considered to be one of the most reliable methods of identification. Identification of an individual plays a vital part of any medico-legal investigations. Dermatoglyphics is a branch of science that studies epidermal ridges and ridge patterns. Epidermal ridges are polygenic characteristics that form intrauterine 10-18 weeks and considered fully developed by the sixth month of fetal growth. Fingerprints are permanent morphological characteristics and criminal detection based on fingerprints is based on the principle that no two people can have identical fingerprints. Sex determination from fingerprints has been examined in different population. In this study we aimed to study fingerprint ridge density in Turkish population sample of Baskent University students. Fingerprints were obtained from 118 women, 88 men a total of 206 students aged between 17 and 28 years old by means of simple inking method. Fingerprints from all right and left hands fingers were collected in three different area of each. The ridges on fingerprints were counted diagonally on squares measuring 5 mm × 5 mm on radial, ulnar and inferior areas. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and inferior areas and between sexes was compared statistically Mann Whitney U test and Friedman test. The ridge density was significantly greater in women in every region studied and in all fingers when compared to men. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints was significantly greater than the lower area. Fingerprint ridge density can be used by medico-legal examination for sex identification. PMID:25882147

  15. Dense Breasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman’s breasts. It is most commonly determined using mammography, a diagnostic test that uses low dose x- ... woman’s breasts, which is most commonly determined through mammography. The breast is made up of glandular, connective, ...

  16. Breast lump

    MedlinePlus

    Breast mass ... males and females of all ages have normal breast tissue. This tissue responds to hormone changes. Because of this, lumps can come and go. Breast lumps may appear at any age: Both male ...

  17. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk ...

  18. Breast Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Most women experience breast changes at some time. Your age, hormone levels, and medicines you take may cause lumps, bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, ...

  19. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Breast ultrasound is a test that uses sound waves to examine the breasts. How the Test is ... to the left or right. The device sends sound waves to the breast tissue. The sound waves help ...

  20. Influence of neighbourhood ethnic density, diet and physical activity on ethnic differences in weight status: a study of 214,807 adults in Australia.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Croteau, Karen; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised multilevel modelling of BMI for 38 ethnic and country of birth groups. Physical activity was ascertained using the Active Australia Survey. Dietary measures included self-reported consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat and cheese. Ethnic density was objectively measured using 2006 Australian Census data. Possible confounders included age, gender, household income, educational qualifications, economic status, couple status, language, duration of residence, neighbourhood affluence and remoteness. Compared to Australian-born Australians (age-gender adjusted mean BMI = 27.1, 95%CI 27.1, 27.2), overseas-born groups often had lower mean BMI, especially the Chinese born in China (23.2, 23.0, 23.4). Exceptions included the Italians (BMI = 28.1), Greeks (28.5), Maltese (27.6), Lebanese (28.4) and Croatians (27.8) born in their ethnic-country of origin. Regardless of birthplace, BMI was lower for the English, Scottish, and Chinese, but higher for Italians and Greeks. Some ethnic differences reflected the 'healthy migrant' hypothesis, whereas others did not. These differences were only partially attenuated by controls for portions of fruit and vegetables, meat and cheese, frequency of participation in physical activity, and other explanatory variables. Ethnic density was associated with lower BMI for the English and Irish (p < 0.05), regardless of whether they were born in the UK, Ireland, or Australia. Ethnic differences in adult weight status in Australia do not appear to be fully explained by conventional risk factors. For some groups, but not all, living among others of the same ethnic group may proxy unmeasured health

  1. Comparisons of bone mineral density and bone quality in adult rock climbers, resistance-trained men, and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2010-09-01

    The nature of muscular contractions and episodes of impact loading during technical rock climbing are often varied and complex, and the resulting effects on bone health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibia and forearm bone quality in male rock climbers (RC) (n = 15), resistance trained men (RT) (n = 16), and untrained male controls (CTR) (n = 16). Total body, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm aBMD and body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy, v. 10.50.086; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.). Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone content, bone area, and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the tibia and forearm were measured using pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Stratec XCT 3000, Pforzheim, Germany). No significant group differences were seen in bone-free lean body mass. CTR had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body fat % than RC and RT and significantly (p < 0.05) greater fat mass than RC. Lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in RT compared to both RC and CTR. RC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower aBMD at the 33% radius site than CTR. Forearm MCSA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CTR than in the other groups. No significant differences were seen between groups for vBMD or bone area of the tibia and forearm. In conclusion, resistance-trained men had higher bone density at the central skeletal sites than rock climbers; however, bone quality variables of the peripheral limbs were similar in rock climber and resistance-trained groups. PMID:20093970

  2. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Results: Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the CPP groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus. PMID:27563418

  3. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...

  4. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  5. Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guosong; Weinger, Jason G.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Xue, Feng; Sadeghpour, Safa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a major problem in elderly, affecting quality of life. Pre-clinical studies show that MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, is effective at reversing cognitive decline in aging rodents. Objective: Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50–70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated. Overall cognitive ability was determined by a composite score of tests in four major cognitive domains. Results: With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant. Due to the strong placebo effects on sleep and anxiety, the effects of MMFS-01 on sleep and anxiety could not be determined. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the potential of MMFS-01 for treating cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:26519439

  6. Effect of nutritional counseling on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Thai HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Chotivichien, Saipin; Arab, Lenore; Prasithsirikul, Wisit; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sinawat, Sangsom; Detels, Roger

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy have increased risk of metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia. In this study, we determined whether individual nutritional counseling reduced dyslipidemia, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia not currently taking lipid-lowering medication. We conducted a randomized 24-week trial among HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia who were on antiretroviral therapy and were eligible to initiate therapeutic lifestyle changes according to the Thai National Cholesterol Education Program. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received individual counseling with a nutritionist for seven sessions (baseline, weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24) and a control group that received standard verbal diet information at baseline and nutritional counseling only at week 24. A 24-h recall technique was used to assess dietary intake for both groups at baseline and week 24. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride) was measured at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. An intention-to-treat and linear mixed model were used. Seventy-two patients were randomly assigned, and 62 (86%) participants completed their lipid profile test. After 12 weeks of follow-up, there were significant reductions in the intervention group for total cholesterol (-14.4 ± 4.6 mg/dL, P = .002), LDL cholesterol (-13.7 ± 4.1 mg/dL, P = .001), and triglyceride (-30.4 ± 13.8 mg/dL, P = .03). A significant reduction in LDL cholesterol was also observed in the control group (-7.7 ± 3.8 mg/dL, P = .04), but there were no significant differences in change of mean lipid levels between the groups at 12 weeks of follow-up. After 24 weeks, participants assigned to the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater decreases in serum total cholesterol (-19.0 ± 4.6 vs. 0.2

  7. Relationship of adiposity to bone volumetric density and microstructure in men and women across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Alvin C.; Melton, L. Joseph; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Holets, Margaret F.; Peterson, James M.; Khosla, Sundeep; Drake, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adipose tissue may negatively impact bone health, challenging the traditional paradigm that increased fat mass, through mechanical loading or endogenous estrogen production, is beneficial to the skeleton. We hypothesized that it is primarily the visceral compartment of body fat that is detrimental to bone metabolism, resulting in impaired bone density and architecture. In an age-stratified population sample of 218 women and 291 men (age 20–97 years), we assessed visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue areas at the L2–L3 interspace level by single slice quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and measured total body fat mass (TBF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We then correlated these findings with volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) assessed by central QCT, and with vBMD and microstructural parameters at the ultradistal radius (UDR) by high resolution peripheral QCT (HRpQCT). In unadjusted analyses in postmenopausal women, TBF and SAT were positively correlated with total, trabecular, and cortical vBMD at the FN, LS, and UDR and with trabecular microstructure at the UDR. By contrast, VAT was not correlated with vBMD at the FN or LS but was positively correlated with UDR total and trabecular vBMD but not cortical vBMD. Adjustment for age or for bioavailable estradiol and testosterone levels reduced these correlations, while adjustment for body weight eliminated most positive associations. Assessment of the VAT/SAT ratio, however, demonstrated a negative relationship with vBMD at the FN and LS in postmenopausal women, a relationship eliminated when adjusted for age. Correlations between skeletal parameters and adipose measurements in pre-menopausal women and older men were weaker and mostly non-significant. In younger men, VAT was negatively associated with vBMD, cortical thickness, and trabecular microstructure at the UDR, and with LS vBMD and FN cortical v

  8. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    Background Life style and physical activity play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The mechanism for better bone metabolism and improvement of physical disorders is not clear yet. Trace minerals such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn are essential precursors for most vital biological process, especially those of bone health. Objective The main target of this study was evaluating the effective role of supervised aerobic exercise for 1 hour/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks in the functions of trace elements in bone health through measuring bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis (T-score), bone markers, and trace element concentrations in healthy subjects aged 30–60 years with age average of 41.2±4.9. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (47 males, 53 females; age range 30–60 years) were recruited for this study. Based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan analysis, the participants were classified into three groups: normal (n=30), osteopenic (n=40), and osteoporotic (n=30). Following, 12 weeks of moderate aerobic exercise, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), BMD, T-score, and trace elements such as Ca, Mn, Cu, and Zn were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results Significant improvement in serum BAP level, T-score, and BMD were observed in all participants following 12 weeks of moderate exercise. Participants with osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in serum Ca and Mn, along with decrease in serum Cu and Zn levels following 12 weeks of aerobic training. In control group, the improvements in serum trace elements and body mass index were significantly linked with the enhancement in the levels of BAP, BMD hip, and BMD spine. These results supported the preventive effects of moderate exercise in healthy subjects against osteoporosis. In both sexes, the changes in serum trace elements significantly correlated (P<0.05) with the improvement in BAP, BMD hip, BMD spine, and body mass index in all groups

  9. Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in diet or serum may have a protective effect on the risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the conclusions from prospective studies are still controversial. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship between intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and the risk of BC, and estimate the potential summarized dose–response trend. Methods Relevant English-language studies were identified through Cochrane Library, PubMed and EMBASE database till April 2013. Eligible prospective studies reporting the multivariate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for association of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio in diet or serum with BC risk. Data extraction was conducted independently by 2 investigators; disagreements were reconciled by consensus. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Study-specific RRs were combined via a random-effects model. Results Six prospective nested case–control and 5 cohort studies, involving 8,331 BC events from 274,135 adult females across different countries, were included in present study. Subjects with higher dietary intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs have a significantly lower risk of BC among study populations (pooled RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in diet was associated with a 6% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99; P for linear trend = 0.012). USA subjects with higher ratio of n-3/n-6 in serum phospholipids (PL) have a significantly lower risk of BC (pooled RR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.97; I2 = 0.00%; P for metaregression = 0.103; P for a permutation test = 0.100), and per 1/10 increment of ratio in serum PL was associated with 27% reduction of BC risk (pooled RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.91; P for linear trend = 0.004; P for metaregression = 0.082; P for a permutation test = 0.116). Conclusions Higher intake ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs is associated with lower risk of BC among females, which implies an important evidence for

  10. Mapping somatosensory connectivity in adult mice using diffusion MRI tractography and super-resolution track density imaging.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kay; Calamante, Fernando; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Sadeghian, Farnoosh; Retchford, Alexander R; Jones, Gabriel Davis; Reid, Christopher A; Reutens, David C; Ordidge, Roger; Connelly, Alan; Petrou, Steven

    2014-11-15

    In this study we combined ultra-high field diffusion MRI fiber tracking and super-resolution track density imaging (TDI) to map the relay locations and connectivity of the somatosensory pathway in paraformaldehyde fixed, C57Bl/6J mouse brains. Super-resolution TDI was used to achieve 20 μm isotropic resolution to inform the 3D topography of the relay locations including thalamic barreloids and brainstem barrelettes, not described previously using MRI methodology. TDI-guided mapping results for thalamo-cortical connectivity were consistent with thalamo-cortical projections labeled using virus mediated fluorescent protein expression. Trigemino-thalamic TDI connectivity maps were concordant with results obtained using anterograde dye tracing from brainstem to thalamus. Importantly, TDI mapping overcame the constraint of tissue distortion observed in mechanically sectioned tissue, enabling 3D reconstruction and long-range connectivity data. In conclusion, our results showed that diffusion micro-imaging at ultra-high field MRI revealed the stereotypical pattern of somatosensory connectivity and is a valuable tool to complement histologic methods, achieving 3D spatial preservation of whole brain networks for characterization in mouse models of human disease. PMID:25087481

  11. Imaging of the Adolescent Breast

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katie N.

    2013-01-01

    The mainstay of breast imaging in the adolescent is ultrasonography. There is occasionally a need for additional imaging, particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging of the adolescent breast differs substantially from the adult in both the imaging modalities utilized and the relative likelihood of pathologies encountered. The majority of lesions in the adolescent are benign, but the presence of a breast lesion may cause anxiety to patients and their families due to the wide awareness of breast malignancy in the adult population. It is important to be aware of the imaging modalities available to image the adolescent breast to prevent unnecessary radiation exposure while answering the clinical question. The current recommendations for adolescent diagnostic and screening breast imaging will be reviewed. Benign breast lesions such as fibroadenomas, fibrocystic change, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, gynecomastia, and posttraumatic or infectious lesions with their associated imaging findings and management will be outlined. Additionally, review of breast malignancies that can affect adolescents will provide the reader with features to distinguish benign from malignant processes in the adolescent based on imaging findings and clinical presentation. PMID:24872737

  12. Fatty Foods During Teen Years May Influence Later Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatty Foods During Teen Years May Influence Later Breast Cancer Risk Higher amounts of unhealthy fats tied to ... greater breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the study authors said. But the researchers noted ...

  13. Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in 28,318 Adults With Diabetes Mellitus and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol <100 mg/dl.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Liu, Jennifer Y; Moffet, Howard H; Solomon, Matthew D; Go, Alan S; Jaffe, Marc G; Karter, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with diabetes and "metabolic dyslipidemia" (high triglyceride [TGs] and low high-density cholesterol levels) remains a matter of concern. Little is known regarding the risk of CHD for this phenotype with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <100 mg/dl. We analyzed a diabetes cohort of 28,318 members (aged 30 to 90 years) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2002 to 2011 (192,356 person-years [p-y] follow-up), with LDL-C levels <100 mg/dl and without known CHD. We compared the incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD events in groups using Cox models: normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and TG (reference; n = 7,278, 25.7%); normal HDL and high TG (≥ 150 mg/dl; n = 4,484,15.8%); low HDL (≤ 50 mg/dl for women and ≤ 40 mg/dl for men) and normal TG (n = 4,048, 14.3%); low HDL and high TG (metabolic dyslipidemia; n = 12,508, 44%). Patients with metabolic dyslipidemia had the highest age-adjusted CHD events/1,000 p-y (12.7/1,000 p-y and 19.0/1,000 p-y for women and men, respectively). After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, smoking, statin use, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c, we observed an increased CHD risk in women (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.60) and men (HR 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 1.83) with metabolic dyslipidemia compared to those with normal HDL and TG. Even in subjects with an LDL-C <100 mg/dl, presence of metabolic dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes is associated with an increased risk of CHD. In conclusion, effective CHD prevention strategies are needed for adults with diabetes and metabolic dyslipidemia. PMID:26428026

  14. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  15. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Charge-defined Subfractions of High-density Lipoprotein From Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Max T.; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Chia-Ying; Shen, Ming-Yi; Liao, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chen, Chao-Jung; Yang, Chao-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into 5 subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1; and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease. PMID:24171625

  16. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  17. [Breast cancer imaging].

    PubMed

    Canale, Sandra; Balleyguier, Corinne; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-12-01

    Imaging of breast cancer is multimodal. Mammography uses X-rays, the development of digital mammography has improved its quality and enabled implementations of new technologies such astomosynthesis (3D mammography) or contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Ultrasound is added to mammography when there is need to improve detection in high-density breast, to characterize an image, or guide apuncture or biopsy. Breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality. It detects a possible tumor angiogenesis by highlighting an early and intense contrast uptake. This method has an excellent negative predictive value, but its lack of specificity (false positives) can be problematic, thus it has to be prescribed according to published standards. An imaging breast screening report must be concluded by the BI-RADS lexicon classification of the ACR and recommendations about monitoring or histological verification. PMID:24579332

  18. Association of dietary and serum vitamin E with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-qi; Liu, Jun; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Ying-ying; Guan, Ke; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies have suggested that vitamin E (VE) may affect bone health, but the findings have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between VE status (in both diet and serum) and bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese adults. This community-based study included 3203 adults (2178 women and 1025 men) aged 40-75 years from Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. General and dietary intake information were collected using structured questionnaire interviews. The serum α-tocopherol (TF) level was quantified by reversed-phase HPLC. The BMD of the whole body, the lumbar spine and left hip sites (total, neck, trochanter, intertrochanter and Ward's triangle) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In women, the dietary intake of VE was significantly and positively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, intertrochanter and femur neck sites after adjusting for covariates (P(trend): 0·001-0·017). Women in quartile 3 of VE intake typically had the highest BMD; the covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 2·5, 3·06, 3·41 and 3·54% higher, respectively, in quartile 3 (v. 1) at the four above-mentioned sites. Similar positive associations were observed between cholesterol-adjusted serum α-TF levels and BMD at each of the studied bone sites (P(trend): 0·001-0·022). The covariate-adjusted mean BMD were 1·24-4·83% greater in quartile 4 (v. 1) in women. However, no significant associations were seen between the VE levels (dietary or serum) and the BMD at any site in men. In conclusion, greater consumption and higher serum levels of VE are associated with greater BMD in Chinese women but not in Chinese men. PMID:26507315

  19. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Cancer.gov

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  20. Relation of Combined Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B With Atherosclerosis in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bjornstad, Petter; Eckel, Robert H; Pyle, Laura; Rewers, Marian; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2015-10-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are cardiovascular disease risk markers, although data in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are limited. We hypothesized that elevated apoB and non-HDL-C would be associated with greater odds of coronary artery calcification progression (CACp), a measure of coronary atherosclerosis, than either category alone in adults with type 1 DM. We grouped subjects with type 1 DM (n = 652) into 4 groups: elevated apoB (≥90 mg/dl) and elevated non-HDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), elevated non-HDL-C alone, elevated apoB alone, and normal apoB and non-HDL-C. We used logistic regression to examine the associations between the groups and CACp for a period of 6 years. We performed sensitivity analyses with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C redefined as at or more than the cohort means (91.4 and 119.0 mg/dl, respectively). Subjects with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C had greater odds of CACp compared with those with normal apoB and non-HDL-C (odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 3.15) and compared with subjects with elevated apoB alone (odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 5.74) adjusting for age, gender, duration, hemoglobin A1c, and statins. Similar results were obtained with elevated apoB and non-HDL-C defined as at or more than the cohort means. In conclusion, elevated apoB and non-HDL-C carry a greater risk of atherosclerosis than elevated apoB in the absence of elevated non-HDL-C in adults with type 1 DM. These data suggest that apoB and non-HDL-C should be viewed as complementary rather than competitive indexes of cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 DM. PMID:26251001

  1. Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Purna A; Jackson, Hartland W; Beristain, Alexander G; Di Grappa, Marco A; Mote, Patricia A; Clarke, Christine L; Stingl, John; Waterhouse, Paul D; Khokha, Rama

    2010-06-10

    Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal cells which in turn respond by upregulating their cognate receptors, transcriptional targets and cell cycle markers. Our findings uncover a dynamic role for progesterone in activating adult MaSCs within the mammary stem cell niche during the reproductive cycle, where MaSCs are putative targets for cell transformation events leading to breast cancer. PMID:20445538

  2. Evidence That Breast Tissue Stiffness Is Associated with Risk of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Norman F.; Li, Qing; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Martin, Lisa J.; Gunasekara, Anoma; Mawdsley, Gord; Yaffe, Martin J.; Minkin, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal models shows that tissue stiffness increases the invasion and progression of cancers, including mammary cancer. We here use measurements of the volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography to derive estimates of breast tissue stiffness and examine the relationship of stiffness to risk of breast cancer. Methods Mammograms were used to measure the volume and projected areas of total and radiologically dense breast tissue in the unaffected breasts of 362 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (cases) and 656 women of the same age who did not have breast cancer (controls). Measures of breast tissue volume and the projected area of the compressed breast during mammography were used to calculate the deformation of the breast during compression and, with the recorded compression force, to estimate the stiffness of breast tissue. Stiffness was compared in cases and controls, and associations with breast cancer risk examined after adjustment for other risk factors. Results After adjustment for percent mammographic density by area measurements, and other risk factors, our estimate of breast tissue stiffness was significantly associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.43, p = 0.02) and improved breast cancer risk prediction in models with percent mammographic density, by both area and volume measurements. Conclusion An estimate of breast tissue stiffness was associated with breast cancer risk and improved risk prediction based on mammographic measures and other risk factors. Stiffness may provide an additional mechanism by which breast tissue composition is associated with risk of breast cancer and merits examination using more direct methods of measurement. PMID:25010427

  3. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. Cancer treatment can be local or ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  4. Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated Safety Information (Consumer Article) FDA Provides Updated Safety Data on Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants (Press Announcement) [ARCHIVED] Breast Implant Guidance for Industry (2006) Post Approval Studies Webpage Freedom of Information ...

  5. Eigenbreasts for statistical breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Tward, Daniel J.; Ketcha, M.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.; Park, Subok; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2016-03-01

    To facilitate rigorous virtual clinical trials using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation, we demonstrated a method of defining statistical models, based on 177 sets of breast CT patient data, in order to generate tens of thousands of unique digital breast phantoms. In order to separate anatomical texture from variation in breast shape, each training set of breast phantoms were deformed to a consistent atlas compressed geometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then performed on the shape-matched breast CT volumes to capture the variation of patient breast textures. PCA decomposes the training set of N breast CT volumes into an N-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts. By summing weighted combinations of eigenbreasts, a large ensemble of different breast phantoms can be newly created. Different training sets can be used in eigenbreast analysis for designing basis models to target sub-populations defined by breast characteristics, such as size or density. In this work, we plan to generate ensembles of 30,000 new phantoms based on glandularity for an upcoming virtual trial of lesion detectability in digital breast tomosynthesis. Our method extends our series of digital and physical breast phantoms based on human subject anatomy, providing the capability to generate new, unique ensembles consisting of tens of thousands or more virtual subjects. This work represents an important step towards conducting future virtual trials for tasks-based assessment of breast imaging, where it is vital to have a large ensemble of realistic phantoms for statistical power as well as clinical relevance.

  6. Sex differences in myelin-associated protein levels within and density of projections between the orbital frontal cortex and dorsal striatum of adult rats: implications for inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Bayless, D W; Daniel, J M

    2015-08-01

    Impulsive actions and decisions often lead to undesirable outcomes. Lesion and neuroimaging studies have revealed that the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum (dSTR) play key roles in inhibitory control. It has been proposed that greater OFC input into the dSTR reflects enhanced top-down cognitive control and less impulsive responding. We previously reported a sex difference in inhibitory control, such that female rats make fewer impulsive errors than do male rats. The goal of the present study was to investigate differences in the OFC and dSTR of young adult male and female rats. In Experiment 1, we measured levels of two myelin-associated proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), in the OFC and dSTR. Western blot data revealed that females had significantly higher levels of both MBP and PLP in the OFC but similar levels in the dSTR as compared to males. In Experiment 2, we infused the anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), into the OFC and measured the density of BDA in the dSTR. BDA was visualized using histochemistry followed by light microscopy imaging and densitometry analysis. Density of BDA in the dSTR was significantly greater in females as compared to males indicating that the projections from the OFC to dSTR may be greater in females as compared to males. Our results suggest a potential neuroanatomical sex difference that may contribute to the reported differences in inhibitory control levels of male and female rats. PMID:26002313

  7. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11 835 male and 12 561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004 kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

  8. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  9. Effects of Odanacatib on bone mineralization density distribution in thoracic spine and femora of ovariectomized adult rhesus monkeys: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study.

    PubMed

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Fisher, John E; Duong, Le T; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) has been developed as a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, the major cysteine protease in osteoclasts. In adult rhesus monkeys, treatment with ODN prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in lumbar vertebrae and hip. In this study, we evaluate the effects of ODN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in vertebral spongiosa, distal femoral metaphyseal and cortical shaft from monkeys (aged 16-23 years), treated with vehicle (n=5) or ODN (6 mg/kg, n=4 or 30 mg/kg, n=4, PO daily) for 21 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was measured in a subset of distal femoral samples. In lumbar vertebrae there was a shift to higher mineralization in samples from ODN-treated groups, compared to vehicle: CaMean (+4%), CaPeak (+3%), CaWidth (-9%), CaLow (-28%) in the 6 mg/kg group and CaMean (+5.1%, p<0.023), CaPeak (+3.4%, p<0.046), CaWidth (-15.7%, p=0.06) and CaLow (-38.2%, p<0.034) in the 30 mg/kg group. In distal femoral metaphyseal cancellous bone, there was a clear tendency toward a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, as in the spine. However, primary and osteonal bone of the distal cortical diaphyses showed no significant change in BMDD, whereas bone mineral density was significantly increased after treatment. In ovariectomized monkeys, this study shows that ODN treatment increased trabecular BMDD, consistent with its previously reported ability to reduce cancellous remodeling. Here, ODN also showed no changes in BMDD in cortical bone sites, consistent with its actions on maintaining endocortical and stimulating periosteal bone formation. PMID:23179105

  10. Dense Breasts: What Do Our Patients Need to Be Told and Why?

    PubMed

    Throckmorton, Alyssa D; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hughes, Kevin S; Degnim, Amy C; Dickson-Witmer, Diana

    2016-10-01

    More than 50 % of states have state-mandated density notification for patients with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts. Increased breast density carries a risk of masking a cancer and delaying diagnosis. Supplemental imaging is optional and often recommended for certain patients. There are no evidence-based consensus guidelines for screening patients with density as their only risk factor. Breast cancer risk assessment and breast cancer prevention strategies should be discussed with women with dense breasts. PMID:27401446

  11. A Phase II Study of a Dose-Density Regimen With Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, and Cyclophosphamide on Days 1 and 4 Every 14 Days With Filgrastim Support Followed by Weekly Paclitaxel in Women With Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, Elisabetta; Andreis, Daniele; Fabbri, Francesca; Menna, Cecilia; Schirone, Alessio; Kopf, Barbara; Rocca, Andrea; Amadori, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recent evidence shows that use of anthracycline and taxane adjuvant chemotherapy and dose-dense regimens, consisting of more frequent administration of the drugs, have improved outcomes for breast cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated administration of an epirubicin-based regimen with paclitaxel in a sequential, dose-dense schedule as adjuvant treatment for patients with high-risk primary breast cancer. Methods. In a phase II Simon two-stage design study, we evaluated the feasibility of a modified fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen at high dose intensity (fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 4, epirubicin 60 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 4, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 i.v. on days 1 and 4; all drugs were administered every 14 days for 3 cycles) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support followed by dose-intense weekly paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 for 8 cycles. In 11 patients with breast cancer following quadrantectomy (n = 8) or modified radical mastectomy (n = 3), any grade 3 (G3) or higher nonhematologic toxicity (excluding alopecia, nausea or vomiting, and bone pain, which might be a consequence of the administration of filgrastim) and adherence to the scheduled dose-dense treatment (deliverability) were monitored with the purpose of enrolling an additional 27 patients in the case of a satisfying toxicity profile and deliverability of the planned treatment (at least 7 patients completing the treatment). Results. Five of 11 patients experienced G3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity during the FEC regimen. We did not observe G3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity related to paclitaxel treatment. In particular, three patients experienced G3 fatigue, one patient had G3 oral mucositis, three patients had G3 hypokalemia, one patient had G3 syncope, one patient had G3 transaminitis (alanine aminotransferase), one patient experienced G4 pulmonary thromboembolism, and 1 patient had a G3 breast infection. Four of 11 patients

  12. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  13. A high-density EEG study of differences between three high speeds of simulated forward motion from optic flow in adult participants

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Kenneth; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2015-01-01

    A high-density EEG study was conducted to investigate evoked and oscillatory brain activity in response to high speeds of simulated forward motion. Participants were shown an optic flow pattern consisting of a virtual road with moving poles at either side of it, simulating structured forward motion at different driving speeds (25, 50, and 75 km/h) with a static control condition between each motion condition. Significant differences in N2 latencies and peak amplitudes between the three speeds of visual motion were found in parietal channels of interest P3 and P4. As motion speed increased, peak latency increased while peak amplitude decreased which might indicate that higher driving speeds are perceived as more demanding resulting in longer latencies, and as fewer neurons in the motion sensitive areas of the adult brain appear to be attuned to such high visual speeds this could explain the observed inverse relationship between speed and amplitude. In addition, significant differences between alpha de-synchronizations for forward motion and alpha synchronizations in the static condition were found in the parietal midline (PM) source. It was suggested that the alpha de-synchronizations reflect an activated state related to the visual processing of simulated forward motion, whereas the alpha synchronizations in response to the static condition reflect a deactivated resting period. PMID:26578903

  14. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy. PMID:26215362

  15. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  16. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  17. Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. Methods We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. Results After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Conclusion Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively. PMID:23115703

  18. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  19. Effect of Two-Year Caloric Restriction on Bone Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density in Non-Obese Younger Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Das, Sai Krupa; Redman, Leanne; Smith, Steven R; Saltzman, Edward; Bales, Connie; Rochon, James; Pieper, Carl; Huang, Megan; Lewis, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V

    2016-01-01

    Although caloric restriction (CR) could delay biologic aging in humans, it is unclear if this would occur at the cost of significant bone loss. We evaluated the effect of prolonged CR on bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy younger adults. Two-hundred eighteen non-obese (body mass index [BMI] 25.1 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) ), younger (age 37.9 ± 7.2 years) adults were randomly assigned to 25% CR (CR group, n = 143) or ad libitum (AL group, n = 75) for 2 years. Main outcomes were BMD and markers of bone turnover. Other outcomes included body composition, bone-active hormones, nutrient intake, and physical activity. Body weight (-7.5 ± 0.4 versus 0.1 ± 0.5 kg), fat mass (-5.3 ± 0.3 versus 0.4 ± 0.4 kg), and fat-free mass (-2.2 ± 0.2 versus -0.2 ± 0.2 kg) decreased in the CR group compared with AL (all between group p < 0.001). Compared with AL, the CR group had greater changes in BMD at 24 months: lumbar spine (-0.013 ± 0.003 versus 0.007 ± 0.004 g/cm(2) ; p < 0.001), total hip (-0.017 ± 0.002 versus 0.001 ± 0.003 g/cm(2) ; p < 0.001), and femoral neck (-0.015 ± 0.003 versus -0.005 ± 0.004 g/cm(2) ; p = 0.03). Changes in bone markers were greater at 12 months for C-telopeptide (0.098 ± 0.012 versus 0.025 ± 0.015 μg/L; p < 0.001), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (0.4 ± 0.1 versus 0.2 ± 0.1 U/L; p = 0.004), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) (-1.4 ± 0.4 versus -0.3 ± 0.5 U/L; p = 0.047) but not procollagen type 1 N-propeptide; at 24 months, only BSAP differed between groups (-1.5 ± 0.4 versus 0.9 ± 0.6 U/L; p = 0.001). The CR group had larger increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cortisol, and adiponectin and decreases in leptin and insulin compared with AL. However, parathyroid hormone and IGF-1 levels did not differ between groups. The CR group also had lower levels of physical activity

  20. VOLUMETRIC LOCALISATION OF DENSE BREAST TISSUE USING BREAST TOMOSYNTHESIS DATA.

    PubMed

    Dustler, M; Petersson, H; Timberg, P

    2016-06-01

    This study attempted to use combined data from reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volumes and density estimation of projection images to localise dense tissue inside the breast, using the assumption that the breast can be treated as consisting of only two types of tissue: fibroglandular (dense) and adipose (fatty). To be able to verify results, software breast phantoms generated using fractal Perlin noise were employed. Projection images were created using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo package. Dense tissue volume was estimated from the central projection image. The density image was used to determine the number of dense voxels at each pixel location, which were then placed using the DBT image as a template. The method proved capable of accurately determining the composition of 75±5 % of voxels. PMID:26922782

  1. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  2. Physical Activity-Associated Bone Loading During Adolescence and Young Adulthood Is Positively Associated With Adult Bone Mineral Density in Men.

    PubMed

    Strope, Matthew A; Nigh, Peggy; Carter, Melissa I; Lin, Nantian; Jiang, Jun; Hinton, Pamela S

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity during growth increases bone mass and strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist. The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) if bone loading during adolescence (13-18 years) or young adulthood (19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood; (b) if current participation in high-impact activity (ground reaction force>4×body weight) and/or resistance training is associated with greater BMD; and, (c) if continuous participation in a high-impact activity from adolescence to adulthood is associated with greater BMD. Apparently healthy, physically active men aged 30 to 65 years (n=203) participated in this cross-sectional study. Exercise-associated bone loading was estimated based on ground reaction forces of historical physical activity. Current BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were grouped based on current participation in a high-impact activity (n=18), resistance training (n=57), both (n=14), or neither (n=114); groups were compared by two-way analysis of covariance. Bone loading during adolescence and young adulthood were significant, positive predictors of BMD of the whole body, total hip, and lumbar spine, adjusting for lean body mass and/or age in the regression models. Individuals who currently participate in a high-impact activity had greater lumbar spine BMD than nonparticipants. Men who continuously participated in a high-impact activity had greater hip and lumbar spine BMD than those who did not. In conclusion, physical activity-associated bone loading both during and after skeletal growth is positively associated with adult bone mass. PMID:25237041

  3. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  4. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Breast augmentation; Breast implants; Implants - breast; Mammaplasty ... Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a ...

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  7. Breast self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Self-examination of the breast; BSE; Breast cancer - BSE; Breast cancer screening - self exam ... American Cancer Society recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms. ... . Revised October 20, ...

  8. RO4929097 and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy or Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-22

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history. PMID:25295257

  10. Bone Mineral Density Changes among HIV-Uninfected Young Adults in a Randomised Trial of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis with Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Placebo in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Kasonde, Michael; Niska, Richard W.; Rose, Charles; Henderson, Faith L.; Segolodi, Tebogo M.; Turner, Kyle; Smith, Dawn K.; Thigpen, Michael C.; Paxton, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD) loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women. Method We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18–29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the hip, spine, and forearm. Results A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo) had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8%) participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of <−2.0 at any anatomic site), including 3/114 women (2.6%) and 12/106 men (11.3%) (p = 0.02). Low baseline BMD was associated with being underweight (p = 0.02), having high blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.02) or high alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.03), and low creatinine clearance (p = 0.04). BMD losses of >3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0%) TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9%) placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm −0.84% (p = 0.01), spine −1.62% (p = 0.0002), hip −1.51% (p = 0.003)]. Conclusion Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8%) of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons. Trial

  11. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  12. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it. PMID:27533387

  13. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  14. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, derived from fitting unconditional logistic regression models. Association between somatotype at age 7 and tumour characteristics were evaluated in a case-only analysis where P values for heterogeneity were obtained by performing one degree of freedom trend tests. Results A large somatotype at age 7 was found to be associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Although strongly associated with other risk factors such as age of menarche, adult body mass index and mammographic density, somatotype at age 7 remained a significant protective factor (odds ratio (OR) comparing large to lean somatotype at age 7 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.91, P trend = 0.004) after adjustment. The significant protective effect was observed within all subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, with a stronger effect for ER-negative (0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, P trend = 0.002), than for ER-positive (0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05, P trend = 0.062), tumours (P heterogeneity = 0.046). Somatotype at age 7 was not associated with tumour size, histology, grade or the presence or absence of metastatic nodes. Conclusions Greater body size at age 7 is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the associated protective effect is stronger for the ER-negative breast cancer subtype than for the ER-positive subtype. PMID:20398298

  15. Effects of Chemotherapy on the Brain in Women With Newly Diagnosed Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-12

    Breast Cancer; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Fatigue; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Neurotoxicity; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment

  16. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the cancer removed (lumpectomy or breast-conserving surgery) might not need reconstruction, but sometimes they do. Breast reconstruction is done by a plastic surgeon. Should I have breast reconstruction? Breast reconstruction ...

  17. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  18. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  19. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  20. Premenstrual breast changes

    MedlinePlus

    Premenstrual tenderness and swelling of the breasts; Breast tenderness - premenstrual; Breast swelling - premenstrual ... Symptoms of premenstrual breast tenderness may range from mild to ... most severe just before each menstrual period Improve during ...

  1. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  2. Fibrocystic breast disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... made in the ovaries may make a woman's breasts feel swollen, lumpy, or painful before or during ...

  3. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shape of your breasts. Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering breast augmentation. Discuss ... mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ...

  4. Changes to Your Breasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Puberty Changes to your breasts Changes to your breasts It’s natural for girls to ... of your breasts. What about lumps and other changes? top Most of the changes your breasts will ...

  5. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  6. Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for Breast Cancer Risk Estimation: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Despina; Bakic, Predrag R.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Troxel, Andrea B.; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Studies have demonstrated a relationship between mammographic parenchymal texture and breast cancer risk. Although promising, texture analysis in mammograms is limited by tissue superimposition. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that alleviates the effect of tissue superimposition, offering superior parenchymal texture visualization compared to mammography. Our study investigates the potential advantages of DBT parenchymal texture analysis for breast cancer risk estimation. Materials and Methods DBT and digital mammography (DM) images of 39 women were analyzed. Texture features, shown in studies with mammograms to correlate with cancer risk, were computed from the retroareolar breast region. We compared the relative performance of DBT and DM texture features in correlating with two measures of breast cancer risk: (i) the Gail and Claus risk estimates, and (ii) mammographic breast density. Linear regression was performed to model the association between texture features and increasing levels of risk. Results No significant correlation was detected between parenchymal texture and the Gail and Claus risk estimates. Significant correlations were observed between texture features and breast density. Overall, the DBT texture features demonstrated stronger correlations with breast percent density (PD) than DM (p ≤0.05). When dividing our study population in groups of increasing breast PD, the DBT texture features appeared to be more discriminative, having regression lines with overall lower p-values, steeper slopes, and higher R2 estimates. Conclusion Although preliminary, our results suggest that DBT parenchymal texture analysis could provide more accurate characterization of breast density patterns, which could ultimately improve breast cancer risk estimation. PMID:19201357

  7. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance that you could develop breast cancer: Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The more risk factors you have, the more your risk increases. ...

  8. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Hacker NF, Friedland ML. Breast disease. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 30. Harvey ...

  9. Auditory Short-Term Memory Capacity Correlates with Gray Matter Density in the Left Posterior STS in Cognitively Normal and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…

  10. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes over open field and medium density canopy habitat in a hot-temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although aerial ULV application of adulticides is a common adult mosquito control strategy, not enough is known about the fate of the pesticide or its efficacy over different habitats. Dye labeling of droplets is used to evaluate ULV applications, and, by inference, their efficacy. Placement of cage...

  11. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  12. Evaluation of clinical breast examination and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Enemuo, Vincent Chidi; Agwu, Uzoma MaryRose

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer in pregnancy accounts for 2%–3% of all breast cancers. The increased vascularity and lymphatic drainage from the breast during pregnancy potentiate the metastatic spread of the cancer to the regional lymph nodes. However, the increased breast density in pregnancy makes it difficult to detect breast lesions early. Aim To evaluate and compare the detection rate of breast lesions using clinical breast examination (CBE) and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women. Methodology A cross-sectional comparative study involving antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, was conducted between March 3, 2014, and December 31, 2014. CBE and breast ultrasonography were done in the participants at booking and repeated at 6 weeks postpartum. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology were done in women with suspicious breast lesions on CBE or breast ultrasonography or both. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at the 95% confidence level using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0. Test of significance was done using chi-square test. A P-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 320 pregnant women participated in the study. Of these, 267 (83.4%) were aware of breast cancer. Although more lesions were detected with breast ultrasonography than by CBE, there was no statistically significant difference between them (25 versus 17; P=0.26). The histology of the lesions revealed 21 benign lesions and 4 normal breast tissues. The sensitivity of breast ultrasonography was 95.2%, while that of CBE was 66.7%. The specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were similar between CBE and breast ultrasonography. Conclusion The detection rates of breast lesions by both CBE and breast ultrasonography were equivalent during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum, making CBE a convenient and very cost

  13. Influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaping; Liu, Jieqiong; Gu, Ran; Hu, Yue; Liu, Fengtao; Yun, Miaomiao; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi

    2016-07-01

    Mammographic density is an independent strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, the influence of factors on mammographic density in premenopausal women remains unclear. In the Southern Professional Women Breast Cancer Screening Project, we assessed the associations between mammographic density and its influential factors using multivariate logistic regression in premenopausal women adjusting for BMI, age, duration of breastfeeding, number of live births, and breast size. A total of 1699 premenopausal women aged 27 to 57 years, who had been screened by mammography, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Overall, 85.2% were categorized as having dense breasts (BI-RADS density 3 and 4) and 14.8% as having fatty breasts (BI-RADS density 1 and 2). In multivariate and logistic regression analysis, only BMI and age were significantly negatively correlated with mammographic density in premenopausal women (P<0.001). No significant associations between mammographic density and number of deliveries, breastfeeding duration, education level, family history of breast cancer, as well as breast size and sleep quality, were identified in the study. Age and BMI are negatively associated with mammographic density in premenopausal Chinese women. Information on the influential factors of mammographic density in premenopausal women might provide meaningful insights into breast cancer prevention. PMID:26075657

  14. Managing Breast Cancer in the Older Patient

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Tracey; Shinde, Arvind; Doan, Caroline; Katheria, Vani; Hurria, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated with aging, with almost one-half of all new breast cancer cases diagnosed annually in the United States occurring in women age 65 and older. Recent data suggest that although breast cancer outcomes in younger women have shown substantial improvement as a result of advances in treatment and screening, the benefits in older women have been less pronounced. Although older adults have been under-represented on cancer clinical trials there is an emerging body of literature to help guide treatment decisions. For early stage breast cancer, the discussion regarding treatment options involves balancing the reduction in risk of recurrence gained by specific therapies with the potential for increased treatment-related toxicity potentially exacerbated by physiological decline or comorbidities that often co-exist in the older population. A key component of care of the older adult is the recognition that chronologic age alone cannot guide the management of an older individual with breast cancer; rather, treatment decisions must also take into account an individual’s functional status, estimated life expectancy, the risks and benefits of the therapy, potential barriers to treatment, and patient preference. This article reviews the available evidence for therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer in older adults, and highlights data from geriatric oncology literature that provides a basis on which to facilitate evidence-based treatment. PMID:24472802

  15. [Mammographic evaluation of dense breasts: techniques and limits].

    PubMed

    Chérel, P; Hagay, C; Benaim, B; De Maulmont, C; Engerand, S; Langer, A; Talma, V

    2008-09-01

    Breast density is a radiological concept based on the proportion of radiopaque glandular tissue relative to radiolucent fatty tissue. Mammographic evaluation of dense breasts is more difficult, related to technical difficulties, with decreased rates for detection and characterization of breast lesions, resulting in reduced sensitivity with increased number of interval cancers at routine follow-up when compared to radiolucent breasts. We will review the definition of dense breasts and their frequency, especially their relationship with the age of patients. We will discuss the current technical problems and the impact of breast density on the efficacy of conventional mammography. We will discuss the value of digital mammography, the role of computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) systems and tomosynthesis in the evaluation of dense breasts. PMID:18772800

  16. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    SciTech Connect

    Galvan, H. A.; Perez-Badillo, M. P.; Villasenor, Y.

    2012-10-23

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the {sup Q}uality assurance programme for digital mammography{sup ,} where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  17. Mean glandular dose in a breast screening programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván, H. A.; Pérez-Badillo, M. P.; Villaseñor, Y.

    2012-10-01

    Breast density has an important role in early detection of breast cancer, because has been reported the strong association between breast density and invasive breast cancer risk. Mammography is the gold standard to early detection of breast cancer, despite of this require ionizing radiation that may increase radio-induced cancer risk. This maybe limited with a quality control programme of mammographic units, with the main goal of achieving high quality images with low radiation dose. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 2011 the "Quality assurance programme for digital mammography", where glandular tissue quantity is an important parameter to compute mean glandular dose (MGD), which is necessary to reduce its associated risk. In this work we show the first results in our country applying this protocol and studying breast density in a small group. MGD complies with national and IAEA dose limits.

  18. Defining the cellular precursors to human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501

  19. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  20. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Findings after Surgical Lipomodeling in a Breast Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    Daye, Dania; Conant, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting or lipomodeling is a newly-adopted technique that is gaining increasing popularity in the treatment of contour deformities following breast conservation therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with a prior history of breast cancer treated with a lumpectomy and radiation therapy. She underwent lipomodeling not only of her treated breast but also of the contralateral breast. She presented for her annual mammogram which was performed with digital breast tomosynthesis. On imaging, a space-occupying lesion of mixed density was seen, expanding the lumpectomy site. There was also subtle distortion in the contralateral, non-treated breast. This case aims to highlight the mammographic and tomosynthesis findings seen following lipomodeling that may present diagnostic challenges in this patient population. PMID:25426245

  1. Factors influencing breast changes after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Claudia; Faschingbauer, Florian; Haeberle, Lothar; Jud, Sebastian M; Heusinger, Katharina; Fasching, Peter A; Goecke, Tamme W; Rajakaruna, Nadeeka; Voigt, Franziska; Bani, Mayada R; Lux, Michael P; Renner, Stefan P; Loehberg, Christian R; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bayer, Christian M

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy and breastfeeding are major factors reducing breast cancer (BC) risk. A potential mechanism for this effect might be changes in mammographic density, but other factors might be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing changes in breast size and breast stiffness after pregnancy. Of a consecutive cohort of 5991 women who gave birth between 1996 and 1999, 559 replied to a questionnaire including questions about breast changes. The women completed their own assessments of changes in breast size and stiffness since their last pregnancy. Factors being investigated regarding their predictive value for these changes were: BMI before pregnancy, weight gain, age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and BMI of the children's fathers. A decrease in breast size was reported in 21.8% of the participants and an increase in 35.1%. With regard to the breast stiffness, 66.4% reported a decrease and only 5% reported an increase. Independent predictors for increased breast size were age at FFTP, increase in BMI since last pregnancy, BMI before pregnancy, and time since FFTP. Factors predictive of greater breast stiffness included age at FFTP, BMI before FFTP, time since FFTP, breastfeeding status, and number of pregnancies. Breast changes after pregnancy depend on several variables, which are described as BC-risk factors. Individual reaction of the female breast to a pregnancy leads to different outcomes with regard to breast size and stiffness. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these individual responses interact with the effect of pregnancy on the BC risk. PMID:23022745

  2. Associations of Sarcopenic Obesity and Dynapenic Obesity with Bone Mineral Density and Incident Fractures Over 5-10 Years in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Chandrasekara, Sahan D; Laslett, Laura L; Cicuttini, Flavia; Ebeling, Peter R; Jones, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether low muscle mass (sarcopenia) or strength (dynapenia), in the presence of obesity, are associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture over 5-10 years in community-dwelling older adults. N = 1089 volunteers (mean ± SD age 62 ± 7 years; 51 % female) participated at baseline and 761 attended follow-up clinics (mean 5.1 ± 0.5 years later). Total body, total hip and spine BMD, and appendicular lean and total fat mass were assessed by DXA. Sarcopenic obesity and dynapenic obesity were defined as the lowest sex-specific tertiles for appendicular lean mass or lower-limb strength, respectively, and the highest sex-specific tertile for total fat mass. Fractures were self-reported on three occasions over 10.7 ± 0.7 years in 563 participants. Obese alone participants had significantly higher BMD at all sites compared with non-sarcopenic non-obese. Sarcopenic obese and dynapenic obese men had lower spine and total body BMD, respectively, and sarcopenic obese women had lower total hip BMD, compared with obese alone (all P < 0.05). Sarcopenic obese men had higher non-vertebral fracture rates compared to non-sarcopenic non-obese (incidence rate ratio: 3.0; 95 % CI 1.7-5.5), and obese alone (3.6; 1.7-7.4). Sarcopenic obese women had higher fracture rates compared with obese alone (2.8; 1.4-5.6), but this was non-significant after adjustment for total hip BMD. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese older adults may have increased risk of osteoporosis and non-vertebral fracture relative to obese alone counterparts. Sarcopenic and dynapenic obese individuals potentially represent a subset of the obese older adult population who require closer monitoring of bone health during ageing. PMID:26939775

  3. Computerized breast parenchymal analysis on DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Yuan, Yading; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Lan, Li; Bhooshan, Neha; Newstead, Gillian M.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been shown to be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer, and MRI has been recommended for high-risk women screening, however, it is still unknown how the breast parenchymal enhancement on DCE-MRI is associated with breast density and breast cancer risk. Ninety-two DCE-MRI exams of asymptomatic women with normal MR findings were included in this study. The 3D breast volume was automatically segmented using a volume-growing based algorithm. The extracted breast volume was classified into fibroglandular and fatty regions based on the discriminant analysis method. The parenchymal kinetic curves within the breast fibroglandular region were extracted and categorized by use of fuzzy c-means clustering, and various parenchymal kinetic characteristics were extracted from the most enhancing voxels. Correlation analysis between the computer-extracted percent dense measures and radiologist-noted BIRADS density ratings yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.76 (p<0.0001). From kinetic analyses, 70% (64/92) of most enhancing curves showed persistent curve type and reached peak parenchymal intensity at the last postcontrast time point; with 89% (82/92) of most enhancing curves reaching peak intensity at either 4th or 5th post-contrast time points. Women with dense breast (BIRADS 3 and 4) were found to have more parenchymal enhancement at their peak time point (Ep) with an average Ep of 116.5% while those women with fatty breasts (BIRADS 1 and 2) demonstrated an average Ep of 62.0%. In conclusion, breast parenchymal enhancement may be associated with breast density and may be potential useful as an additional characteristic for assessing breast cancer risk.

  4. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  5. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Bisphenol-A exposure during adolescence leads to enduring alterations in cognition and dendritic spine density in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Diaz Weinstein, Samantha; Khandaker, Hameda; DeWolf, Sarah; Frankfurt, Maya

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adolescent exposure of rats to bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disrupter, increases anxiety, impairs spatial memory, and decreases dendritic spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when measured in adolescents in both sexes. The present study examined whether the behavioral and morphological alterations following BPA exposure during adolescent development are maintained into adulthood. Male and female, adolescent rats received BPA, 40μg/kg/bodyweight, or control treatments for one week. In adulthood, subjects were tested for anxiety and locomotor activity, spatial memory, non-spatial visual memory, and sucrose preference. Additionally, stress-induced serum corticosterone levels and dendritic spine density in the mPFC and CA1 were measured. BPA-treated males, but not females, had decreased arm visits on the elevated plus maze, but there was no effect on anxiety. Non-spatial memory, object recognition, was also decreased in BPA treated males, but not in females. BPA exposure did not alter spatial memory, object placement, but decreased exploration during the tasks in both sexes. No significant group differences in sucrose preference or serum corticosterone levels in response to a stress challenge were found. However, BPA exposure, regardless of sex, significantly decreased spine density of both apical and basal dendrites on pyramidal cells in CA1 but had no effect in the mPFC. Current data are discussed in relation to BPA dependent changes, which were present during adolescence and did, or did not, endure into adulthood. Overall, adolescent BPA exposure, below the current reference safe daily limit set by the U.S.E.P.A., leads to alterations in some behaviors and neuronal morphology that endure into adulthood. PMID:25554518

  7. Denosumab in breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; van der Padt, Annemieke; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes

    2013-10-01

    The bone is the most common site to which breast cancer metastasises. Recently, denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) has been developed as a new targeted bone therapy. In a large randomized phase III study with a head-to-head comparison of denosumab to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases of breast cancer, denosumab significantly delayed the time to first skeletal related event. In the adjuvant setting denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density compared to placebo in a phase III study in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest an effect of denosumab on tumour growth and even on carcinogenesis. This review describes the current indications for denosumab in the various settings of breast cancer treatment, with special attention for efficacy, short and long term toxicity and other relevant issues for clinical practice. Furthermore possible and necessary future research questions are proposed. PMID:23545361

  8. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  9. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  10. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  11. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  12. Risks of Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... larger and longer than these conducted so far. Breastfeeding Some women who undergo breast augmentation can successfully ... breast implant silicone shell into breast milk during breastfeeding. Although there are currently no established methods for ...

  13. Breast lump removal

    MedlinePlus

    Lumpectomy; Wide local excision; Breast conservation surgery; Breast-sparing surgery; Partial mastectomy ... If the breast cancer can be seen on imaging tests but the doctor cannot feel it when examining you, a wire ...

  14. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  15. Breast reconstruction - implants

    MedlinePlus

    After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... to the breast or the new nipple. Having cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of ...

  16. Antidepressant-like Potentials of Buchholzia Coriacea Seed Extract: Involvement of Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Systems, and Neuronal Density in the Hippocampus of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Onasanwo, S A; Faborode, S O; Ilenre, K O

    2016-01-01

    Buchholzia coriacea, taken by elderly, has phytochemicals that have neuro-active metabolites, and the folkloredocumented its use in neuro-behavioral despairs. Previous study in our laboratory shows that methanol extracts of Buchholziacoriacea (MEBC) seeds possess antidepressant-like potentials in laboratory rodents. This present study was conducted toinvestigate the probable mechanism(s) of action by which MEBC potentiates its effects using laboratory rodents.Involvements of serotonergic, cholinergic and adrenergic systems were studied using Forced Swimming Test (FST) and TailSuspension Test (TST) models of behavioral despair. Antagonists which including: Prazosin, an alpha-1-adrenergic receptorblocker (62.5 μg/kg, i.p.), metergoline, a 5HT2 receptor blocker (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and atropine, a -muscarinic cholinergicreceptor blocker (1mg/kg i.p.) were administered before effective dose of MEBC (50mg/kg). Also, the hippocampi of theanimals were studied for changes in neuronal density using Nissl Staining. Our findings showed that mobility was reversedin animals pre-treated with atropine, prazosin, and metergoline significantly (P˂0.05), showing a possible involvement ofthe corresponding systems. However, there was a significant reduction in immobility time (P<0.001) during FST afterchronic administration of the MEBC. The hippocampus showed no significant changes (P<0.05) in neuronal density. Inconclusion, MEBC probably potentiates its antidepressant-like potentials via the cholinergic, adrenergic and partly byserotonergic systems. PMID:27574770

  17. Metabolomics reveals the sex-specific effects of the SORT1 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol locus in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S

    2014-11-01

    Metabolite profiles of individuals possessing either the cardiovascular risk or protective variants of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) associated 1p13.3 locus of the SORT1 gene (rs646776) were analyzed. Serum metabolites and lipids were assessed using LC-MS-based metabolomics in a healthy young population (n = 138: 95 males, 43 females). Although no significant differences were observed in the combined cohort, divergent sex effects were identified. Females carrying the protective allele showed increased phosphatidylcholines, very long chain fatty acids (>C20), and unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, males carrying the protective allele exhibited decreased long-chain fatty acids (≤C20) and sphingomyelins, which is similarly considered to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. No significant changes in clinically assessed lipids such as LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), total cholesterol, or triglycerides were observed in females, whereas only LDL-C was significantly changed in males. This indicates that, apart from reducing LDL-C, other mechanisms may contribute to the protective effect of the SORT1 locus. Thus, the analysis of metabolic biomarkers might reveal early disease development that may be overlooked by relying on standard clinical parameters. PMID:25182463

  18. Overview of digital breast tomosynthesis: Clinical cases, benefits and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Levy, G; Poncelet, E; Le Thanh, T; Prolongeau, J F; Phalippou, J; Massoni, F; Laurent, N

    2015-09-01

    In France, the national breast cancer-screening program is based on mammography combined with clinical breast examination, and sometimes breast ultrasound for patients with high breast density. Digital breast tomosynthesis is a currently assessed 3D imaging technique in which angular projections of the stationary compressed breast are acquired automatically. When combined with mammography, clinicians can review both conventional (2D) as well as three-dimensional (3D) data. The purpose of this article is to review recent reports on this new breast imaging technique and complements this information with our personal experience. The main advantages of tomosynthesis are that it facilitates the detection and characterization of breast lesions, as well as the diagnosis of occult lesions in dense breasts. However, to do this, patients are exposed to higher levels of radiation than with 2D mammography. In France, the indications for tomosynthesis and its use in breast cancer-screening (individual and organized) are yet to be defined, as is its role in the diagnosis and staging of breast cancer (multiple lesions). Further studies assessing in particular the combined reconstruction of the 2D view using 3D tomosynthesis data acquired during a single breast compression event, and therefore reducing patient exposure to radiation, are expected to provide valuable insight. PMID:26275829

  19. Breast ultrasound tomography with two parallel transducer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Shin, Junseob; Chen, Ting; Lin, Youzuo; Gao, Kai; Intrator, Miranda; Hanson, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is an emerging imaging modality to reconstruct the sound speed, density, and ultrasound attenuation of the breast in addition to ultrasound reflection/beamforming images for breast cancer detection and characterization. We recently designed and manufactured a new synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography prototype with two parallel transducer arrays consisting of a total of 768 transducer elements. The transducer arrays are translated vertically to scan the breast in a warm water tank from the chest wall/axillary region to the nipple region to acquire ultrasound transmission and reflection data for whole-breast ultrasound tomography imaging. The distance of these two ultrasound transducer arrays is adjustable for scanning breasts with different sizes. We use our breast ultrasound tomography prototype to acquire phantom and in vivo patient ultrasound data to study its feasibility for breast imaging. We apply our recently developed ultrasound imaging and tomography algorithms to ultrasound data acquired using our breast ultrasound tomography system. Our in vivo patient imaging results demonstrate that our breast ultrasound tomography can detect breast lesions shown on clinical ultrasound and mammographic images.

  20. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. Hypothesis: In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Design: This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Setting and Participants: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure: Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Results: Maternal o,p′-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5–9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. Conclusions: This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk. PMID:26079774

  1. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  2. Interaction of COMT rs4680 and BDNF rs6265 polymorphisms on functional connectivity density of the left frontal eye field in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Bing; Xu, Jiayuan; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2016-07-01

    As modulators of dopamine availability and release in the brain, COMT and BDNF polymorphisms have demonstrated interactions on human cognition; however, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions of COMT rs4680 and BDNF rs6265 on global functional connectivity density (gFCD) of the brain in 265 healthy young subjects. We found a significant COMT × BDNF interaction on the gFCD in the left frontal eye field (FEF), showing an inverted U-shape modulation by the presumed dopamine signaling. This finding was consistently repeated in the gFCD analyses using other four connection thresholds. Our findings reveal a COMT × BDNF interaction on the FCD in the left FEF, which may be helpful for understanding the neural mechanisms of the COMT × BDNF interactions on the FEF-related cognitive functions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2468-2478, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004987

  3. Effect of Extended Release Niacin on Serum Lipids and on Endothelial Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia and Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Scoffone, Heather M.; Krajewski, Megan; Zorca, Suzana; Bereal-Williams, Candice; Littel, Patricia; Seamon, Catherine; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Footman, Eleni; Jaoudeh, Nadine Abi; Sachdev, Vandana; Machado, Roberto F.; Cuttica, Michael; Shamburek, Robert; Cannon, Richard O.; Remaley, Alan; Minniti, Caterina P.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Through bound apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducing vasodilation. Because patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)have low apoA-I andendothelial dysfunction,we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to test whether extended-release niacin (niacin-ER) increases apoA-I-containing HDL-C, and improves vascular function in SCD. Twenty-seven SCD patientswith HDL-C <39 mg/dL or apoA-I <99 mg/dL were randomized to 12 weeks of niacin-ER, increased in 500mg increments to a maximum of 1500mg daily, or placebo. The primary outcome was the absolute change in HDL-C after 12 weeks, with endothelial function assessed before and at the end of treatment. Niacin-ER-treated patients trended to greater increase in HDL-C compared with placebo treatment at 12 weeks (5.1±7.7 vs. 0.9±3.8 mg/dL, one-tailed p=0.07), associated with significantly greater, improvements in the ratios of low-density lipoprotein to HDL-C (1.24 vs. 1.95, p = 0.003), and apolipoprotein B to apoA-I (0.46 vs. 0.58, p = 0.03) compared with placebo-treated patients. No improvements were detected in three independent vascular physiology assays of endothelial function. Thus, the relatively small changes in HDL-C achieved by the dose of niacin-ER used in our study are not associated with improved vascular function in patients with SCD with initially low levels of apoA-I or HDL-C. PMID:24035168

  4. Assessing the reliability of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in malaria diagnosis in areas with varying parasite density among older children and adult patients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, EE; Ukwe, CV; Nna, EO

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current malaria control strategies are based on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of malaria cases. The study aimed at comparing the performance of blood film microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in Plasmodium falciparum detection in patients ≥6 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 consecutive pyretic patients aged 6-62 years were enrolled, sampled, and tested for malaria using RDT (first response) and microscopy by Giemsa staining. Genomic DNA was extracted after saponin hemolysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum. The endpoints were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: Of the 154 patients, 80 (51.9%) had fever of ≥37.5°C. 106 (68.8%) were positive by First response®, 132 (85.7%) by microscopy, and 121 (78.6%) by PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of first response compared to microscopic method were 82.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 34.3%, respectively, while it was 75.4%, 75.0%, 95.3%, and 31.2%, respectively, when compared to PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the microscopic method compared to PCR were 92.3%, 50.0%, 90.91%, and 54.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the performance of RDT and film microscopy methods (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Microscopy performed better and is more reliable than first response (RDT) in areas with low parasite density among patients ≥6 years of age. Rapid diagnostic tests could be useful in aareas with high parasite density as an alternative to smear microscopy PMID:27241807

  5. Bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture after long-term suppressive levothyroxine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Monteiro de Barros, Graziella; Madeira, Miguel; Vieira Neto, Leonardo; de Paula Paranhos Neto, Francisco; Carvalho Mendonça, Laura Maria; Corrêa Barbosa Lima, Inayá; Corbo, Rossana; Fleiuss Farias, Maria Lucia

    2016-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) seems not to be decreased in young patients given long-term suppressive doses of levothyroxine (LT4), but information regarding the bone microstructure in these patients is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether supraphysiologic doses of LT4, initiated during childhood or adolescence for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), have any detrimental effects on bone microarchitecture as evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Seventeen patients (27.3 ± 7.1 years old) with DTC with subclinical hyperthyroidism since adolescence and 34 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the areal BMD at the lumbar spine, hip, and proximal third of the radius. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters of the trabecular and cortical bone were assessed by HR-pQCT of the distal radius and distal tibia. DTC patients were given suppressive doses of LT4 starting at a mean age of 12.6 years, and the mean duration of treatment was 14.2 years. In DTC patients, clinical parameters did not correlate with DXA or HR-pQCT parameters. No differences were found between the patients and controls with respect to BMD and Z scores at any site evaluated by DXA, and no differences were found in the bone microstructure parameters evaluated by HR-pQCT. This cross-sectional study suggests that long-standing suppressive therapy with LT4 during the attainment of peak bone mass may have no significant adverse effects on bone density or microarchitecture. PMID:26056020

  6. A LONGER INTERVAL WITHOUT GROWTH HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND FEMALE GENDER ARE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN ADULTS WITH CHILDHOOD ONSET GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY - A KIMS DATABASE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Hamrahian, Amir H; King, Donna; Greenspan, Susan L; Cook, David M; Jönsson, Peter J; Wajnrajch, Michael P; Koltowska – Häggstrom, Maria; Biller, Beverly MK

    2016-01-01

    Objective Childhood onset growth hormone deficiency (COGHD) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). Adults with persistent COGHD may be at risk for insufficient bone accrual or bone loss during adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify BMD predictors and characterize the effects of GH replacement on BMD in COGHD adults with persistent GHD. Design Retrospective analysis of the KIMS database. Methods Variables predicting standardized BMD (sBMD) were identified. The effect of GH replacement (3 years) on BMD was examined. Results 314 COGHD adults (148 women, 166 men; 62 non-naïve, 178 semi-naïve, and 74 true naïve, depending on length and timing of previous GH replacement), who had BMD measured in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) at study entry. In semi-naïve subjects, a longer gap in GH replacement between childhood and adulthood was predictive of lower sBMD in the FN (r= −0.18, P=0.038). Thyrotropin deficiency predicted lower sBMD in the LS (r= −0.16,P=0.052). In true naïve patients, a longer gap between onset of pituitary disease and study entry (r= −0.35,P=0.012) and female gender (r= −0.27,P=0.043) independently predicted lower sBMD in the FN. There were no differences in BMD increases between non-naïve, semi-naïve and true naïve subjects on GH replacement. Conclusions In semi-naïve subjects a longer interval off GH replacement was associated with lower sBMD in the FN. Among true naïve patients, a longer gap between the onset of pituitary disease and GH replacement, and female gender predicted lower sBMD in the FN. PMID:22711759

  7. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  8. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely ... get ear infections if they were fed pumped milk, study found To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Breast Milk Best from the Breast?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159054.html Breast Milk Best From the Breast? Babies were more likely to get ear infections ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infants fed directly from the breast are less likely to develop ear infections than ...

  10. Health Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women with Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, J. Peter; Landfair, Angela Song; Shestak, Kenneth; Lane, Dorothy; Valoski, Alice; Chang, Yuefang; Tindle, Hilary A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Implant breast augmentation has long been a subject of controversy in both the plastic surgery and mainstream media. Methods We evaluated characteristics of women who had breast implant surgery in the Women's Health Initiative observational study (WHI OS) between 1993 and 1998. Most women in this study cohort had breast implant surgery 20 or more years prior to recruitment into the WHI OS. The women who were in the WHI OS who had not undergone breast implant surgery served as the comparison group. There were 86,686 women in the WHI OS who did not have breast implant surgery and an absent history of breast cancer, and 1,257 women who had breast implant surgery and no prior breast cancer. Results Total mortality rates were substantially lower among women with breast implant as was incidence of coronary heart disease. Women with breast implants in this study had a lower BMI throughout adult life and were more physically active than control subjects. After adjustment for these variables, differences in total mortality were no longer statistically significant. Women who had breast implants reported overall poorer quality of life and emotional well-being. Among women with breast implant surgery, 7% of deaths were due to suicide (n=3) versus 0.4% (n=20) in controls. Conclusion Significant differences in health characteristics and quality of life measures are seen in a cohort of women with breast implants decades following implant surgery. Further longitudinal studies need to focus on both physical and psychological health among women undergoing breast implant surgery. PMID:20195108

  11. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  12. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  13. Breast self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Self-examination of the breast; BSE; Breast cancer - BSE ... The best time to do a monthly self-breast exam is about 3 to 5 days after ... it at the same time every month. Your breasts are not as tender or lumpy at this ...

  14. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  15. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10-24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  16. Toward quantification of breast tomosynthesis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Christina M.; Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S.; Zerhouni, Moustafa; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2008-03-01

    Due to the high prevalence of breast cancer among women, much is being done to detect breast cancer earlier and more accurately. In current clinical practice, the most widely-used mode of breast imaging is mammography. Its main advantages are high sensitivity and low patient dose, although it is still merely a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional object. In digital breast tomosynthesis, a three-dimensional image of the breast can be reconstructed, but x-ray projection images of the breast are taken over a limited angular span. However, the breast tomosynthesis device itself is more similar to a digital mammography system and thus is a feasible replacement for mammography. Because of the angular undersampling in breast tomosynthesis, the reconstructed images are not considered quantitative, so a worthwhile question to answer would be whether the voxel values (VVs) in breast tomosynthesis images can be made to indicate tissue type as Hounsfield units do in CT. through some image processing scheme. To investigate this, simple phantoms were imaged consisting of layers of uniform, tissue-equivalent plastic for the background sandwiching a layer of interest containing multiple, small cuboids of tissue-equivalent plastic. After analyzing the reconstructed tomosynthesis images, it was found that the VV in each lesion increases linearly with tissue glandularity. However, for the two different x-ray tube energies and for the two different beam exposure levels tested, the trend-lines all have different slopes and y-intercepts. Thus, breast tomosynthesis has a definite potential to be quantitative, and it would be worthwhile to study other possible dependent parameters (phantom thickness, overall density, etc.) as well as alternative reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    DellaCroce, Frank J; Wolfe, Emily T

    2013-04-01

    As diagnostic technology has progressed and the understanding of the disease process has evolved, the number of mastectomies performed in the United States has increased. Breast reconstructive techniques have commensurately become more sophisticated along the same timeline. The result is that those facing mastectomy have the potential to simultaneously retain physical beauty and wholeness. Only 33% of women who are otherwise candidates for immediate reconstruction at the time of mastectomy choose reconstruction. Patients generally have a high level of satisfaction with the option they choose, contributing to a feeling of overall recovery and physical and emotional wholeness. PMID:23464695

  18. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  19. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts. PMID:26255741

  20. Links between alcohol consumption and breast cancer: a look at the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Nguyen, Nhi; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer. Several questions regarding alcohol and breast cancer need to be addressed. Menarche to first pregnancy represents a window of time when breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens. Youth alcohol consumption is common in the USA, largely in the form of binge drinking and heavy drinking. Whether alcohol intake acts early in the process of breast tumorigenesis is unclear. This review aims to focus on the influences of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate risk markers. We also review possible mechanisms underlying the alcohol-breast cancer association. PMID:25581056

  1. Mammographic density in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in overweight, postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; McTiernan, Anne; Aiello, Erin J; Thomas, Wendy K; LaCroix, Kristin; Schramm, Judy; Schwartz, Stephen M; Holt, Victoria L; Lampe, Johanna W

    2004-07-01

    Circulating hormones are associated with mammographic density, an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk. Differences in circulating hormones, including estrone and testosterone, have been observed in premenopausal women based on their capacity to metabolize daidzein, an isoflavone found predominantly in soybeans. Equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) are products of intestinal bacterial metabolism of daidzein. There is interindividual variability in the capacity to produce daidzein metabolites; individuals can be equol producers or non-producers and O-DMA producers or non-producers. We tested the hypothesis that daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes are associated with mammographic density. Participants were recruited from among 92 sedentary, postmenopausal women, ages 50 to 75 years, who participated in a 1-year physical activity intervention. Pre-intervention mammographic density was determined using a computer-assisted, gray-scale thresholding technique. Fifty-five of these women consumed supplemental soy protein (>10 mg daidzein/d) for 3 days and collected a first-void urine sample on the fourth day to determine daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes. Equol and O-DMA concentrations were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Associations between daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes and percent mammographic density were adjusted for age, maximum adult weight, gravidity, family history of breast cancer, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone and free testosterone concentrations. Mammographic density was 39% lower in equol producers compared with non-producers (P = 0.04). O-DMA producers had mammographic density 69% greater than non-producers (P = 0.05). These results suggest that particular intestinal bacterial profiles are associated with postmenopausal mammographic density, and these associations are not entirely explained by differences in reproductive or anthropometric characteristics or circulating hormones. PMID:15247126

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ... full size with caption Related Articles and Media Mammography Ultrasound - Breast Breast Cancer Screening Breast Cancer Treatment ...

  3. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ...

  4. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  5. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  6. Kallikrein gene downregulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yousef, G M; Yacoub, G M; Polymeris, M-E; Popalis, C; Soosaipillai, A; Diamandis, E P

    2004-01-12

    Recent evidence suggests that many members of the human kallikrein gene family are differentially regulated in breast cancer and other endocrine-related malignancies. In this study, we utilised the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) to perform in silico analyses of the expression pattern of the 15 human kallikrein genes in normal and cancerous breast tissues and cell lines using different analytical tools such as Virtual Northern blotting, Digital Differential Display and X-profiler. Our results indicate that at least four kallikrein genes (KLK5, 6, 8, 10) are downregulated in breast cancer. Probing eight normal and 24 breast cancer SAGE libraries with gene-specific tags for each of the above kallikreins indicated moderate-to-high expression densities in normal breast (27-319 tags per million; tpm, in two to five out of eight libraries), compared to no or low expression (0 - 34 tpm in zero to two libraries out of 24) in breast cancer. These data were verified by screening the EST databases, where all mRNA clones isolated for these genes, except for one in each, were from normal breast libraries, with no clones detected from breast cancer tissues or cell lines (with the exception of KLK8). X-profiler comparison of two pools of normal and breast cancer libraries further verified the presence of significant downregulation of expression levels of 4 of the kallikreins genes (KLK5, 6, 10, 12). We experimentally verified the downregulation of these four kallikreins (KLK5, 6, 8, 10 and 12) by RT - PCR analysis. PMID:14710225

  7. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  8. Molecular breast imaging using a dedicated high-performance instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Michael K.; Wagenaar, Douglas; Hruska, Carrie B.; Phillips, Stephen; Caravaglia, Gina; Rhodes, Deborah

    2006-08-01

    In women with radiographically dense breasts, the sensitivity of mammography is less than 50%. With the increase in the percent of women with dense breasts, it is important to look at alternative screening techniques for this population. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of current imaging techniques and focuses on recent developments in semiconductor-based gamma camera systems that offer significant improvements in image quality over that achievable with single-crystal sodium iodide systems. We have developed a technique known as Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) using small field of view Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma cameras that permits the breast to be imaged in a similar manner to mammography, using light pain-free compression. Computer simulations and experimental studies have shown that use of low-energy high sensitivity collimation coupled with the excellent energy resolution and intrinsic spatial resolution of CZT detectors provides optimum image quality for the detection of small breast lesions. Preliminary clinical studies with a prototype dual-detector system have demonstrated that Molecular Breast Imaging has a sensitivity of ~90% for the detection of breast tumors less than 10 mm in diameter. By comparison, conventional scintimammography only achieves a sensitivity of 50% in the detection of lesions < 10 mm. Because Molecular Breast Imaging is not affected by breast density, this technique may offer an important adjunct to mammography in the evaluation of women with dense breast parenchyma.

  9. Association of Mammographic Density with Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Nasrin; Movahedinia, Samaneh; Movahedinia, Sajjadeh; Shahriari, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and is the first cause of death due to cancer among women. Mammography is the best screening method and mammographic density, which determines the percentage of fibro glandular tissue of breast, is one of the strongest risk factors of breast cancer. Because benign and malignant lesions may present as dense lesions in mammography so it is necessary to take a core biopsy of any suspicious lesions to evaluate pathologic findings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the association between mammographic density and histopathological findings in Iranian population. Moreover, we assessed the correlation between mammographic density and protein expression profile. We indeed, determined the accuracy and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of mammographic reports in our center. Patients and Method This study is a cross-sectional study carried out among 131 eligible women who had referred to imaging center for mammographic examination and had been advised to take biopsy of breast tissue. All participants of the study had filled out the informed consent. Pathologic review was performed blinded to the density status. Patients were divided into low density breast tissue group (ACR density group 1-2) and high density breast tissue group (ACR 3, 4) and data was compared between these two groups. Statistical analysis performed using SPSS for windows, version 11.5. We used chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression test for analysis and Odds Ratio calculated where indicated. Results In patients with high breast densities, malignant cases (61.2%) were significantly more in comparison to patients with low breast densities (37.3%) (P= 0.007, OR=2.66 95% CI=1.29-5.49). After adjusting for age, density was associated with malignancy in age groups <46 years (P=0.007), and 46-60 years (P=0.024) but not in age group >60yrs (P=0.559). Adjusting for menopausal status, density showed

  10. Synchronous bilateral primary breast malignant phyllodes tumor and carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoming; Sun, Suhong; Yang, Weiming; Kong, Fanli; Zeng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous bilateral primary breast malignant phyllodes tumor or/and carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease is rare. In the article, we present a case of bilateral carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease of the right breast and malignant phyllodes tumor of the left breast. A 44-years-old Chinese woman presented with a 1 month history of the right breast nipple with eczema and fester and growing and palpable mass of left breast. Molybdenum target X-ray revealed microcalcification in the right breast, which was highly suspected of malignant tumor, and round-like mass with smooth surface and homogeneous density in the left breast. Color ultrasound showed a lobulated lump which circumferential blood flows around in the left breast, and which did not show any mass in the right breast. The patient was undertaken the bilateral modified radical mastectomy. The histological diagnosis was Paget’s disease associated with infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the right breast and malignant phyllodes tumor the left breast. The patient also received 6 cycles of the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy by using T.T. regimen comprised docetaxel (100 mg) and pirarubicin (60 mg). PMID:26770378

  11. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation

  12. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  13. Screening for Breast Problems

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  14. MRI of the Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a supplemental tool to breast screening with mammography or ultrasound. It may be used to screen ... following diagnosis, or further evaluate abnormalities seen on mammography. Breast MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and ...

  15. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast MRI may be done in combination with mammography or ultrasound . It is not a replacement for mammography. ... breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin . 2007;57:75-89. ...

  16. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  17. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  18. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  20. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). MRI does not use any x-rays. ...

  1. Breast PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007469.htm Breast PET scan To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. A breast positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive ...

  2. Lymphatics and the breast

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... a very worrisome role in the spread of breast cancer. Components of the lymphatic system called lymph ... extensive network of lymphatic vessels in every woman’s breast tissue, which is important in regulating the local ...

  3. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances can cause breast enlargement: Alcohol Amphetamines Heroin Marijuana Methadone Breast cancer in men is rare. Signs ... include: Stop taking all recreational drugs, such as marijuana Stop taking all nutritional supplements or any drugs ...

  4. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    MedlinePlus

    ... several types of breast biopsies, including open, ultrasound-guided , and lumpectomy . This article focuses on stereotactic breast ... a special machine, a needle or sheath is guided to the exact location of the abnormal area. ...

  5. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts before submitting any insurance claims. For a list of companies that sell breast prostheses and other accessories, see Breast Prostheses and Hair Loss Accessories List . Going flat Some women who do not have ...

  6. Breast Reconstruction and Prosthesis

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel of the breast after a mastectomy. A plastic surgeon can do it at the same time ... want breast reconstruction. • Have you talked with your plastic surgeon about your options? You may not be ...

  7. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Johnson KC, Olsson H, Casagrande JT, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: ... D, Ferlay J, Brinton LA, Cook MB. An international comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence ...

  8. Special Issues in Older Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hurria, Arti; Muss, Hy

    2015-01-01

    The true face of breast cancer is more commonly that of an older woman. The rapid aging of the US population is contributing to an increasing number of breast cancer cases in older adults today, as well as an increase in the number of breast cancer survivors who carry the long-term side effects of breast cancer treatment. The number one problem facing older women with breast cancer today is that they are not receiving the same benefits from treatment advances as younger women. This disparity in outcomes highlights the great need for studies that specially include older women with breast cancer in order to guide informed decisions regarding the most efficacious treatment options. Novel study designs are needed to fill these gaps in knowledge which include metrics that provide a detailed understanding of the individual beyond chronologic age, and which identify areas of vulnerability for which targeted interventions can be employed. In studying cancer therapeutics in older adults, metrics of success, beyond disease-free and overall survival should be included, such as the feasibility of delivering the therapy, as well as the impact of treatment on functional independence and cognition. Ultimately, this framework will lead to evidence-based "personalized" medicine for the older adult. PMID:26059927

  9. Accuracy and the Effect of Possible Subject-Based Confounders of Magnitude-Based MRI for Estimating Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction in Adults, Using MR Spectroscopy as Reference

    PubMed Central

    Heba, Elhamy R.; Desai, Ajinkya; Zand, Kevin A.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Schlein, Alexandra N.; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.; Middleton, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy and the effect of possible subject-based confounders of magnitude-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for different numbers of echoes in adults with known or suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as a reference. Materials and Methods In this retrospective analysis of 506 adults, hepatic PDFF was estimated by unenhanced 3.0T MRI, using right-lobe MRS as reference. Regions of interest placed on source images and on six-echo parametric PDFF maps were colocalized to MRS voxel location. Accuracy using different numbers of echoes was assessed by regression and Bland–Altman analysis; slope, intercept, average bias, and R2 were calculated. The effect of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on hepatic PDFF accuracy was investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. Results MRI closely agreed with MRS for all tested methods. For three- to six-echo methods, slope, regression intercept, average bias, and R2 were 1.01–0.99, 0.11–0.62%, 0.24–0.56%, and 0.981–0.982, respectively. Slope was closest to unity for the five-echo method. The two-echo method was least accurate, underestimating PDFF by an average of 2.93%, compared to an average of 0.23–0.69% for the other methods. Statistically significant but clinically nonmeaningful effects on PDFF error were found for subject BMI (P range: 0.0016 to 0.0783), male sex (P range: 0.015 to 0.037), and no statistically significant effect was found for subject age (P range: 0.18–0.24). Conclusion Hepatic magnitude-based MRI PDFF estimates using three, four, five, and six echoes, and six-echo parametric maps are accurate compared to reference MRS values, and that accuracy is not meaningfully confounded by age, sex, or BMI. PMID:26201284

  10. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Density Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiter, Richard L.; Puzey, Whitney L.; Blitz, Erin A.

    2006-01-01

    Metal rods of high purity for many elements are now commercially available and may be used to construct a display of relative densities. We have constructed a display with nine metal rods (Mg, Al, Ti, V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Pb, and W) of equal mass whose densities vary from 1.74 to 19.3 g cm[superscript -3]. The relative densities of the metals may be…

  12. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  13. Breast Ultrasound: Indications and Findings.

    PubMed

    Gundry, Kathleen R

    2016-06-01

    Breast ultrasound is a widely used adjuvant to mammography for the detection of breast cancer. This chapter will review some of the basic ultrasound technical factors and techniques, describe findings on ultrasound with an emphasis on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology, and present the indications for breast ultrasound. New innovations in breast ultrasound, such as elastography, ultrasound contrast, 3-dimensional, and automated whole-breast ultrasound, will be reviewed. Ultrasound-guided breast procedures are also presented. PMID:26974219

  14. Characterization of lesions in dense breasts: Does tomosynthesis help?

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Krithika; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjay; Srivastava, Anurag; Parshad, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Context: Mammography in dense breasts is challenging due to lesion obscuration by tissue overlap. Does tomosynthesis offers a solution? Aims: To study the impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in characterizing lesions in breasts of different mammographic densities. Settings and Design: Prospective blinded study comparing mammography in two views with Mammography + Tomosynthesis. Methods and Material: Tomosynthesis was performed in 199 patients who were assigned Breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) categories 0, 3, 4, or 5 on two-dimensional (2D) mammogram. Mammograms were first categorized into one of 4 mammographic breast densities in accordance with the American College of Radiology (ACR). Three radiologists independently analyzed these images and assigned a BIRADS category first based on 2D mammogram alone, and then assigned a fresh BIRADS category after taking mammography and tomosynthesis into consideration. A composite gold-standard was used in the study (histopathology, ultrasound, follow-up mammogram, magnetic resonance imaging). Each lesion was categorized into 3 groups—superior categorization with DBT, no change in BIRADS, or inferior BIRADS category based on comparison with the gold-standard. The percentage of lesions in each group was calculated for different breast densities. Results: There were 260 lesions (ages 28–85). Overall, superior categorization was seen in 21.2% of our readings on addition of DBT to mammography. DBT was most useful in ACR Densities 3 and 4 breasts where it led to more appropriate categorization in 27 and 42% of lesions, respectively. DBT also increased diagnostic confidence in 54.5 and 63.6% of lesions in ACR Densities 3 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: In a diagnostic setting, the utility of tomosynthesis increases with increasing breast density. This helps in identifying the sub category of patients where DBT can actually change management.

  15. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs. PMID:22185539

  16. Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongseok; Jang, Sungok; Son, Heejeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3% for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDL-C25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. PMID:26824910

  17. Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongseok; Jang, Sungok; Son, Heejeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3% for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDL-C25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. PMID:26824910

  18. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided pbreast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  19. Seven years of follow up of trabecular bone score, bone mineral density, body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency treated with rhGH replacement in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; Serraclara Plá, Alicia; Partida Muñoz, Myriam Lorena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by impaired physical activity, diminished quality of life (QoL), weight and fat mass gain, decreased muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment (7 years) with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), BMD, bone microarchitecture and QoL. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, BMD and BC were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone microarchitecture was assessed with the trabecular bone score (TBS). The QoL-AGHDA test was used to assess QoL. Results: A total of 18 AGHD patients (mean age, 37.39 ± 12.42) were included. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a significant increase after 7 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a significant tendency of body fat mass (BFM) (p = 0.028) and lean body mass (LBM) (p = 0.005) to increase during the 7 years of rhGH treatment. There was a significant increase in lumbar spine (LS) BMD (p = 0.01). TBS showed a nonsignificant decrease after 7 years of treatment, with a change of -0.86% ± 1.95. QoL showed a large and significant improvement (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Long-term rhGH treatment in AGHD patients induces a large and sustained improvement in QoL. Metabolic effects are variable with an increase in LBM as well as in BMI and BFM. There is a positive effect on BMD based on the increase in LS BMD, which stabilizes during long-term therapy and is not associated with a similar increase in bone microarchitecture. PMID:27293538

  20. Autologous Microvascular Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Autologous microvascular breast reconstruction is widely accepted as a key component of breast cancer treatment. There are two basic donor sites; the anterior abdominal wall and the thigh/buttock region. Each of these regions provides for a number of flaps that are successfully utilised in breast reconstruction. Refinement of surgical technique and the drive towards minimising donor site morbidity whilst maximising flap vascularity in breast reconstruction has seen an evolution towards perforator based flap reconstructions, however myocutaneous flaps are still commonly practiced. We review herein the current methods of autologous microvascular breast reconstruction. PMID:23362474

  1. High-performance broad-band spectroscopy for breast cancer risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Blackmore, Kristina; Dick, Samantha; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    Medical diagnostics and screening are becoming increasingly demanding applications for spectroscopy. Although for many years the demand was satisfied with traditional spectrometers, analysis of complex biological samples has created a need for instruments capable of detecting small differences between samples. One such application is the measurement of absorbance of broad spectrum illumination by breast tissue, in order to quantify the breast tissue density. Studies have shown that breast cancer risk is closely associated with the measurement of radiographic breast density measurement. Using signal attenuation in transillumination spectroscopy in the 550-1100nm spectral range to measure breast density, has the potential to reduce the frequency of ionizing radiation, or making the test accessible to younger women; lower the cost and make the procedure more comfortable for the patient. In order to determine breast density, small spectral variances over a total attenuation of up to 8 OD have to be detected with the spectrophotometer. For this, a high performance system has been developed. The system uses Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) transmission grating, a 2D detector array for simultaneous registration of the whole spectrum with high signal to noise ratio, dedicated optical system specifically optimized for spectroscopic applications and many other improvements. The signal to noise ratio exceeding 50,000 for a single data acquisition eliminates the need for nitrogen cooled detectors and provides sufficient information to predict breast tissue density. Current studies employing transillumination breast spectroscopy (TIBS) relating to breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring are described.

  2. Endothelial CXCR7 Regulates Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Stacer, Amanda C.; Fenner, Joseph; Cavnar, Stephen P.; Xiao, Annie; Zhao, Shuang; Chang, S. Laura; Salomonnson, Anna; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7 (ACKR3) functions as a scavenger receptor for chemokine CXCL12, a molecule that promotes multiple steps in tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and multiple other malignancies. While normal vascular endothelium expresses low levels of CXCR7, marked upregulation of CXCR7 occurs in tumor vasculature in breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate effects of endothelial CXCR7 in breast cancer, we conditionally deleted this receptor from vascular endothelium of adult mice, generating CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND animals. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice appeared phenotypically normal, although these animals exhibited a modest 35 ± 3% increase in plasma CXCL12 as compared with control. Using two different syngeneic, orthotopic tumor implant models of breast cancer, we discovered that CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice had significantly greater local recurrence of cancer following resection, elevated numbers of circulating tumor cells, and more spontaneous metastases. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice also showed greater experimental metastases following intracardiac injection of cancer cells. These results establish that endothelial CXCR7 limits breast cancer metastasis at multiple steps in the metastatic cascade, advancing understanding of CXCL12 pathways in tumor environments and informing ongoing drug development targeting CXCR7 in cancer. PMID:26119946

  3. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method. PMID:27353993

  4. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  5. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone health. It compares your bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is ... Whether your osteoporosis treatment is working Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis ...

  7. The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, Christina M.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Due to its limited angular scan range, breast tomosynthesis has lower resolution in the depth direction, which may limit its accuracy in quantifying tissue density. This study assesses the quantitative potential of breast tomosynthesis using relatively simple reconstruction and image processing algorithms. This quantitation could allow improved characterization of lesions as well as image processing to present tomosynthesis images with the familiar appearance of mammography by preserving more low-frequency information. Methods: All studies were based on a Siemens prototype MAMMOMAT Novation TOMO breast tomo system with a 45 deg. total angular span. This investigation was performed using both simulations and empirical measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using the breast tomosynthesis geometry and tissue-equivalent, uniform, voxelized phantoms with cuboid lesions of varying density embedded within. Empirical studies were then performed using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms which were imaged on the actual prototype system. The material surrounding the lesions was set to either fat-equivalent or glandular-equivalent plastic. From the simulation experiments, the effects of scatter, lesion depth, and background material density were studied. The empirical experiments studied the effects of lesion depth, background material density, x-ray tube energy, and exposure level. Additionally, the proposed analysis methods were independently evaluated using a commercially available QA breast phantom (CIRS Model 11A). All image reconstruction was performed with a filtered backprojection algorithm. Reconstructed voxel values within each slice were corrected to reduce background nonuniformities. Results: The resulting lesion voxel values varied linearly with known glandular fraction (correlation coefficient R{sup 2}>0.90) under all simulated and empirical conditions, including for the independent tests with the QA phantom. Analysis of variance performed

  8. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  9. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  10. The impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Loren W.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Segars, William P.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials (VCT) can be carefully designed to inform, orient, or potentially replace clinical trials. The focus of this study was to demonstrate the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementation, and performance analysis of VCTs, through characterization of the effect of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of irregular masses in digital breast tomosynthesis. Twenty breast phantoms from the extended cardiactorso (XCAT) family, generated based on dedicated breast computed tomography of human subjects, were used to extract a total of 2173 volumes of interest (VOI) from simulated tomosynthesis images. Five different lesions, modeled after human subject tomosynthesis images, were embedded in the breasts, for a total of 6×2173 VOIs with and without lesions. Effects of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of the lesions were studied by implementing a doubly composite hypothesis signal detection theory paradigm with location known exactly, lesion known exactly, and background known statistically. The results indicated that the detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) deteriorated as density was increased, yielding findings consistent with clinical studies. The detection performance varied substantially across the twenty breasts. Furthermore, the log-likelihood ratio under H0 and H1 seemed to be affected by background tissue density and heterogeneity differently. Considering background tissue variability can change the outcomes of a VCT and is hence of crucial importance. The XCAT breast phantoms can address this concern by offering realistic modeling of background tissue variability based on a wide range of human subjects.

  11. Identifying Women with Dense Breasts at Highi Risk of Interval Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Zhu, Weiwei; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Sprague, Brian L.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Lehman, Constance D.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nineteen states have mandatory breast density reporting laws requiring women to be notified they have dense breasts (∼50% of screened women) and be advised to discuss supplemental imaging with their provider. Objective To better direct supplemental imaging discussions, we determined which combinations of breast cancer risk and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories were associated with high interval cancer rates. Design Prospective cohort Setting Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) breast-imaging facilities Patients 365,426 women aged 40-74 years who underwent 831,455 digital screening mammograms Measurement(s) BI-RADS breast density, BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, and interval rate (invasive cancer within 12 months of a normal mammogram) per 1,000 mammograms. High interval rate was defined as >1/1,000 mammograms. Results High interval rates were observed for women with 5-year risk ≥1.67% and extremely dense breasts or 5-year risk >2.49% and heterogeneously dense breasts comprising 24% of all women with dense breasts. The interval rate for advanced stage disease was highest (>0.4/1,000 mammograms) among women with 5-year risk >2.49% and heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts comprising 21% of all women with dense breasts. Five-year risk was low-average (0-1.66%) for 51% of women with heterogeneously dense and 52.5% with extremely dense breasts with interval rates of 0.58-0.63 and 0.72-0.89/1,000 mammograms, respectively. Limitations Benefit of supplemental imaging not assessed. Conclusions Breast density should not be the sole criterion for deciding whether supplemental imaging is justified because not all women with dense breasts have high interval cancer rates. BCSC 5-year risk combined with BI-RADS breast density can identify women at high risk of interval cancers to inform patient-provider discussions about alternative screening strategies. Primary Funding Source National Cancer Institute PMID

  12. Mapping the CXCR4 receptor on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biran; Guo, Peng; Auguste, Debra T

    2015-07-01

    The CXCR4 receptor triggers cell migration and, in breast cancer, promotes metastasis. To date, the dynamic assembly of CXCR4 on the cell surface as a mediator of receptor binding is not well characterized. The objective of this work is to quantify the density, spatial organization, and magnitude of binding of the CXCR4 receptor on live metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cells. We measured the Young's modulus, the CXCR4 surface density, and CXCR4 unbinding force on MBC cells by atomic force microscopy. We conclude that the CXCR4 density, spatial organization, and matrix stiffness are paramount to achieve strong binding. PMID:25916504

  13. A Community-Oriented Approach to Breast Cancer in a Low-Resource Setting: Improving Awareness, Early Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Talib, Zohray; Shukurbekova, Irina; Sadonshoeva, Guldarbogh; Alibekov, Alibek; Jamshedov, Nekruz; Moloo, Zahir; Welji, Almas; Amersi, Farin; Muhammad, Aliya Amin; Jiwani, Aliya; Rais, Sheliza; Nazrishoeva, Akoyat; Ilnazarova, Surayo; Nuridinova, Shifo; Ukani, Hafiza; Alwani, Shireen; Saleh, Mansoor

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and causes of death in females in Tajikistan; yet less than half of the adult women in Tajikistan have heard of breast cancer. Limited access to health care contributes to late stage presentation. We developed a public-private partnership to implement a breast cancer awareness intervention in a low-resource community in Khorog, Tajikistan. We trained local health professionals in clinical breast care and conducted a breast cancer screening and treatment program. The partnership involved visiting USA-based health professionals working alongside local health care providers (HCP) in the continuum of breast care-from education to the diagnostic evaluation and management of detected breast abnormalities. Patient data were collected using a web-based program (VirtualDoc). Twenty-four HCP received didactic and clinical breast examination training. 441 women underwent clinical breast evaluation. 74 (17%) had abnormal exams and underwent additional diagnostic procedures. We identified six (1.4%) cases of breast cancer (all locally advanced) and two women had benign fibroadenomas. All women with cancer underwent modified radical mastectomy, while the fibroadenomas were treated by cosmetically appropriate lumpectomy. Five of six subjects with cancer were previously aware of their breast lump and three had recently seen a family medicine (FM) doctor. Health systems assessment revealed availability of diagnostic equipment but lack of well-trained operators and clinician interpreters. We were successful in integrating clinical breast exams into the routine care of female patients by local FM doctors and in the process, achieved a better understanding of existing risk factors and barriers to breast cancer care. This public-private partnership, leveraging the technical expertise of visiting health professionals, demonstrates how a focused onsite training and awareness program can provide sustained improvements in breast care in a low

  14. Low Bone Density

    MedlinePlus

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  15. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  20. IN VIVO BREAST SOUND-SPEED IMAGING WITH ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cuiping; Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1 through 4. Our analysis showed that the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m · s)−1) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4-fold compared with the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422±9 m/s (mean±SD) and 1487±21 m/s, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions 1548±17 m/s was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513±27 m/s) (one-sided p < 0.001). These results suggest that, clinically, sound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor the clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19647920

  1. Task-based assessment and optimization of digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stefano

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a new technology for breast cancer screening that promises to complement mammography or supersede it to become the standard for breast imaging. DBT involves taking multiple images in order to synthesize a new image that represents a slice through the breast volume---hence the term tomosynthesis. The primary advantage of this paradigm is that it can reduce the amount of overlapping anatomy in the data, leading to improved visualization of potentially-cancerous findings. The difficulty in DBT is quantifying the advantages of the technology and determining the optimal conditions for its clinical use. This dissertation describes a virtual trial framework for assessing and optimizing DBT technology for the specific task of detecting small, low-contrast masses in the breast. It addresses each component of the imaging chain to some degree, from the patients/phantoms to the imaging hardware to the model observers used to measure signal detectability. The main focus, however, is on quantifying tradeoffs between three key parameters that affect image quality: (1) scan angle, (2) number of projections, and (3) exposure. We show that in low-density breast phantoms, detectability generally increases with both scan angle and number of projections in the anatomical-variability-limited (high-exposure) regime. We also investigate how breast density affects the optimal DBT scan parameters. We show task-specific results that support using an adaptive paradigm in DBT, where the imaging system reconfigures itself in response to information about the patient's breast density. The virtual framework described in this dissertation provides a platform for further investigations of image quality in 3D breast imaging.

  2. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  3. Treatment of high-risk patients with ezetimibe plus simvastatin co-administration versus simvastatin alone to attain National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Theodore; Koren, Michael; Insull, William; McKenney, James; Schrott, Helmut; Lewin, Andrew; Shah, Sukrut; Sidisin, Michelle; Cho, Meehyung; Kush, Debra; Mitchel, Yale

    2004-06-15

    This study assessed whether the co-administration of ezetimibe and simvastatin would be more effective than simvastatin monotherapy in allowing high-risk patients to achieve a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goal of <100 mg/dl. Men and women with LDL cholesterol >/=130 mg/dl and meeting National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk equivalent were randomized to 1 of 4 daily treatments for 23 weeks: simvastatin 20 mg (n = 253), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 10 mg (n = 251), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 20 mg (n = 109), and ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 40 mg (n = 97). In all groups, patients not at goal had their simvastatin doses doubled at weeks 6, 12, and/or 18, up to a maximum of 80 mg. The primary efficacy objective was LDL cholesterol goal attainment (<100 mg/dl) after 5 weeks of treatment. Ezetimibe plus any dose of simvastatin produced greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and allowed more patients to achieve goal after 5 weeks (p <0.001) and at the end of the study (p <0.001) than simvastatin 20 mg alone. At 5 weeks, 75%, 83%, and 87% of patients receiving ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20, and 40 mg had LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl compared with 46% of patients receiving simvastatin 20 mg. In patients who started on ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20 and 40 mg, 33%, 22%, and 12%, respectively, required simvastatin titration during the study compared with 68% of patients who started on simvastatin 20 mg. The corresponding median simvastatin doses used were 10, 20, 40, and 40 mg, respectively. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin was well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to that of simvastatin monotherapy. Thus, through the dual inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, ezetimibe plus simvastatin allowed more patients to reach LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl at a lower simvastatin dose and with fewer dose titrations than simvastatin monotherapy. PMID

  4. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  5. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  6. Role of Breast Ultrasound for the Detection and Differentiation of Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Madjar, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Summary Diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely improved since the development of high-resolution ultrasound equipment. In the past, ultrasound was only considered useful for the diagnosis of cysts. Meanwhile, it improves the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions, local preoperative staging and guided interventional diagnosis. In dense breasts, mammography has limited sensitivity. Furthermore, women with dense parenchyma have a highly increased risk of breast cancer development. Ultrasound is useful to examine dense breast tissue. Recent studies have shown that the detection of small cancers with high-resolution ultrasound is increased by 3–4 cancers per 1,000 women without clinical or mammographic abnormalities. Furthermore, stage distribution is similar between mammographically and sonographically detected carcinomas. Ultrasound is routinely used for curative diagnosis, to overcome the limitations of mammography. However, within the mammographic screening in Germany, breast density is not considered as important. Ultrasound is only used if a suspicious lesion is detected by mammography. Interestingly, 2 years ago, a screening project started in Austria in which ultrasound is always added in cases of dense breasts. Preliminary data show that the detection of additional carcinomas is increased in the same order as shown in previous studies. Therefore, an improved cancer detection and differentiation can be expected with high-resolution ultrasound. PMID:20847824

  7. Adult Compacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This bulletin focuses on adult compacts, three-way agreements among employers, potential employees, and trainers to provide the right kind of quality training to meet the employers' requirements. Part 1 is an executive summary of a report of the Adult Compacts Project, which studied three adult compacts in Birmingham and Loughborough, England, and…

  8. Breast tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephen B; Generali, Daniele G; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-01-01

    The central importance of tumour neovascularization has been emphasized by clinical trials using antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer. This review gives a background to breast tumour neovascularization in in situ and invasive breast cancer, outlines the mechanisms by which this is achieved and discusses the influence of the microenvironment, focusing on hypoxia. The regulation of angiogenesis and the antivascular agents that are used in an antiangiogenic dosing schedule, both novel and conventional, are also summarized. PMID:18190723

  9. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Experimental Autoimmune Breast Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kesaraju, Pavani; Jaini, Ritika; Johnson, Justin M.; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Gruden, Jessica J.; Sakalar, Cagri; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a substantial clinical problem in lactating women that may result in severe pain and abrupt termination of breastfeeding, thereby predisposing infants to long-term health risks. Many cases of mastitis involve no known infectious agent and may fundamentally be due to autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the breast. Herein, we develop a murine model of autoimmune mastitis and provide a detailed characterization of its resulting phenotype of breast failure and lactation insufficiency. To generate breast-specific autoimmunity, we immunized SWXJ mice with recombinant mouse α-lactalbumin, a lactation-dependent, breast-specific differentiation protein critical for production of lactose. Mice immunized with α-lactalbumin showed extensive T-cell–mediated inflammation in lactating normal breast parenchyma but none in nonlactating normal breast parenchyma. This targeted autoimmune attack resulted in breast failure characterized by lactation insufficiency and decreased ability to nurture offspring. Although immunization with α-lactalbumin had no effect on fertility and birth numbers, pups nursed by α-lactalbumin–immunized mice showed significantly disrupted growth often accompanied by kwashiorkor-like nutritional abnormalities, including alopecia, liver toxicity, and runting. This experimental model of autoimmune breast failure has useful applications for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination and for addressing inflammatory complications during breastfeeding. In addition, this model is suited for investigating nutritionally based “failure-to-thrive” issues, particularly regarding the long-term implications of postnatal nutritional deprivation. PMID:22901749

  11. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice. PMID:23181529

  12. Tibolone and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erel, C Tamer; Senturk, Levent M; Kaleli, Semih

    2006-01-01

    Tibolone is a relatively new drug for postmenopausal women, which is structurally related to 19‐nortestosterone derivatives and exhibits weak oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities. The effect of tibolone on breast tissue is still obscure. In vitro studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of tibolone on breast cells. On the other hand, although epidemiological studies show an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women treated with tibolone, accumulation of data obtained from radiological studies presents promising results. However, the safety of tibolone with regard to breast tissue needs to be investigated further, especially through well‐designed, large‐scale, randomised‐controlled trials. PMID:17068276

  13. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breastfeeding; Breast-non-feeding jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... of jaundice that is caused by too little breastfeeding by making sure your baby is getting enough ...

  14. Prosthetic breast reconstruction: indications and update

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Tam T.; Miller, George S.; Rostek, Marie; Cabalag, Miguel S.; Rozen, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite 82% of patients reporting psychosocial improvement following breast reconstruction, only 33% patients choose to undergo surgery. Implant reconstruction outnumbers autologous reconstruction in many centres. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Inclusion required: (I) Meta-analyses or review articles; (II) adult patients aged 18 years or over undergoing alloplastic breast reconstruction; (III) studies including outcome measures; (IV) case series with more than 10 patients; (V) English language; and (VI) publication after 1st January, 2000. Results After full text review, analysis and data extraction was conducted for a total of 63 articles. Definitive reconstruction with an implant can be immediate or delayed. Older patients have similar or even lower complication rates to younger patients. Complications include capsular contracture, hematoma and infection. Obesity, smoking, large breasts, diabetes and higher grade tumors are associated with increased risk of wound problems and reconstructive failure. Silicone implant patients have higher capsular contracture rates but have higher physical and psychosocial function. There were no associations made between silicone implants and cancer or systemic disease. There were no differences in outcomes or complications between round and shaped implants. Textured implants have a lower risk of capsular contracture than smooth implants. Smooth implants are more likely to be displaced as well as having higher rates of infection. Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) gives the best aesthetic outcome if radiotherapy is not required but has a higher rate of capsular contracture and implant failure. Delayed-immediate reconstruction patients can achieve similar aesthetic results to IBR whilst preserving the breast skin if radiotherapy is required. Delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) patients have fewer complications than IBR patients. Conclusions Implant reconstruction is a safe and popular

  15. Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast implant displacement or rupture can cause aesthetic problems and serious medical complications. Activities with prone positioning and loading of the anterior chest wall, such as massage, chiropractic or osteopathic therapies may increase the risk of implant failure and can also cause discomfort in women with natural breast tissue. Here we test the effectiveness of a newly developed orthosis on pain, mechanical pressure and displacement of breast tissue in women with cosmetic augmentation, post-mastectomy reconstruction, lactating or natural breast tissue. Methods Thirty-two females volunteers, aged 25–56 years with augmented, reconstructed, natural or lactating breast tissue and cup sizes B-F, participated in this open-label clinical trial. We measured pain perception, peak pressure, maximum force, and breast tissue displacement using different sizes of the orthosis compared to no orthosis. Different densities of the orthosis were also tested in a subgroup of women (n = 7). Pain perception was rated using a validated 11-point visual-analogue scale. Peak pressure and maximum force were assessed using a bilateral set of capacitance-pliance® sensor strips whilst participants were load bearing in a prone position, and breast displacement was measured by magnetic-resonance-imaging. Results The orthosis significantly reduced pain, breast displacement and mechanical pressures in women with natural and augmented breast tissue in prone position. Greater relief of pain and greater reduction in mechanical forces were found with increased size and density of the orthosis. Use of the orthosis improved overall comfort by 64-100%, lowered peak pressure by up to 85% and maximum force by up to 96%. Medio-lateral displacement of breast tissue was reduced by 16%, resulting in a 51% desirable increase of breast tissue height. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the newly developed orthosis significantly reduced pain, mechanical pressure and breast tissue

  16. Impact of Soy Foods on the Development of Breast Cancer and the Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between soy food intake and breast cancer has been rigorously investigated for more than 25 years. The identification of isoflavones as possible chemopreventive agents helped fuel this line of investigation. These diphenolic compounds, which are found in uniquely-rich amounts in soy beans, possess both estrogen-dependent and -independent properties that potentially inhibit the development of breast cancer. Observational studies show that among Asian women higher soy consumption is associated with an approximate 30% reduction in risk of developing breast cancer. However, evidence suggests that for soy to reduce breast cancer risk consumption must occur early in life, that is during childhood and/or adolescence. Despite the interest in the role of soy in reducing breast cancer risk concerns have arisen that soy foods, because they contain isoflavones, may increase the likelihood of high-risk women developing breast cancer and worsen the prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, extensive clinical and epidemiologic data show these concerns to be unfounded. Clinical trials consistently show that isoflavone intake does not adversely affect markers of breast cancer risk, including mammographic density and cell proliferation. Furthermore, prospective epidemiologic studies involving over 11,000 women from the USA and China show that postdiagnosis soy intake statistically significantly reduces recurrence and improves survival. PMID:27161216

  17. Aluminium and the human breast.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. PMID:26997127

  18. Contralateral breast dose from partial breast brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R Cole; Nelson, Christopher L; Bloom, Elizabeth S; Kisling, Kelly D; Mason, Bryan E; Fisher, Gary D; Kirsner, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the contralateral breast during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and to compare it to external beam-published values. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) packets were used to measure the dose to the most medial aspect of the contralateral breast during APBI simulation, daily quality assurance (QA), and treatment. All patients in this study were treated with a single-entry, multicatheter device for 10 fractions to a total dose of 34 Gy. A mark was placed on the patient's skin on the medial aspect of the opposite breast. Three TLD packets were taped to this mark during the pretreatment simulation. Simulations consisted of an AP and Lateral scout and a limited axial scan encompassing the lumpectomy cavity (miniscan), if rotation was a concern. After the simulation the TLD packets were removed and the patients were moved to the high-dose-rate (HDR) vault where three new TLD packets were taped onto the patients at the skin mark. Treatment was administered with a Nucletron HDR afterloader using Iridium-192 as the treatment source. Post-treatment, TLDs were read (along with the simulation and QA TLD and a set of standards exposed to a known dose of 6 MV photons). Measurements indicate an average total dose to the contralateral breast of 70 cGy for outer quadrant implants and 181 c