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Sample records for adult cane toads

  1. First report of exotic ticks (Amblyomma rotundatum) parasitizing invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) on the Island of Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Hudson, Cameron M; Mertins, James W; Shine, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Our surveys of 1401 invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from the Hawaiian islands of Hawai'i, O'ahu, and Maui revealed the presence of an exotic tick, Amblyomma rotundatum. Immature and adult female ticks infested three wild adult toads at a single site in the vicinity of a zoo south of Hilo, Island of Hawai'i, Hawai'i, USA. We found no tick-infested toads on O'ahu or Maui. This tick infests cane toads in their native Neotropical range, but it was excluded from Hawai'i when the original founder toads were introduced over 80 years ago. The circumstances of our discovery suggest that A. rotundatum was independently and belatedly introduced to Hawai'i with imported zoo animals, and Hawai'i now joins Florida as the second U.S. state where this tick is established.

  2. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  3. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and captivity in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John F; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture have recently been shown for the first time in amphibians, and in the present study urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to capture and to confinement in captivity were measured in adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Queensland, Australia. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was used to provide a biological validation for urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Urinary corticosterone metabolite increased 1-2 days after ACTH but not saline injection and then returned to initial values, indicating that the RIA could detect changes in corticosterone secretion in toads. Urinary corticosterone metabolite responses to short-term capture and restraint in plastic bags were first apparent 2h after capture of wild toads. Toads held communally in captivity for 5 days had elevated urinary corticosterone metabolite concentrations. Mean corticosterone concentrations declined significantly after a further 7 days in individual housing chambers. There was no sex difference in urinary corticosterone metabolite responses of toads to ACTH challenge, short-term capture or captivity. The relative amount of variation in the mean corticosterone responses was quantified by calculating coefficients of variation (CV) for each mean corticosterone response. Mean corticosterone at 0 min was more variable for captive toads than wild toads. Furthermore, initial corticosterone concentrations (0 min) were more variable than concentrations during the ACTH challenge, short-term capture and captivity. There was little change in the amount of variation of mean corticosterone levels between male and female toads with increasing time in captivity (12-29 days). This study has shown individual corticosterone responses of amphibians for the first-time, and has provided a novel method for quantifying the relative amount of variation in amphibian corticosterone responses.

  4. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads.

  5. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  6. Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Anthony J.; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D.; Boyle, Donna G.; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M.; Siddon, Nicole A.; Hyatt, Alex D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology/Principal Findings The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. Conclusions/Significance While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach. PMID:21283623

  7. Super-linear spreading in local bistable cane toads equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Henderson, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of an Allee effect on the spreading rate in a local reaction–diffusion–mutation equation modeling the invasion of cane toads in Australia. We are, in particular, concerned with the case when the diffusivity can take unbounded values. We show that the acceleration feature that arises in this model with a Fisher-KPP, or monostable, nonlinearity still occurs when this nonlinearity is instead bistable, despite the fact that this kills the small populations. This is in stark contrast to the work of Alfaro, Gui-Huan, and Mellet–Roquejoffre–Sire in related models, where the change to a bistable nonlinearity prevents acceleration.

  8. Isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane use in cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kaleigh E.; Strahl-Heldreth, Danielle; Clark-Price, Stuart C.

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthetic chamber concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane that resulted in loss of righting reflex within 15 minutes in 50 per cent of toads (Rhinella marina) exposed (ED50-LRR<15MIN) were identified. The median and range ED50-LRR<15MIN was 1.4 (0.9–1.4) per cent for isoflurane, 1.75 (1.1–1.9) per cent for sevoflurane and 4.4 (4.3–5.5) per cent for desflurane. Subsequently, toads were exposed to 1.5 times the ED50-LRR<15MIN and times to loss and return of righting reflex were identified. All toads for all anaesthetics lost righting reflex. The median and range loss of righting reflex was 4:00 (3:00–5:30) minutes for isoflurane, 4:45 (3:30–7:00) minutes for sevoflurane, and 4:15 (4:00–5:30) minutes for desflurane and was not different between anaesthetics. Time to return of righting reflex was 175 (123–211) minutes for isoflurane, 192 (116–383) minutes for sevoflurane and 74 (52–220) minutes for desflurane. Time to return of righting reflex was significantly shorter for desflurane compared with isoflurane or sevoflurane. The use of isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane can be used to provide immobilisation to cane toads and potentially other anurans. Induction times are likely similar when using an anaesthetic chamber to provide anaesthesia. However recovery time may take twice as long when utilising isoflurane or sevoflurane over desflurane. PMID:27651914

  9. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai'i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai'ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai'i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species' ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance.

  10. Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Most ecological research on cane toads (Rhinella marina) has focused on invasive populations in Australia, ignoring other areas where toads have been introduced. We radio-tracked and spool-tracked 40 toads, from four populations on the island of Hawai’i. Toads moved extensively at night (mean 116 m, from spool-tracking) but returned to the same or a nearby retreat-site each day (from radio-tracking, mean distance between successive retreat sites 11 m; 0 m for 70% of records). Males followed straighter paths during nocturnal movements than did females. Because moist sites are scarce on the highly porous lava substrate, Hawai’ian toads depend on anthropogenic disturbance for shelter (e.g. beneath buildings), foraging (e.g. suburban lawns, golf courses) and breeding (artificial ponds). Foraging sites are further concentrated by a scarcity of flying insects (negating artificial lights as prey-attractors). Habitat use of toads shifted with time (at night, toads selected areas with less bare ground, canopy, understory and leaf-litter), and differed between sexes (females foraged in areas of bare ground with dense understory vegetation). Cane toads in Hawai’i thrive in scattered moist patches within a severely arid matrix, despite a scarcity of flying insects, testifying to the species’ ability to exploit anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27027738

  11. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  12. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad.

  13. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  14. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal.

  15. Characterisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in the Australian Cane Toad, Rhinella marina

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Mette; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I is a highly variable gene family that encodes cell-surface receptors vital for recognition of intracellular pathogens and initiation of immune responses. The MHC class I has yet to be characterised in bufonid toads (Order: Anura; Suborder: Neobatrachia; Family: Bufonidae), a large and diverse family of anurans. Here we describe the characterisation of a classical MHC class I gene in the Australian cane toad, Rhinella marina. From 25 individuals sampled from the Australian population, we found only 3 alleles at this classical class I locus. We also found large number of class I alpha 1 alleles, implying an expansion of class I loci in this species. The low classical class I genetic diversity is likely the result of repeated bottleneck events, which arose as a result of the cane toad's complex history of introductions as a biocontrol agent and its subsequent invasion across Australia. PMID:25093458

  16. Optical quality of the eye of the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Jagger, W S

    1988-01-01

    The wide-angle optical quality of the cane toad eye was measured using a single-pass intraocular optical fibre microprobe, a double-pass projection method and high magnification ophthalmoscopy to photograph individual photoreceptors. The cane toad eye is a wide angle optical device with a horizontal field of nearly 200 deg and a large relative aperture (ca f/1). Its image quality, which is poor compared to diffraction-limited performance, decreases relatively little towards the periphery. Rough matching was found between image quality and the potential resolution of the rod array, although undersampling occurs for small pupils. Undersampling probably also occurs for the cone and ganglion cell arrays. The relative rotational symmetry of the topographic distribution of image quality precludes direct matching to the topography of the visual streak at the ganglion cell layer although it remains to be determined whether it is matched to the receptor distribution.

  17. Immune Response Varies with Rate of Dispersal in Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions. PMID:24936876

  18. Mechanical properties of the hindlimb bones of bullfrogs and cane toads in bending and torsion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Megan P; Espinoza, Nora R; Shah, Sagar R; Blob, Richard W

    2009-07-01

    When compared with most vertebrates, frogs use a novel style of jumping locomotion powered by the hindlimbs. Hindlimb bones of frogs must withstand the potentially erratic loads associated with such saltatory locomotion. To evaluate the load bearing capacity of anuran limb bones, we used three-point bending, torsion, and hardness tests to measure the mechanical properties of the femur and tibiofibula from adults of two species that use different jumping styles: explosively jumping bullfrogs (Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana) and cyclically hopping cane toads (Bufo (Chaunus) marinus). Yield stress and strain values for R. catesbeiana and B. marinus hindlimb bones are within the range of values previously reported for other vertebrates. However, anuran hindlimb bones generally stand out as having higher yield stresses in bending than those of closely related, nonsaltatory salamanders, highlighting the importance of considering phylogenetic context in comparisons of bone functional capacity and adaptation. Stiffness values for both frog species tested were also high, which may facilitate efficient transmission of muscular forces while jumping. Elevated stiffness may also contribute to some discrepancies between determinations of bone properties via hardness versus bending tests. In comparisons between species, B. marinus bones showed significantly higher bending yield stresses than R. catesbeiana, whereas R. catesbeiana bones showed significantly higher torsional yield stresses than B. marinus. These differences may correlate with differences in jumping style and limb anatomy between ranid and bufonid frogs, suggesting that evolutionary changes in bone mechanical properties may help to accommodate new functional demands that emerge in lineages.

  19. The ecological impact of invasive cane toads on tropical snakes: field data do not support laboratory-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Predicting which species will be affected by an invasive taxon is critical to developing conservation priorities, but this is a difficult task. A previous study on the impact of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on Australian snakes attempted to predict vulnerability a priori based on the assumptions that any snake species that eats frogs, and is vulnerable to toad toxins, may be at risk from the toad invasion. We used time-series analyses to evaluate the accuracy of that prediction, based on >3600 standardized nocturnal surveys over a 138-month period on 12 species of snakes and lizards on a floodplain in the Australian wet-dry tropics, bracketing the arrival of cane toads at this site. Contrary to prediction, encounter rates with most species were unaffected by toad arrival, and some taxa predicted to be vulnerable to toads increased rather than declined (e.g., death adder Acanthophis praelongus; Children's python Antaresia childreni). Indirect positive effects of toad invasion (perhaps mediated by toad-induced mortality of predatory varanid lizards) and stochastic weather events outweighed effects of toad invasion for most snake species. Our study casts doubt on the ability of a priori desktop studies, or short-term field surveys, to predict or document the ecological impact of invasive species.

  20. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

    2006-06-22

    Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  2. Molecular characterization of the Bidder's organ in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Abramyan, John; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter

    2010-09-15

    In toads, both males and females develop a unique gonadal structure called the Bidder's organ (BO), which resembles ovarian tissue and is attached to the anterior part of the gonad. It is not clear whether the BO is a vestigial organ, or has an endocrine function. In this study, we investigated the expression of the gonadal development genes Dmrt1, Sox9, Sf1, Dax1, and p450arom in the developing BO as compared with the gonads of male and female cane toads. We demonstrate that Sf1, Dax1, and p450arom, key genes involved in vertebrate steroidogenesis, are transcriptionally active in the BO during developmental milestones associated with sexual development and maturation. Furthermore, the pattern of transcriptional activity in the BO is completely independent of the corresponding gonads in both sexes, despite its ovary-like morphology. These results suggest that the BO likely has a steroidogenic role in the development of the cane toad, distinct from that of the gonads.

  3. Helpful invaders: Can cane toads reduce the parasite burdens of native frogs?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Felicity B.L.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shilton, Catherine; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many invading species have brought devastating parasites and diseases to their new homes, thereby imperiling native taxa. Potentially, though, invaders might have the opposite effect. If they take up parasites that otherwise would infect native taxa, but those parasites fail to develop in the invader, the introduced species might reduce parasite burdens of the native fauna. Similarly, earlier exposure to the other taxon's parasites might ‘prime’ an anuran's immune system such that it is then able to reject subsequent infection by its own parasite species. Field surveys suggest that lungworm counts in native Australian frogs decrease after the arrival of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina), and laboratory studies confirm that native lungworm larvae enter, but do not survive in, the toads. In laboratory trials, we confirmed that the presence of anurans (either frogs or toads) in an experimental arena reduced uptake rates of lungworm larvae by anurans that were later added to the same arena. However, experimental exposure to lungworms from native frogs did not enhance a toad's ability to reject subsequent infection by its own lungworm species. PMID:26236630

  4. The Interacting Effects of Ungulate Hoofprints and Predatory Native Ants on Metamorph Cane Toads in Tropical Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia. PMID:24255703

  5. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

    2011-04-25

    Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  6. Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that constrain the invasiveness of introduced animals is essential for managing invasions and for predicting their limits. In most vertebrate species, the capacity for invasion relies upon the physiological systems that support locomotion, and oxygen transport and metabolism may become limiting as environmental temperatures increase as predicted by the oxygen limitation hypothesis. Here we test the oxygen limitation hypothesis and propose the alternative hypothesis that within-individual plasticity will compensate for thermal variation. We show that during exercise in the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) oxygen transport by the cardiovascular system was maximised in warm-acclimated toads at high (30°C) temperatures, and that oxygen content of arterial blood was not affected by temperature. Resting oxygen consumption remained stable across a 10°C temperature range (20-30°C) when toads were allowed to acclimate, so that there was no increase in resting oxygen demand that could lead to a decrease in aerobic scope at high temperatures. Additionally, temperature acclimation had no effect on arterial-venous differences in oxygen partial pressures. Toads relied more on glycolytic ATP production at low temperatures to support locomotor activity. Mitochondrial capacities (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities) were greatest at warmer temperatures. Interestingly, the metabolic cost of exercise increased at low temperatures. In contradiction to predictions by the oxygen limitation hypothesis, aerobic performance was not limited by high temperatures. On the contrary, the relatively slow advance of cane toads to cooler climates can be explained by the constraints of low temperatures on the physiological systems supporting locomotion. It is likely that human-induced global warming will facilitate invasions of environments that are currently too cool to support cane toads.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of the lungworm, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, in recently colonised cane toad (Rhinella marina) populations in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Shine, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The impact of parasites on host populations depend upon parasite prevalence and intensity. Understanding how infection dynamics change through time following a host population's initial exposure to the parasite is fundamental to host-parasite biology. We studied an invasive host (the cane toad, Rhinella marina) currently undergoing range expansion - a process through which this host's range is expanding faster than that of its lung parasites (the nematode, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), such that hosts at the expanding range edge remain parasite-free for several years. It was predicted that parasite intensity and prevalence would be affected by host characteristics (e.g., size, sex), environmental conditions (e.g., seasons, habitat type), and time since parasite arrival in the newly established invading host population. Over 2,400 cane toads were sampled at 10 sites in recently established toad populations in the highly seasonal monsoonal tropics of northern Australia. The sampling spanned 14 consecutive 3 month seasons commencing in the early stages of lungworm establishment in those toad populations. Both parasite prevalence and intensity increased with host body size but were unaffected by host sex. Prevalence and intensity were highest during drier times of year and in drier habitats (i.e., sites lacking permanent waterbodies). These changes in parasite prevalence may reflect a trend for saturated soil to reduce parasite survival during the free-living infective stage, and to allow anuran hosts to disperse widely (thus reducing the transfer of directly transmitted parasites between hosts). Conversely, dry conditions induce toads to aggregate in moist dry-season refugia where conditions may be more conducive to direct transmission of infective parasitic larvae between hosts.

  8. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world’s most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  9. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world's most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  10. Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, D G; Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M

    1999-08-15

    1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (P<0.0001) with initial fibre glycogen concentration. 6. In conclusion, the results show that (i) the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship

  11. Changes in serum and urinary corticosterone and testosterone during short-term capture and handling in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Cockrem, John; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-09-15

    Non-invasive endocrine monitoring with minimally invasive biological samples, such as urine, is being used widely for conservation biology research on amphibians. Currently, it is unknown how closely urinary measurements correspond with the traditional serum hormone measurements. We compared urinary and serum concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in adult male cane toads (Rhinella marina) using a standard capture and handling (short-term stressor) protocol. Free-living male cane toads were captured and sampled for baseline urine (0h) with a second urine sample taken at 0.5h and hourly between 1 and 8h. A single blood sample was collected from each toad after the final urine sampling and capture handling. The mean serum CORT concentration increased between 0 and 0.5h, reaching the highest level between 6 and 8h. The mean urinary CORT concentration increased with a lag-time of 1h and continued to increase up to 8h. The mean level of serum T decreased between 0 and 7h and increased between 7 and 8h. Mean urinary T concentration decreased with a lag-time of 0.5h. Urinary T levels did not change between 4 and 8h. Mean serum T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value at 1h while mean serum CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 0.5h. Mean urinary T levels reached 50% of the original 0h value within 3h while mean urinary CORT levels reached 200% of the original 0h value within 3h. The inter-individual variation in baseline serum and urinary CORT and T levels were highly comparable, suggesting that baseline urine sample provides a reliable indicator of the physiological status of the animal. Overall, the results have demonstrated that urine sampling and standard capture handling protocol provide reliable measures of baseline corticosterone and testosterone, as well as short-term stress hormone responses in amphibians.

  12. Wild cane toads (Rhinella marina) expel foreign matter from the coelom via the urinary bladder in response to internal injury, endoparasites and disease.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I; Wood, Benjamin A; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder's organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects.

  13. Wild Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) Expel Foreign Matter from the Coelom via the Urinary Bladder in Response to Internal Injury, Endoparasites and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Jones, Hugh I.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dissections of >1,200 wild-caught cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia confirm a laboratory report that anurans can expel foreign objects from the coelom by incorporating them into the urinary bladder. The foreign objects that we found inside bladders included a diverse array of items (e.g., grass seeds, twigs, insect prey, parasites), many of which may have entered the coelom via rupture of the gut wall. In some cases, the urinary bladder was fused to other organs including liver, fat bodies, ovaries, Bidder’s organs, lungs, mesentery, stomach wall, gall bladder, and the abdominal wall. Acanthocephalan parasites (of a range of developmental stages) were identified from the walls of the urinary bladders of three cane toads. This organ may play a significant role in destroying or excreting metazoan parasites, as well as inanimate objects. PMID:26267862

  14. Possible differences in pathogenicity between cane toad-, frog- and platypus-derived isolates of Mucor amphibiorum, and a platypus-derived isolate of Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Stewart, N J; Munday, B L

    2005-03-01

    Platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the north of the island state of Tasmania, Australia, suffer from a serious disease called ulcerative mycosis, which is responsible for high morbidity and, presumably, mortality rates in areas where it occurs. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Mucor amphibiorum, which is also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. However, it does not cause disease in platypuses in those states. It has been previously reported that a closely related fungus, Mucor circinelloides, may also be capable of causing this disease. This paper describes pathogenicity trials involving cane toads (Bufo marinus) as the experimental model. The toads were infected with either Tasmanian, platypus-derived M. amphibiorum, West Australian, frog-derived M. amphibiorum, Queensland cane-toad-derived M. amphibiorum or Tasmanian platypus-derived M. circinelloides. The Tasmanian isolates of M. amphibiorum were more likely to cause a serious, long-term infection than were Queensland or West Australian isolates, and (+) mating types caused a more serious infection than the (-) mating type. The isolate of M. circinelloides was incapable of infecting the toads, lending further weight to the theory that it represents an environmental contaminant. The results suggest that an endemic strain of M. amphibiorum has mutated and become pathogenic to platypuses. Alternatively, a pathogenic strain of M. amphibiorum may have been introduced into Tasmania, where it is infecting a naïve population.

  15. Quantifying Anuran Microhabitat Use to Infer the Potential for Parasite Transmission between Invasive Cane Toads and Two Species of Australian Native Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs. PMID:25188421

  16. Quantifying anuran microhabitat use to infer the potential for parasite transmission between invasive cane toads and two species of Australian native frogs.

    PubMed

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs.

  17. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  18. The cane or marine toad, Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae): two genetically and morphologically distinct species.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Lampo, Margarita; Cipriani, Roberto

    2016-04-18

    Rhinella marina is a Neotropical toad that has been introduced widely worldwide. Its toxic effects to frog-eating predators threaten the native and domestic fauna of some regions where it has been introduced. Despite previous studies suggesting two genetically distinct cryptic species within R. marina, one east and one west of the Andes, its taxonomic status remained unresolved due to the absence of morphological complementary evidence. For the first time, data from two mitochondrial genes (ND3 and CR) and 23 morphometric landmarks are combined to evaluate the taxonomic status of this species. Our results support the hypothesis of two separate evolutionary lineages within R. marina and demonstrate that these lineages have significantly diverged in skull shape. We identified two distinct morphotypes, one eastern and one Andean western, with no overlapping morphospaces. The geographic pattern of genetic variation was consistent with a stable structured population with no evidence of recent demographic or geographic expansions. The concordance between the observed geographic patterns in morphometric and genic traits calls for the recognition of two species under R. marina name.

  19. Microfluorometric analyses of glycogen in freshly dissected, single skeletal muscle fibres of the cane toad using a mechanically skinned fibre preparation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, D G; Stephenson, G M

    1998-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse glycogen in single muscle fibres, using a recently developed microfluorometric method which detects subpicomol amounts of NADPH, glucose and glycogen (as glucosyl units) (detection limit 0.16-0.17 pmol in a 25 nl sample) without fluorochrome amplification. The fibres were freshly dissected from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and were mechanically skinned under paraffin oil to gain access to the intracellular compartments. The results show that (1) glycogen concentrations in toad skeletal muscle fibres range between 25.8 and 369 mmol glucosyl units/litre fibre volume; (2) there is a large variation in glycogen content between individual fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of one animal; (3) there are seasonal differences in the glycogen content of toad single muscle fibres; (4) the total amount of glycogen in single muscle fibres of the toad does not decrease significantly when storing the tissue, under paraffin oil, at 20-25 degree C for up to 6 h or at 4 degree C for up to 24 h; and (5) 15-26% of fibre glycogen can be washed in an aqueous solution at pH 5-7, within 5 min, while 74-85% of fibre glycogen remains associated with the washed skinned fibre, even after 40 min exposure of the skinned fibre preparation to the aqueous environment. The retention of most glycogen in the fibre preparation after mechanical removal of the plasma membrane and extensive washing indicates that in toad skeletal muscle fibres the largest proportion of glycogen is tightly bound to intracellular structures. The results also show that the skinned muscle fibre preparation is well suited for microfluorometric glycogen determination, since low molecular weight non-glycogen contributors to the fluorescence signal can be removed from the myoplasmic space prior to the glycogen hydrolysis step.

  20. Mixed Sex Effects on the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio of Túngara Frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and Cane Toads (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Beaty, Lynne E; Emmering, Quinn C; Bernal, Ximena E

    2016-04-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the ratio of digit lengths has been correlated to behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits in a variety of taxa. While sexual dimorphism in the second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) is a well-established indicator of prenatal androgen exposure in mammals, investigations into the patterns of 2D:4D and the drivers of such variation in other taxa are lacking. We used linear mixed effects models to gain a mechanistic understanding of the factors that drive variation in the scaling relationship between the lengths of the second and fourth digits in two species of anurans: túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus) and cane toads (Rhinella marina). We found evidence for sexual dimorphism of the 2D:4D scaling relationship on the front feet of túngara frogs, with female frogs having a larger ratio than males resulting from a relatively longer second digit on females. To our knowledge, this mammal-like pattern of sex differences in digit ratio has not yet been reported for anurans. However, given the reduced number of digits on the front feet of anurans, and uncertainty about which digit was lost during evolutionary history, this apparent sexual dimorphism in the front feet of túngara frogs should be treated with caution. In contrast, we found no evidence of sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D on either the front or rear feet of cane toads. This study highlights ambiguities in 2D:4D across taxa and suggests that further research is needed to evaluate the effect of androgens on 2D:4D in animals other than placental mammals.

  1. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings

  2. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  3. Effect of saponin treatment on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat, cane toad and crustacean (yabby) skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1997-10-15

    1. Mechanically skinned fibres from skeletal muscles of the rat, toad and yabby were used to investigate the effect of saponin treatment on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ loading properties. The SR was loaded submaximally under control conditions before and after treatment with saponin and SR Ca2+ was released with caffeine. 2. Treatment with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin greatly reduced the SR Ca2+ loading ability of skinned fibres from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat with a rate constant of 0.24 min-1. Saponin concentrations up to 150 micrograms ml-1 and increased exposure time up to 30 min did not further reduce the SR Ca2+ loading ability of the SR, which indicates that the inhibitory action of 10-150 micrograms ml-1 saponin is not dose dependent. The effect of saponin was also not dependent on the state of polarization of the transverse-tubular system. 3. Treatment with saponin at concentrations up to 100 micrograms ml-1 for 30 min did not affect the Ca2+ loading ability of SR in skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch portion of the toad iliofibularis muscle but SR Ca2+ loading ability decreased markedly with a time constant of 0.22 min-1 in the presence of 150 micrograms ml-1 saponin. 4. The saponin dependent increase in permeability could be reversed in both rat and toad fibres by short treatment with 6 microM Ruthenium Red, a potent SR Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting that saponin does affect the SR Ca2+ channel properties in mammalian and anuran skeletal muscle. 5. Treatment of skinned fibres of long sarcomere length (> 6 microns) from the claw muscle of the yabby (a freshwater decapod crustacean) with 10 micrograms ml-1 saponin for 30 min abolished the ability of the SR to load Ca2+, indicating that saponin affects differently the SR from skeletal muscles of mammals, anurans and crustaceans. 6. It is concluded that at relatively low concentrations, saponin causes inhibition of the skeletal SR Ca2+ loading ability in a species

  4. Comparative Pathology and Ecological Implications of Two Myxosporean Parasites in Native Australian Frogs and the Invasive Cane Toad

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Dhand, Navneet K.; Rose, Karrie; Šlapeta, Jan; Phalen, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60) tadpoles and (3/9) adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis) were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8), critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44) and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3). Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72) Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered), suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA). Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in some frogs

  5. TOAD Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingle, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1993-01-01

    Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) computer program (LAR-13755), implements format designed to facilitate transfer of data across communication networks and dissimilar host computer systems. Any data file conforming to TOAD format standard called TOAD file. TOAD Editor is interactive software tool for manipulating contents of TOAD files. Commonly used to extract filtered subsets of data for visualization of results of computation. Also offers such user-oriented features as on-line help, clear English error messages, startup file, macroinstructions defined by user, command history, user variables, UNDO features, and full complement of mathematical statistical, and conversion functions. Companion program, TOAD Gateway (LAR-14484), converts data files from variety of other file formats to that of TOAD. TOAD Editor written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Experimental repatriation of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) eggs, metamorphs, and adults in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Johnson, T.L.; Corn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) is an endangered species in Colorado and is considered a candidate species for federal listing by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Boreal toads are absent from many areas of suitable habitat in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado presumably due to a combination of causes. We moved boreal toads from existing populations and from captive rearing facilities to habitat which was historically, but is not currently, occupied by toads to experimentally examine methods of repatriation for this species. Repatriation is defined as the release of individuals into areas currently of historically occupied by that species (Dodd and Seigel, 1991). This effort was in response to one of the criteria for delisting the boreal toad in Colorado stated in the conservation plan and agreement for the management and recovery of the Southern Rocky Mountain population of the boreal toad (Loeffler, 1998:16); a??a?|there must be at least 2 viable breeding populations of boreal toads in each of at least 9 of 11 mountain ranges of its historic distribution.a?? Without moving eggs from established wild populations, or from captivity to historical localities, it is doubtful whether the recovery team will attain this ambitions goal.

  7. TOAD Gateway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.

    1994-01-01

    TOAD Gateway is interactive software tool for converting data files to and from variety of file formats. Currently reads and writes following file formats: TOAD; Standard Interface File (SIF); Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) input; Comma Separated Value and Tab Separated Value, common in PC and Macintosh spreadsheet and database packages; and general free format. Additional modules for accommodating other formats easily developed and installed. Companion program, TOAD Editor (LAR-14423), manipulates contents of TOAD files and extracts selected subsets of data. TOAD Gateway written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Drake, Michael C; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda; Cole, Rebecca A

    2014-10-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina , (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  9. A smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback improves cane loading for people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Routson, Rebecca L; Bailey, Marcus; Pumford, Isabelle; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Aubin, Patrick M

    2016-08-01

    Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane. The cane load (% BW; mean ± 1 standard deviation) for the four conditions was 9.0 ± 1.9 (naïve), 12.7 ± 2.6 (conventional cane), 17.6 ± 2.4 (smart cane), and 15.6 ±3.1 (conventional cane post smart cane). These results indicate that the smart cane's vibrotactile biofeedback helped the users achieve the target cane loading of 15% BW or more as compared to naïve or verbal instruction alone. After using the smart cane, conventional cane loading was higher than the naïve and verbal instruction conditions demonstrating a potential smart cane training effect. Long term increased cane loading may reduce knee pain and improve joint function.

  10. Evidence toads may modulate landing preparation without predicting impact time

    PubMed Central

    Cox, S. M.; Gillis, Gary

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Within anurans (frogs and toads), cane toads (Bufo marinus) perform particularly controlled landings in which the forelimbs are exclusively used to decelerate and stabilize the body after impact. Here we explore how toads achieve dynamic stability across a wide range of landing conditions. Specifically, we suggest that torques during landing could be reduced by aligning forelimbs with the body's instantaneous velocity vector at impact (impact angle). To test whether toad forelimb orientation varies with landing conditions, we used high-speed video to collect forelimb and body kinematic data from six animals hopping off platforms of different heights (0, 5 and 9 cm). We found that toads do align forelimbs with the impact angle. Further, toads align forelimbs with the instantaneous velocity vector well before landing and then track its changes until touchdown. This suggests that toads may be prepared to land well before they hit the ground rather than preparing for impact at a specific moment, and that they may use a motor control strategy that allows them to perform controlled landings without the need to predict impact time. PMID:27895052

  11. Diseases of frogs and toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents information on infectious diseases of free-living frogs and toads that have completed metamorphosis. The diseases discussed in this chapter pertain principally to sub-adult and adult frogs and toads that are at least 60-90 days removed from completion of metamorphosis. The main emphasis of this chapter is the diseases found in amphibians of Canada and the United States. Diseases of recent metamorphs, larvae and amphibian eggs are presented in the chapters Diseases of Amphibian Eggs and Embryos and Diseases of Tadpoles. The smallest disease agents (viruses and bacteria) are presented first, followed by fungi, protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites. Diseases presented in this chapter are Ranaviral (iridovirus) infection Lucke frog herpesvirus (kidney cancer) Frog erythrocytic virus West Nile virus Red-leg disease (bacterial septicemia) Salmonellosis Chytrid fungal infection Basidiobolus fungi Dermosporidiosis Ichthyophoniasis Dermocystidium & Dermomycoides Myxozoa Ribeiroia flukes and Amphibian malformations Clinostomum metacercaria Aspects of each disease are presented to assist the biologist with recognition of diseases in the field. Hence, the major emphases for identification of diseases are the epizootiological aspects (host species, life stage, casualty numbers, etc) and gross findings ('lesions'). Descriptions of the microscopical, ultrastructural and cultural characteristics of each infectious agent were considered beyond the scope of this text. Detailed cultural and microscopical features of these disease agents are available in other reviews (Taylor et al., 2001; Green, 2001). Some diseases, while common in captive and zoo amphibians, are exceptionally rare in free-living frogs and toads, and therefore are omitted from this review. Among the diseases not presented are infections by chlamydia and mycobacteria, which occur principally in captive colonies of African clawed frogs (Xenopus, Hymenochirus, et al.) and northern leopard frogs

  12. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  13. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitrovich, M.J.; Gallegos, E.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Lovich, R.E.; Fisher, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  14. Invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Soanes, Rebekah; Castellano, Christina M; Rhind, David; Green, Brian; McHenry, Colin R; Clulow, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Although invasive species can have substantial impacts on animal communities, cases of invasive species facilitating native species by removing their predators have rarely been demonstrated across vertebrate trophic linkages. The predictable spread of the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina), however, offered a unique opportunity to quantify cascading effects. In northern Australia, three species of predatory monitor lizards suffered severe population declines due to toad-induced lethal toxic ingestion (yellow-spotted monitor (Varanus panoptes), Mertens' water monitor (V. mertensi), Mitchell's water monitor (V. mitchelli). We, thus, predicted subsequent increases in the abundance and recruitment of prey species due to the reduction of those predators. Toad-induced population-level declines in the water monitor species approached 50% over a five-year period spanning the toad invasion, apparently causing fledging success of the Crimson Finch (Neochmia.phaeton) to increase from 55% to 81%. The consensus of our original and published long-term data is that invasive cane toads are causing predators to lose a foothold on top-down regulation of their prey, triggering shifts in the relative densities of predator and prey in the Australian tropical savannah ecosystem.

  15. The energy cane alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book reviews the conceptual and theoretical background of Saccharum botany, which underlies the growing of cane as a total growth commodity. Management details are provided for energy cane planting, cultivation, harvest, and postharvest operations. Chapters on energy cane utilization stress new developments in lignocellulose conversion plus alternative options for fermentable solids usage. Chapters are also included for the management of alternative grasses to supplement energy cane, and the breeding of new hybrid canes with high biomass attributes at the intergeneric and interspecific levels.

  16. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  17. Did Paul Kammerer discover epigenetic inheritance? A modern look at the controversial midwife toad experiments.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alexander O

    2009-11-15

    The controversy surrounding the alleged Lamarckian fraud of Paul Kammerer's midwife toad experiments has intrigued generations of biologists. A re-examination of his descriptions of hybrid crosses of treated and nontreated toads reveals parent-of-origin effects like those documented in epigenetic inheritance. Modification of the extracellular matrix of the egg as described by Kammerer provides a plausible cause for altered gene methylation patterns. Traits such as altered egg and adult body size in Kammerer's "treated" toads are inherited epigenetically in other tetrapods. A preliminary model involving the environmental silencing of a maternally inherited allele can be attempted to explain the midwife toad experiments. Given available molecular tools and our current understanding of epigenetics, new experimentation with the midwife toad is strongly encouraged.

  18. Living up to its name? The effect of salinity on development, growth, and phenotype of the "marine" toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The highly permeable integument of amphibians renders them vulnerable to chemical characteristics of their environment, especially during the aquatic larval stage. As the cane toad (Rhinella marina, Bufonidae) invades southwards along the east coast of Australia, it is encountering waterbodies with highly variable conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity. Understanding the tolerance of toads to these conditions can clarify the likely further spread of the invader, as well as the adaptability of the species to novel environmental challenges. We measured salinity in waterbodies in the field and conducted laboratory trials to investigate the impacts of salinity on toad viability. Eggs and tadpoles from the southern invasion front tolerated the most saline conditions we found in potential spawning ponds during surveys [equivalent to 1200 ppm (3.5 % the salinity of seawater)]. Indeed, high-salinity treatments increased tadpole body sizes, accelerated metamorphosis, and improved locomotor ability of metamorphs (but did not affect metamorph morphology). At very low salinity [40 ppm (0.1 % seawater)], eggs hatched but larvae did not develop past Gosner stage 37. Our study shows that the egg and larval life stages of cane toads can tolerate wide variation in the salinity of natal ponds and that this aspect of waterbody chemistry is likely to facilitate rather than constrain continued southward expansion of the toad invasion front in eastern Australia.

  19. Free-Standing Canes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)

  20. Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment. PMID:21077566

  1. What's the Difference between Frogs and Toads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herrick

    2004-01-01

    The difference between frogs and toads can be determined scientifically but is based in the historic use of the terms frog and toad. These are Old English words for the common frog, "Rana temporaria," and the common toad, "Bufo bufo," both inhabitants of the British Isles. In the process of describing a new anuran species,…

  2. "Cane" as Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  3. Death of a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) after the ingestion of toads--evaluation of toad poisoning by toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Peters, Martin; Osmann, Christine; Pogoda, Werner; Mebs, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Animals in zoological gardens are at risk of severe and even lethal poisoning when they accidentally ingest toads. Here we report the case of an eleven month old male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) which was found dead in its outdoor enclosure in the zoo of Dortmund, Germany. Autopsy revealed the presence of two adult, partly digested common toads (Bufo bufo) in the stomach. Toxicological analysis of the stomach content using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS) proved the presence of bufadienolides, the major cardiotoxic components of toad poisons. Using electrochemical luminescens immunoassay (ECLIA) compounds equivalent to digitoxin were detected in the blood sample confirming the absorption of toad poison components from the intestines into the circulation potentially leading to cardiac failure. In zoological gardens special precautions are necessary to protect non-native animals from encountering toads and the risk of poisoning, particularly in early spring, the spawning period of the toads.

  4. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity.

  5. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Rosie D.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Thresher, Sarah E.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The common toad (Bufo bufo) is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK) due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields) and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat. Methods We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013). We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF) to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads. Results The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments. PMID:26841108

  6. Thermal ecology of the post-metamorphic Andean toad (Rhinella spinulosa) at elevation in the monte desert, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, César Y; Vergara, Cristina; Ontivero, Emanuel; Banchig, Mariana; Navas, Ana L; Herrera-Morata, Mario A; Quiroga, Lorena B

    2015-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is an anuran toad species distributed latitudinal and altitudinal (1200-5000m) from Peru to Argentina, inhabiting mountain valleys in the Andes. Considering the broad range of habitats where they live, it is important to understand the thermal physiological mechanisms, thermal tolerances and physiological adaptations for surviving in rigorous environments. We investigated the thermal parameters (field body temperature, selected body temperature, locomotor performance in field and laboratory conditions, and thermal extremes) during diurnal activity for a population of juvenile, post-metamorphosed toads (Rhinella spinulosa) from the Monte Desert of San Juan, Argentina. Post-metamorphic toads are active from approximately 1100-1900 (in contrast to nocturnal adult toads). Our findings show that these toads have a wide thermal tolerance range, ranging from a critical thermal maximum of 36.9°C to crystallization temperatures below 0°C. During their active period, toads always showed suboptimal thermal conditions for locomotion. Despite the suboptimal condition for the locomotion, diurnal activity is likely to confer thermal advantages, allowing them to search for food and increase digestion and growth rates. We also found that the toads are capable of super-cooling, which prevents mortality from freezing when the environmental temperatures drop below 0°C. The environmental temperatures are below zero at night, when toads are inactive and take refuge under rocks. In summary, this toad population demonstrates high thermal plasticity, as shown by a relatively high level of activity sustained over a wide range of ambient temperature (~35°C). These thermal adaptations allow this species of juvenile toads to inhabit a wide range of altitudes and latitudes.

  7. The effect of cane use method on center of mass displacement during stair ascent.

    PubMed

    Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of forward and lateral cane placement on displacement of whole body center of mass (COM) and spatial relationship between COM and the cane during stair ascent (SA) in healthy adults. The data were obtained using three-dimensional motion analysis while ascending stairs non-reciprocally with following methods: (1) dominant foot stepped up first, then the opposite foot without a cane (NC); (2) forward placement of a quadricane followed by the ipsilateral foot, then contralateral foot (FCI); (3) forward cane placement followed by the contralateral foot, then ipsilateral foot (FCC); (4) ipsilateral foot stepping up first, followed by the contralateral foot, then the cane (LCI); (5) contralateral foot stepping up, followed by the ipsilateral foot, then the cane (LCC). The results indicated that the cane placement had significant effect on the medial-lateral (ML) COM displacement and the kinematics of the trunk. Lateral cane placement requires greater trunk extension and side-flexion. The major differences between ipsilateral and contralateral cane use are the motions at frontal and transverse planes in which the COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral cane use. The COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral use of cane (LCI and FCI). The results of this study may help clinicians better understand the possible nature of balance control in patients who ascend stairs with a cane, and suggest that the method of cane placement should be taken into consideration by clinicians when teaching the cane user to ascend stairs.

  8. Shock characterization of TOAD pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, N.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 80{degrees}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degrees}C (125{degrees}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degrees}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degrees}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves.

  9. Shock characterization of toad pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 80{degree}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degree}C (125{degree}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degree}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degree}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  11. Gene expression during estivation in spadefoot toads, Scaphiopus couchii: upregulation of riboflavin binding protein in liver.

    PubMed

    Storey, K B; Dent, M E; Storey, J M

    1999-08-01

    A cDNA library constructed from liver of 2-month estivating female spadefoot toads, Scaphiopus couchii, was differentially screened to reveal genes that were induced or upregulated during estivation. After two rounds of screening a clone was isolated that showed 60% higher expression in liver of estivating, versus control, toads. The clone possessed a 1.0 kb insert which annealed to a single 0.7 kb band on Northern blots. Sequencing revealed a 1053 nucleotide full-length cDNA; the largest potential open reading frame was 708 nucleotides which encoded a protein of 235 amino acids. A homology search in Genbank indicated that the protein was a riboflavin binding protein (RfBP), a monomeric phosphoglycoprotein produced by the liver of female birds, reptiles, and mammals that functions to bind plasma riboflavin and load the vitamin into eggs or fetus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that RfBP is also present in amphibians. Toad RfBP showed 50% of residues identical with the chicken or turtle liver proteins and many essential structural features were conserved in the toad protein including 18 cysteine residues, two asparagine glycosylation sites, and 6 tryptophan residues. However, a region with eight phosphoserines in the chicken or turtle proteins that functions in RfBP binding to the oocyte membrane contained only three serine residues in toad RfBP, suggesting that recognition and binding to oocyte receptors must be different in toads. Northern hybridization showed that toad RfBP was largely liver-specific; no mRNA transcripts were detected in brain, gut, heart, or kidney but low message levels occurred in hind leg skeletal muscle of estivating, but not control, toads. Upregulation of RfBP in liver of estivating toads may be linked with maturation of eggs in preparation for the explosive breeding that occurs immediately upon emergence from estivation but might also have a role for the adult in "caching" riboflavin to maintain an endogenous vitamin

  12. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  13. Frogs in the spotlight: a 16-year survey of native frogs and invasive toads on a floodplain in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Although widespread declines in anuran populations have attracted considerable concern, the stochastic demographics of these animals make it difficult to detect consistent trends against a background of spatial and temporal variation. To identify long-term trends, we need datasets gathered over long time periods, especially from tropical areas where anuran biodiversity is highest. We conducted road surveys of four anurans in the Australian wet-dry tropics on 4637 nights over a 16-year period. Our surveys spanned the arrival of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina), allowing us to assess the invader's impact on native anuran populations. Our counts demonstrate abrupt and asynchronous shifts in abundance and species composition from one year to the next, not clearly linked to rainfall patterns. Typically, periods of decline in numbers of a species were limited to 1-2 years and were followed by 1- to 2-year periods of increase. No taxa showed consistent declines over time, although trajectories for some species showed significant perturbations coincident with the arrival of toads. None of the four focal frog species was less common at the end of the study than at the beginning, and three of the species reached peak abundances after toad arrival. Survey counts of cane toads increased rapidly during the initial stage of invasion but have subsequently declined and fluctuated. Distinguishing consistent declines versus stochastic fluctuations in anuran populations requires extensive time-series analysis, coupled with an understanding of the shifts expected under local climatic conditions. This is especially pertinent when assessing impacts of specific perturbations such as invasive species.

  14. Population traits of the burrowing toad Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957) (Anura, Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, L C; Busch, M

    2008-02-01

    Size distribution, sex ratio and use of burrows of the burrowing toad Rhinella fernandezae were studied in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Two sites separated by approximately 300 m were studied: one was a road next to a swamp, and the other a garden of a country house located further from the swamp. We identified toad burrows, and individuals were sexed, measured and given an individual mark. Burrows were examined in subsequent months after the first sampling to assess the presence of toads. We found significant differences in the size distribution between areas, being the proportion of juveniles greater at the site next to the swamp where the reproduction of the species was observed. This result may suggest that the site located near to the swamp functions as a source habitat of individuals that migrate to the other site, where recruitment would be very scarce. Sex proportion of adults did not differ from 1:1 in neither the total population nor in each site, suggesting that there was not differential mortality by sex. Some toads changed burrows throughout the study period, but there were not differences in the frequency of change between adults and juveniles.

  15. Portrait of a small population of boreal toads (anaxyrus boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the conservation of small populations, those that are small because of decline, and those that are naturally small. Small populations are of particular interest because ecological theory suggests that they are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity as well as natural and human-induced catastrophes. However, testing theory and developing applicable conservation measures for small populations is hampered by sparse data. This lack of information is frequently driven by computational issues with small data sets that can be confounded by the impacts of stressors. We present estimates of demographic parameters from a small population of Boreal Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) that has been surveyed since 2001 by using capturerecapture methods. Estimates of annual adult survival probability are high relative to other Boreal Toad populations, whereas estimates of recruitment rate are low. Despite using simple models, clear patterns emerged from the analyses, suggesting that population size is constrained by low recruitment of adults and is declining slowly. These patterns provide insights that are useful in developing management directions for this small population, and this study serves as an example of the potential for small populations to yield robust and useful information despite sample size constraints. ?? 2011 The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  16. Portrait of a small population of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D.

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the conservation of small populations, those that are small because of decline, and those that are naturally small. Small populations are of particular interest because ecological theory suggests that they are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity as well as natural and human-induced catastrophes. However, testing theory and developing applicable conservation measures for small populations is hampered by sparse data. This lack of information is frequently driven by computational issues with small data sets that can be confounded by the impacts of stressors. We present estimates of demographic parameters from a small population of Boreal Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) that has been surveyed since 2001 by using capture-recapture methods. Estimates of annual adult survival probability are high relative to other Boreal Toad populations, whereas estimates of recruitment rate are low. Despite using simple models, clear patterns emerged from the analyses, suggesting that population size is constrained by low recruitment of adults and is declining slowly. These patterns provide insights that are useful in developing management directions for this small population, and this study serves as an example of the potential for small populations to yield robust and useful information despite sample size constraints.

  17. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw

  18. Activity patterns and fine-scale resource partitioning in the gregarious Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in captivity.

    PubMed

    Rija, Alfan A; Goboro, Ezekiel M; Mwamende, Kuruthumu A; Said, Abubakari; Kohi, Edward M; Hassan, Shombe N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of species threatened with extinction is important for conservation planning and for solving problems facing species in captivity and the wild. We examined diurnal activity budgets and habitat use of the extinct in the wild Kihansi spray toad to provide insights into ongoing conservation initiatives for this species. Observations on eight target behaviors were made each morning and evening for 14 days, in two subpopulations at Kihansi and University of Dar es Salaam captive breeding centers. There were significantly more bouts of resting than calling, amplexing, hunting, walking, climbing, or feeding. There was no difference in mean time spent in each activity between the two subpopulations. The use of habitat was variable between age classes, subpopulations and sampling time. Young toads spent significantly more time resting at the top of vegetation and on walls while adults rested more on logs. Further, adults foraged more on the walls and vegetation in the morning and on the ground in the evening. Contrastingly, young toads foraged more on the ground in the morning and switched to elevated patches during evening. The similarity of the toads' behavior suggests that important biological traits are still maintained in captivity and retained across toad generations. Furthermore, temporal and spatial variations in the use of habitat structures between age groups suggest fine-scale resource partitioning to reduce competition in this gregarious species. These results highlight the importance of maintaining diverse habitat structures in captivity and are useful for planning species reintroduction and future restocking programs.

  19. Turgid female toads give males the slip: a new mechanism of female mate choice in the Anura

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Bas; Phillips, Benjamin L.; Shine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In many anuran species, males vocalize to attract females but will grasp any female that comes within reach and retain their hold unless displaced by a rival male. Thus, female anurans may face strong selection to repel unwanted suitors, but no mechanism is known for doing so. We suggest that a defensive trait (the ability to inflate the body to ward off attack) has been co-opted for this role: by inflating their bodies, females are more difficult for males to grasp and hence, it is easier for another male to displace an already amplexed rival. Inflating a model female cane toad (Bufo marinus) strongly reduced a male's ability to maintain amplexus; and females who were experimentally prevented from inflating their bodies experienced no successful takeovers from rival males, in contrast to control females. Thus, the ability of a female cane toad to inflate her body may allow her to manipulate the outcome of male–male competition. This overlooked mechanism of anuran mate choice may reflect a common evolutionary pattern, whereby females co-opt defensive traits for use in sexual selection. PMID:20053661

  20. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations

    PubMed Central

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L.; Parsons, Scott A.; Alford, Ross A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  1. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) file format description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford; Hammond, Dana

    1987-01-01

    Described is a format for writing ASCII data on a file to facilitate its transfer from one computer system to another. The TOAD format conforms to all ANSI FORTRAN 77 standards. There are two advantages in using the TOAD format. First, TOAD files are of the preferred type and record length to make them easy to edit, read from and write on magnetic tape, or transfer across communications networks. Secondly, application programs, using the TOAD format to write computational results, are more portable and the answer files easier to postprocess. TOAD utility software is listed in an appendix.

  2. Synthetic rainfall vibrations evoke toad emergence.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Llusia, Diego; Penna, Mario; Narins, Peter M

    2016-12-19

    Toads occupy underground refugia during periods of daily or seasonal inactivity, emerging only during rainfall [1]. We test the hypothesis that rainfall-induced vibrations in soil are the cues that trigger the emergence of toads from underground. Using playback experiments in the absence of natural rainfall in native habitats, we observed that two Iberian toad species (Pelobates cultripes and Bufo calamita) emerged significantly earlier than controls when exposed to low-frequency soil vibrations that closely mimic those of rainfall. Our results suggest that detection of abiotic seismic events are biologically relevant and widespread in arid-zone anurans. These findings provide insights into the evolutionary role played by the two low-frequency-tuned inner-ear organs in anuran amphibians - the amphibian papilla and sacculus, both detectors of weak environmental vibrational cues.

  3. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  4. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  5. Distribution and pathogenicity of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in boreal toads from the grand teton area of western wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, P.J.; St-Hilaire, S.; Bruer, S.; Corn, P.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. Bd has been implicated in recent declines of boreal toads, Bufo boreas boreas, in Colorado but populations of boreal toads in western Wyoming have high prevalence of Bd without suffering catastrophic mortality. In a field and laboratory study, we investigated the prevalence of Bd in boreal toads from the Grand Teton ecosystem (GRTE) in Wyoming and tested the pathogenicity of Bd to these toads in several environments. The pathogen was present in breeding adults at all 10 sites sampled, with a mean prevalence of 67%. In an experiment with juvenile toadlets housed individually in wet environments, 106 zoospores of Bd isolated from GRTE caused lethal disease in all Wyoming and Colorado animals within 35 days. Survival time was longer in toadlets from Wyoming than Colorado and in toadlets spending more time in dry sites. In a second trial involving Colorado toadlets exposed to 35% fewer Bd zoospores, infection peaked and subsided over 68 days with no lethal chytridiomycosis in any treatment. However, compared with drier aquaria with dry refuges, Bd infection intensity was 41% higher in more humid aquaria and 81% higher without dry refuges available. Our findings suggest that although widely infected in nature, Wyoming toads may escape chytridiomycosis due to a slight advantage in innate resistance or because their native habitat hinders Bd growth or provides more opportunities to reduce pathogen loads behaviorally than in Colorado. ?? 2009 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  6. Tubular system volume changes in twitch fibres from toad and rat skeletal muscle assessed by confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

    2002-01-01

    The volume of the extracellular compartment (tubular system) within intact muscle fibres from cane toad and rat was measured under various conditions using confocal microscopy. Under physiological conditions at rest, the fractional volume of the tubular system (t-sysVol) was 1.38 ± 0.09 % (n = 17), 1.41 ± 0.09 % (n = 12) and 0.83 ± 0.07 % (n = 12) of the total fibre volume in the twitch fibres from toad iliofibularis muscle, rat extensor digitorum longus muscle and rat soleus muscle, respectively. In toad muscle fibres, the t-sysVol decreased by 30 % when the tubular system was fully depolarized and decreased by 15 % when membrane cholesterol was depleted from the tubular system with methyl-β-cyclodextrin but did not change as the sarcomere length was changed from 1.93 to 3.30 μm. There was also an increase by 30 % and a decrease by 25 % in t-sysVol when toad fibres were equilibrated in solutions that were 2.5-fold hypertonic and 50 % hypotonic, respectively. When the changes in total fibre volume were taken into consideration, the t-sysVol expressed as a percentage of the isotonic fibre volume did actually decrease as tonicity increased, revealing that the tubular system in intact fibres cannot be compressed below 0.9 % of the isotonic fibre volume. The results can be explained in terms of forces acting at the level of the tubular wall. These observations have important physiological implications showing that the tubular system is a dynamic membrane structure capable of changing its volume in response to the membrane potential, cholesterol depletion and osmotic stress but not when the sarcomere length is changed in resting muscle. PMID:11790823

  7. Tubular system volume changes in twitch fibres from toad and rat skeletal muscle assessed by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

    2002-01-15

    The volume of the extracellular compartment (tubular system) within intact muscle fibres from cane toad and rat was measured under various conditions using confocal microscopy. Under physiological conditions at rest, the fractional volume of the tubular system (t-sys(Vol)) was 1.38 +/- 0.09 % (n = 17), 1.41 +/- 0.09 % (n = 12) and 0.83 +/- 0.07 % (n = 12) of the total fibre volume in the twitch fibres from toad iliofibularis muscle, rat extensor digitorum longus muscle and rat soleus muscle, respectively. In toad muscle fibres, the t-sys(Vol) decreased by 30 % when the tubular system was fully depolarized and decreased by 15 % when membrane cholesterol was depleted from the tubular system with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin but did not change as the sarcomere length was changed from 1.93 to 3.30 microm. There was also an increase by 30 % and a decrease by 25 % in t-sys(Vol) when toad fibres were equilibrated in solutions that were 2.5-fold hypertonic and 50 % hypotonic, respectively. When the changes in total fibre volume were taken into consideration, the t-sys(Vol) expressed as a percentage of the isotonic fibre volume did actually decrease as tonicity increased, revealing that the tubular system in intact fibres cannot be compressed below 0.9 % of the isotonic fibre volume. The results can be explained in terms of forces acting at the level of the tubular wall. These observations have important physiological implications showing that the tubular system is a dynamic membrane structure capable of changing its volume in response to the membrane potential, cholesterol depletion and osmotic stress but not when the sarcomere length is changed in resting muscle.

  8. [Vestibular apparatus study of the toad, Xenopus laevis, and rats under prolonged weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Vinnikov, Ia A; Lychakov, D V; Pal'mbakh, L R; Govardovskiĭ, V I; Adanina, V O

    1980-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis were placed aboard of orbital laboratory of "Salut-6" spacecraft where they developed for 20 days at temperature 15 degrees C. The larvae were fixed in weightlessness. Light and electronmicroscopic studies revealed undisturbed structure on the saccular and utricular maculae and otolith membranes. Some ultrastructural abnormalities were found in the inner ear of adult rats after 20 days of weightlessness ("Kosmos-936").

  9. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  10. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  11. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  12. Cane Toad or Computer Mouse? Real and Computer-Simulated Laboratory Exercises in Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jan; Veenstra, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Traditional practical classes in many countries are being rationalised to reduce costs. The challenge for university educators is to provide students with the opportunity to reinforce theoretical concepts by running something other than a traditional practical program. One alternative is to replace wet labs with comparable computer simulations.…

  13. Demography of common toads after local extirpation of co-occurring midwife toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bosch, Jaime; Fernandez-Beaskoetxea, S; Scherer, R.; Amburgey, Staci; Muths, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating demographic parameters like survival or recruitment provides insight into the state and trajectory of populations, but understanding the contexts influencing those parameters, including both biotic and abiotic factors, is particularly important for management and conservation. At a high elevation national park in Central Spain, common toads (Bufo bufo) are apparently taking advantage of the near-extirpation of the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans), as colonization into new breeding ponds is evident. Within this scenario, we expected demographic parameters of common toad populations tobe affected favorably by the putative release from competition. However, we found the population growth rate was negative in 4 of 5 years at the long-standing population; survival probability at the long-standing population and newly-colonised breeding ponds was lower than reported for other toads living at high elevations and the probability of recruitment was inadequate to compensate for the survival rate in maintaining a positive trajectory for either of the breeding ponds. We assessed weather covariates and disease for their contribution to the context that may be limiting the common toad’s successful use of the niche vacated by the midwife toad.

  14. Biomechanics and control of landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Gary; Ekstrom, Laura; Azizi, Emanuel

    2014-12-01

    Anything that jumps must land, but unlike during jumping when muscles produce energy to accelerate the body into the air, controlled landing requires muscles to dissipate energy and decelerate the body. Among anurans, toads (genus Bufo) exhibit highly coordinated landing behaviors, using their forelimbs to stabilize the body after touch-down as they lower their hindlimbs to the ground. Moreover, toads land frequently, as they cover distances by stringing together long series of relatively short hops. We have been using toads as a model to understand the biomechanics and motor control strategies of coordinated landing. Our results show that toads prepare for landing differently depending on how far they hop. For example, the forelimbs are extended farther prior to impact after long hops than after short ones. Such kinematic alterations are mirrored by predictable modulation of the recruitment intensity of forelimb muscles before impact, such that longer hops lead to higher levels of pre-landing recruitment of muscles. These differences in kinematics and muscular activity help to control the most flexed configuration of the elbow that is achieved after impact, which in turn constrains the extent to which muscles involved in dissipating energy are stretched. Indeed, a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments has shown that the elbow-extending anconeus muscle, which is stretched during landing as the elbow flexes, rarely reaches lengths longer than those on the plateau of the muscle's length-tension curve (where damage becomes more likely). We have also been studying how movements of the hindlimbs after take-off help to stabilize animals during landing. In particular, the immediate and rapid flexion of a toad's knees after take-off leads to a repositioning of the animal's center of mass (COM) that better aligns it with ground-reaction forces (GRFs) at impact and reduces torques that would destabilize the animal. Finally, recent work on sensory feedback involved

  15. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Influence of demography and environment on persistence in toad populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Brad A.; Schorr, Robert A.; Schneider, Scott C.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation of rare species requires an understanding of how potential threats affect population dynamics. Unfortunately, information about population demographics prior to threats (i.e., baseline data) is lacking for many species. Perturbations, caused by climate change, disease, or other stressors can lead to population declines and heightened conservation concerns. Boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have undergone rangewide declines due mostly to the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), with only a few sizable populations remaining in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, that are disease-free. Despite the apparent region-wide occurrence of Bd, our focal populations in central Colorado were disease free over a 14-year capture-mark-recapture study until the recent discovery of Bd at one of the sites. We used recapture data and the Pradel reverse-time model to assess the influence of environmental and site-specific conditions on survival and recruitment. We then forecast changes in the toad populations with 2 growth models; one using an average lambda value to initiate the projection, and one using the most recent value to capture potential effects of the incursion of disease into the system. Adult survival was consistently high at the 3 sites, whereas recruitment was more variable and markedly low at 1 site. We found that active season moisture, active season length, and breeding shallows were important factors in estimating recruitment. Population growth models indicated a slight increase at 1 site but decreasing trends at the 2 other sites, possibly influenced by low recruitment. Insight into declining species management can be gained from information on survival and recruitment and how site-specific environmental factors influence these demographic parameters. Our data are particularly useful because they provide baseline data on demographics in populations before a disease outbreak and enhance our ability to detect changes

  18. Body size variation of four latitudinally-separated populations of a toad species: age and growth rate as the proximate determinants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tonglei; Lu, Xin

    2013-09-01

    Age and growth rate are critical parameters determining the body size of adult anurans, which grow indeterminately. Therefore, evaluating their relative importance and selective pressures acting on them may help to explain variation in body size of anurans across geographical populations. Based on the data on body size and skeletochronological age of 4 Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) populations that are widely separated in latitude, the present study showed that toads at the northern extremity of the range were the oldest, on average, and grew relatively fast, toads at the southern end of the range were relatively old but grew fastest, whereas mid-latitude toads were intermediate in both traits. These results indicated that relative contributions of age and growth rate to body size differed among populations. From a life history perspective, greater age attained by toads at higher latitudes should result from delayed maturation, and faster growth from an adaptive response to strong seasonal time constraints; in contrast, selective pressures on the 2 parameters at lower latitudes might be associated, respectively, with low adult death rates and longer favorable growing seasons.

  19. Inhibitory bacteria reduce fungi on early life stages of endangered Colorado boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    PubMed Central

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Woodhams, Douglas C; Van Treuren, Will; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, host-associated microbiota are recognized to mediate pathogen establishment, providing new ecological perspectives on health and disease. Amphibian skin-associated microbiota interact with the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but little is known about microbial turnover during host development and associations with host immune function. We surveyed skin microbiota of Colorado's endangered boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas), sampling 181 toads across four life stages (tadpoles, metamorphs, subadults and adults). Our goals were to (1) understand variation in microbial community structure among individuals and sites, (2) characterize shifts in communities during development and (3) examine the prevalence and abundance of known Bd-inhibitory bacteria. We used high-throughput 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to characterize bacteria and microeukaryotes, respectively. Life stage had the largest effect on the toad skin microbial community, and site and Bd presence also contributed. Proteobacteria dominated tadpole microbial communities, but were later replaced by Actinobacteria. Microeukaryotes on tadpoles were dominated by the classes Alveolata and Stramenopiles, while fungal groups replaced these groups after metamorphosis. Using a novel database of Bd-inhibitory bacteria, we found fewer Bd-inhibitory bacteria in post-metamorphic stages correlated with increased skin fungi, suggesting that bacteria have a strong role in early developmental stages and reduce skin-associated fungi. PMID:26565725

  20. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  1. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A...

  7. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  8. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  9. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  10. Role of environmental pollutants on immune functions, parasitic infections and limb malformations in marine toads and whistling frogs from Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Linzey, Donald; Burroughs, Joy; Hudson, Lisa; Marini, Michele; Robertson, John; Bacon, Jamie; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash

    2003-06-01

    Soil, water, and amphibian tissues collected between 1995 and 1999 from 15 study sites in Bermuda were analysed for pesticides and heavy metals. The most abundant pesticide residue in soil was p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) which was found at all sites in concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 4.023 p.p.m. No pesticide residues were found in water. DDE was also recovered from the livers and fat bodies of marine toads (Bufo marinus) and whistling frogs (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei). Analyses of food sources consumed by these anuran species revealed residue levels of p, p'-DDE ranging from 0.05 to 0.217 p.p.m. Other soil residues included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) at eight study sites, Dicofol(kelthane) at eight sites, dieldrin at five sites, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Arochlor 1254 and Arochlor 1260 at seven sites. Analyses of toad livers revealed significant concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc. Livers of Bermuda toads exhibited altered hepatocytic morphology and an increased number of melanomacrophages and possible granulomas, while spleens showed a marked decrease in white pulp. Spleen cells from Bufo marinus collected at one site having high levels of cadmium exhibited a decreased B cell response to lipopolysaccharide. The incidence of trematode infection in Bufo marinus increased from 53.8% in 1995 to 90% in 1999. Deformity rates in the limbs of subadult and adult toads ranged between 15 and 25%. Examination of 1,995 newly-metamorphosed toads revealed deformity rates as high as 47%. The current comprehensive study suggests that environmental pollutants may account for immunosuppression, increased susceptibility to infections, limb malformations and possible decline in amphibian populations from Bermuda.

  11. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  12. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED CANES 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS...Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel...Then Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics CANES 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3

  13. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  14. Activity monitor accuracy in persons using canes.

    PubMed

    Wendland, Deborah Michael; Sprigle, Stephen H

    2012-01-01

    The StepWatch activity monitor has not been validated on multiple indoor and outdoor surfaces in a population using ambulation aids. The aims of this technical report are to report on strategies to configure the StepWatch activity monitor on subjects using a cane and to report the accuracy of both leg-mounted and cane-mounted StepWatch devices on people ambulating over different surfaces while using a cane. Sixteen subjects aged 67 to 85 yr (mean 75.6) who regularly use a cane for ambulation participated. StepWatch calibration was performed by adjusting sensitivity and cadence. Following calibration optimization, accuracy was tested on both the leg-mounted and cane-mounted devices on different surfaces, including linoleum, sidewalk, grass, ramp, and stairs. The leg-mounted device had an accuracy of 93.4% across all surfaces, while the cane-mounted device had an aggregate accuracy of 84.7% across all surfaces. Accuracy of the StepWatch on the stairs was significantly less accurate (p < 0.001) when comparing surfaces using repeated measures analysis of variance. When monitoring community mobility, placement of a StepWatch on a person and his/her ambulation aid can accurately document both activity and device use.

  15. Drop-off detection with the long cane: effect of cane shaft weight and rigidity on performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Auer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Most travellers who are blind rely on a long cane to detect drop-offs on their walking paths. We examined how different cane shaft materials affect drop-off detection performance through providing different vibrotactile and proprioceptive feedbacks to the cane user. Results of the study showed a significant interaction between cane shaft weight and how the cane is used. A heavier cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the individual used the 'constant contact technique' - cane tip stays in contact with the walking surface at all times - but not when he used the 'two-point touch technique' - cane tip is rhythmically tapped on the surface. In addition, a more flexible cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the two-point touch technique was used but not when the constant contact technique was used. It is recommended that, when blind individuals select a cane shaft material, they consider which long cane technique they use more often. Practitioner Summary: Long cane shaft material affects how well a blind individual can detect drop-offs. A heavier shaft was advantageous when using the constant contact technique (cane tip stays in continuous contact with the surface), while a more flexible shaft was better when using the two-point touch technique (cane tip rhythmically taps the surface).

  16. Drop-off detection with the long cane: effect of cane shaft weight and rigidity on performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Auer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most travellers who are blind rely on a long cane to detect drop-offs on their walking paths. We examined how different cane shaft materials affect drop-off detection performance through providing different vibrotactile and proprioceptive feedbacks to the cane user. Results of the study showed a significant interaction between cane shaft weight and how the cane is used. A heavier cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the individual used the ‘constant contact technique’ – cane tip stays in contact with the walking surface at all times – but not when he used the ‘two-point touch technique’ – cane tip is rhythmically tapped on the surface. In addition, a more flexible cane was advantageous for detecting drop-offs when the two-point touch technique was used but not when the constant contact technique was used. It is recommended that, when blind individuals select a cane shaft material, they consider which long cane technique they use more often. Practitioner Summary: Long cane shaft material affects how well a blind individual can detect drop-offs. A heavier shaft was advantageous when using the constant contact technique (cane tip stays in continuous contact with the surface), while a more flexible shaft was better when using the two-point touch technique (cane tip rhythmically taps the surface). PMID:27065052

  17. Bufo canorus Camp 1916, Yosemite Toad.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Carlos; Fellers, Gary M.; Lannoo, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) are endemic to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Ebbetts Pass, Alpine County to the Spanish Mountain area, Fresno County (Karlstrom 1962, 1973; Stebbins 1966; unpublished Sierra National Forest survey data, 1995, 2002). Sites occur from 1,950–3,444 m elevation, with the majority of sites between 2,590–3,048 m (Karlstrom, 1962). Jennings and Hayes (1994a) estimate that populations have disappeared from 50% of historically reported sites, although the overall range of the species may have only contracted in the far north and in western Fresno County. Disappearances have been concentrated at lower elevation sites on the western edge of the range, with greater persistence at higher elevation sites (Davidson et al., 2002).

  18. Body size, nuptial pad size and hormone levels: potential non-destructive biomarkers of reproductive health in wild toads (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Baynes, Alice; Clare, Frances; Duffus, Amanda L J; Larroze, Severine; Scholze, Martin; Garner, Trenton W J

    2014-09-01

    Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive biomarkers of internal reproductive physiology, by analysing correlations with commonly used destructive methods in adult male toads (Bufo bufo) from a low human impact and a high human impact site. Principal component analyses revealed that size was the most important variable for explaining inter-individual differences in other measured endpoints, both non-destructive and destructive, except for hormone levels and nuptial pad, which were independent of size. Toads from the LI and the HI site differed in almost all of the measured endpoints; this was largely driven by the significantly smaller size of toads from the HI site. Correlational analyses within sites revealed that size was correlated with several reproductive endpoints in toads from the HI site but not the LI site, indicating a possible limiting effect of size on reproductive physiology. Intersex was observed in 33% of toads from the HI site and incidence was not related to any other measured endpoint. In conclusion, we provide evidence that size is associated with reproductive physiology and that nuptial pad/hormone levels have potential as additional markers due to their independence from size. We also show that human activities can have a negative effect on reproductive physiology of the common toad.

  19. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M.

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  20. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  1. Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  2. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) population dynamics in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Franz, Kamila W; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  3. Ranking Landscape Development Scenarios Affecting Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) Population Dynamics in Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Kamila W.; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios. PMID:23734223

  4. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  5. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  6. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; George W. Tanner

    2004-08-31

    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that

  7. Lethal and sub-lethal effects on the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus from exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Vindhya A K; Weerasena, Jagathpriya; Lakraj, G Pemantha; Perera, Inoka C; Dangalle, Chandima D; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Premawansa, Sunil; Wijesinghe, Mayuri R

    2016-08-01

    Chromium discharged in industrial effluents frequently occurs as an environmental pollutant, but the lethal and sub-lethal effects the heavy metal might cause in animals exposed to it have been insufficiently investigated. Selecting the amphibian Duttaphrynus melanostictus, we carried out laboratory tests to investigate the effects of short and long term exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in both tadpoles and adult toads. The concentrations used were 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L, the first three corresponding to field levels. In vitro exposures were also carried out using toad erythrocytes and Cr(VI) concentrations of 0.0015, 0.003, 0.015, 0.03, 0.15mg/L. Mortality, growth retardation, developmental delays and structural aberrations were noted in the metal-treated tadpoles, with increasing incidence corresponding to increase in Cr(VI) level and duration of exposure. Many of the sub-lethal effects were evident with long term exposure to environmentally relevant levels of the toxicant. Changes in selected blood parameters and erythrocyte morphometry were also detected in Cr(VI) exposed toads, indicating anaemic and leucopenic conditions. In the genotoxicity study, DNA damage indicated by comet assay and increased micronuclei frequency, occurred at the low Cr(VI) concentrations tested. The multiple deleterious effects of exposure to chromium signal the need for monitoring and controlling the discharge of chromium to the environment. The dose-dependency and genotoxic effects observed in this widely distributed Asian toad indicates its suitability for monitoring heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems.

  8. Community structure of helminth parasites of the "Cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Viviane Gularte Tavares; Amato, Suzana B; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-03-01

    Sixty specimens of the "cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Spix 1824) (Bufonidae), were collected in Campo Belo do Sul, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between May 2009 and January 2011, and were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nine species of adult helminths were found: Catadiscus cohni, Rudolphitrema rudolphii, Cylindrotaenia sp., Rhabdias fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., Cosmocerca rara, Cosmocerca brasiliensis, Aplectana elenae, and Oxyascaris sp., in addition to an unidentified adult nematode species. Females of cosmocercid nematodes, proteocephalan plerocercoid, and acanthocephalan cystacanth were found but not identified for lack absolute of taxonomic characters. The sex of the anurans had no influence on prevalence, abundance, and richness of helminth species. Length and body mass of hosts did not influence the prevalence and richness of helminths, while the abundance of R. fuelleborni was significantly correlated with both parameters.

  9. The Sri Lankan torrent toads (Bufonidae: Adenominae: Adenomus): species boundaries assessed using multiple criteria.

    PubMed

    Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Senevirathne, Gayani; Wijayathilaka, Nayana; Jayawardena, Beneeta; Bandara, Champika; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum; Pethiyagoda, Rohan

    2015-01-19

    The bufonid genus Adenomus, an endemic of the montane and lowland rainforests of central and south-western Sri Lanka, has been considered to comprise of three species, viz. A. kelaartii, A. dasi and A. kandianus, the last of which has been recently highlighted as "the world's rarest toad". We conducted a survey across the known range of Adenomus and used multiple criteria to delineate species boundaries within the genus. These include: a molecular phylogeny based on a 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragment; an examination of the external morphology of adults and larvae, and the skeletal morphology of adults; a bioacoustic analysis; and ecological niche modelling. We show that Adenomus is monophyletic and that it comprises only two species: A. kelaartii and A. kandianus, with A. dasi being a junior synonym of the latter. For the two valid species of Adenomus, we provide detailed osteological descriptions; clarify the distribution patterns; and provide genetic data to facilitate their scientific conservation management. 

  10. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    PubMed Central

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

  11. TOAD: a numerical model for the 4MOST instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Roland; Haynes, Dionne M.; Bellido-Tirado, Olga; Xu, Wenli; Haynes, Roger

    2014-08-01

    TOAD, the "Top Of the Atmosphere to Detector" simulator, is a primary engineering tool that accompanies the development of the 4MOST instrument. The ultimate goal is to provide a detailed, end-to-end performance model of 4MOST by providing the detector image for an artificial target field with less then 5% error. TOAD will be able to create a realistic output for any reasonable input. The input can be anything, from point sources through extended sources, calibration lamps or stray-light, entering the system at virtually any point in a optical path. During the development of the 4MOST facility, the TOAD simulator will give invaluable insight into the interaction of various parts of the instrument and the impact of engineering design decisions on the system performance.

  12. The Effects of Superoutbursts onTOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Desai, Vandana; Burdullis, Todd; Hoard, D. W.; Fried, Robert; Garnavich, Peter; Gänsicke, Boris

    2000-09-01

    To explore the amount of secondary irradiation and the long-term effects of a superoutburst (SOB) on tremendous outburst amplitude dwarf novae (TOADs), we obtained spectra of EG Cnc for 3-17 months past its SOB, of SW UMa, WX Cet, and USNO 1425.09823278 at 2 months past their SOBs and HV Vir and LL And during their quiescent states at 3 and 5 yr past SOB. The quiescent spectra of EG Cnc, HV Vir, LL And, and USNO 1425 show emission cores surrounded by broad absorption lines from the white dwarf, consistent with very low mass accretion onto low-temperature white dwarfs. SW UMa and WX Cet likely have higher accretion rates and more extensive disks. SW UMa exhibits unusual disk structure, with three zones of emission that persist for 3 days, while EG Cnc and USNO 1425 have a strong orbital modulation of the Balmer lines that may be related to long-lasting irradiation after superoutburst. Based on observations with the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).

  13. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environmental matrices throughout the United States. In surface waters, it has been found at concentrations from 0.04–2859 μg/L and thus presents a likely exposure scenario for non-target species such as amphibians. Studies have examined the effect of atrazine on the metamorphic parameters of amphibians, however, the data are often contradictory. Gosner stage 22–24 tadpoles were exposed to 0 (control), 10, 50, 250 or 1250 μg/L of atrazine for 48 h. Endogenous polar metabolites were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses of the acquired spectra with machine learning classification models demonstrated identifiable changes in the metabolomic profiles between exposed and control tadpoles. Support vector machine models with recursive feature elimination created a more efficient, non-parametric data analysis and increased interpretability of metabolomic profiles. Biochemical fluxes observed in the exposed groups of both A. americanus and H. versicolor displayed perturbations in a number of classes of biological macromolecules including fatty acids, amino acids, purine nucleosides, pyrimidines, and mono- and di-saccharides. Metabolomic

  14. An evaluation of weather and disease as causes of decline in two populations of boreal toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Noon, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Two populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas) experienced drastic declines in abundance in the late 1990s. Evidence supported the hypothesis of disease (the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) as the cause of these declines, but other hypotheses had not been evaluated. We used an 11-year capture-recapture data set to evaluate weather and disease as causes of these declines. We developed sets of mathematical models that reflected hypothesized relationships between several weather variables and annual survival rates of adult males in these populations. In addition, models that reflected the possibility that the declines were caused by an introduced fungus were developed. All models were fit to the data and were evaluated using a model selection criterion (QAICc). Our analysis provided strong support for the hypothesis of an introduced fungus and little support for the hypothesis that weather conditions caused the declines. Our results also suggest a strong, negative 'marking effect' on survival rates of boreal toads. Model-averaged estimates of survival rate are presented.

  15. Home range and movements of boreal toads in undisturbed habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.

    2003-01-01

    I sampled movements and amount of area used by boreal toads (Bufo boreas) between June and October for 3 yr. Females were found farther from the breeding site than were males, and mean home ranges, as calculated by the adaptive kernel method, were four times larger for females than for males. Temperature and snow accumulation were comparable over the study, but data collection was hampered by mortality of animals caused by an outbreak of amphibian chytridiomycosis in yr 2. These data provide insight into use of habitat by boreal toads in undisturbed areas but may not be typical of a completely healthy population.

  16. Development of New Energy Cane Culitvars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  17. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  18. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  19. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or by solution in water of sugarcane concrete made... such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or without added water. It may contain one or more... sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d)...

  20. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. Population admixture and high larval viability among urban toads

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Kazuko; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    In terms of evolutionary biology, a population admixture of more than two distinct lineages may lead to strengthened genetic variation through hybridization. However, a population admixture arising from artificial secondary contact poses significant problems in conservation biology. In urban Tokyo, a population admixture has emerged from two lineages of Japanese common toad: native Bufo japonicus formosus and nonnative B. japonicus japonicus, of which the latter was introduced in the early 20th century. To evaluate the degree of genetic disturbance in the admixed population of these two subspecies, we analyzed genotypes of toads distributed within and outside Tokyo by assessing mtDNA and seven microsatellite loci. We found that the introduced B. japonicus japonicus genotype dominates six local populations in the Tokyo admixture zone and was clearly derived from past introgressive hybridization between the two subspecies. These observations were supported by morphological assessments. Furthermore, the average larval survival rate in Tokyo was significantly higher than that outside Tokyo, suggesting that the temporary contribution of introduced toads occurred through introgression. The fitness of toads in urban Tokyo may thus be increasing with the assistance of nonnative individuals. PMID:23789077

  3. Author! Author! Creator of Frog and Toad: Arnold Lobel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Arnold Lobel, perhaps best known for giving the world Frog and Toad. Arnold Lobel was born in Los Angeles, California, on May 22, 1933, and was raised by his grandparents in New York. He loved checking out books from the library when he was a little boy and sharing with his classmates the stories…

  4. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  5. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  6. WEAKLY SYNCHRYRONIZED SUBPOPULATION DYNAMICS IN WISCONSIN FROGS AND TOADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial synchrony in population dynamics is a topic of increasing interest in basic and applied ecology. We used data from 18 years of frog and toad calling surveys conducted throughout Wisconsin to determine the level of intraspecific synchrony among survey sites, and the relat...

  7. Auxetic Growth in the Javanese Toad, Bufo melanostictus.

    PubMed

    Church, G

    1961-06-23

    Morphologically, it has been found that erythrocyte size in the Javanese toad is greater in large than in small animals, and preliminary data indicate that the same is true of kidney, intestinal, and liver cells. Physiologically, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, specific gravity of the whole blood, and the liver glycogen concentration also increase with the size of the animals.

  8. Studies on toad venom (3): effect of metals on the quality of toad venom torrefied on a metal plate.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuhito; Mikage, Masayuki

    2002-01-01

    To study the quality of toad venom dried on different metal plates by heating at 105 degrees C, each 20 g sample of fresh toad venom collected in Hei-Long-Jiang Province, China, was dried on (1) brass, (2) copper, (3) glass, (4) acrylic resins, (5) aluminum and (6) stainless-steel, respectively. Twelve bufadienolides, including bufalin and bufotalin, in each sample were then quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. The total levels of bufadienolides in 1000.0 mg of the dried samples were (1) > (2) > (3) > (4) > (5) > (6), varying from 303.44 mg to 420.72 mg. Besides, the color of dried venom became darker in the order of (2), (4), (6), (3), (1) and (5). Though (1) was not in good color, it was superior to the others in chemical quality. These results suggest that it is possible to dry toad venom in short period by heating it at a high temperature on a tray made of brass. This will be a better method for making high quality toad venom than the traditional method. Moreover, the removal of impurities in the fresh venom by the process of filtration through silk succeeded in raising the bufadienolides content significantly.

  9. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) gateway: Version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) Gateway, release 1.0 is described. This is a software tool for converting tabular data from one format into another via the TOAD format. This initial release of the Gateway allows free data interchange among the following file formats: TOAD; Standard Interface File (SIF); Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) input; Comma Separated Value (TSV); and a general free-form file format. As required, additional formats can be accommodated quickly and easily.

  10. Mechatronic long cane as a travel aid for the blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Robert X.; Cai, Xiaofeng

    1998-12-01

    Applying the principle of mechatronics, this paper presents design considerations for a new type of sensor-embedded 'smart' long cane which can serve as an orientation and travel aid for the blind. The smart long cane uses a set of miniaturized ultrasonic sensors to detect obstacles along the travel path, and provide human voice feedback on the obstacle's height and distance to guide the cane user away for head collisions and subsequent injuries. Topics discussed include sensor array design, placement, and integration, structure of the embedded software, and ergonomic issues for the new cane design.

  11. Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation. PMID:21209791

  12. Spatial and temporal ecology of eastern spadefoot toads on a Florida landscape.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-03-01

    Effective amphibian conservation must consider population and landscape processes, but information at multiple scales is rare. We explore spatial and temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment by Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii), using 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhills. Breeding events (>25 adults at a pond within a month) occurred 23 times on nine occasions at seven of the eight study ponds, but substantial recruitment(>100 metamorphs) followed only five events. Recruitment ranged from 0-4,648 among ponds. Only four ponds functioned as population ''sources'', but only during some years. The other ponds, and even ''source'' ponds during some years, functioned either as ''sinks'', where breeding occurred with no resulting recruitment, or were not used at all for breeding. Most recruitment occurred during four years. Recruitment was correlated with adult breeding effort, but only during some years. Recaptures were rare, and inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (< 130 m; 1 was 416 m). Most (83.5%) individuals captured were metamorphs, and 15.9% were > 51 mm (est. > 4 years). We conservatively estimated a 7-year lifespan. Adult ''population'' trends clearly reflected breeding effort rather than numbers per se; capture rates fluctuated dramatically among years, but showed no overall trends during the 9-year study. Our paper provides empiracle information that can be used to generate realistic metapopulation models for S. holbrookii as a tool in conservation planning.

  13. 77 FR 6815 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit To Salvage Houston Toads Affected by a Wildfire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Houston toad. The Houston toad usually emerges and becomes active at the end of January or in early... the Houston toad usually emerges and becomes active at the end of January or in early February, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have authorized Jacob T. Jackson and James H. Bell...

  14. 76 FR 70479 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad... authorize incidental take of the endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) as a result of conservation... draft Houston Toad Programatic SHA/ draft EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: , (281)...

  15. Canes Implementation: Analysis of Budgetary, Business, and Policy Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS ...BUDGETARY, BUSINESS , AND POUCY CHALLENGES 6. AUTHOR(S) Reginald Badua and Shalanda Warr 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA1VIE(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS , AND POLICY CHALLENGES Reginald

  16. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  1. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  6. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  7. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  8. Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

  9. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in montane meadows.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Susan K; Lind, Amy J; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H; Roche, Leslie M; Frost, William E; Grasso, Rob L; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  10. Effects of dieldrin treatment on physiological and biochemical aspects of the toad embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Gauna, L.; Caballero de Castro, A.; Chifflet de Llamas, M.; Pechen de D'Angelo, A.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Dieldrin is a cylclodiene insecticide highly persistent in nature due to its chemical stability. The exposure of toad embryos to Dieldrin induces hyperactivity in the swimming larvae and inhibition of cholinesterases. However, the inhibition of these enzymes during early development is not life threatening. The present report provides a physiological and biochemical study of the noxious effect of Dieldrin on the toad embryonic development.

  11. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  12. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD.

  13. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Biju, SD; Loader, Simon P; Bossuyt, Franky

    2009-01-01

    Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae), a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion, isolation and radiation of

  14. Effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad

    PubMed Central

    Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

    2001-01-01

    Single mechanically skinned fibres and intact bundles of fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The cholesterol content of membranes was manipulated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). In mechanically skinned fibres, depletion of membrane cholesterol with MβCD caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in transverse tubular (t)-system depolarization-induced force responses (TSDIFRs). TSDIFRs were completely abolished within 2 min in the presence of 10 mm MβCD but were not affected after 2 min in the presence of a 10 mm MβCD-1 mm cholesterol complex. There was a very steep dependence between the change in TSDIFRs and the MβCD : cholesterol ratio at 10 mm MβCD, indicating that the inhibitory effect of MβCD was due to membrane cholesterol depletion and not to a pharmacological effect of the agent. Tetanic responses in bundles of intact fibres were abolished after 3-4 h in the presence of 10 mm MβCD. The duration of TSDIFRs increased markedly soon (< 2 min) after application of 10 mm MβCD and 10 mm MβCD-cholesterol complexes, but the Ca2+ activation properties of the contractile apparatus were minimally affected by 10 mm MβCD. The Ca2+ handling abilities of the sarcoplasmic reticulum appeared to be modified after 10 min exposure to 10 mm MβCD. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the integrity of the t-system was not compromised by either intra- or extracellular application of 10 mm MβCD and that a large [Ca2+] gradient was maintained across the t-system. Membrane cholesterol depletion caused rapid depolarization of the polarized t-system as shown independently by spontaneous TSDIFRs induced by MβCD and by changes in the fluorescence intensity of an anionic potentiometric dye (DiBAC4(3)) in the presence of MβCD. This rapid depolarization of the t-system by cholesterol depletion was not prevented

  15. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  16. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  17. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  18. Sensitivity of toad tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Amphibian larval stages have several qualities which make them as a useful indicator of harmful levels of pollutants in bioassay tests. Amphibian tadpoles show a variety of sublethal responses such as changes in growth, development rates, pigmentation and expression of morphological deformities in a lesser time of exposure to the environmental pollutants. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to determine the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc to the tadpoles of toad Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), which is commonly available and breed in aquatic habitats exhibiting a wide range of temperature and varying water quality.

  19. Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T; Goldstein, D; Gartz, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the supposedly psychedelic Bufo toad and the allegedly psychedelic drug bufotenine, which is contained in the skin and glands of this toad. The bufo toad has held a place in human mythologies and medicines worldwide since archaic times. Used by ancient peoples for a variety of purposes, its most spectacular effects, according to lore, involve magical and shamanic or occult uses for casting spells and for divination. In the Middle Ages, the Bufo toad was celebrated as a panacea and persecuted as a powerful poison. More recently, in the 1960s the Bufo toad was resurrected as a countercultural icon, with people purportedly licking or smoking the secretions to get high. Bufotenine has been at the center of a scientific debate since its discovery in 1893. This paper examines the extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine, and untangles many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting. Finally, to promote further investigation, a comprehensive bibliography is provided that charts the history of the Bufo toad and bufotenine.

  20. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads.

    PubMed

    Pilliod, David S; Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Bartelt, Paul E; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hossack, Blake R; Lambert, Brad A; McCaffery, Rebecca; Gaughan, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations.

  1. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Zhichao; Yao, Yuwei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Zheng; Sun, Zhaogui; Tso, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1) is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor) controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2), a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1) was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2) protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2) and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  2. Reproductive strategies of leopard toad and mascarene frog from Giza, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Akef, Mamdouh S A

    2014-01-01

    I examined the reproductive strategies of leopard toad and mascarene frog by studying their annual vitellogenic cycle, monthly changes of masses of ovary, liver and fat bodies as well as egg size and number in two study areas, Abo Roash and El Mansuriya, and in the years 2001, 2005, and 2008-2009, particularly during the final two years of that period. Based on the presence of the mature ova, I found that vitellogenic cycle is continuous in toad, but discontinuous in frog. Further, leopard body reserves allocated more energy to vitellogenesis than did mascarene frog. Hence, fecundity in toad was higher than that in frog, as associated with higher egg number and size. During oviposition, female mascarene retained a small portion of a clutch, whereas toad shed all egg mass at once. Over the study period, both body and reproductive conditions reacted positively in toad, but negatively in frog. Warm temperature and long photoperiod elucidated ovarian development under high relative humidity in frog. In contrast, in toad, low relative humidity may be an environmental cue for the increase in ovarian mass. Thus, higher sexual activities occurred in spring for toad (dry environment), but in moist summer for frog. Ovarian mass and egg number were temperature-dependent in frog, but independent in toad. Relative humidity correlated significantly and negatively to egg size in both populations. It also related inversely to egg number in toad, but not in frog. Hence, eggs of the frog are controlled by both temperature and humidity in summer season. Rainfall had no effect on sexual parameters in both species.

  3. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  4. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  6. 16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of cane mill sitting under open shed showing discharge and top rolls. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  7. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  8. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  9. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  10. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was listed as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act on January 17, 1984, with a recovery plan approved in 1991. Currently the total population of the Wyoming toad includes approximately 200 animals in the captive breeding program and as few as 62 toads surviving at reintroduction sites in the Laramie Basin based upon fall 2000 survey data (after releases of more than 10,000 toads and tadpoles since 1995). Necessary conservation measures include improving reproduction and survival in the captive breeding program, improving survival at reintroduction sites, developing techniques to control the effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus, and eliminating threats and further habitat degradation in the wild.

  11. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor is an interactive software tool for manipulating the contents of TOAD files. The TOAD editor is specifically designed to work with tabular data. Selected subsets of data may be displayed to the user's screen, sorted, exchanged, duplicated, removed, replaced, inserted, or transferred to and from external files. It also offers a number of useful features including on-line help, macros, a command history, an 'undo' option, variables, and a full compliment of mathematical functions and conversion factors. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and completely self-contained, the TOAD editor is very portable and has already been installed on SUN, SGI/IRIS, and CONVEX hosts.

  12. Temperature, hydric environment, and prior pathogen exposure alter the experimental severity of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Peter J.; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), implicated in amphibian population declines worldwide, is associated with habitat moisture and temperature, but few studies have varied these factors and measured the response to infection in amphibian hosts. We evaluated how varying humidity, contact with water, and temperature affected the manifestation of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas and how prior exposure to Bd affects the likelihood of survival after re-exposure, such as may occur seasonally in long-lived species. Humidity did not affect survival or the degree of Bd infection, but a longer time in contact with water increased the likelihood of mortality. After exposure to ~106 Bd zoospores, all toads in continuous contact with water died within 30 d. Moreover, Bd-exposed toads that were disease-free after 64 d under dry conditions, developed lethal chytridiomycosis within 70 d of transfer to wet conditions. Toads in unheated aquaria (mean = 15°C) survived less than 48 d, while those in moderately heated aquaria (mean = 18°C) survived 115 d post-exposure and exhibited behavioral fever, selecting warmer sites across a temperature gradient. We also found benefits of prior Bd infection: previously exposed toads survived 3 times longer than Bd-naïve toads after re-exposure to 106 zoospores (89 vs. 30 d), but only when dry microenvironments were available. This study illustrates how the outcome of Bd infection in boreal toads is environmentally dependent: when continuously wet, high reinfection rates may overwhelm defenses, but periodic drying, moderate warming, and previous infection may allow infected toads to extend their survival.

  13. All-optical multibit address recognition at 20 Gb/s based on TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yumei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-04-01

    All-optical multibit address recognition at 20 Gb/s is demonstrated based on a special AND logic of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD). The semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) used in the TOAD is biased at transparency status to accelerate the gain recovery. This is the highest bit rate that multibit address recognition is demonstrated with SOA-based interferometer. The experimental results show low pattern dependency. With this method, address recognition can be performed without separating address and payload beforehand.

  14. Comparative effect of cane syrup and natural honey on abdominal viscera of growing male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2013-04-01

    The high intake of refined sugars, mainly fructose has been implicated in the epidemiology of metabolic diseases in adults and children. With an aim to determine whether honey can substitute refined sugars without adverse effect, the long-term effects of natural honey and cane syrup have been compared on visceral morphology in growing rats fed from neonatal age. Honey increased the caecum and pancreas weights in male rats, which could enhance enzymatic activities of pancreas and digestive functions by intestinal microflora of caecum. Unlike honey, cane syrup caused fatty degenerations in the liver of both male and female rats. Honey enhanced intestinal villi growth, and did not cause pathology in the rodents' abdominal viscera, suggesting potential nutritional benefit as substitution for refined sugars in animal feed.

  15. Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads ( Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Hagen, Leonie; Rodríguez, Ariel; Menke, Norbert; Göcking, Christian; Bisping, Michael; Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Ziegler, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic communication is prominent in adult anuran amphibians, in reproductive, territorial and defensive contexts. In contrast, reports on vocalizations of juvenile anurans are rare and anecdotal, and their function unstudied. We here provide conclusive evidence for vocalizations in juvenile spadefoot toads ( Pelobates fuscus) in very early terrestrial stages. While the aquatic tadpoles did not emit sounds, first vocalizations of metamorphs were heard as early as in stages 42-43, and calls were regularly emitted from stage 44 on, often from specimens still bearing extensive tail stubs. Three main types of calls could be distinguished, of which one consists of a series of short notes, one of a typically single longer and pulsed note, and one of a single tonal note. In experimental setups, the number of calls per froglet increased with density of individuals and after feeding, while on the contrary calls were not elicited by playback. The function of these juvenile calls remains unclarified, but they might reflect a general arousal in the context of feeding. Further evidence is necessary to test whether such feeding calls could confer a signal to conspecifics and thus might represent intraspecific acoustic communication in these immature terrestrial amphibians.

  16. Helminth infracommunities of the maculated toad Amietophrynus regularis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Moussa Ibrahim

    2008-10-16

    The objective of the present work was to study the helminth infracommunities of Amietophrynus (Bufo) regularis and the possible effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on infracommunity structure and on the infection parameters of each parasite species involved. A total of 129 A. regularis were collected from Ismailia, Egypt, over 3 seasons. Helminth infracommunities consisted of 8 helminth taxa (1 monogenean, 1 digenean, 1 cestode, 3 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans [1 adult and 1 cystacanth]). Aplectana macintoshii had the highest prevalence (82.94%), mean abundance (73.74), and mean intensity (88.91) and can be considered a core species. A. macintoshii dominated in 68.99% of the infracommunities, with a high Berger-Parker index value (0.9). Only 9 toads were uninfected; the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1 to 632 ind. Mean species richness and abundance were 2.13 +/- 0.13 and 81.34 +/- 13.60, respectively, while evenness and diversity were 0.3 and 0.44, respectively. The results revealed that season, host sex, and age played significant roles in determining infracommunity species richness. The patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in other amphibian hosts. This study indicated that the helminth community of A. regularis was depauperate.

  17. Vocalizations in juvenile anurans: common spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) regularly emit calls before sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Ten Hagen, Leonie; Rodríguez, Ariel; Menke, Norbert; Göcking, Christian; Bisping, Michael; Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Ziegler, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Vences, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic communication is prominent in adult anuran amphibians, in reproductive, territorial and defensive contexts. In contrast, reports on vocalizations of juvenile anurans are rare and anecdotal, and their function unstudied. We here provide conclusive evidence for vocalizations in juvenile spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus) in very early terrestrial stages. While the aquatic tadpoles did not emit sounds, first vocalizations of metamorphs were heard as early as in stages 42-43, and calls were regularly emitted from stage 44 on, often from specimens still bearing extensive tail stubs. Three main types of calls could be distinguished, of which one consists of a series of short notes, one of a typically single longer and pulsed note, and one of a single tonal note. In experimental setups, the number of calls per froglet increased with density of individuals and after feeding, while on the contrary calls were not elicited by playback. The function of these juvenile calls remains unclarified, but they might reflect a general arousal in the context of feeding. Further evidence is necessary to test whether such feeding calls could confer a signal to conspecifics and thus might represent intraspecific acoustic communication in these immature terrestrial amphibians.

  18. Post-metamorphic development of skin glands in a true toad: Parotoids versus dorsal skin.

    PubMed

    Regueira, Eleonora; Dávila, Camila; Sassone, Alina G; O'Donohoe, María E Ailín; Hermida, Gladys N

    2017-02-06

    Chemical defenses in amphibians are a common antipredatory and antimicrobial strategy related to the presence of dermal glands that synthesize and store toxic or unpalatable substances. Glands are either distributed throughout the skin or aggregated in multiglandular structures, being the parotoids the most ubiquitous macrogland in toads of Bufonidae. Even though dermal glands begin to develop during late-larval stages, many species, including Rhinella arenarum, have immature glands by the end of metamorphosis, and their post-metamorphic growth is unknown. Herein, we compared the post-metamorphic development of parotoids and dorsal glands by histological and allometric studies in a size series of R. arenarum. Histological and histochemical studies to detect proteins, acidic glycoconjugates, and catecholamines, showed that both, parotoids and dorsal glands, acquire characteristics of adults in individuals larger than 50 mm; that is, a moment in which the cryptic coloration disappears. Parotoid height increased allometrically as a function of body size, whereas the size of small dorsal glands decreased with body size. The number of glands in the dorsum was not linearly related to body size, appearing to be an individual characteristic. Only adult specimens had intraepithelial granular glands in the duct of the largest glands of the parotoids. Since toxic secretions accumulate in the central glands of parotoids, allometric growth of parotoids may translate into greater protection from predators in the largest animals. Conversely, large glands in the dorsum, which produce a proteinaceous secretion of unknown function, grow isometrically to body size. Some characteristics, like intraepithelial glands in the ducts and basophilic glands in the dorsum, are limited to adults.

  19. Terahertz-optical-asymmetric-demultiplexer (TOAD)-based arithmetic units for ultra-fast optical information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherri, Abdallah K.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, designs of ultra-fast all-optical based Terahertz-optical-asymmetric-demultiplexer (TOAD)-based devices are reported. Using TOAD switches, adders/subtracters units are demonstrated. The high speed is achieved due to the use of the nonlinear optical materials and the nonbinary modified signed-digit (MSD) number representation. The proposed all-optical circuits are compared in terms of numbers TOAD switches, optical amplifiers and wavelength converters.

  20. Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates.

  1. Toad heart utilizes exclusively slow skeletal muscle troponin T: an evolutionary adaptation with potential functional benefits.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Xuequn; Hossain, M Moazzem; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The three isoforms of vertebrate troponin T (TnT) are normally expressed in a muscle type-specific manner. Here we report an exception that the cardiac muscle of toad (Bufo) expresses exclusively slow skeletal muscle TnT (ssTnT) together with cardiac forms of troponin I and myosin as determined using immunoblotting, cDNA cloning, and/or LC-MS/MS. Using RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends on toad cardiac mRNA, we cloned full-length cDNAs encoding two alternatively spliced variants of ssTnT. Expression of the cloned cDNAs in Escherichia coli confirmed that the toad cardiac muscle expresses solely ssTnT, predominantly the low molecular weight variant with the exon 5-encoded NH(2)-terminal segment spliced out. Functional studies were performed in ex vivo working toad hearts and compared with the frog (Rana) hearts. The results showed that toad hearts had higher contractile and relaxation velocities and were able to work against a significantly higher afterload than that of frog hearts. Therefore, the unique evolutionary adaptation of utilizing exclusively ssTnT in toad cardiac muscle corresponded to a fitness value from improving systolic function of the heart. The data demonstrated a physiological importance of the functional diversity of TnT isoforms. The structure-function relationship of TnT may be explored for the development of new treatment of heart failure.

  2. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis detected in Kihansi spray toads at a captive breeding facility (Kihansi, Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Makange, Mariam; Kulaya, Neema; Biseko, Emiliana; Kalenga, Parson; Mutagwaba, Severinus; Misinzo, Gerald

    2014-09-30

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the aetiological agent of amphibian chytridiomycosis, a disease associated with global amphibian population declines. In November 2012, mass mortalities of Kihansi spray toads Nectophrynoides asperginis were observed at the Kihansi captive breeding facility, located in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Mortalities increased rapidly, and dead toads showed typical clinical signs of chytridiomycosis, including reddening of the skin that was especially evident on the toe pads. Treatment of toads with itraconazole rapidly reduced mortalities. Dead toads (n = 49) were collected and used to perform Bd-specific polymerase chain reaction and subsequent nucleotide sequencing. All toads collected at the facility were positive for Bd. The obtained Bd 5.8S rRNA gene and flanking internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) were not 100% identical to any other Bd sequences in GenBank, but closely resembled isolates from Ecuador, Japan, USA, Brazil, Korea, and South Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting molecular characteristics of Bd isolated from the Udzungwa Mountains. Strict biosecurity measures at the breeding facility and in Kihansi spray wetlands where toads have been reintroduced have been implemented. Further studies on Bd epidemiology in the Udzungwa Mountains are recommended in order to understand its origin, prevalence, and molecular characteristics in wild amphibian populations. This will be important for conservation of several endemic amphibian species in the Udzungwa Mountains, which are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot.

  3. Advanced Augmented White Cane with obstacle height and distance feedback.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Rosali; Kim, Yeongmi; Wespe, Pascal; Gassert, Roger; Schneller, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The white cane is a widely used mobility aid that helps visually impaired people navigate the surroundings. While it reliably and intuitively extends the detection range of ground-level obstacles and drop-offs to about 1.2 m, it lacks the ability to detect trunk and head-level obstacles. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been proposed to overcome these limitations, but have found minimal adoption due to limitations such as low information content and low reliability thereof. Although existing ETAs extend the sensing range beyond that of the conventional white cane, most of them do not detect head-level obstacles and drop-offs, nor can they identify the vertical extent of obstacles. Furthermore, some ETAs work independent of the white cane, and thus reliable detection of surface textures and drop-offs is not provided. This paper introduces a novel ETA, the Advanced Augmented White Cane, which detects obstacles at four vertical levels and provides multi-sensory feedback. We evaluated the device in five blindfolded subjects through reaction time measurements following the detection of an obstacle, as well as through the reliability of dropoff detection. The results showed that our aid could help the user successfully detect an obstacle and identify its height, with an average reaction time of 410 msec. Drop-offs were reliably detected with an intraclass correlation > 0.95. This work is a first step towards a low-cost ETA to complement the functionality of the conventional white cane.

  4. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  5. Detection of single photons by toad and mouse rods.

    PubMed

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Pahlberg, Johan; Woodruff, Michael L; Sampath, Alapakkam P; Fain, Gordon L; Holcman, David

    2013-11-26

    Amphibian and mammalian rods can both detect single photons of light even though they differ greatly in physical dimensions, mammalian rods being much smaller in diameter than amphibian rods. To understand the changes in physiology and biochemistry required by such large differences in outer segment geometry, we developed a computational approach, taking into account the spatial organization of the outer segment divided into compartments, together with molecular dynamics simulations of the signaling cascade. We generated simulations of the single-photon response together with intrinsic background fluctuations in toad and mouse rods. Combining this computational approach with electrophysiological data from mouse rods, we determined key biochemical parameters. On average around one phosphodiesterase (PDE) molecule is spontaneously active per mouse compartment, similar to the value for toad, which is unexpected due to the much smaller diameter in mouse. A larger number of spontaneously active PDEs decreases dark noise, thereby improving detection of single photons; it also increases cGMP turnover, which accelerates the decay of the light response. These constraints explain the higher PDE density in mammalian compared with amphibian rods that compensates for the much smaller diameter of mammalian disks. We further find that the rate of cGMP hydrolysis by light-activated PDE is diffusion limited, which is not the case for spontaneously activated PDE. As a consequence, in the small outer segment of a mouse rod only a few activated PDEs are sufficient to generate a signal that overcomes noise, which permits a shorter lifetime of activated rhodopsin and greater temporal resolution.

  6. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen levels in the Common African toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Isehunwa, G O; Yusuf, I O; Alada, A Ar

    2017-03-06

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute toxicity test consisted of animals divided into six groups of 10 toads per group and were exposed to water (H2O), H2O + Tween 80, 2ml/l, 3ml/l, 5ml/l, and 10ml/l of petrol respectively for 96 hours using the static renewal bioassay system. In the Phase 2 experiment, the animals were exposed to H2O, H2O + Tween 80, 0.14ml/l, 0.3ml/l, 0.6ml/l, and 1.13ml/l of petrol respectively for 3 days; while in phase 3 experiment they were exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days. After the various exposures, the blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen contents were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the median lethal concentration of petrol (96 hours LC50) was 4.5ml/l and sub-lethal concentration of petrol caused mortality of animals. Exposure to petrol solutions for 3 days had no significant effect on blood glucose level of the animals but caused significant decrease in the liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations. In the animals exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days, there was a significant increase in glucose levels and significant reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations when compared with the control. The results show that sub-lethal concentrations of petrol can cause mortality of animals, hyperglycemia and reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels. The effects of petrol exposure on carbohydrate metabolism depend on the concentration and duration of exposure.

  7. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  8. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  9. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  11. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  12. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  13. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  14. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  15. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar...

  16. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane...

  17. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  19. Target of Opportunity Observations of TOADS: Finding the Dust in Super-Outburst Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, Donald; Ciardi, David; Howell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf novae (TOADs) consist of a white dwarf primary star and an extremely low mass main sequence or brown dwarf-like secondary star. The latter fills its Roche lobe and transfers matter to the white dwarf through the inner Lagrange point into an accretion disk. TOADs undergo non-thermonuclear (i.e., disk instability) super-outbursts on timescales of decades. During the decline from super-outburst peak they display a characteristic dip in light curves at visible wavelengths, reminiscent of what is observed in slow classical (i.e., thermonuclear runaway) novae. In classical novae, the visible light dip is attributed to the formation of dust in the nova ejecta but, until now, the cause of the dip in TOAD light curves has remained unclear. In 2004, a previously unknown TOAD was discovered as it went into super-outburst, and our team was granted a Spitzer DDT program with which we have detected the likely formation of dust in the outburst ejecta. We now propose a Target of Opportunity program with Spitzer to observe an additional super-outbursting TOAD, in order to address the following questions: 1) Do all TOADs produce dust during their outbursts?; 2) What is the timescale for dust formation and dissipation?; 3) How much dust is produced during a super-outburst?; and 4) How does the dust production scale with the outburst amplitude? Spitzer is uniquely capable of detecting and characterizing the dust formed in the ejecta during super-outbursts and fundamentally changing the understanding of TOADs, their super-outbursts, and their contribution to the recycling of the interstellar medium.

  20. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  1. Identification and characterization of gastrointestinal hormone immunoreactive cells in the skin and parotoids of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The skin and skin secretion of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the exact types and location of bioactive substances in Bufo gargarizans skin still have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution and density of six types of gastrointestinal (GI) hormone immunoreactive (IR) cells in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans. Immunohistochemistry was used for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of GI hormone presence in the dorsal and ventral skin, and parotoids of eight adult Chinese toads. Six types of IR cells were found: serotonin (5-HT), glucagon (GLU), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and neuropeptide Y(NPY) IR cells. They were mainly present in the epidermis and skin glands. 5-HT-IR cells were distributed in all layers of epidermis and glands, with higher density in the glands. Glucagon was prominently expressed in the epidermis and the bottle-shaped glands of parotoids; however, it was not present in the granular glands of skin and parotoids. The distributions of GAS and SS-IR cells were similar since they were present mainly in mucous, granular and bottle-shaped glands, while these cell types were absent in the differentiated glands of parotoids. PP-IR cells were predominant in the granular glands and the bottle-shaped glands. The expression of NPY was high in epidermal stratum granulosum and mucous glands of the dorsal skin, the bottle-shaped glands and differentiated glands of parotoids, while NPY-IR was rarely seen in the granular glands of ventral skin, and not present in the granular glands of dorsal skin and parotoids. The expression of several types of GI hormones in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans varies depending on tissue and type of glands.

  2. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources.

  3. Effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad.

    PubMed

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    2001-07-01

    1. Single mechanically skinned fibres and intact bundles of fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The cholesterol content of membranes was manipulated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD). 2. In mechanically skinned fibres, depletion of membrane cholesterol with MbetaCD caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in transverse tubular (t)-system depolarization-induced force responses (TSDIFRs). TSDIFRs were completely abolished within 2 min in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD but were not affected after 2 min in the presence of a 10 mM MbetaCD-1 mM cholesterol complex. There was a very steep dependence between the change in TSDIFRs and the MbetaCD : cholesterol ratio at 10 mM MbetaCD, indicating that the inhibitory effect of MbetaCD was due to membrane cholesterol depletion and not to a pharmacological effect of the agent. Tetanic responses in bundles of intact fibres were abolished after 3-4 h in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD. 3. The duration of TSDIFRs increased markedly soon (< 2 min) after application of 10 mM MbetaCD and 10 mM MbetaCD-cholesterol complexes, but the Ca(2+) activation properties of the contractile apparatus were minimally affected by 10 mM MbetaCD. The Ca(2+) handling abilities of the sarcoplasmic reticulum appeared to be modified after 10 min exposure to 10 mM MbetaCD. 4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the integrity of the t-system was not compromised by either intra- or extracellular application of 10 mM MbetaCD and that a large [Ca(2+)] gradient was maintained across the t-system. 5. Membrane cholesterol depletion caused rapid depolarization of the polarized t-system as shown independently by spontaneous TSDIFRs induced by MbetaCD and by changes in the fluorescence intensity of an anionic potentiometric dye (DiBAC(4)(3)) in the presence of MbetaCD. This rapid depolarization of

  4. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  5. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-06-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity.

  6. In vitro cardiotoxicity and mechanism of action of the Egyptian green toad Bufo viridis skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Sherifa Hamid; Nabil, Zohour I

    2010-03-01

    Amphibian skin secretions are considered a rich source of biologically active compounds and are known to be rich in bufadienolides, peptides and alkaloids. Bufadienolides are cardioactive steroids derived from animals and plants as well. The current study was conducted to investigate the influence of skin secretions of the Egyptian green toad Bufo viridis (SSBV) on the cardiac electrical activity. Isolated toad's heart was used to reveal the mechanism of action. Application of SSBV (40microg/ml) into isolated toad's heart significantly decreased the heart rate (HR) accompanied by an elongation in the conduction time (P-R interval). A pronounced increase of the ventricular contraction (R-wave amplitude) was observed after SSBV application. Marked electrocardiographic changes were induced within minutes (5-20min) of SSBV perfusion of the isolated hearts; such as sinus arrhythmias, junctional ectopic beats, negative QRS deflection, ventricular tachycardia and heart block. The mechanism of action of SSBV was studied by direct application of different autonomic and ion channels antagonists (atropine sulphate, propranolol and verapamil) to isolated toad's heart. Neither atropine nor verapamil could attenuate the noticed negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects. Meanwhile, post-treatment with propranolol decreased R-wave amplitude. Taken together, it can be concluded that: (i) SSBV has a negative chronotropic, dromotropic and positive inotropic effects on isolated toad's heart; (ii) the reported effects of SSBV could be due to inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and through ss-adrenergic receptors.

  7. Predicting the unpredictable; evidence of pre-seismic anticipatory behaviour in the common toad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Halliday, T.

    2010-08-01

    The widespread belief that animals can anticipate earthquakes (EQs) is poorly supported by evidence, most of which consists of anecdotal post hoc recollections and relates to a very short period immediately before such events. In this study, a population of reproductively active common toads Bufo bufo were monitored over a period of 29 days, before, during and after the EQ (on day 10) at L'Aquila, Italy, in April 2009. Although our study site is 74 km from L'Aquila, toads showed a dramatic change in behaviour 5 days before the EQ, abandoning spawning and not resuming normal behaviour until some days after the event. It is unclear what environmental stimuli the toads were responding to so far in advance of the EQ, but reduced toad activity coincides with pre-seismic perturbations in the ionosphere, detected by very low frequency (VLF) radio sounding. We compare the response of toads to the EQ with the reported responses to seismic activity of several other species.

  8. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste.

    PubMed

    Ward, Chelsea K; Appel, Arthur G; Mendonça, Mary T

    2006-03-01

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3 %) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard (x control = 0.114 +/- 0.016 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1); x (ash)=0.109 +/- 0.013 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1), p = 0.08) or exercise metabolic rates (x control = 0.53 +/- 0.06 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1); x ash =0.44 +/- 0.04 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1), p = 0.47) plasma glucose levels (p = 0.6), and hepatic or muscle percentage indices (p > 0.2 in all cases) whether food was limited or not.

  9. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs.

  10. Toad skin extract cinobufatini inhibits migration of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells into a model stromal tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Munehiro; Mori, Shuya; Kamoshida, Yo; Kawaguchi, Shota; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Gao, Bo; Tang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Toad skin extract cinobufatini study has been focused on anticancer activity, especially apoptosis-inducing activity by bufosteroids. The present study examined effect of the toad skin extract on cancer cell migration into model stromal tissues. Human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was incubated in the presence or absence of toad skin extract on a surface of reconstituted type I collagen gel as a model stromal tissue allowing the cells to migrate into the gel. Frozen sections were microscopically observed after azan staining. Data showed a decrease of cell number in a microscopic field and shortening of cell migration into the model stromal tissue in a dose dependent manner. This suggests that toad skin extract may possess migration-preventing activity in addition to cell toxicity such as apoptosis-inducing activity. The multifaceted effects including apoptosis-inducing and cancer cell migration-preventing activities would improve usefulness of toad skin extract cinobufatini as an anticancer medicine.

  11. 9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and discharge roll driving pinions and main shaft coupling. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  12. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  13. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  14. Optimizing the performance of TOAD by changing the wavelength and power of control pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Liangsheng; Zuo, Peng; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2003-09-01

    The performance of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has been studied by modelling the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in which the intraband effects had been taken into account. Numerical results are coincident with the experiment results. We interpret why there are three peaks in the switching window, which has never been reported before. In addition, we put forward the definition of the flatness of the switching window of TOAD for the first time By analysing the different phase of clockwise and counter clockwise signal pulse changed by SOA, appropriate peak power of control pulseand wavelength of signal and control pulse have been calculated in order to obtain large output power and flat switching window of TOAD.

  15. 20Gbit/s all-optical logic OR in terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yumei; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-01-01

    A scheme for all-optical logic OR based on transparent teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (transparent-TOAD) is proposed in this paper. In the transparent-TOAD, the SOA is biased at transparency and the gain recovery time determined by the intraband effect has the value of only a few picoseconds. Numerical analysis shows that the switching window of the transparent-TOAD is only about 0.54ps and the potential for ultrahigh speed all-optical logic processing is shown. Numerical demonstration is performed for 4-bit and 16-bit logic OR at 20Gbit/s. The results coincide with the OR truth table, showing high extinction ratio and no pattern dependency. Detailed analysis is carried out on the performance of the logic OR scheme.

  16. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  17. Passive Electrical Properties of Toad Urinary Bladder Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Reuss, Luis; Finn, Arthur L.

    1974-01-01

    The electrical resistances of the transcellular and paracellular pathways across the toad urinary bladder epithelium (a typical "tight" sodium-transporting epithelium) were determined by two independent sets of electrophysiological measurements: (a) the measurement of the total transepithelial resistance, the ratio of resistance of the apical to the basal cell membrane, and cable analysis of the voltage spread into the epithelium; (b) the measurement of the total transepithelial resistance and the ratio of resistances of both cell membranes before and after replacing all mucosal sodium with potassium (thus, increasing selectively the resistance of the apical membrane). The results obtained with both methods indicate the presence of a finite transepithelial shunt pathway, whose resistance is about 1.8 times the resistance of the transcellular pathway. Appropriate calculations show that the resistance of the shunt pathway is almost exclusively determined by the zonula occludens section of the limiting junctions. The mean resistance of the apical cell membrane is 1.7 times that of the basal cell membrane. The use of nonconducting materials on the mucosal side allowed us to demonstrate that apparently all epithelial cells are electrically coupled, with a mean space constant of 460 µm, and a voltage spread consistent with a thin sheet model. PMID:4209766

  18. Propagation of natural toad calls in a Mediterranean terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Penna, Mario; Llusia, Diego; Márquez, R

    2012-12-01

    Propagation patterns of animal acoustic signals provide insights into the evolution of signal design to convey signaler's information to potential recipients. However, propagation properties of vertebrate calls have been rarely studied using natural calls from individuals; instead playback calls broadcast through loudspeakers have been used extensively, a procedure that may involve acoustical and physical features differing from natural sounds. Measurements of the transmission characteristics of natural advertisement calls, which are simple tonal sounds, of the Iberian midwife toad, Alytes cisternasii, were carried out, and the results were compared with previously published results broadcasting recorded calls of the same species. Measurements of sound pressure level (SPL) of calls from individual male A. cisternasii revealed that the call amplitude decreases at distances of 1-8 m from the source at rates averaging 1-5 dB above spherical transmission loss in an omni-directional pattern. A comparison between SPLs of natural calls in the current study and of playback calls from a previous study showed that patterns of propagation did not differ in average values, but variance was significantly higher for natural calls. Results suggest that using broadcast signals for transmission experiments may result in a simplification of the conditions in which actual animals communicate in nature.

  19. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad (Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  20. Multiple paternity in a viviparous toad with internal fertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberger-Loua, Laura; Feldhaar, Heike; Jehle, Robert; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Anurans are renowned for a high diversity of reproductive modes, but less than 1 % of species exhibit internal fertilisation followed by viviparity. In the live-bearing West African Nimba toad ( Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis), females produce yolk-poor eggs and internally nourish their young after fertilisation. Birth of fully developed juveniles takes place after 9 months. In the present study, we used genetic markers (eight microsatellite loci) to assign the paternity of litters of 12 females comprising on average 9.7 juveniles. In 9 out of 12 families (75 %), a single sire was sufficient; in three families (25 %), more than one sire was necessary to explain the observed genotypes in each family. These findings are backed up with field observations of male resource defence (underground cavities in which mating takes place) as well as coercive mating attempts, suggesting that the observed moderate level of multiple paternity in a species without distinct sperm storage organs is governed by a balance of female mate choice and male reproductive strategies.

  1. Species limits in the Andean toad genus Osornophryne (Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Páez-Moscoso, Diego J; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2012-12-01

    As Darwin observed, the differentiation among varieties, subspecies, and species seems, often times, arbitrary. Nowadays, however, novel tools provide the possibility of testing hypotheses of species. Using the Andean toad genus Osornophryne, we address the following questions: (1) How many species are within the genus? (2) Are morphological and molecular traits congruent when delimiting species? (3) Which morphological traits are the most divergent among species? We use recently developed methods for testing species boundaries and relationships using a multilocus data set consisting of two mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S; 1647bp aligned matrix), one exon (RAG-1; 923 aligned matrix), and one intron (RPL3Int5; 1410bp aligned matrix). As another line of evidence for species delimitation, we integrated analyses of 12 morphometric variables and 10 discrete traits commonly used in amphibian systematics. The molecular and morphological approaches support the validity of most of the described species in Osornophryne. We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the status of O. angel. Within O. guacamayo, we found a genetically divergent population that, we argue, represents a new species. We consider that O. bufoniformis represents a species complex that deserves further study. We highlight the importance of incorporating morphological data when delimiting species, especially for lineages that have a recent origin and have not achieved reciprocal monophyly in molecular phylogenies. Finally, the most divergent morphological traits among Osornophryne species are associated with locomotion (finger, toes and limbs) and feeding (head), suggesting an association between morphology and the ecological habits of the species.

  2. High repetition rate optical switch using an electroabsorption modulator in TOAD configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Li; Yang, Yanfu; Lou, Caiyun; Gao, Yizhi

    2007-07-01

    A novel optical switch featured with high repetition rate, short switching window width, and high contrast ratio is proposed and demonstrated for the first time by placing an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) in a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) configuration. The feasibility and main characteristics of the switch are investigated by numerical simulations and experiments. With this EAM-based TOAD, an error-free return-to-zero signal wavelength conversion with 0.62 dB power penalty at 20 Gbit/s is demonstrated.

  3. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test).

  4. Local effects of bleaching in retinal rods of the toad.

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, D A; Lamb, T D

    1982-01-01

    1. Suction electrode recordings were used to study the recovery of responsiveness in single toad rods after bleaching a small fraction (less than 5%) of the rhodopsin. 2. After a spatially uniform bleach that initially abolished the dark current over the entire length of the outer segment, the more proximal regions recovered faster than the more distal regions. For a time the most basal region was almost fully recovered while the tip remained fully saturated. 3. Such a gradient of responsiveness did not occur during uniform steady background illumination of dark-adapted cells. 4. The entire outer segment recovered uniformly after a longitudinally graded bleach that simulated the pattern produced by self-screening in the intact eye. 5. The recovery of the distal end of the outer segment was not affected by a bleach at the proximal end. This suggests that the differences in recovery rate reflect intrinsic local properties of the outer segment rather than longitudinal diffusion of a substance from the inner segment. 6. For at least the first 3 min after bleaching with a narrow transverse slit the reduction of responsiveness remained most pronounced in the bleached region, suggesting that this effect of bleaching does not spread extensively. 7. The increased noise induced by bleaching is shown to originate locally in the bleached region of outer segment. 8. When the tip was locally saturated after a bleach or during steady light, the current recorded from the tip was predominantly capacitive, resulting from intracellular voltage change. This indicates that when the dark current is abolished the outer segment plasma membrane has negligible leakage conductance. PMID:7131322

  5. Time-dependent aldosterone metabolism in toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Brem, A.S.; Pacholski, M.; Morris, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) metabolism was examined in the toad bladder. Bladders were incubated with (/sup 3/H)aldosterone (10(-7) M) for 5 h, 1 h, or 10 min. Tissues were analyzed for metabolites using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). In separate experiments, Na+ transport was assessed by the short-circuit current (SCC) technique. Following a 5-h tissue incubation, about 25% of the (/sup 3/H)-aldosterone was converted into metabolites including a polar monosulfate metabolite, 20 beta-dihydroaldo (20 beta-DHAldo), small quantities of 5 beta-reduced products, and a variety of 5 alpha-reduced Aldo products including 5 alpha-DHAldo, 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydroaldo (3 alpha,5 alpha-THAldo), and 3 beta,5 alpha-THAldo. Tissues metabolized approximately 10% of the labeled hormone into the same compounds by 1 h. Measurable quantities of these metabolites were also synthesized by bladders exposed to Aldo for only 10 min and then incubated in buffer for an additional 50 min without Aldo. Bladders pretreated with the spironolactone, K+-canrenoate (3.5 X 10(-4) M), and stimulated with Aldo (10(-7) M) generated a peak SCC 44 +/- 6% of that observed in matched pairs stimulated with Aldo (P less than 0.001; n = 6). K+-canrenoate also markedly diminished (/sup 3/H)aldosterone metabolism at both 5 and 1 h. Thus, metabolic transformation of Aldo begins prior to hormone-induced increases in Na+ transport. Both the generation of certain metabolites (e.g., 5 alpha-reductase pathway products) and the increase in Na+ transport can be selectively inhibited by K+-canrenoate.

  6. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  7. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse.

  8. Surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The surficial geology of the Cane Creek basin, in Lauderdale County, West Tennessee, was studied from 1985-88. Peoria Loess is the parent material from which soils in the Cane Creek drainage basin were derived. In general, a brown silt grades into a gray silt from 5 to I7 feet below ground surface. This color change probably represents depth to water table prior to the channelization of Cane Creek. Only at river mile 11.9 does rock outcrop near the main channel. Lower reaches of major tributaries have surficial geology similar to the main channel. In upper reaches of Hyde Creek and Fain Spring Creek, the sequence from the St&ace is sand and gravels, red-brown sandstone, sand and clay layers, and then, an orange sand layer. Coarse-grained deposits are found most often along the northern boundary of the basin and only occasionally in areas to the west and south of the main channel. Depth to sand or gravel ranges from about 0 to 158 feet in the uplands, and generally deeper than 40 feet near the main channel.

  9. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  10. 76 FR 7245 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating final revised critical habitat for the arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus, Bufo californicus). We are designating approximately 98,366 acres (ac) (39,807 hectares (ha)) of habitat in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego Counties, California, as critical habitat for the arroyo......

  11. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the Mojave

    Desert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toads

    collected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  12. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  13. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  14. Effect of parathyroid hormone on transport by toad and turtle bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibited both vasopressin- and cyclic AMP-stimulated water transport in the toad bladder. This was associated with an increase in calcium uptake by isolated epithelial cells. They postulated that PTH exerts its action on H/sub 2/O transport by directly stimulating calcium uptake. The current study was designed to compare the effects of PTH and the calcium ionophore, A23187, on H/sub 2/O and Na transport and H..mu.. secretion in toad and turtle bladders. In toad bladder, PTH and A23187 decreased arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated H/sub 2/O flow and short-circuit current (SCC) after 60 min serosal incubation. In turtle bladder A23187 decreased SCC to 79.3 +/- 3.6% of base line (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased RSCC as well. PTH had no effect on SCC or H/sup +/ secretion in turtle bladders. Both PTH and A23187 increased /sup 45/Ca uptake in toad bladder epithelial cells; only A23187 increased /sup 45/Ca uptake in the turtle bladder. The different action of PTH in these two membranes, compared with that of the calcium ionophore, illustrates the selectivity of PTH on membrane transport. PTH increases calcium uptake and decreases transport only in a hormone-sensitive epithelium, whereas the ionophore works in virtually all living membranes. The mode of action of these two agents to increase calcium uptake is, therefore likely different.

  15. Etomidate anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice.

  16. An electrophoretic study of myosin heavy chain expression in skeletal muscles of the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M

    1999-10-01

    In this study we developed an SDS-PAGE protocol which for the first time separates effectively all myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms expected to be expressed in iliofibularis (IF), pyriformis (PYR), cruralis (CRU) and sartorius (SAR) muscles of the toad Bufo marinus on the basis of previously reported fibre type composition. The main feature of the method is the use of alanine instead of glycine both in the separating gel and in the running buffer. The correlation between the MHC isoform composition of IF, SAR and PYR muscles determined in this study and the previously reported fibre type composition of IF and SAR muscles in the toad and of PYR muscle in the frog was used to tentatively identify the MHC isoforms expressed by twitch fibre types 1, 2 and 3 and by tonic fibres. The alanine-SDS electrophoretic method was employed to examine changes in the MHC composition of IF, PYR, CRU and SAR muscles with the ontogenetic growth of the toad from post-natal life (body weight < 1 g) to late adulthood (body weight 200-450 g). The developmental changes in the MHC isoform composition of the toad IF muscle observed in this study are in very good agreement with those in the fibre type composition of the developing IF muscle reported in the literature.

  17. Phalangeal bone anomalies in the European common toad Bufo bufo from polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kolenda, Krzysztof; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Sośnicka, Wioletta

    2016-11-01

    Every spring, many of amphibians are killed by motor vehicles on roads. These road-killed animals can be used as valuable material for non-invasive studies showing the effect of environmental pollution on amphibian populations. The aims of our research were to check whether the phalanges of road-killed toads may be useful as material for histological analysis, and whether various degrees of human impact influence the level in bone abnormalities in the common toad. We also examined whether the sex and age structure of toads can differ significantly depending in the different sites. We chose three toad breeding sites where road-killed individuals had been observed: near the centre of a city, the outskirts of a city, and a rural site. We collected dead individuals during spring migration in 2013. The sex of each individual was determined and the toes were used to determine age using the skeletochronology method. While performing age estimates, we looked for abnormalities in relation to normal bone tissue structure. In urban site, females dominate males (sex ratio 2.6:1), but in populations from rural and semi-urban sites, sex ratio was reverse (1:2.2 and 1:1.4, respectively). However, we did not find any significant differences between age structure of all populations (average age of each population: approximately 4 years). We observed abnormalities in more than 80 % of all toads from the city, compared to approximately 20 % from the rural and semi-urban sites. In particular, we found hypertrophic bone cells, misaligned intercellular substance, and irregular outer edges of bones. We suggest that these malformations are caused by different pollution, e.g. with heavy metals.

  18. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  19. Thermal biology of the toad Rhinella schneideri in a seminatural environment in southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Noronha-de-Souza, Carolina R; Bovo, Rafael P; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Andrade, Denis V; Bícego, Kênia C

    2015-01-01

    The toad, Rhinella schneideri, is a large-bodied anuran amphibian with a broad distribution over South America. R. schneideri is known to be active at night during the warm/rainy months and goes into estivation during the dry/cold months; however, there is no data on the range of body temperatures (Tb) experienced by this toad in the field, and how environmental factors, thermoregulatory behaviors or activity influence them. By using implantable temperature dataloggers, we provide an examination of Tb variation during an entire year under a seminatural setting (emulating its natural habitat) monitored with thermosensors. We also used data on preferred Tb, allowing us to express the effectiveness of thermoregulation quantitatively. Paralleling its cycle of activity, R. schneideri exhibited differences in its daily and seasonal profile of Tb variation. During the active season, toads spent daytime hours in shelters and, therefore, did not explore microhabitats with higher thermal quality, such as open areas in the sun. At nighttime, the thermal suitability of microhabitats shifted as exposed microhabitats experienced greater temperature drops than the more insulated shelter. As toads became active at night, they were driven to the more exposed areas and, as a result, thermoregulatory effectiveness decreased. Our results, therefore, indicate that, during the active season, a compromise between thermoregulation and nocturnal activity may be at play. During the estivation period, R. schneideri spent the entire day cycle inside the shelter. As toads did not engage in nocturnal activity in those areas with low thermal quality, the overall effectiveness of thermoregulation was, indeed, elevated. In conclusion, we showed that daily and seasonal variation in Tb of an anuran species is highly associated with their respective pattern of activity and may involve important physiological and ecological compromises. PMID:27227075

  20. [The comparative aspects of spatial ecology of lizards exemplified by the toad-headed lizards (Reptilia, Agamidae, Phrynocephalus)].

    PubMed

    Semenov, D V

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of analysis of phylogenetic parameters of the spatial distribution of populations is discussed by an example of the agamid toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus). Summarizing both original and published data on the individual home ranges and the relocation of individuals of 30 populations from 12 species showed that differentiation of the type of spatial distribution is weak in toad-headed lizards. This observation confirms the idea that this clade of agamids is phylogenetically young and relatively recently radiated. At the interspecific level, positive correlation between home range size and body size was observed in the studied group. Such spatial parameters, shared by all toad-headed lizards, as relatively large size and weakly structured individual home ranges can be explained by the peculiarities of their reproduction features and their foraging mode. The individual type of space-usage in toad-headed does not fit the traditional scheme dividing all the lizards into the territorial Iguania and the nonterritorial Autarchoglossa.

  1. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  2. Low doses of urethane effectively inhibit spinal seizures evoked by sudden cooling of toad isolated spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-crespo, J.C.; Dalo, N.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The effect of low doses of urethane on three phases of spinal seizures evoked by sudden cooling (SSSC) of toad isolated spinal cord was studied. In control toads, SSSC began with a latency of 91[plus minus]3 sec exhibiting brief tremors, followed by clonic muscle contractions and finally reaching a tonic contraction. The latency of onset of seizures was significantly enhanced. The tonic phase was markedly abolished in toads pretreated intralymphaticaly with 0.15 g/kg of urethane. Tremors were the only phase observed in 55% of toads that received doses of 0.2 g/kg, and a total blockage of seizures was seen after doses of 0.25 g/kg of urethane in 50% of the preparations. A possible depressant effect of urethane on transmission mediated by excitatory amino acids is suggested.

  3. Correction of locality records for the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) from the desert region of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ervin, Edward L.; Beaman, Kent R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    The recovery strategy for an endangered species requires accurate knowledge of its distribution and geographic range. Although the best available information is used when developing a recovery plan, uncertainty often remains in regard to a species actual geographic extent. The arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) occurs almost exclusively in coastal drainages, from Monterey County, California, south into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Through field reconnaissance and the study of preserved museum specimens we determined that the four reported populations of the arroyo toad from the Sonoran Desert region of Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial counties, California are in error. Two additional sites in the Sonoran Desert are discussed regarding the possibility that the arroyo toad occurs there. We recommend the continued scrutiny of arroyo toad records to maintain a high level of accuracy of its distribution and geographic extent.

  4. All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and designing of reconfigurable logic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-12-01

    The design of all-optical 2 × 2 Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch is proposed and described in this manuscript. Numerical simulation has been done to achieve the performance of the switch. Using this 2 × 2 TOAD based switch, cross-bar network architecture is designed. A reconfigurable logic unit is also proposed in this manuscript, which can perform 16-Boolean logical operations.

  5. Effects of temperature regime through premetamorphic ontogeny on shape of the chondrocranium in the American toad, Anaxyrus americanus.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Michael E; Sheil, Christopher A

    2008-07-01

    If one considers the substantial amount of information that exists about phenotypic plasticity in amphibians, it is surprising that few studies have examined abiotic factors that influence phenotype through ontogeny. Phenotypic change and stability of morphology are artifacts of organisms that bear significant relevance to evolution within and among taxonomic groups. Here, we examine development as a phenotypically plastic aspect of larval anurans. Fertilized eggs of the American Toad, Anaxyrus (= Bufo) americanus (Holbrook, 1836), were obtained from two pairs of adults, and larvae were reared in four temperature treatments (constant Mean, constant High, constant Low, and Fluctuating regime [Low night-High day]); developmental series were collected from each treatment, representing larvae of this species from Gosner Stages 28-40. Cleared and stained larvae were analyzed with landmark-based geometric morphometric methods to facilitate examination of differences in overall shape change of the larval chondrocranium through ontogeny, as a result of developmental temperature or temperature regime. Changes in shape of the chondrocranium and in amount and direction of phenotypic change through ontogeny were found in response to temperature treatment and temperature regime. Mean chondrocranial shape of the Fluctuating regime was more similar to the consensus shape of the overall data set than were those of all other treatments. Given that differences in amount and direction of shape change were observed among these treatments and throughout ontogeny, one should consider the affects of abiotic factors (such as temperature) when rearing larval anurans for studies of developmental morphology.

  6. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

    2007-04-01

    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  7. Corticosteroid responses of snakes to toxins from toads (bufadienolides) and plants (cardenolides) reflect differences in dietary specializations.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; French, Susannah S; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Durham, Susan L; Kojima, Yosuke; Mori, Akira; Brodie, Edmund D; Savitzky, Alan H

    2017-03-24

    Toads are chemically defended by cardiotonic steroids known as bufadienolides. Resistance to the acute effects of bufadienolides in snakes that prey on toads is conferred by target-site insensitivity of the toxin's target enzyme, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Previous studies have focused largely on the molecular mechanisms of resistance but have not investigated the physiological mechanisms or consequences of exposure to the toxins. Adrenal enlargement in snakes often is associated with specialization on a diet of toads. These endocrine glands are partly composed of interrenal tissue, which produces the corticosteroids corticosterone and aldosterone. Corticosterone is the main hormone released in response to stress in reptiles, and aldosterone plays an important role in maintaining ion balance through upregulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We tested the endocrine response of select species of snakes to acute cardiotonic steroid exposure by measuring circulating aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations. We found that Rhabdophis tigrinus, which specializes on a diet of toads, responds with lower corticosterone and higher aldosterone compared to other species that exhibit target-site resistance to the toxins but do not specialize on toads. We also found differences between sexes in R. tigrinus, with males generally responding with higher corticosterone and aldosterone than females. This study provides evidence of physiological adaptations, beyond target-site resistance, associated with tolerance of bufadienolides in a specialized toad-eating snake.

  8. The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

    The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

  9. Osmotic Properties of the Sealed Tubular System of Toad and Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Launikonis, Bradley S.; Stephenson, D. George

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed that allows conversion of changes in maximum Ca2+-dependent fluorescence of a fixed amount of fluo-3 into volume changes of the fluo-3–containing solution. This method was then applied to investigate by confocal microscopy the osmotic properties of the sealed tubular (t-) system of toad and rat mechanically skinned fibers in which a certain amount of fluo-3 was trapped. When the osmolality of the myoplasmic environment was altered by simple dilution or addition of sucrose within the range 190–638 mosmol kg−1, the sealed t-system of toad fibers behaved almost like an ideal osmometer, changing its volume inverse proportionally to osmolality. However, increasing the osmolality above 638 to 2,550 mosmol kg−1 caused hardly any change in t-system volume. In myoplasmic solutions made hypotonic to 128 mosmol kg−1, a loss of Ca2+ from the sealed t-system of toad fibers occurred, presumably through either stretch-activated cationic channels or store-operated Ca2+ channels. In contrast to the behavior of the t-system in toad fibers, the volume of the sealed t-system of rat fibers changed little (by <20%) when the osmolality of the myoplasmic environment changed between 210 and 2,800 mosmol kg−1. Results were also validated with calcein. Clear differences between rat and toad fibers were also found with respect to the t-system permeability for glycerol. Thus, glycerol equilibrated across the rat t-system within seconds to minutes, but was not equilibrated across the t-system of toad fibers even after 20 min. These results have broad implications for understanding osmotic properties of the t-system and reversible vacuolation in muscle fibers. Furthermore, we observed for the first time in mammalian fibers an orderly lateral shift of the t-system networks whereby t-tubule networks to the left of the Z-line crossover to become t-tubule networks to the right of the Z-line in the adjacent sarcomere (and vice versa). This orderly rearrangement can

  10. Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

  11. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  12. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water.

  13. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  14. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  15. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  16. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  17. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  18. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  19. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  20. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  3. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  4. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  5. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of...

  6. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of...

  7. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  8. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  9. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  10. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Notices #0; Federal... projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments under the FY 2011 (October 1, 2010-September 30, 2011) Sugar Marketing Allotment Program. The FY 2011 cane sector allotment and cane state allotments...

  11. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  12. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  13. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  14. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  15. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined...

  16. Energy Expenditure During Cane-Assisted Gait in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anamaria; Alves, Ana Claudia Monteiro; de Oliveira, Leda Magalhães; Saad, Marcelo; Natour, Jamil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS A quasi-experimental study (single-group) was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 – length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 – length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 – length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years). Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001), as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively). CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:18438573

  17. Indolizidine 239Q and Quinolizidine 275I. Major alkaloids in two Argentinian bufonid toads (Melanophryniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Daly, John W.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Spande, Thomas F.; Yeh, Herman J. C.; Peltzer, Paola M.; Cacivio, Pedro; Baldo, J. Diego; Faivovich, Julián

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloid profiles in skin of poison frogs/toads (Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Bufonidae, and Myobatrachidae) are highly dependent on diet and hence on the nature of habitat. Extracts of the two species of toads (Melanophryniscus klappenbachi and M. cupreuscapularis) from similar habitats in the Corrientes/Chaco Provinces of Argentina have similar profiles of alkaloids, which differ considerably from profiles from other Melanophryniscus species from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Structures of two major alkaloids 239Q (1) and 275I (2) were determined by mass, FTIR, and NMR spectral analysis as 5Z,9Z-3-(1-hydroxybutyl)-5-propylindolizidine and 6Z,10E-4,6-di(pent-4-enyl) quinolizidine, respectively. A third alkaloid, 249F (3), is postulated to be a homopumiliotoxin with an unprecedented conjugated exocyclic diene moiety. PMID:18848574

  18. All-optical pseudorandom binary sequence generator with TOAD-based D flip-flops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoiros, K. E.; Das, M. K.; Gayen, D. K.; Maity, H. K.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Roy, J. N.

    2011-09-01

    An all-optical pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) generator is designed using serially interconnected discrete Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD)-based D flip-flops in a configuration exactly like the standard electronic setup. The performance of the circuit is evaluated through numerical simulation, which confirms its feasibility in terms of the choice of the critical parameters. The proposed scheme has been theoretically demonstrated for a 3-bit and 7-bit degree PRBS but can be extended to higher order by means of additional TOAD-based D flip-flops. Thus it can constitute an efficient solution for implementing all-optically a PRBS in an affordable, controllable and realistic manner.

  19. Effects of Cr3+ ions on electrophysiological parameters of isolated skin of toad Pleurodema thaul

    PubMed Central

    Jofre, Luis Guzman; Castro Cepeda, Ricardo I.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the toxicity of chromium (Cr3+) ions, it was explored the damaging effects that this ion could induce in cell membranes. The measurement of the effects induced by Cr3+ ions on electrophysiological parameters of short-circuit current and on the potential difference were investigated using the outer side (mucosal) and the inner side (serosal) of toad Pleurodema thaul skin. The results showed a decreased on electrophysiological parameters when it were administered concentrations of 33, 100 and 200 μM of Cr3+, the results also suggest that the administration of Cr3+ inhibits the ion transport in toad skin by the interaction of Cr3+ with lipid bilayers or protein constituents of membrane, and not by an inhibition of the active transport of ions across Na+ channels. PMID:27429927

  20. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Michael L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species' ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species' current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  1. All-Optical Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (toad) Based Binary Comparator:. a Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    Comparator determines whether a number is greater than, equals to or less than another number. It plays a significant role in fast central processing unit in all-optical scheme. In all-optical scheme here 1-bit binary comparator is proposed and described by Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch. Simulation result by Mathcad-7 is also given. Cascading technique of building up the n-bit binary comparator with this 1-bit comparator block is also proposed here.

  2. Effects of weather on survival in populations of boreal toads in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Lambert, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between animal population demography and the abiotic and biotic elements of the environments in which they live is a central objective in population ecology. For example, correlations between weather variables and the probability of survival in populations of temperate zone amphibians may be broadly applicable to several species if such correlations can be validated for multiple situations. This study focuses on the probability of survival and evaluates hypotheses based on six weather variables in three populations of Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) from central Colorado over eight years. In addition to suggesting a relationship between some weather variables and survival probability in Boreal Toad populations, this study uses robust methods and highlights the need for demographic estimates that are precise and have minimal bias. Capture-recapture methods were used to collect the data, and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in program MARK was used for analysis. The top models included minimum daily winter air temperature, and the sum of the model weights for these models was 0.956. Weaker support was found for the importance of snow depth and the amount of environmental moisture in winter in modeling survival probability. Minimum daily winter air temperature was positively correlated with the probability of survival in Boreal Toads at other sites in Colorado and has been identified as an important covariate in studies in other parts of the world. If air temperatures are an important component of survival for Boreal Toads or other amphibians, changes in climate may have profound impacts on populations. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  3. Two new species of cosmocercids (Ascaridida) in the toad Chaunus arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2007-08-01

    Aplectana tarija n. sp. and Cosmocercoides lilloi n. sp., intestinal parasites of the toad Chaunus arenarum, are described. Of the 41 nominal species of Aplectana, A. tarija n. sp. represents the 22nd Neotropical species and the second species reported from Argentina. Of the 14 nominal species of Cosmocercoides, C. lilloi n. sp. represents the 15th species and the first species reported from South America.

  4. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  5. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide availability and bioconcentration across soil types is not well understood. The present study was designed to compare uptake of 5 current-use pesticides (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, and pendimethalin) in American toads (Bufo americanus) from exposure on soils with significant organic matter content differences (14.1% = high organic matter and 3.1% = low organic matter). We placed toads on high- or low-organic matter soil after applying individual current-use pesticides on the soil surface for an 8-h exposure duration. Whole body tissue homogenates and soils were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine pesticide tissue and soil concentration, as well as bioconcentration factor in toads. Tissue concentrations were greater on the low-organic matter soil than the high-organic matter soil across all pesticides (average ± standard error; 1.23 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.23 ppm, respectively), and bioconcentration was significantly higher for toads on the low-organic matter soil (analysis of covariance p = 0.002). Soil organic matter is known to play a significant role in the mobility of pesticides and bioavailability to living organisms. Agricultural soils typically have relatively lower organic matter content and serve as a functional habitat for amphibians. The potential for pesticide accumulation in amphibians moving throughout agricultural landscapes may be greater and should be considered in conservation and policy efforts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2734-2741. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  7. Structure of the Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Dmitry I.; Makarova, Lidia N.; Uklein, Roman I.

    2016-10-01

    We study the spatial distribution of the sparse cloud of galaxies in the Canes Venatici constellation. We determined distances of 30 galaxies using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. This homogeneous sample allows us to distinguish the zone of chaotic motions around the center of the system. A group of galaxies around M94 is characterized by the mass-luminosity ratio of M/L B=159 (M/L)⊙. It is significantly higher than the typical ratio M/L B=159 (M/L)⊙ for the nearby groups of galaxies. The CVn I cloud of galaxies contains 4-5 times less luminous matter compared with the well-known nearby groups, such as the Local Group, M 81 and Centaurus A. The central galaxy M 94 is at least 1 mag fainter than any other central galaxy of these groups. However, the concentration of galaxies in the Canes Venatici may have a comparable total mass.

  8. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  9. Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Samora, Barbara; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2011-01-01

    High variability in abundance, cryptic coloration, and small body size of newly metamorphosed anurans have limited demographic studies of this life-history stage. We used line-transect distance sampling and Bayesian methods to estimate the abundance and spatial distribution of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) in terrestrial habitat surrounding a montane lake in central Washington, USA. We completed 154 line-transect surveys from the commencement of metamorphosis (15 September 2009) to the date of first snow accumulation in fall (1 October 2009), and located 543 newly metamorphosed toads. After accounting for variable detection probability associated with the extent of barren habitats, estimates of total surface abundance ranged from a posterior median of 3,880 (95% credible intervals from 2,235 to 12,600) in the first week of sampling to 12,150 (5,543 to 51,670) during the second week of sampling. Numbers of newly metamorphosed toads dropped quickly with increasing distance from the lakeshore in a pattern that differed over the three weeks of the study and contradicted our original hypotheses. Though we hypothesized that the spatial distribution of toads would initially be concentrated near the lake shore and then spread outward from the lake over time, we observed the opposite. Ninety-five percent of individuals occurred within 20, 16, and 15 m of shore during weeks one, two, and three respectively, probably reflecting continued emergence of newly metamorphosed toads from the lake and mortality or burrow use of dispersed individuals. Numbers of toads were highest near the inlet stream of the lake. Distance sampling may provide a useful method for estimating the surface abundance of newly metamorphosed toads and relating their space use to landscape variables despite uncertain and variable probability of detection. We discuss means of improving the precision of estimates of total abundance.

  10. The novel antidote Bezoar Bovis prevents the cardiotoxicity of Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans Canto) Venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyue; Zhou, Jing; Jiang, Jiejun; Duan, Jinao; Xu, Huiqin; Tang, Yuping; Lv, Gaohong; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhan, Zhen; Ding, Anwei

    2012-07-01

    Toad Venom, called chansu (CS) in China, is an anti-inflammatory drug used in small doses for the treatment of various types of inflammation in China. Its use is hampered by the cardiotoxicity of bufadienolides derived from Toad Venom. Bezoar Bovis is another frequently used drug in Toad Venom preparations for the treatment of inflammatory or cardiovascular diseases in Asia. We explored whether Bezoar Bovis could protect against CS-induced acute toxicity in mice. Toxicity was assessed by the general features of poisoning, electrocardiography (ECG), and levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in cardiac tissues. Toad Venom (90 mg/kg) caused opisthotonus, ventricular arrhythmias, and increases in cardiac levels of Ca(2+), CK and LDH. Pretreatment with Bezoar Bovis (120, 240 and 480 mg/kg) significantly reduced the prevalence of opisthotonus and mortality, and prevented cardiotoxicity in CS-treated mice as evidenced by decreases in the scores of arrhythmias and cardiac levels of CK, LDH and Ca(2+). Furthermore, the bilirubin, and taurine derived from Bezoar Bovis offered marked protection against the arrhythmias induced by CS or bufalin in vivo and in vitro. An anti-inflammatory study showed that Bezoar Bovis did not compromise the anti-inflammatory activity of Toad Venom on concanavalin-A (ConA)-stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggested that Bezoar Bovis elicited protective and anti-arrhythmic effects against Toad Venom intoxication in mice, and is a novel antidote in combination with Toad Venom therapy.

  11. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  12. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  13. The effect of calcium withdrawal on the structure and function of the toad bladder.

    PubMed

    Hays, R M; Singer, B; Malamed, S

    1965-06-01

    Previous reports have indicated that calcium is necessary to support active sodium transport by the toad bladder, and may be required as well in the action of vasopressin on both toad bladder and frog skin. The structure and function of the toad bladder has been studied in the absence of calcium, and a reinterpretation of the previous findings now appears possible. When calcium is withdrawn from the bathing medium, epithelial cells detach from one another and eventually from their supporting tissue. The short-circuit current (the conventional means of determining active sodium transport) falls to zero, and vasopressin fails to exert its usual effect on short-circuit current and water permeability. However, employing an indirect method for the estimation of sodium transport (oxygen consumption), it is possible to show that vasopressin exerts its usual effect on Q(oo2) when sodium is present in the bathing medium. Hence, it appears that the epithelial cells maintain active sodium transport when calcium is rigorously excluded from the bathing medium, and continue to respond to vasopressin. The failure of conventional techniques to show this can be attributed to the structural alterations in the epithelial layer in the absence of calcium. These findings may provide a model for the physiologic action of calcium in epithelia such as the renal tubule.

  14. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM WITHDRAWAL ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE TOAD BLADDER

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Richard M.; Singer, Bayla; Malamed, Sasha

    1965-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that calcium is necessary to support active sodium transport by the toad bladder, and may be required as well in the action of vasopressin on both toad bladder and frog skin. The structure and function of the toad bladder has been studied in the absence of calcium, and a reinterpretation of the previous findings now appears possible. When calcium is withdrawn from the bathing medium, epithelial cells detach from one another and eventually from their supporting tissue. The short-circuit current (the conventional means of determining active sodium transport) falls to zero, and vasopressin fails to exert its usual effect on short-circuit current and water permeability. However, employing an indirect method for the estimation of sodium transport (oxygen consumption), it is possible to show that vasopressin exerts its usual effect on Qoo2 when sodium is present in the bathing medium. Hence, it appears that the epithelial cells maintain active sodium transport when calcium is rigorously excluded from the bathing medium, and continue to respond to vasopressin. The failure of conventional techniques to show this can be attributed to the structural alterations in the epithelial layer in the absence of calcium. These findings may provide a model for the physiologic action of calcium in epithelia such as the renal tubule. PMID:5840797

  15. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-01-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  16. Reduce torques and stick the landing: limb posture during landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Larson, Neil P; Abbott, Emily M; Danos, Nicole

    2014-10-15

    A controlled landing, where an animal does not crash or topple, requires enough stability to allow muscles to effectively dissipate mechanical energy. Toads (Rhinella marina) are exemplary models for understanding the mechanics and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass (COM), destabilizing the body at impact. We predict that in order to minimize such torques, toads will align their COM with the GRF vector during the aerial phase in anticipation of impact. We combined high-speed videography and force-plate ergometry to quantify torques at the COM and relate the magnitude of torques to limb posture at impact. We show that modulation of hindlimb posture can shift the position of the COM by about 20% of snout-vent length. Rapid hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop moved the COM anteriorly and reduced torque by aligning the COM with the GRF vector. We found that the addition of extrinsic loads did not significantly alter landing behavior but did change the torques experienced at impact. We conclude that anticipatory hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop is a critical feature of a mechanically stable landing that allows toads to quickly string together multiple, continuous hops.

  17. Dermatitis in captive Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) associated with Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Trupkiewicz, John G; Armbrust, Amy L; Geiser, David M; Armstrong, Sarah; Garner, Michael M; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2010-10-01

    From May 2007 to June 2008, 30 of 49 Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) kept at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Nebraska, USA) died showing clinical signs of ventral erythema, inappetance, lethargy, and delayed righting reflex. Treatment with antifungals and antibiotics was unsuccessful in all cases. Histopathologic analyses revealed dermatitis as the primary problem in 20 of 21 toads in which skin was examined. Fungal dermatitis was present in 17 toads, with hyphae approximately 1-3 μm in diameter, and parallel cell walls and frequent septations. In 14 animals, the fungal dermatitis was the main pathologic lesion. Several species of bacteria were associated with all cases. A few animals tested positive for Ranavirus using polymerase chain reaction. Fusarium sp. was consistently cultured from skin, feces, kidneys, and from powdered food provided to crickets. Four isolates were identified as Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Fusarium verticillioides, which suggested a secondary role of fungi. A specific underlying cause of disease could not be found, although the roles of humidity and Ranavirus infection are discussed, along with the well-known susceptibility of bufonids to fungal dermatitis.

  18. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  19. Purification of PRL receptors from toad kidney: Comparisons with rabbit mammary PRL receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunand, M.; Kraehenbuhl, J.P.; Rossier, B.C.; Aubert, M.L. Univ. of Lausanne School of Medicine )

    1988-03-01

    The binding characteristics of the prolactin (PRL) receptors present in toad (Bufo marinus) kidneys were investigated and compared to those of PRL receptors present in rabbit mammary glands. The molecular characteristics of the Triton X-100 solubilized renal and mammary PRL receptors were assessed by gel filtration and by migration analysis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after affinity labeling of the binding sites with {sup 125}I-human growth hormone. Similar results were obtained for both receptors. Partial purification of the toad PRL receptor could be achieved by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of this purified receptor could be determined by analysis of SDS-PAGE. With the use of a polyclonal antiserum raised against a purified preparation of rabbit mammary PRL receptor, one or several antigenic epitope(s) could be identified on the core of the toad renal PRL receptor. In conclusion, although the structure and the biological role(s) of PRL have substantially changed during evolution, the receptor for this hormone has retained many of its structural features as could be assessed between an amphibian and a mammalian species on functionally different target tissues.

  20. Temperature effects on baroreflex control of heart rate in the toad, Rhinella schneideri.

    PubMed

    Zena, Lucas A; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C

    2015-01-01

    For an adequate blood supply to support metabolic demands, vertebrates regulate blood pressure to maintain sufficient perfusion to avoid ischemia and other tissue damage like edema. Using a pharmacological approach (phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside) we investigated baroreflex sensitivity at 15, 25, and 30°C in toads Rhinella schneideri. Baroreflex sensitivity presented a high thermal dependence (Q10=1.9-4.1), and the HR-baroreflex curve was shifted up and to the right as temperature increased from 15 to 30°C. Baroreflex variables, namely, HR range, gain50 (maximal gain) and normalized gain50 increased 206, 235, and 160% from 15 to 30°C, respectively. The cardiac limb of the baroreflex response to pharmacological treatments was significantly blunted after full autonomic blockade. In addition, there was a clear baroreflex-HR response mainly to hypotension at all three temperatures tested. These findings indicate that toads present temperature dependence for cardiac limb of the barostatic response and the cardiac baroreflex response in R. schneideri is primarily hypotensive rather than hypertensive as well as crocodilians and mammals. Thus, the cardiac baroreflex compensation to changes in arterial pressure might present different patterns among amphibian species, since the previously reported bradycardic compensation to hypertension in some anurans was not observed in the toad used in the present study.

  1. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-08-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance ('1') identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance ('1') tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance '1' showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds.

  2. Goal orientation by geometric and feature cues: spatial learning in the terrestrial toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N

    2015-01-01

    Although of crucial importance in vertebrate evolution, amphibians are rarely considered in studies of comparative cognition. Using water as reward, we studied whether the terrestrial toad, Rhinella arenarum, is also capable of encoding geometric and feature information to navigate to a goal location. Experimental toads, partially dehydrated, were trained in either a white rectangular box (Geometry-only, Experiment 1) or in the same box with a removable colored panel (Geometry-Feature, Experiment 2) covering one wall. Four water containers were used, but only one (Geometry-Feature), or two in geometrically equivalent corners (Geometry-only), had water accessible to the trained animals. After learning to successfully locate the water reward, probe trials were carried out by changing the shape of the arena or the location of the feature cue. Probe tests revealed that, under the experimental conditions used, toads can use both geometry and feature to locate a goal location, but geometry is more potent as a navigational cue. The results generally agree with findings from other vertebrates and support the idea that at the behavioral-level geometric orientation is a conserved feature shared by all vertebrates.

  3. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    PubMed

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage.

  4. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    PubMed

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness.

  5. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  6. Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K. L.; Parang, M.; Landguth, D. C.; Coleman, R.

    2004-09-13

    TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

  7. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  8. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    PubMed

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often <20%) volatilisation of AAEM species from these biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca.

  9. Effect of estradiol on apoptosis, proliferation and steroidogenic enzymes in the testes of the toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Scaia, María Florencia; Volonteri, María Clara; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2015-09-15

    Estrogens inhibit androgen production and this negative action on amphibian steroidogenesis could be related to the regulation of steroidogenic enzymes. Estrogens are also involved in the regulation of amphibian spermatogenesis by controlling testicular apoptosis and spermatogonial proliferation. The Bidder's organ (BO) is a structure characteristic from the Bufonidae family and in adult males of Rhinella arenarum it is one of the main sources of plasma estradiol (E2). The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of E2 on testicular steroidogenic enzymes, apoptosis and proliferation in the toad R. arenarum. For this purpose, testicular fragments were treated during 24h with or without 2 or 20nM of E2. After treatments, the activities of cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase-C17-20 lyase (CypP450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD/I) were measured by the transformation of radioactive substrates into products, and CypP450c17 expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis in testicular sections was detected with a commercial fluorescent kit based on TUNEL method, and proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation. Results indicate that E2 has no effect on CypP450c17 protein levels or enzymatic activity, while it reduces 3β-HSD/I activity during the post reproductive season. Furthermore, although E2 has no effect on apoptosis during the pre and the post reproductive seasons, it stimulates testicular apoptosis during the reproductive season, mostly in spermatocytes. Finally, E2 has no effect on testicular proliferation all year long. Taken together, these results suggest that E2 is involved in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis.

  10. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom... productivity. In recent years, refreshable Braille displays and speech synthesis devices have given...

  11. Direct determination of sugar cane quality parameters by X-ray spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Bortoleto, G G; Marchiori, L F S; Bueno, M I M S

    2012-10-31

    Current methods for quality control of sugar cane are performed in extracted juice using several methodologies, often requiring appreciable time and chemicals (eventually toxic), making the methods not green and expensive. The present study proposes the use of X-ray spectrometry together with chemometric methods as an innovative and alternative technique for determining sugar cane quality parameters, specifically sucrose concentration, POL, and fiber content. Measurements in stem, leaf, and juice were performed, and those applied directly in stem provided the best results. Prediction models for sugar cane stem determinations with a single 60 s irradiation using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment allows estimating the % sucrose, % fiber, and POL simultaneously. Average relative deviations in the prediction step of around 8% are acceptable if considering that field measurements were done. These results may indicate the best period to cut a particular crop as well as for evaluating the quality of sugar cane for the sugar and alcohol industries.

  12. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  13. Foraging modality and plasticity in foraging traits determine the strength of competitive interactions among carnivorous plants, spiders and toads.

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Rohr, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Foraging modalities (e.g. passive, sit-and-wait, active) and traits are plastic in some species, but the extent to which this plasticity affects interspecific competition remains unclear. Using a long-term laboratory mesocosm experiment, we quantified competition strength and the plasticity of foraging traits in a guild of generalist predators of arthropods with a range of foraging modalities. Each mesocosm contained eight passively foraging pink sundews, and we employed an experimental design where treatments were the presence or absence of a sit-and-wait foraging spider and actively foraging toad crossed with five levels of prey abundance. We hypothesized that actively foraging toads would outcompete the other species at low prey abundance, but that spiders and sundews would exhibit plasticity in foraging traits to compensate for strong competition when prey were limited. Results generally supported our hypotheses. Toads had a greater effect on sundews at low prey abundances, and toad presence caused spiders to locate webs higher above the ground. Additionally, the closer large spider webs were to the ground, the greater the trichome densities produced by sundews. Also, spider webs were larger with than without toads and as sundew numbers increased, and these effects were more prominent as resources became limited. Finally, spiders negatively affected toad growth only at low prey abundance. These findings highlight the long-term importance of foraging modality and plasticity of foraging traits in determining the strength of competition within and across taxonomic kingdoms. Future research should assess whether plasticity in foraging traits helps to maintain coexistence within this guild and whether foraging modality can be used as a trait to reliably predict the strength of competitive interactions.

  14. A novel multilocus phylogenetic estimation reveals unrecognized diversity in Asian horned toads, genus Megophrys sensu lato (Anura: Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Min; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Stuart, Bryan L; Brown, Rafe M; Lathrop, Amy; Wang, Ying-Yong; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Ke; Hou, Mian; Chen, Hong-Man; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Duong, Tang Van; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Che, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The horned toad assemblage, genus Megophrys sensu lato, currently includes three groups previously recognized as the genera Atympanophrys, Xenophrys and Megophrys sensu stricto. The taxonomic status and species composition of the three groups remain controversial due to conflicting phenotypic analyses and insufficient phylogenetic reconstruction; likewise, the position of the monotypic Borneophrys remains uncertain with respect to the horned toads. Further, the diversity of the horned toads remains poorly understood, especially for widespread species. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 45 of the 57 described species from throughout southern China, Southeast Asia and the Himalayas using Bayesian inference trees and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) approach. We estimate the phylogeny using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. Analyses reveal statistically significant mito-nuclear discordance. All analyses resolve paraphyly for horned toads involving multiple strongly supported clades. These clades correspond with geography. We resurrect the genera Atympanophrys and Xenophrys from the synonymy of Megophrys to eliminate paraphyly of Megophrys s.l. and to account for the morphological, molecular and biogeographic differences among these groups, but we also provide an alternative option. Our study suggests that Borneophrys is junior synonym of Megophrys sensu stricto. We provide an estimation of timeframe for the horned toads. The mitochondrial and nuclear trees indicate the presence of many putative undescribed species. Widespread species, such as Xenophrys major and X. minor, likely have dramatically underestimated diversity. The integration of morphological and molecular evidence can validate this discovery. Montane forest dynamics appear to play a significant role in driving diversification of horned toads.

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  16. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  17. Habitat suitability of patch types: A case study of the Yosemite toad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Christina T.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species. We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad ( Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Twenty-six environmental variables were included in the model representing climate, topography, land cover type, and disturbance factors (e.g., distances to agricultural lands, fire perimeters, and timber harvest areas) throughout the historic range of the toad. We then took a novel approach to the study of spatially structured populations by applying the species-environmental matching model separately for 49 consistently occupied sites of the Yosemite toad compared to 27 intermittently occupied sites. We found that the distribution of the entire population was highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.03 SD), and associated with low slopes, specific vegetation types (wet meadow, alpine-dwarf shrub, montane chaparral, red fir, and subalpine conifer), and warm temperatures. The consistently occupied sites were also associated with these same factors, and they were also highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.05 SD). However, the intermittently occupied sites were associated with distance to fire perimeter, a slightly different response to vegetation types, distance to timber harvests, and a much broader set of aspect classes (AUC = 0.90±0.11 SD). We conclude that many studies of species distributions may benefit by modeling spatially structured populations separately. Modeling and monitoring consistently-occupied sites may provide a realistic snapshot of current species-environment relationships, important climatic and topographic patterns associated with species persistence patterns, and an understanding of the plasticity of the species to respond to varying climate regimes across its range. Meanwhile, modeling and monitoring of widely dispersing

  18. Antiproliferative activity and chemical composition of the venom from the Amazonian toad Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Arana, Gabriel Vargas; Theoduloz, Cristina; Urra, Félix A; Cárdenas, César

    2016-10-01

    Little is known on the composition of Peruvian Amazon toad venoms. The large toad Rhinella marina is common in the cleared tropical forests of the Iquitos region and is regarded as poisonous. The venom from two different populations of R. marina was collected in the Departamento de Loreto, Perú. The samples were assessed for antiproliferative effect and composition. Some 29 compounds were identified or tentatively identified from the venom by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The main free bufadienolide was marinobufagin 7 while marinobufotoxin 15 and bufalitoxin 9 were the main bufadienolide argininyl diacid derivatives. The alkaloids dehydrobufotenin 28 and bufotenidin 29 were present in both venoms. The main difference in the venoms was the relative ratio of argininyl diacids from bufadienolides to free bufadienolides. The argininyl diacids included derivatives from bufalin, marinobufagin, telocinobufagin, hellebrigenin, resibufogenin and bufotalinin. Four compounds, including undecadienoyl aginine 6 and three argininyl diacids from bufadienolides were tentatively identified for the first time in the samples. The venom showed a strong antiproliferative effect towards MRC-5 normal human lung fibroblasts (0.063-0.247 μg/mL), AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (0.076-0.272 μg/mL), SK-MES-1 human lung cancer cells (0.154-0.296 μg/mL), J82 human bladder carcinoma cells (0.169-0.212 μg/mL), and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia (0.071-0.283 μg/mL). The antiproliferative effect is mediated by ROS production and cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231). This is the first report on the composition of R. marina venom from the Peruvian Amazon pointing out the need to include different venom samples to get a better picture from the activity and composition of South American toad defense substances.

  19. An Epigenetic Perspective on the Midwife Toad Experiments of Paul Kammerer (1880-1926).

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alexander O; Krabichler, Quirin; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Paul Kammerer was the most outstanding neo-Lamarckian experimentalist of the early 20th century. He reported spectacular results in the midwife toad, including crosses of environmentally modified toads with normal toads, where acquired traits were inherited in Mendelian fashion. Accusations of fraud generated a great scandal, ending with Kammerer's suicide. Controversy reignited in the 1970s, when journalist Arthur Koestler argued against these accusations. Since then, others have argued that Kammerer's results, even if real, were not groundbreaking and could be explained by somatic plasticity, inadvertent selection, or conventional genetics. More recently, epigenetics has uncovered mechanisms by which inheritance can respond directly to environmental change, inviting a reanalysis of Kammerer's descriptions. Previous arguments for mere somatic plasticity have ignored the description of experiments showing heritable germ line modification. Alleged inadvertent selection associated with egg mortality can be discarded, since mortality decreased in a single generation, upon repeated exposures. The challenging implications did not escape the attention of Kammerer's noted contemporary, William Bateson, but he reacted with disbelief, thus encouraging fraud accusations. Nowadays, formerly puzzling phenomena can be explained by epigenetic mechanisms. Importantly, Kammerer described parent-of-origin effects, an effect of parental sex on dominance. Epigenetic mechanisms underlie these effects in genomic imprinting and experiments of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In the early 20th century, researchers had no reason to link them with the inheritance of acquired traits. Thus, the parent-of-origin effects in Kammerer's experiments specifically suggest authenticity. Ultimate proof should come from renewed experimentation. To encourage further research, we present a model of possible epigenetic mechanisms.

  20. Habitat suitability of patch types: a case study of the Yosemite toad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liang, Christina T.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species. We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Twenty-six environmental variables were included in the model representing climate, topography, land cover type, and disturbance factors (e.g., distances to agricultural lands, fire perimeters, and timber harvest areas) throughout the historic range of the toad. We then took a novel approach to the study of spatially structured populations by applying the species-environmental matching model separately for 49 consistently occupied sites of the Yosemite toad compared to 27 intermittently occupied sites. We found that the distribution of the entire population was highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.03 SD), and associated with low slopes, specific vegetation types (wet meadow, alpine-dwarf shrub, montane chaparral, red fir, and subalpine conifer), and warm temperatures. The consistently occupied sites were also associated with these same factors, and they were also highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.05 SD). However, the intermittently occupied sites were associated with distance to fire perimeter, a slightly different response to vegetation types, distance to timber harvests, and a much broader set of aspect classes (AUC = 0.90±0.11 SD). We conclude that many studies of species distributions may benefit by modeling spatially structured populations separately. Modeling and monitoring consistently-occupied sites may provide a realistic snapshot of current species-environment relationships, important climatic and topographic patterns associated with species persistence patterns, and an understanding of the plasticity of the species to respond to varying climate regimes across its range. Meanwhile, modeling and monitoring of widely dispersing

  1. Detection of antidiabetic activity by crude paratoid gland secretions from common Indian toad (bufomelano stictus)

    PubMed Central

    Neerati, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amphibians have provided a remarkable array of biological active compounds, which are secreted from socalled granular skin glands which serve to protect the amphibians from predators due to its noxious effects on buccal tissue and at least in the case of some peptides, to protect from bacterial (or) protozoan infections. Given the respiratory and antimicrobial functions of amphibian skin, it is likely that some of the novel molecules found in amphibian granular gland secretions might be of use in the treatment of skin and respiratory infections. Secretions from common Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus) a member of Bufonidae family has the history of medicinal use however the anti-diabetic activity is not reported. The present study is aimed to determine whether paratoid gland extract have any influence on the diabetes and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glimepiride (GLM) in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: An aqueous and methanolic extracts of paratoid glandular secretions were prepared, air dried and used to determine the antidiabetic activity in rats. The blood sampling was done at preset time intervals between 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h, using heparinized capillaries. The blood glucose levels are estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of GLM using glibenclamide as an internal standard. Results: Both the aqueous and methanolic extracts produced better glycemic control in diabetic rats, and methanolic extract is better than the aqueous extract. Serum concentrations of GLM increased at 2nd h, and the percentage glucose reduction is maximal at the 4th h with both aqueous and methanolic extracts of paratoid secretions of common Indian toad. Conclusions: Paratoid gland secretions of the common Indian toad is antidiabetic, in addition it has beneficial effects in combination with GLM. Further, it requires the

  2. A hormone priming regimen and hibernation affect oviposition in the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas).

    PubMed

    Calatayud, N E; Langhorne, C J; Mullen, A C; Williams, C L; Smith, T; Bullock, L; Kouba, A J; Willard, S T

    2015-09-01

    Declines of the southern Rocky Mountain population of boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have led to the establishment of a captive assurance population and reintroduction program, in an attempt to preserve and propagate this geographically isolated population. One of the unique adaptations of this species is its ability to survive in cold environments by undergoing long periods of hibernation. In captivity, hibernation can be avoided altogether, decreasing morbidity caused by compromised immune systems. However, it is not entirely clear how essential hibernation is to reproductive success. In this study, the effects of hibernation versus nonhibernation, and exogenous hormones on oviposition, were examined in boreal toad females in the absence of males. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, 20 females housed at Mississippi State University were treated with a double priming dose of hCG and various ovulatory doses of hCG and LH-releasing hormone analog but denied hibernation. Exogenous hormones, in the absence of hibernation, could not induce oviposition over two breeding seasons (2011-2012). In contrast, during the summer of 2012 and 2013, 17 of 22 females (77%) housed at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility (Alamosa, CO, USA) oviposited after they were treated with two priming doses of hCG (3.7 IU/g each) and a single ovulation dose of hCG (13.5 IU/g) and LH-releasing hormone analog (0.4 μg/g) after hibernation. There was a significant difference in oviposition between females that were hibernated and received hormones (2012, P < 0.05 and 2013, P < 0.01) compared to hibernated control females. In 2013, 12 of 16 remaining Mississippi State University females from the same group used in 2011 and 2012 were hibernated for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively and then treated with the same hormone regimen administered to females at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility. Together, hibernation and hormone treatments significantly increased

  3. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  4. Integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations with the help of a TOAD-based interferometer device--alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jitendra Nath; Gayen, Dilip Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Interferometric devices have drawn a great interest in all-optical signal processing for their high-speed photonic activity. The nonlinear optical loop mirror provides a major support to optical switching based all-optical logic and algebraic operations. The gate based on the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has added new momentum in this field. Optical tree architecture (OTA) plays a significant role in the optical interconnecting network. We have tried to exploit the advantages of both OTA- and TOAD-based switches. We have proposed a TOAD-based tree architecture, a new and alternative scheme, for integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations.

  5. Integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations with the help of a TOAD-based interferometer device--alternative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath Roy, Jitendra; Gayen, Dilip Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Interferometric devices have drawn a great interest in all-optical signal processing for their high-speed photonic activity. The nonlinear optical loop mirror provides a major support to optical switching based all-optical logic and algebraic operations. The gate based on the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has added new momentum in this field. Optical tree architecture (OTA) plays a significant role in the optical interconnecting network. We have tried to exploit the advantages of both OTA- and TOAD-based switches. We have proposed a TOAD-based tree architecture, a new and alternative scheme, for integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations.

  6. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M.

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  8. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S.; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105

  9. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  10. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  11. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  12. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and accumulated growing degree days measured on the north shore of three classes of wetlands: unburned wetlands, burned wetlands that were colonized by breeding toads, and burned wetlands that were not colonized. We hypothesized that toads colonized burned wetlands because they were warmer than unburned wetlands and selected specific burned wetlands because they were warmer than neighboring burned sites. There was weak evidence that toads selected burned wetlands with higher temperature maxima; however, the differences were small (???1??C) and were not supported when accounting for geography and wetland features. We also found no evidence that burning the forest around wetlands increased water temperatures two and three years after the fire. Unburned wetlands had higher daily mean and maximum temperatures and accrued more growing degree days than either class of burned wetlands. Temperature differences among groups of wetlands seemed to be driven by subtle differences in geography. We suspect we did not find warmer temperatures in burned wetlands because all of the wetlands we monitored already had open canopies and the fire likely resulted in only small increases in incident radiation. Copyright ?? 2008. Blake R. Hossack. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation of thermal parameters in two different color morphs of a diurnal poison toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Lorena B; Akmentins, Mauricio S; Pereyra, Laura C

    2014-04-01

    We study the variation in thermal parameters in two contrasting populations Yungas Redbelly Toads (Melanophryniscus rubriventris) with different discrete color phenotypes comparing field body temperatures, critical thermal maximum and heating rates. We found significant differences in field body temperatures of the different morphs. Temperatures were higher in toads with a high extent of dorsal melanization. No variation was registered in operative temperatures between the study locations at the moment of capture and processing. Critical thermal maximum of toads was positively related with the extent of dorsal melanization. Furthermore, we founded significant differences in heating rates between morphs, where individuals with a high extent of dorsal melanization showed greater heating rates than toads with lower dorsal melanization. The color pattern-thermal parameter relationship observed may influence the activity patterns and body size of individuals. Body temperature is a modulator of physiological and behavioral functions in amphibians, influencing daily and seasonal activity, locomotor performance, digestion rate and growth rate. It is possible that some growth constraints may arise due to the relationship of color pattern-metabolism allowing different morphs to attain similar sizes at different locations instead of body-size clines.

  14. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  15. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  16. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  17. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  18. LOCAL SCALE FACTORS DETERMINE HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY RED-SPOTTED TOADS IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  19. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response.

  20. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.

  1. Toxin-resistant isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in snakes do not closely track dietary specialization on toads.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; Gompert, Zachariah; Gonzalez, Jonathan; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Mori, Akira; Savitzky, Alan H

    2016-11-16

    Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, a class of cardiotonic steroids that exert toxic effects by binding to and disabling the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases of cell membranes. Some predators, including a number of snakes, have evolved resistance to the toxic effects of bufadienolides and prey regularly on toads. Resistance in snakes to the acute effects of these toxins is conferred by at least two amino acid substitutions in the cardiotonic steroid binding pocket of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We surveyed 100 species of snakes from a broad phylogenetic range for the presence or absence of resistance-conferring mutations. We found that such mutations occur in a much wider range of taxa than previously believed. Although all sequenced species known to consume toads exhibited the resistance mutations, many of the species possessing the mutations do not feed on toads, much less specialize on that food source. This suggests that either there is little performance cost associated with these mutations or they provide an unknown benefit. Furthermore, the distribution of the mutation among major clades of advanced snakes suggests that the origin of the mutation reflects evolutionary retention more than dietary constraint.

  2. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A

    2016-01-11

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction.

  3. Reassessment of the environmental model of developmental polyphenism in spadefoot toad tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Storz, Brian L; Heinrichs, Jessica; Yazdani, Arash; Phillips, Ryan D; Mulvey, Brett B; Arendt, Jeff D; Moerland, Timothy S; Travis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenism is the expression of multiple, discrete phenotypes from one genotype, and understanding the environmental factors that trigger development of alternative phenotypes is a critical step toward understanding the evolution of polyphenism and its developmental control. While much is known about the ecology of the well-known carnivore/omnivore polyphenism in spadefoot toad tadpoles, the environmental cues for the development of the specialized carnivore phenotype are not completely clear. We examined 27 different experimental treatments in two spadefoot toad species and used over 1,000 tadpoles in an attempt to elucidate those cues. While only 44 carnivores developed in these treatments, they were concentrated at cooler water temperatures and a diet that included fairy shrimp. However, while a diet of fairy shrimp promoted carnivore development, it was not necessary for inducing carnivore development at lower and intermediate water temperatures. Evidence also suggested a role for social inhibition that limited the proportion of interacting tadpoles that become carnivores. Tadpoles of Spea multiplicata grew larger at cooler temperatures and larger when their diets included fairy shrimp, whereas tadpoles of S. bombifrons grew larger at warmer temperatures and when their diets did not include fairy shrimp. These results indicate that carnivore induction can occur through different cues and that our current model for carnivore development is too limited. Finally, we argue that the carnivore/omnivore spadefoot system is neither a polyphenism nor a polymorphism but is a continuously distributed plasticity.

  4. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  5. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    PubMed Central

    Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Angeli, Cláudia Blanes; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Jared, Carlos; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids) used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and Rhinella (South America). Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition. PMID:23737734

  6. Associations of water balance and thermal sensitivity of toads with macroclimatic characteristics of geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Titon, Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2017-03-20

    Interspecific variation in patterns of geographical distribution of phylogenetically related species of amphibians might be related to physiological adaptation to different climatic conditions. In this way, a comparative study of resistance to evaporative water loss, rehydration rates and sensitivity of locomotor performance to variations on hydration level and temperature was performed for five species of Bufonidae toads (Rhinella granulosa, R. jimi, R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. icterica) inhabiting different Brazilian biomes. The hypotheses tested were that, when compared to species inhabiting mesic environments, species living at hot and dry areas would show: (1) greater resistance to evaporative water loss, (2) higher rates of water uptake, (3) lower sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration and (4) lower sensitivity of locomotor performance at higher temperatures and higher sensitivity of locomotor performance at lower temperatures. This comparative analysis showed relations between body mass and interspecific variation in rehydration rates and resistance to water loss in opposite directions. These results might represent a functional compensation associated with relatively lower absorption areas in larger toads and higher evaporative areas in smaller ones. Moreover, species from the semi-arid Caatinga showed locomotor performance less sensitive to dehydration but highly affected by lower temperatures, as well greater resistance to evaporative water loss, when compared to the other species from the mesic Atlantic Forest and the savannah-like area called Cerrado. These results suggest adaptations patterns to environmental conditions.

  7. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Martín O; Womack, Molly C; Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M; Coloma, Luis A; Hoke, Kim L; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-09-28

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures.

  8. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF ABSORPTION OF TRACER MATERIALS BY TOAD URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Kwon

    1965-01-01

    The absorption of Thorotrast and saccharated iron oxide by the epithelium of the toad urinary bladder was studied by electron microscopy. Whether the toads were hydrated, dehydrated, or given Pitressin, no significant differences in transport of colloidal particles by epithelial cells were observed. This implies that these physiological factors had little effect on the transport of the tracer particles. Tracer particles were encountered in three types of epithelial cells which line the bladder lumen, but most frequently in the mitochondria-rich cells. Tracer materials were incorporated into the cytoplasm of epithelial cells after being adsorbed to the coating layer covering the luminal surface of the cells. In the intermediate stage (1 to 3 hours after introducing tracer) particles were present in small vesicles, tubules, and multivesicular bodies. In the later stages (up to 65 hours), the particles were more commonly seen to be densely packed within large membrane-bounded bodies which were often found near the Golgi region. These large bodies probably were formed by the fusion of small vesicles. Irrespective of the stages of absorption, no particles were found in the intercellular spaces or in the submucosa. Particles apparently did not penetrate the intercellular spaces of the epithelium beyond the level of the tight junction. PMID:14287173

  9. Chronic toxicity of copper on embryo development in Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kun; Zhao, Hongfeng; Wu, Minyao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effects of copper exposure on embryonic development of Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans. Firstly, the LC(50) values from 24 to 96 h of exposure were 3.61×10(-6) M, by means of a 4 d toxicity test with B. gargarizans embryos. Secondly, Chinese toad embryos were exposed to 10(-9)-10(-6) M copper from mid gastrula stage to operculum completion stage. Measurements included mortality, tadpole weight, tadpole total length, growth retardation, duration of different embryo stages and malformation. Embryonic survival was not affected by copper. Relative to control tadpoles, significantly decreased weight and total length were found at 10(-9)-10(-6) M reduced percentage of the embryos in right operculum stage after 10 d exposure to copper and reduced percentage of embryos in operculum completion stage after 12 d exposure to copper were also observed. Moreover, the duration of embryonic development increased at neural, circulation and operculum development stage in copper-treated groups. For the scanning microscope and histological observation, the abnormalities were malformation of wavy dorsal fin, flexural tail, curvature body axis, yolk sac oedema and reduced pigmentation in the yolk sac. Histopathological changes in olfactory, retinal epithelium and skin were also observed. DNA strand breaks exposed to the copper were analyzed by DNA ladder. In conclusion, copper induced toxic effects on B. gargarizans embryos. The present study indicated chronic toxicity tests may provide more accurate way in formulating the "safe levels" of heavy metals to amphibian.

  10. Functional assessment of toad parotoid macroglands: a study based on poison replacement after mechanical compression.

    PubMed

    Jared, Simone G S; Jared, Carlos; Egami, Mizue I; Mailho-Fontana, Pedro L; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Antoniazzi, Marta M

    2014-09-01

    Toads have a pair of parotoid macroglands behind the eyes that secrete poison used in passive defence against predators. These macroglands are composed of juxtaposed alveoli, each one bearing a syncytial gland, all connected to the exterior by ducts. When the parotoids are bitten, the poison is expelled on the predator oral mucosa in the form of jets, causing several pharmacological actions. After poison release, the empty secretory syncytia immediately collapse in the interior of their respective alveoli and gradually start refilling. After parotoid manual compression, simulating a predator's bite, we studied, by means of morphological methods, the replacement of the poison inside the alveoli. The results showed that after compression, a considerable number of alveoli remained intact. In the alveoli that were effectively affected the recovery occurs in different levels, from total to punctual and often restrict to some areas of the syncytia. The severely affected alveoli seem not recover their original functional state. The fact that only a part of the parotoid alveoli is compressed during an attack seems to be crucial for toad survival, since the amphibian, after being bitten by a predator, do not lose all its poison stock, remaining protected in case of new attacks.

  11. Identification and detection of the isolated sinus venosus from the Asian toad.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Guan, Chao; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Bing; Li, Sen; Sun, Guiyuan; Hao, Liying; Li, Gensong

    2013-12-01

    The pacemaker activity of mammalian sinoatrial node (SAN) of the heart plays a fundamental role in the integration of vital functions. Studying factors such as drugs that influence pacemaker activity of SAN has its significance. In this study, we isolated sinus venosus, SAN from toads (Bufo gargarizans), and analysed its electronic signal, histological characteristics and the influence of acetylcholine (ACh) and ivabradine on its pacemaker activity using PowerLab® and Chart® 5.0 software. We found that when isolated sinus venosus was treated with ACh, its histological distribution was disorganized and inter-beat (RR) interval was also broadened. The high frequency normalized unit (HFnu) and Poincaré plot of heart rate variability (HRV) of the isolated sinus venosus was also altered upon ACh treatment in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. When treated with ivabradine, these parameters of HRV such as square root of the mean of the squared differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and HFnu were in the upward tendency, but low frequency normalized unit and low frequency/high frequency were in the opposite tendency. Taken together, we have developed a new model for studying the influences of drugs on autorhythmicity using isolated sinus venosus of the toad. With this model, we showed that ACh and ivabradine may affect the pacemaker activity by stimulating muscarinic receptor or inhibiting If current, respectively.

  12. Interactive effects of ethanol and silver on sodium transport across toad skin

    SciTech Connect

    Gerencser, G.A.; Loo, S.Y.; Cornette, K.M.

    1984-05-01

    Both ethanol and silver ions have been shown to affect ion transport across various epithelia. This investigation was principally undertaken to further define mechanisms of silver ions and ethanol, and their possible interactions, on sodium transport across toad skin. Isolated toad skin, mounted between identical oxygenated amphibian bicarbonate Ringer solutions, maintained stable transepithelial potential differences (serosa positive) and short-circuit currents for several hours at 25/sup 0/C. It was observed that (1) ethanol inhibited the active transcellular component of sodium absorption and this effect was reversible; (2) inhibition of sodium transport by ethanol was directly proportional to the applied concentration; (3) pretreatment with silver ions prevented any ethanol effects; and (4) pretreatment with ethanol prevented any silver ion effects. It was concluded from these results that ethanol induced its inhibitory effects on membrane phospholipids thereby perturbing the function of a sulfhydryl ligant, while silver ion or silver chloride complex binding to this ligand would maintain its function in sodium transport despite the presence of ethanol.

  13. 10Gbit/s all-optical NRZ to RZ conversion based on TOAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yumei; Yin, Lina; Zhou, Yunfeng; Liu, Guoming; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2006-01-01

    Future network will include wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) technologies. All-optical format conversion between their respective preferable data formats, non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ), may become an important technology. In this paper, 10Gbit/s all-optical NRZ-to-RZ conversion is demonstrated based on terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) using clock all-optically recovered from the NRZ signal for the first time. The clock component is enhanced in an SOA and the pseudo-return-to-zero (PRZ) signal is filtered. The PRZ signal is input into an injection mode-locked fiber ring laser for clock recovery. The recovered clock and the NRZ signal are input into TOAD as pump signal and probe signal, respectively, and format conversion is performed. The quality of the converted RZ signal is determined by that of the recovered clock and the NRZ signal, whereas hardly influenced by gain recovery time of the SOA. In the experimental demonstration, the obtained RZ signal has an extinction ratio of 8.7dB and low pattern dependency. After conversion, the spectrum broadens obviously and shows multimode structure with spectrum interval of 0.08nm, which matches with the bit rate 10Gbit/s. Furthermore, this format conversion method has some tolerance on the pattern dependency of the clock signal.

  14. Telencephalic neural activation following passive avoidance learning in a terrestrial toad.

    PubMed

    Puddington, Martín M; Daneri, M Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R; Muzio, Rubén N

    2016-12-15

    The present study explores passive avoidance learning and its neural basis in toads (Rhinella arenarum). In Experiment 1, two groups of toads learned to move from a lighted compartment into a dark compartment. After responding, animals in the experimental condition were exposed to an 800-mM strongly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to weight loss. Control animals received exposure to a 300-mM slightly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to neither weight gain nor loss. After 10 daily acquisition trials, animals in the experimental group showed significantly longer latency to enter the dark compartment. Additionally, 10 daily trials in which both groups received the 300-mM NaCl solution after responding eliminated this group effect. Thus, experimental animals showed gradual acquisition and extinction of a passive avoidance respond. Experiment 2 replicated the gradual acquisition effect, but, after the last trial, animals were sacrificed and neural activation was assessed in five brain regions using AgNOR staining for nucleoli-an index of brain activity. Higher activation in the experimental animals, relative to controls, was observed in the amygdala and striatum. Group differences in two other regions, lateral pallium and septum, were borderline, but nonsignificant, whereas group differences in the medial pallium were nonsignificant. These preliminary results suggest that a striatal-amygdala activation could be a key component of the brain circuit controlling passive avoidance learning in amphibians. The results are discussed in relation to the results of analogous experiments with other vertebrates.

  15. Effect of Krebs cycle intermediates and inhibitors on toad gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chacín, J; Rincón, R; Inciarte, D; Cańizales, A; Martínez, G; Alonso, D

    1979-06-01

    An attempt to increase the permeability of gastric mucosa to exogenous Krebs cycle intermediates seemed advisable for a better understanding their relationship with acid secretion. At pH 7.4, citrate, oxoglutarate, fumarate, and malate had no significant effect on oxygen uptake (QO2) nor on acid secretion (QH+) by toad gastric mucosa; succinate increased QO2 slightly and had no effect on QH+; but at pH 5.0, oxoglutarate and succinate increased QO2 by 18 and 21%, respectively. 14CO2 evolved by gastric mucosa incubated with [14C]oxoglutarate, succinate, malate, or citrate was 155, 92, 128, and 353%, respectively, greater at pH 5. Citrate, oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malate increased QH+ by theophylline-stimulated mucosa at pH 5.0 by 25, 39, 35, 17 and 28%, respectively. Oxoglutarate-dependent respiration was shown to correlate with oxoglutarate oxidation. Malonate and arsenite inhibited QO2 and QH+; malonate inhibition was reversed by washout or by succinate. Arsenite was reversed by washout and accelerated by addition of lipoate immediately after washout. The results suggest that the Krebs cycle has concomitant roles in the regulation of QH+ and oxidative metabolism in the toad gastric mucosa.

  16. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping.

    PubMed

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role.

  17. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping

    PubMed Central

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role. PMID:25030045

  18. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Martín O.; Womack, Molly C.; Barrionuevo, J. Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L.; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Coloma, Luis A.; Hoke, Kim L.; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures. PMID:27677839

  19. Effect of Phloretin on Water and Solute Movement in the Toad Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sherman; Franki, Nicholas; Hays, Richard M.

    1973-01-01

    It is generally believed that urea crosses the cell membrane through aqueous channels, and that its movement across the membrane is accelerated in the direction of net water flow (solvent drag effect). The present report presents evidence for a vasopressin-sensitive pathway for the movement of urea, other amides, and certain non-amides, which is independent of water flow. Phloretin, when present at 10-4 M concentration in the medium bathing the luminal surface of the toad bladder, strongly inhibits the movement of urea, acetamide, and propionamide across the toad bladder, both in the absence and presence of vasopressin. The vasopressin-stimulated movement of formaldehyde and thiourea is also reduced. Osmotic water flow, on the other hand, is not affected; nor is the movement of ethanol and ethylene glycol, or the net transport of sodium. On the basis of these studies we would conclude that the movement of many, if not all, solutes across the cell membrane is independent of water flow, and that a vasopressin-sensitive carrier may be involved in the transport of certain solutes across the cell membrane. PMID:4703229

  20. Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Sánchez-Raya, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2008-08-01

    A bacterial strain designated GR21T was isolated from apoplastic fluid of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate forms a separate branch within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', with Paenibacillus as the closest related genus. Within this genus, the closest related species is Paenibacillus xylanilyticus, with 93.4 % similarity to the sequence of the type strain. The isolate has Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped cells, motile by polar and subpolar flagella. Round, non-ornamented, central or subterminal spores are formed in unswollen sporangia. The strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative on nutrient agar medium. Cellulose and aesculin were hydrolysed, whereas xylan, starch and gelatin were not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates as carbon sources. Strain GR21T displayed a lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophospholipid, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phosphoglycolipid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and anteiso-C15: 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, including assimilation of carbon sources and exoenzyme production commonly used for classification within the family 'Paenibacillaceae', showed that strain GR21T belongs to a new genus within this family, for which the name Saccharibacillus sacchari gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharibacillus sacchari is GR21T (=LMG 24085T =DSM 19268T).

  1. Field surveys of Midwestern and Northeastern Fish and Wildlife Service lands for the presence of abnormal frogs and toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, K.A.; Mattsson, J.; Eaton-Poole, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national distribution of information on the discovery of malformations in Minnesota frogs in 1995 stimulated collection and examination of newly metamorphosed frogs during 1996. By late summer and early fall of 1996, malformed frogs and toads were reported on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) lands in Vermont (Northeast, Region 5) and Minnesota (Midwest, Region 3). In response to these reports, biologists in USFWS Regions 3 and 5 conducted a survey, during the summer of 1997 to determine the distribution and type of malformations in frogs and toads on selected federal lands. Region 3 personnel surveyed 38 field stations at National Wildlife Refuges (NWR's) and Wetland Management Districts. Malformed frogs and toads were collected at 23 (61%) of the Region 3 sites. External malformations were detected in 110 of 6632 individuals representing seven of 13 frog species and one of three toad species examined for an overall of 1.7% affected (percentages for affected species ranged from 0.4-5.2%). In Region 5, 17 NWR's and one National Park were surveyed. Malformed frogs were collected at 10 (56%) of the Region 5 sites. External malformations were detected in 58 of 2267 individuals representing six of 11 frog species and one of two toad species examined for an overall total of 2.6% affected (percentages for affected species ranged from 1.8-15.6%). The majority of malformations observed in frogs and toads collected in Regions 3 and 5 were partially or completely missing hind limbs and digits (50%)or malformed hind limbs and digits (14%). A few individuals had an extra limb or toe, missing or malformed front limb, missing eye, or malformation of the mandible. Despite small sample sizes at some sites, malformations were confirmed to be present in eight species of frogs and two species of toads on Federal lands in USFWS Regions 3 and 5. Further study is needed to determine the extent and distribution of amphibian malformations in these Regions. Data from this study

  2. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste.

    PubMed

    Ward, Chelsea K; Fontes, Cristiano; Breuner, Creagh W; Mendonça, Mary T

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. At least two hypotheses have been proposed: 1) CBG levels may increase in response to a stressor, thereby decreasing the amount of circulating free corticosterone, or 2) CBG levels may decline, making corticosterone available for its role in increased metabolic needs during stress. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. Toad CBG has a K(d)=20.6+/-1.0 nM and a B(max)=332.2+/-5.1 nmol/L plasma. The rank order potencies for steroid inhibition of tritiated corticosterone are: dihydrotestosterone > corticosterone > progesterone=testosterone > estrogen=dexamethasone. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  4. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-09-23

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  5. Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-02-01

    The osmotic resistance of pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes at different temperatures and pH was studied. Erythrocytes from female pigeons showed greater osmotic resistance than those from males, but no sex difference appeared with erythrocytes from peafowls. Pigeon erythrocytes were more resistant and the red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were higher than those in peafowls. Although no significant differences appeared in their haematological values, erythrocytes from the lizard were more resistant than erythrocytes from the toad. At higher temperature, the osmotic resistance of pigeon, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased, while that of peafowl erythrocytes decreased. The resistance of toad erythrocytes decreased in acidic and alkaline solutions, but that of peafowl erythrocytes increased in both solutions. However, with pigeon and lizard erythrocytes, the resistance was unaltered in alkaline solution and decreased in acidic solution.

  6. The effects of drought on population structure, activity, and orientation of toads Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris at a temporary pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.

    1994-01-01

    From 1985 through 1990, I monitored the populations of two species of toads, Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris, at a temporary pond in the xeric uplands of north-central Florida. A drift fence with pitfall traps completely encircled the pond basin; the fence was monitored 5 days per week throughout the year. The 5-year study coincided with a severe regional drought that resulted in generally short hydroperiods at unpredictable times of the year. More than 800 toads were captured. Successful metamorphosis never occurred at the pond although toads continued to visit it throughout the study. The sex ratio was male biased in B. quercicus but not in B. terrestris, although significant variation was observed from one year to the next. Likewise, the size-class structure and length-weight patterns varied among species, sexes, and years. Although fewer toads entered the pond basin as the study progressed, toads may have gone elsewhere to breed or they may have remained in refugia. Thus, decreased capture does not necessarily indicate that a drought-related population decline occurred. Drought may have disrupted normal arrival patterns and length of stay within the pond basin. Drought also could be responsible for variation in annual size-class structure of captured toads. The uncertainty of the hydroperiod both spatially and temporally in adjacent breeding sites, the ability of toads to move long distances with the potential for migration between breeding sites, and the lack of specificity in the choice of breeding sites (i.e. permanent versus different types of temporary wetlands) may lead to the formation of metapopulations in the xeric upland habitats of north-central Florida. Long-term monitoring under a variety of climatic conditions is needed to assess the effects of drought and other types of environmental stresses on toad populations.

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  9. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  10. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  11. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  12. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  13. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  15. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  16. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  17. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  18. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  19. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  20. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  1. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  2. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  3. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)...

  4. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  5. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  6. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  7. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  8. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of...

  9. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar...

  10. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  11. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives.

  12. Glycogen stability and glycogen phosphorylase activities in isolated skeletal muscles from rat and toad.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C A; Stephenson, G M

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that endogenous glycogen depletion may affect excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling events in vertebrate skeletal muscle. One approach employed in physiological investigations of E-C coupling involves the use of mechanically skinned, single fibre preparations obtained from tissues stored under paraffin oil, at room temperature (RT: 20-24 degrees C) and 4 degrees C for several hours. In the present study, we examined the effect of these storage conditions on the glycogen content in three muscles frequently used in research on E-C coupling: rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and toad iliofibularis (IF). Glycogen content was determined fluorometrically in homogenates prepared from whole muscles, stored under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4 degrees C. Control muscles and muscles stored for 0.5 and 6 h were also analysed for total phosphorylase (Phos(total)) and phosphorylase a (Phos a) activities. No significant change was observed in the glycogen content of EDL and SOL muscles stored at RT for 0.5 h. In rat muscles stored at RT for longer than 0.5 h, the glycogen content decreased to 67.6% (EDL) and 78.7% (SOL) of controls after 3 h and 25.3% (EDL) and 37.4% (SOL) after 6 h. Rat muscles stored at 4 degrees C retained 79.0% (EDL) and 92.5% (SOL) of glycogen after 3 h and 75.2% (EDL) and 61.1% (SOL) after 6 h. The glycogen content of IF muscles stored at RT or 4 degrees C for 6 h was not significantly different from controls. Phos(total) was unchanged in all muscles over the 6 h period, at both temperatures. Phos a was also unchanged in the toad IF muscles, but in rat muscles it decreased rapidly, particularly in EDL (4.1-fold after 0.5 h at RT). Taken together these results indicate that storage under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4 degrees C is accompanied by minimal glycogen loss in toad IF muscles and by a time- and temperature-dependent glycogen loss in EDL and SOL muscles of the rat.

  13. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  14. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  15. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  16. AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

    2010-03-05

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  17. The Wisconsin Frog and Toad Survey: Update and 1984-97 trends [abstract

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossman, M.J.; Hartman, L.; Sauer, J.; Hay, R.; Dhuey, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Wisconsin Frog and Toad Survey (WFTS) is a volunteer-based, roadside auditory count that began in 1981. It's protocols were recently modified for continent-wide use by the North American Amphibian Monitoring Plan (NAAMP). In 1997 we initiated a study to compare data collected by the WFTS and NAAMP protocols, in order to guide WFTS transition from its current methodology to one more compatible with NAAMP, without losing the use of data collected since 1981. In this paper we present results from the first year of this study, along with results from analyses of WFTS data, including distributional maps, 1984-97 population trends, phenological information, and progress on a new web page.

  18. A multilocus perspective on the speciation history of a North American aridland toad (Anaxyrus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W; Jaeger, Jef R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Lazcano, David

    2012-09-01

    Interpretations of phylogeographic patterns can change when analyses shift from single gene-tree to multilocus coalescent analyses. Using multilocus coalescent approaches, a species tree and divergence times can be estimated from a set of gene trees while accounting for gene-tree stochasticity. We utilized the conceptual strengths of a multilocus coalescent approach coupled with complete range-wide sampling to examine the speciation history of a broadly distributed, North American warm-desert toad, Anaxyrus punctatus. Phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for three major lineages within A. punctatus. Each lineage broadly corresponded to one of three desert regions. Early speciation in A. punctatus appeared linked to late Miocene-Pliocene development of the Baja California peninsula. This event was likely followed by a Pleistocene divergence associated with the separation of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts. Our multilocus coalescent-based reconstruction provides an informative contrast to previous single gene-tree estimates of the evolutionary history of A. punctatus.

  19. All-optical repetition rate multiplication of pseudorandom bit sequences based on cascaded TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical repetition rate multiplication of pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) is demonstrated with all-optical wavelength conversion and optical logic gate 'OR' based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexers (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by multiplication experiments from 500 Mb/s to 4 Gb/s for 23-1 PRBS and from 1 Gb/s to 4 Gb/s for 27-1 PRBS. This scheme can be employed for rate multiplication for much longer cycle PRBS at much higher bit rate over 40 Gb/s when the time-delay, the loss and the dispersion of the optical delay line are all precisely managed. The upper limit of bit rate will be restricted by the recovery time of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) finally.

  20. Support for Spitzer observations of tremendous outburst amplitude dwarf novae (TOADs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2008-05-01

    Dr. Steve Howell (NOAO) requests monitoring of a subset of the known and suspected tremendous outburst amplitude dwarf novae (TOADs) in support of Spitzer Space Telescope observations of these objects. The campaign will run from May 16, 2008, through May 2009. Once an object has been verified in superoutburst, Spitzer observations will be scheduled within 2-4 weeks of maximum, and will be repeated twice -- 4-6 weeks and 6-10 weeks later. Observers are asked to provide nightly monitoring of these stars, and to begin intensive observations if and when any of them go into outburst to determine whether the star is in superoutburst. We note that several of these objects -- notably the WZ Sge stars WZ Sge, GW Lib, and V455 And -- are not expected to superoutburst during the next year, but observations are still encouraged in case they exhibit unexpected behavior. Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database.

  1. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad.

    PubMed

    Wogan, Guinevere O U; Stuart, Bryan L; Iskandar, Djoko T; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) is a human commensal species that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in D. melanostictus is weakly associated with geography owing to natural and human-mediated dispersal facilitated by its commensal nature. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation, and predictive species distribution modelling, unexpectedly recovered three distinct evolutionary lineages that differ genetically and ecologically, corresponding to the Asian mainland, coastal Myanmar and the Sundaic islands. The persistence of these three divergent lineages, despite ample opportunities for recent human-mediated and geological dispersal, suggests that D. melanostictus actually consists of multiple species, each having narrower geographical ranges and ecological niches, and higher conservation value, than is currently recognized. These findings also have implications for the invasion potential of this human commensal elsewhere, such as in its recently introduced ranges on the islands of Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram and Madagascar.

  2. Temporal population genetic instability in range-edge western toads, Anaxyrus boreas.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Iris

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address the temporal stability of population genetic structure in a range-edge population that is undergoing continual, short-distance colonization events. We sampled western toad, Anaxyrus boreas, breeding populations over 2 seasons near their northern range limit in southeast Alaska. We sampled 20 ponds each during the summers of 2008 and 2009, with 14 ponds sampled in both summers. We found considerable turnover in the population genetic relationships among ponds in those 2 seasons, as well as biologically meaningful genetic differentiation between years within some ponds. We found relatively consistent relationships between major population centers, whereas the relationships between the central ponds and smaller, outlying populations differed year to year. This finding indicates that multiple years of genetic sampling may be important for understanding the genetic landscape of some populations.

  3. Electrolyte sensitivity of the skin in the toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel.

    PubMed

    Reboreda, J C; Segura, E T

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on the responsiveness of the skin to solutions of different electrolytes and sucrose have been done in the toad in vivo and in vitro. Brain pithed animals showed a strong flexor "on" response of the hindlimb when the foot was plunged into a saline solution. The delay of this response was strictly proportional to the concentration of the bath from 0.5 to 1 M. The flexor response was invariably elicited by solutions of different salts: NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl, MgSO4 and choline chloride, but not by a solution of sucrose with the same osmolarity. On the other hand, a contrast "off" response with strong flexion was also systematically observed when a limb adapted to electrolyte solution was displaced to distilled water. Patches of skin were also exposed to increasing concentrations of NaCl in vitro and the discharges of its afferent nerve were recorded. A clear cut correlation between the osmolarity of the bath and the rate of discharges was observed. The contrast "off" response to distilled water after exposure to NaCl was also observed in the patches of skin, as an increase in nervous discharges. The spontaneous basal firing observed in water, as well as the induced responses by electrolytes, were reversibly blocked by decreasing the temperature of the bath to 0 C. These results indicate that detectors of salinity are present in the skin of the toad. These detectors appear to be sensitive to the ionization but not to the osmolarity of the bath.

  4. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  5. Density regulation in toad populations (Epidalea calamita, Bufotes viridis) by differential winter survival of juveniles.

    PubMed

    Sinsch, Ulrich; Schäfer, Alena M

    2016-01-01

    The size of amphibian populations varies considerably between years, so that systematic trends in dynamics are difficult to detect. Informed conservation management of presumably declining populations requires the identification of the most sensitive life stage. In temperate-zone anurans there is growing evidence that juveniles hibernating for the first time suffer from substantial winter losses. In two syntopic toads (Epidalea calamita, Bufotes viridis) we monitored survival of such juveniles during four consecutive winters in the natural habitat and in four temperature treatments (3°, 5 °C, 10°/15 °C or 20 °C, natural light-dark cycle) in temperature-controlled chambers during winter. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) winter mortality of juvenile toads which hibernate for the first time in their life is an important component of population dynamics, and that (2) mortality rates differed between the two species. Parameters quantified were size-dependent winter mortality and body condition of pre- and post-hibernating juveniles. Field data provided evidence for the important role of winter mortality of first-hibernators in population dynamics. Choice of hibernacula differed in E. calamita between small and medium-sized individuals and also between the two species suggesting distinct mortality risks. The inability of small E. calamita to reach frost-proof hibernacula by burrowing, and the exposure of small B. viridis to predators are the most probable causes of size-assortative winter mortality. In conclusion, E. calamita juveniles may benefit from rising average winter temperatures in the future by decreased risk of freezing to death, whereas predator-caused winter mortality of B. viridis juveniles will also depend on the effects of climate warming on predator phenology.

  6. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  7. Covalent labeling of hydrosmotic toad bladder receptors with an antagonist of vasotocin

    SciTech Connect

    Eggena, P.; Buku, A.; Ma, C.L.; Somoza, L.I.; Wyssbrod, H.R.; Schwartz, I.L.; Glass, J.D.

    1987-06-01

    A photoreactive analogue of vasotocin, (1-desamino,4-lysine(azidobenzoyl),8-arginine)vasotocin (4-N3-AVT), has been examined in the isolated toad urinary bladder for biological activity and binding to hormonal receptors. Although 4-N3-AVT induced only a small increase in bladder permeability to water, it behaved as a potent inhibitor of hydrosmotic action of (8-arginine)vasotocin (AVT) and (8-arginine)vasopressin (AVP). The inhibitory action of 4-N3-AVT was readily reversed on removal of the analogue from the serosal bathing solution. On the other hand, when bladders were exposed to 4-N3-AVT in the presence of long wavelength UV light (365 nm), the inhibition by 4-N3-AVT was not reversed on washout of the analogue. The dose of vasopressin required for a half-maximal response (ED50 value) was increased from 5 X 10(-9) to 1.3 X 10(-7) M in bladders photolabeled with 4-N3-AVT and the maximal response capacity of the tissue (intrinsic activity) was reduced to 79% of nonphotolabeled controls. A crude membrane preparation derived from bladders photolabeled with 4-N3-AVT contained 72 fmol of specific binding sites for tritium-labeled vasopressin per milligram protein, whereas nonphotolabeled controls had 136 fmol of specific binding sites per milligram protein. These observations suggest that 4-N3-AVT forms a covalent bond with hydrosmotic receptors in the presence of UV light. This is the first antagonistic photoaffinity analogue observed in the toad bladder and it may serve as a useful tool for analyzing the cellular mechanism of action of antidiuretic hormone.

  8. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. {yields} Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. {yields} Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  9. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-07-30

    Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  10. Modulation effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contraction of toad gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Hua; Meng, Wei; Song, Rong-Feng; Xiong, Qiu-Ping; Sun, Wei; Luo, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Wen-Wen; Li, Yu-Ping; Li, Xin-Ping; Li, Hai-Hang; Xiao, Peng

    2014-03-05

    Isolated toad gastrocnemius muscle is a typical skeletal muscle tissue that is frequently used to study the motor system because it is an important component of the motor system. This study investigates the effects of cordycepin on the skeletal muscle contractile function of isolated toad gastrocnemius muscles by electrical field stimulation. Results showed that cordycepin (20 mg/l to 100 mg/l) significantly decreased the contractile responses in a concentration-dependent manner. Cordycepin (50 mg/l) also produced a rightward shift of the contractile amplitude-stimulation intensity relationship, as indicated by the increases in the threshold stimulation intensity and the saturation stimulation intensity. However, the most notable result was that the maximum amplitude of the muscle contractile force was significantly increased under cordycepin application (122±3.4% of control). This result suggests that the skeletal muscle contractile function and muscle physical fitness to the external stimulation were improved by the decreased response sensitivity in the presence of cordycepin. Moreover, cordycepin also prevented the repetitive stimulation-induced decrease in muscle contractile force and increased the recovery amplitude and recovery ratio of muscle contraction. However, these anti-fatigue effects of cordycepin on muscle contraction during long-lasting muscle activity were absent in Ca2+-free medium or in the presence of all Ca2+ channels blocker (0.4 mM CdCl2). These results suggest that cordycepin can positively affect muscle performance and provide ergogenic and prophylactic benefits in decreasing skeletal muscle fatigue. The mechanisms involving excitation-coupled Ca2+ influxes are strongly recommended.

  11. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.; Kaiser, Hinrich; Casper, Gary S.; Bernstein, Neil P.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of

  12. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE PAGES

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; ...

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  13. Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) in northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Ana; Dalton, Kevin P; del Cerro, Ana; Márquez, Isabel; Parra, Francisco; Prieto, José M; Casais, R

    2010-11-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterisation of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV) from juvenile alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toad (CMT) tadpoles (Alytes obstetricans) in the Picos de Europa National Park in Northern Spain in August 2008. A comparative pathological and immunohistochemical study was carried out using anti-CMTV polyclonal serum. In the kidneys, glomeruli had the most severe histological lesions in CMT tadpoles, while both glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells exhibited foci of necrosis in juvenile alpine newts. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemical labelling mainly in the kidneys of CMT tadpoles and in ganglia of juvenile alpine newts. This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years.

  14. A coalescent framework for comparing alternative models of population structure with genetic data: evolution of Celebes toads.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ben J; McGuire, Jimmy A; Brown, Rafe M; Andayani, Noviar; Supriatna, Jatna

    2008-08-23

    Isolation of populations eventually leads to divergence by genetic drift, but if connectivity varies over time, its impact on diversification may be difficult to discern. Even when the habitat patches of multiple species overlap, differences in their demographic parameters, molecular evolution and stochastic events contribute to differences in the magnitude and distribution of their genetic variation. The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, for example, harbours a suite of endemic species whose intraspecific differentiation or interspecific divergence may have been catalysed by habitat fragmentation. To further test this hypothesis, we have performed phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses on molecular variation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of the Celebes toad (Bufo celebensis). Results support a role for habitat fragmentation that led to a population structure in these toads that closely matches distributions of Sulawesi macaque monkeys. Habitat fragmentation, therefore, may also have affected other groups on this island.

  15. Identifying Physiological and Yield Related Traits in Sugarcane and Energy Cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing interest of producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for both sugar and bioenergy and saturation of using organic soils provide an opportunity to expand production on mineral (sand) soils. However, sugarcane yields and profits on sand soils are generally low. Energy cane may be an alternative ...

  16. Biomass Composition and Mineral Removal of Sugarcane and Energy Cane on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of Sugarcane is grown on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are lower compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of increased biom...

  17. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  18. Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

    2003-10-01

    A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time.

  19. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 μm), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties.

  20. Comparison of Sugarcane and Energy Cane in Growth and Biomass Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of major crops on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are low compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of high biomass for energy....

  1. Production of energy cane and elephantgrass on marginal soils using winter covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and energy cane (Saccharum sp.) are tall tropical bunch grasses that produce very high biomass yields and are considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable wit...

  2. Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

  3. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790...

  8. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  9. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  10. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, J

    2007-11-20

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

  11. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  12. Biomedical Substrates of the Two-Point Cane Technique: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews research on the biomechanical elements related to the most commonly used long cane technique, the two-point touch, by individuals with blindness or low vision. The use of several natural biomechanical tendencies supports the contention that the technique is inherently efficient. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  13. Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

  14. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-ε-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest.

  15. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities.

  16. Chloride conductance across toad skin: effects of ionic acclimations and cyclic AMP and relationship to mitochondria-rich cell density.

    PubMed

    Rozman, A; Gabbay, S; Katz, U

    2000-07-01

    The anionic conductance across toad (Bufo viridis) skin was studied using the voltage-clamp technique following long-term (more than 10 days) acclimation to NaCl and KCl solutions. The non-specific baseline conductance was approximately 0.6 mS cm(-)(2) and was similar in skins from all acclimation conditions. The voltage-activated Cl(-) conductance (G(Cl)) was maximal in skins from distilled-water- and KCl-acclimated toads (>3 mS cm(-)(2)) and was greatly reduced following acclimation to NaCl solutions. Cyclic AMP (EC(50)=13 micromol l(-)(1)) and isobutylmethyl xanthine (IBMX) (EC(50)=69 micromol l(-)(1)) exerted different effects on the activated conductance. IBMX only sensitized the activated conductance, whereas cyclic AMP (CPTcAMP) at high concentrations induced an increase in anionic conductance that was insensitive to electrical potential. Furthermore, external Cl(-) was not required for the stimulatory effect of cyclic AMP, and the conductive pathway had low selectivity. The effects of the two agonists were reversible and depended on the acclimation conditions. Following electrical measurements, the skin of the toads was removed and stained with silver to measure mitochondria-rich cell density (D(mrc)). There was no correlation between D(mrc) and Cl(-) conductance in the present study.

  17. Distribution of boreal toad populations in relation to estimated UV-B dose in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Diamond, S.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    A recent increase in ultraviolet B radiation is one hypothesis advanced to explain suspected or documented declines of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas Baird and Girard, 1852) across much of the western USA, where some experiments have shown ambient UV-B can reduce embryo survival. We examined B. boreas occupancy relative to daily UV-B dose at 172 potential breeding sites in Glacier National Park, Montana, to assess whether UV-B limits the distribution of toads. Dose estimates were based on ground-level UV-B data and the effects of elevation, local topographic and vegetative features, and attenuation in the water column. We also examined temporal trends in surface UV-B and spring snowpack to determine whether populations are likely to have experienced increased UV-B exposure in recent decades. We found no support for the hypothesis that UV-B limits the distribution of populations in the park, even when we analyzed high-elevation ponds separately. Instead, toads were more likely to breed in water bodies with higher estimated UV-B doses. The lack of a detectable trend in surface UV-B since 1979, combined with earlier snow melt in the region and increasing forest density at high elevations, suggests B. boreas embryos and larvae likely have not experienced increased UV-B.

  18. Effects of internal and external pH on amiloride-blockable Na transport across toad urinary bladder vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, H.; Civan, E.D.; Civan, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of internal and external pH on Na+ transport across toad bladder membrane vesicles. Of the total SSNa uptake measured 0.5-2.0 min after introducing tracer, 80 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE, n = 9) is blocked by the diuretic with a KI of 2 X 10(-8) M. Thus, this amiloride-sensitive flux is mediated by the apical sodium-selective channels. Varying the internal (cytosolic) pH over the physiologic range 7.0-8.0 had no effect on sodium transport; this result suggests that variation of intracellular pH in vivo has no direct apical effect on modulating sodium uptake. On the other hand, SSNa was directly and monotonically dependent on external pH. External acidification also reduced the amiloride-sensitive efflux across the walls of the vesicles. This inhibition of 22Na efflux was noted at external Na concentrations of both 0.2 microM and 53 mM. These results are different from those reported with whole toad bladder. A number of possible bases for these differences are considered and discussed. They suggest that the natriferic response induced by mucosal acidification of whole toad urinary bladder appears to operate indirectly through one or more factors, presumably cytosolic, present in whole cells and absent from the vesicles.

  19. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol.

  20. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  1. Effect of nifedipine on depolarization-induced force responses in skinned skeletal muscle fibres of rat and toad.

    PubMed

    Posterino, G S; Lamb, G D

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the dihydropyridine, nifedipine, on excitation-contraction coupling was compared in toad and rat skeletal muscle, using the mechanically skinned fibre technique, in order to understand better the apparently disparate results of previous studies and to examine recent proposals on the importance of certain intracellular factors in determining the efficacy of dihydropyridines. In twitch fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of the toad, 10 microM nifedipine completely inhibited depolarization-induced force responses within 30 s, without interfering with direct activation of the Ca(2+)-release channels by caffeine application or reduction of myoplasmic [Mg2+]. At low concentrations of nifedipine, inhibition was considerably augmented by repeated depolarizations, with half-maximal inhibition occurring at < 0.1 microM nifedipine. In contrast, in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres 1 microM nifedipine had virtually no effect on depolarization-induced force responses, and 10 microM nifedipine caused only approximately 25% reduction in the responses, even upon repeated depolarizations. In rat fibres, 10 microM nifedipine shifted the steady-state force inactivation curve to more negative potentials by < 11 mV, whereas in toad fibres the potent inhibitory effect of nifedipine indicated a much larger shift. The inhibitory effect of nifedipine in rat fibres was little, if at all, increased by the absence of Ca2+ in the transverse tubular (t-) system, provided that the Ca2+ was replaced with sufficient Mg2+. The presence of the reducing agents dithiothreitol (10 mM) or glutathione (10 mM) in the solution bathing a toad skinned fibre did not reduce the inhibitory effect of nifedipine, suggesting that the potency of nifedipine in toad skinned fibres was not due to the washout of intracellular reducing agents. The results are considered in terms of a model that can account for the markedly different effects of nifedipine on the two putative functions of the

  2. Clinical Application of the "Scribble Technique" with Adults in an Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    The "scribble technique," described by Florence Cane's book, "The Artist in Each of Us" (1983), has historically been employed by art therapists as a technique to reduce inhibitions and liberate spontaneous imagery from the unconscious. Reviews the technique and presents examples produced by adult patients in an acute inpatient…

  3. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico.

  4. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  5. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  6. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively.

  7. Waist-up protection for blind individuals using the EyeCane as a primary and secondary mobility aid

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, Galit; Simon, Noa; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the most stirring statistics in relation to the mobility of blind individuals is the high rate of upper body injuries, even when using the white-cane. Objective: We here addressed a rehabilitation- oriented challenge of providing a reliable tool for blind people to avoid waist-up obstacles, namely one of the impediments to their successful mobility using currently available methods (e.g., white-cane). Methods: We used the EyeCane, a device we developed which translates distances from several angles to haptic and auditory cues in an intuitive and unobtrusive manner, serving both as a primary and secondary mobility aid. We investigated the rehabilitation potential of such a device in facilitating visionless waist-up body protection. Results: After ∼5 minutes of training with the EyeCane blind participants were able to successfully detect and avoid obstacles waist-high and up. This was significantly higher than their success when using the white-cane alone. As avoidance of obstacles required participants to perform an additional cognitive process after their detection, the avoidance rate was significantly lower than the detection rate. Conclusion: Our work has demonstrated that the EyeCane has the potential to extend the sensory world of blind individuals by expanding their currently accessible inputs, and has offered them a new practical rehabilitation tool. PMID:28157111

  8. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians.

  9. Differential uptake of endosulfan in the South American toad under sublethal exposure.

    PubMed

    Svartz, Gabriela; Marino, Damián; Ronco, Alicia; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2015-07-01

    Agroecosystems are usually polluted with a wide variety of contaminants with pesticides being very frequently detected. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, has been shown to cause both lethal and sublethal effects on aquatic organisms such as amphibians and especially on its early developmental stages. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan and its correlation with differential sensitivity in the early development stages of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum. Embryos and larvae were exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan for several periods of exposures. According to the developmental stage at which they were exposed, the uptake rate was different. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for embryos significantly decreased with exposure time and concentration (p < 0.05) reaching a BCF of ≤1679 for embryos at 96 h of exposure to 0.001 mg endosulfan L(-1). BCFs for larvae significantly increased with exposure time (p < 0.05) obtaining a maximum of 40 at 504 h. In our previous study, we reported that embryos were less sensitive to the effects of endosulfan than larvae, which is in line with the main tendency of embryos to bioconcentrate endosulfan as observed in this study.

  10. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  11. Field guide to malformations of frogs and toads, with radiographic interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol U.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, students found numerous malformed frogs on a field trip to a Minnesota pond. Since that time, reports of malformed frogs have increased dramatically. Malformed frogs have now been reported in 44 states in 38 species of frogs, and 19 species of toads. Estimates as high as 60% of the newly metamorphosed frog populations have had malformations at some ponds (NARCAM, ’99). The wide geographic distribution of malformed frogs and the variety of malformations are a concern to resource managers, research scientists and public health officials. The potential for malformations to serve as a signal of ecosystem disruption, and the affect this potential disruption might have on other organisms that share those ecosystems, has not been resolved. Malformations represent an error that occurred early in development. The event that caused the developmental error is temporally distant from the malformation we see in the fully developed animal. Knowledge of normal developmental principles is necessary to design thoughtful investigations that will define the events involved in abnormal development in wild frog populations.

  12. Phylogeography and demography of Guianan harlequin toads (Atelopus): diversification within a refuge.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Brice P; Gaucher, Philippe

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the genetic structure of populations of Guianan harlequin toads (genus Atelopus) and their evolutionary affinities to extra-Guianan congeners. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene sequences produced well-supported clades largely corresponding to the four recognized taxa in the Guianas (Atelopus spumarius hoogmoedi, Atelopus spumarius barbotini, Atelopus franciscus, and Atelopus flavescens). Our findings suggest that the Guianan A. spumarius represent distinct evolutionary lineages that merit distinction from Amazonian conspecifics, and that the status of A. flavescens and A. franciscus is somewhat less clear. Approximately 69% of the observed genetic variation is accounted for by differences between these four recognized taxa. Coalescent-based estimates of gene flow between taxa suggest that these lineages are largely isolated from one another. Negligible rates of migration between populations and significant divergence within such close proximity suggests that although the region inhabited by these taxa is almost entirely undisturbed, significant habitat heterogeneity exists as to have produced a remarkable diversification of Atelopus within the eastern Guiana Shield. These results contradict the commonly held view of the Guiana Shield as a 'refuge' whose stability during late Tertiary and Quaternary climatic fluctuations served as a biotic reservoir. Instead, we provide evidence that climatic fluctuations during this time had a diversifying effect within the Guianan region.

  13. Parallel evolution and ecological selection: replicated character displacement in spadefoot toads

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amber M.; Leichty, Aaron R.; Pfennig, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological character displacement—trait evolution stemming from selection to lessen resource competition between species—is most often inferred from a pattern in which species differ in resource-use traits in sympatry but not in allopatry, and in which sympatric populations within each species differ from conspecific allopatric populations. Yet, without information on population history, the presence of a divergent phenotype in multiple sympatric populations does not necessarily imply that there has been repeated evolution of character displacement. Instead, such a pattern may arise if there has been character displacement in a single ancestral population, followed by gene flow carrying the divergent phenotype into multiple, derived, sympatric populations. Here, we evaluate the likelihood of such historical events versus ongoing ecological selection in generating divergence in trophic morphology between multiple populations of spadefoot toad (Spea multiplicata) tadpoles that are in sympatry with a heterospecific and those that are in allopatry. We present both phylogenetic and population genetic evidence indicating that the same divergent trait, which minimizes resource competition with the heterospecific, has arisen independently in multiple sympatric populations. These data, therefore, provide strong indirect support for competition's role in divergent trait evolution. PMID:19726477

  14. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    PubMed Central

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-01-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [Ma] and expected heterozygosity [HE]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (Fst ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (Ma from 13.6 to 8.3, HE from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period. PMID:22957202

  15. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-08-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [M(a)] and expected heterozygosity [H(E)]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (F(st) ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (M(a) from 13.6 to 8.3, H(E) from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period.

  16. Presynaptic effect of a methanolic extract of toad (Rhinella schneideri) poison in avian neuromuscular preparation.

    PubMed

    Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2011-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of a methanolic extract of toad (Rhinella schneideri) poison was examined in chick biventer cervicis preparations. The methanolic extract (1, 3, 10 and 30µg/ml) caused concentration-dependent blockade at the three highest concentrations (time for 50% blockade, mean±SEM: 84±10, 51±3 and 12±0.8min for 3, 10 and 30µg/ml, respectively; n=6-8 each) that was preceded by significant, transient facilitation at 10μg/ml. Contractures to exogenous ACh (110μM) or KCl (20mM) were unaffected by the blockade. In curarized (d-Tc, 1μg/ml) preparations, the extract (10µg/ml) caused complete, irreversible blockade that persisted after extensive washing. The extract did not significantly alter the creatine kinase release or morphology of biventer cervicis muscle. These results indicate that the methanolic extract of R. schneideri poison acts primarily presynaptically to enhance neurotransmitter release in this avian preparation.

  17. High degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Japanease common toad Bufo japonicus in urban Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hase, Kazuko; Shimada, Masakazu; Nikoh, Naruo

    2012-10-01

    The Japanese common toad Bufo japonicus is widely distributed across mainland Japan and is classified into two subspecies, B. japonicus japonicus and B. japonicus formosus, in the western and eastern regions, respectively. To investigate the genetic diversity of B. japonicus at the breeding pond (local population) level, we sequenced 831 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) from 75 individuals collected from nine ponds in urban Tokyo and the surrounding area. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed high mtDNA haplotype diversity (Hd, 0.716 (mean) ± 0.230 (SD)) within local populations (breeding ponds). Most local populations had multiple haplotypes of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene, and seven of the 18 haplotypes were identified in two or more local populations. These results indicate that mitochondrial gene flow had occurred across different breeding sites. We also identified five haplotypes that belonged to the western clade and correspond to B. japonicus japonicus. Our results provide genetic evidence that B. japonicus japonicus was introduced artificially from Western Japan to Tokyo, where it occupied the natural habitat of B. japonicus formosus. The urban Tokyo area was found to represent an admixed population consisting of both native and non-native B. japonicus subspecies.

  18. The Role of Potassium in Active Transport of Sodium by the Toad Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Essig, Alvin; Leaf, Alexander

    1963-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the isolated urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, in order to explain the dependence of active sodium transport on the presence of potassium, in the serosal medium. Attempts to obtain evidence for coupled sodium-potassium transport by the serosal pump were unsuccessful; no relation between sodium transport and uptake of K42 from the serosal medium was demonstrable. Rather, the predominant effect of serosal potassium appeared to be operative at the mucosal permeability barrier, influencing the permeability of this surface to sodium. The mucosal effects of serosal potassium were correlated with effects on cellular cation content. When sodium Ringer's solution was used as serosal medium, removal of potassium resulted in significant decrease in tissue potassium content, commensurate increase in tissue sodium content, and marked depression of mucosal permeability and sodium transport. When choline replaced sodium in the serosal medium, removal of potassium resulted in only slight alterations of tissue electrolyte content, and effects on mucosal permeability and sodium transport were minimal. PMID:19873552

  19. Topographic separation of adenylate cyclase and hormone receptors in the plasma membrane of toad erythrocyte ghosts

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, N.; Hollenberg, M. D.; Bennett, V.; Cuatrecasas, P.

    1977-01-01

    Brief sonication of whole erythrocyte plasma membranes (ghosts) from toads at 4° does not inactivate adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing); EC 4.6.1.1] or destroy the receptor binding properties of hydroxybenzylpindolol or insulin. The hormonal (but not the fluoride-induced) stimulation of this enzyme is, however, lost. Fractionation of the small, resealed membrane fragments (vesicles) on discontinuous sucrose gradients results in the separation of vesicle populations differing grossly in size and protein composition. In addition, the distribution of the β-adrenergic receptor, an insulin binding site, and adenylate cyclase among these vesicles fractions differs. The pattern of distribution of these functional structures can be altered differentially by manipulations of the ghosts before sonication. For example, brief preincubation with isoproterenol leads to a change in the relative distribution of β-receptor (but not adenylate cyclase) among the various vesicle fractions; this effect is not obtained with β-receptor antagonists, which block the isoproterenol effect. Exposure of the ghosts to different temperatures, changes in the divalent cation composition of the medium, or the addition of ATP also leads to changes in the distribution of surface markers of the subsequently formed vesicles. The results indicate gross asymmetries in the distribution of protein components within the plane of the membrane and raise important questions regarding the manner whereby functionally related and coupled components, such as hormone receptors and adenylate cyclase, interact. Images PMID:197522

  20. Composition of fatty oils from semen ziziphi spinosae and its cardiotonic effect on isolated toad hearts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Wuqin; Zhang, Mingchun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the composition of fatty oil from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and its cardiotonic activity on the heart isolated from a toad were studied. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions of fatty oil were prepared by the perfusion method. The fatty oil had a positive inotropic effect on isolated rat hearts at a concentration between 5 × 10(-3) and 2 × 10(-2) mL/10 mL, and the effect was in positive correlation with the concentration of calcium ions. In addition, this effect was inhibited by 2 mg/mL nifedipine, suggesting that the cardiotonic mechanism could be responsible for accelerating the inflow of calcium ions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the main constituents of the fatty oil were 9-octadecenoic acid (43.32%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (42.57%), hexadecanoic acid (4.76%), 9-eicosenoic acid (2.95%), stearic acid (2.41%) and arachidic acid (0.81%). This preliminary study revealed that the fatty oil of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae exhibited remarkable cardiotonic activity in the tested models, and it is necessary to further reveal the effective substances of the fatty oil.

  1. Epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid inhibit vasopressin response in toad bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Schlondorff, D.; Petty, E.; Oates, J.A.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN )

    1987-09-01

    In addition to cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, the kidney can also metabolize arachidonic acid by a NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 enzyme to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs); furthermore, 5,6-EET has been shown to alter electrolyte transport across isolated renal tubules. The authors examined the effects of three ({sup 14}C-labeled)-EETs (5,6-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET) on osmotic water flow across toad urinary bladder. All three EETs reversibly inhibited vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water flow with 5,6- and 11,12-EET being the most potent. The effects appeared to be independent of prostaglandins EETs inhibited the water flow response to forskolin but not the response to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or 8-BrcAMP, consistent with an effect on cAMP generation. To determine whether these effects were due to the EETs or to products of their metabolism, they examined the effects of their vicinal diol hydrolysis products, the dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. Nonenzymatic conversion of labeled 5,6-EET to its vicinal diol occurred rapidly in the buffer, whereas 11,12-EET was hydrolyzed in a saturable manner only when incubated in the presence of bladder tissue. The dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids formed inhibited water flow in a manner paralleling that of the EETs. The data support the hypothesis that EETs and their physiologically active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolites inhibit vasopressin-stimulated water flow predominantly via inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

  2. Aldosterone increases the apical Na sup + permeability of toad bladder by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, C.; Garty, H. )

    1988-10-01

    The aldosterone-induced augmentation of Na{sup +} transport in toad bladder was analyzed by comparing the hormonal actions on the transepithelial short-circuit current and on the amiloride-sensitive {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in isolated membrane vesicles. Incubating bladders with 0.5 {mu}M aldosterone for 3 hr evoked more than a 2-fold increase of the short-circuit current but had no effect on the amiloride-sensitive Na{sup +} transport in apical vesicles derived from the treated tissue. A longer incubation produced an additional augmentation of the short-circuit current, which was accompanied by about a 3-fold increase of the channel activity in isolated membranes. The stimulatory effect of aldosterone sustained in vesicles was inhibited by the antagonist spironolactone and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. It is suggested that aldosterone elevates the apical Na{sup +} permeability of target epithelia by two different mechanisms: a relatively fast effect which is insensitive to triiodothyronine or butyrate and is not sustained by the isolated membrane, and a slower or later response blocked by these reagents, which is preserved by the isolated membrane. The data also indicate that these processes are mediated by different nuclear receptors.

  3. Toxicity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos to the South American toad Rhinella arenarum at larval developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Liendro, Natacha; Ferrari, Ana; Mardirosian, Mariana; Lascano, Cecilia I; Venturino, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an insecticide widely used for pest control in the fruit-productive region of North Patagonia, Argentina, where it is found in superficial waters. The aim of this study was to establish the toxic effects of CPF in Rhinella arenarum toad larvae as a potentially exposed species. We determined the 96 h-LC50 (1.46 ± 0.27 mg/L), the LOEC (0.81 mg/L, LC10) and NOEC (0.43 mg/L, LC1) for CPF lethality as endpoint. We also analyzed biochemical biomarkers in larvae exposed to sublethal CPF concentrations. The IC50 for cholinesterase was 0.113 ± 0.026 mg/L, one order of magnitude lower than the LC50. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited, buffering OP toxicity on cholinesterase. Reduced glutathione increased after 24h as an antioxidant response, and decreased at 96 h together with catalase activity, due to oxidative stress. These biochemical effects suggest that environmentally relevant CPF concentrations pose a threat to R. arenarum larvae progression.

  4. Toxicity of endosulfan on embryo-larval development of the South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Svartz, Gabriela V; Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Coll, Cristina S Pérez

    2014-04-01

    Endosulfan is a widely used pesticide despite its extreme toxicity to a variety of taxa and its worldwide ban. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of endosulfan on the embryonic-larval development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum. The results showed that lethal and sublethal effects increased with concentration and exposure time. The sensitivity to endosulfan increased during the larval period, the complete operculum stage (S.25) being the most sensitive (504-h median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.01 mg endosulfan/L; 10% lethal concentration [LC10] = 0.004 mg endosulfan/L). Endosulfan exposure caused morphological abnormalities such as general underdevelopment, edema, gill malformations, and cellular dissociation as well as neurotoxicity. Our results also showed that larvae exposed to concentrations of 0.005 mg endosulfan/L and 0.01 mg endosulfan/L completed metamorphosis earlier than controls, but with underdevelopment. The 240-h teratogenic index was 6.13, implying a high risk for embryos to be malformed in the absence of significant embryonic lethality. Because the hazard quotients for chronic exposure were over 1, the level of concern value and toxicity endpoints obtained in the present study for R. arenarum occurred at concentrations lower than the levels of endosulfan reported in the environment, this pesticide should be considered a potential risk for this species.

  5. The toxicity of glyphosate alone and glyphosate-surfactant mixtures to western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Kim; Davidson, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide choice based on toxicity to nontarget wildlife is reliant on available toxicity data. Despite a number of recent studies examining the effects of glyphosate on amphibians, very few have aimed to understand the toxicological effects of glyphosate in combination with surfactants as it is commonly applied in the field. Land managers interested in making pesticide choices based on minimizing impacts to nontarget wildlife are hindered by a lack of published toxicity data. Short-term acute toxicity trials were conducted for glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt (IPA) alone and mixed with 2 surfactants: Agri-dex and Competitor with western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas) tadpoles. Glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor was 6 times more toxic than glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex, and both mixtures were more toxic than glyphosate IPA alone. The median lethal concentrations reported for 24-h and 48-h exposures were 8279 mg/L (24 h) and 6392 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA alone; 5092 mg/L (24 h) and 4254 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex; and 853 mg/L (24 h) and 711 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor. The present study indicates that the toxicity of a tank mix may be greatly increased by the addition of surfactants and may vary widely depending on the specific surfactant.

  6. Ultrastructural and molecular changes in the developing small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Sakr, S A; Badawy, G M; El-Borm, H T

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  7. Protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate water flow in vasopressin-stimulated toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch, B.S.; Ast, M.B.; Fusco, M.J.; Jacoby, M.; Levine, S.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin stimulates the introduction of aggregated particles, which may represent pathways for water flow, into the luminal membrane of toad urinary bladder. It is not known whether water transport pathways are degraded on removal from membrane or whether they are recycled. The authors examined the effect of the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin using repeated 30-min cycles of vasopressin followed by washout of vasopressin, all in the presence of an osmotic gradient, a protocol that maximizes aggregate turnover. High dose cycloheximide inhibited flow immediately. Low dose cycloheximide did not affect initial flow. In the absence of vasopressin, inhibition did not develop. Despite the inhibition of flow in vasopressin-treated tissues, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase ratio was elevated in cycloheximide-treated tissues, suggesting modulation at a distal site in the stimulatory cascade. ({sup 14}C)urea permeability was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin also inhibited water flow by the fourth challenge with vasopressin. The data suggest that protein synthesis inhibitors attenuate flow at a site that is distal to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, the reversal of inhibition in MIX-treated tissues suggests that the water pathway can be fully manifested given suitable stimulation. They conclude that either large stores of the transport system are available or that the transport system is extensively recycled on retrieval from the membrane.

  8. Neurotropic mesomycetozoean-like infection in larvae of the southern toad Anaxyrus terrestris in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Yasunari; Landsberg, Jan H

    2015-03-09

    As part of a state-wide multispecies survey of amphibian diseases, sampling was conducted at Archbold Biological Station, Venus, Florida, USA, on 15 April 2011. Gross examination of southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) larvae was unremarkable, but infections by a mesomycetozoean-like organism were observed in longitudinally sectioned routine haematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic slides. In 100% of the sectioned specimens examined (n = 5), a high density of the organism, representing several developmental stages, was found in the central nervous system, mainly in the spinal cord, brain, retina and optic nerve. No host inflammatory responses were found to be associated with the parasitic infection. Free, mature schizonts were occasionally found in the gill chamber and, more commonly, in the dorsal roof area. No organisms were found in other organs examined histologically, i.e. liver, kidney, heart, alimentary tract, exocrine pancreas and skeletal muscles. Presumptive mesomycetozoean ichthyophonids in anurans are usually reported to be pathogenic, especially affecting skeletal muscle tissue and causing death. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a similar organism infecting primarily the central nervous system in an amphibian.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the hybridizing fire-bellied toads, Bombina bombina and B. variegata.

    PubMed

    Szymura, J M; Uzzell, T; Spolsky, C

    2000-07-01

    Using five restriction enzymes, geographical variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Bombina bombina and B. variegata was studied in samples from 20 locations. Each restriction enzyme produced a species-specific fragment pattern. B. bombina haplotypes A and B were closely related to each other. In contrast, haplotypes A and B of B. variegata formed two distinct lineages. A very distinctive haplotype (C) was found in the Carpathian Mountains, whereas two other haplotypes, D and E (differing by a single AvaI site), were present in western Europe and the Balkans, respectively. Populations polymorphic for haplotypes D and E occurred in the central Balkans where the haplotypes could replace each other clinally. mtDNA sequence divergence between B. bombina and B. variegata was estimated as 6.0-8.1% and 4.7-5.2% between type C and types D/E of B. variegata. The latter divergence is contrary to allozyme and morphological data that place the western and Carpathian B. v. variegata together (Nei's D = 0.07) and separate them from the Balkan subspecies B. v. scabra (Nei's D = 0.18). Broad interspecific correlation among morphology, allozymes and mtDNA types in European fire-bellied toads argues that, despite continuous hybridization (interrupted perhaps during Pleistocene glacial maxima), little or no mtDNA introgression between the species has occurred outside the narrow hybrid zones that separate these parapatric species.

  10. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad

    PubMed Central

    Wogan, Guinevere O. U.; Stuart, Bryan L.; Iskandar, Djoko T.; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) is a human commensal species that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia. We test the hypothesis that genetic variation in D. melanostictus is weakly associated with geography owing to natural and human-mediated dispersal facilitated by its commensal nature. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation, and predictive species distribution modelling, unexpectedly recovered three distinct evolutionary lineages that differ genetically and ecologically, corresponding to the Asian mainland, coastal Myanmar and the Sundaic islands. The persistence of these three divergent lineages, despite ample opportunities for recent human-mediated and geological dispersal, suggests that D. melanostictus actually consists of multiple species, each having narrower geographical ranges and ecological niches, and higher conservation value, than is currently recognized. These findings also have implications for the invasion potential of this human commensal elsewhere, such as in its recently introduced ranges on the islands of Borneo, Sulawesi, Seram and Madagascar. PMID:26763213

  11. About a Snail, a Toad, and Rodents: Animal Models for Adaptation Research

    PubMed Central

    Roubos, Eric W.; Jenks, Bruce G.; Xu, Lu; Kuribara, Miyuki; Scheenen, Wim J. J. M.; Kozicz, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Neural adaptation mechanisms have many similarities throughout the animal kingdom, enabling to study fundamentals of human adaptation in selected animal models with experimental approaches that are impossible to apply in man. This will be illustrated by reviewing research on three of such animal models, viz. (1) the egg-laying behavior of a snail, Lymnaea stagnalis: how one neuron type controls behavior, (2) adaptation to the ambient light condition by a toad, Xenopus laevis: how a neuroendocrine cell integrates complex external and neural inputs, and (3) stress, feeding, and depression in rodents: how a neuronal network co-ordinates different but related complex behaviors. Special attention is being paid to the actions of neurochemical messengers, such as neuropeptide Y, urocortin 1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. While awaiting new technological developments to study the living human brain at the cellular and molecular levels, continuing progress in the insight in the functioning of human adaptation mechanisms may be expected from neuroendocrine research using invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. PMID:22649351

  12. The role of glutathion conjugation in the regulation of early toad embryos' tolerance to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, O L; Caballero de Castro, A; Pechen de D'Angelo, A M

    2001-01-01

    Reduced glutathion (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GSH S-transferase) activity were investigated in developing toad embryos exposed to parathion, malathion, lindane and dieldrin. The embryonic GSH content was reduced after 96 h of incubation with 20.00 ppm malathion and 2.00 ppm lindane. Parathion and dieldrin did not produce any change. A similar effect was obtained in advanced stages of development (6-days larvae), but only with malathion. No correlation between the decrease in GSH level and mortality or morphologic abnormalities was observed. The four pesticides increased the activity of GSH S-transferase indicating that the enzyme is susceptible to induction during early development. The higher effect depicted by malathion may be related with an enhanced conjugation of the pesticide. Both GSH decrease and GSHS-transferase induction modifies the cell redox status and may indirectly influence transcription and translation. The early expression of GST genes provides the embryo with a useful mechanism for the regulation of tolerance against chemical stress.

  13. The action of local anesthetics on myelin structure and nerve conduction in toad sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Mateu, L; Morán, O; Padrón, R; Borgo, M; Vonasek, E; Márquez, G; Luzzati, V

    1997-06-01

    X-ray scattering and electrophysiological experiments were performed on toad sciatic nerves in the presence of local anesthetics. In vitro experiments were performed on dissected nerves superfused with Ringer's solutions containing procaine, lidocaine, tetracaine, or dibucaine. In vivo experiments were performed on nerves dissected from animals anesthesized by targeted injections of tetracaine-containing solutions. In all cases the anesthetics were found to have the same effects on the x-ray scattering spectra: the intensity ratio of the even-order to the odd-order reflections increases and the lattice parameter increases. These changes are reversible upon removal of the anesthetic. The magnitude of the structural changes varies with the duration of the superfusion and with the nature and concentration of the anesthetic molecule. A striking quantitative correlation was observed between the structural effects and the potency of the anesthetic. Electron density profiles, which hardly showed any structural alteration of the unit membrane, clearly indicated that the anesthetics have the effect of moving the pairs of membranes apart by increasing the thickness of the cytoplasmic space. Electrophysiological measurements performed on the very samples used in the x-ray scattering experiments showed that the amplitude of the compound action potential is affected earlier than the structure of myelin (as revealed by the x-ray scattering experiments), whereas conduction velocity closely follows the structural alterations.

  14. Effects of diltiazem on skinned skeletal muscle fibers of the African clawed toad.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, T; Endo, M

    1983-02-01

    To examine the effects of diltiazem and its l-cis isomer (which possesses only a weak Ca++-antagonistic action) on the contractile system and the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle, we used skinned fibers isolated from iliofibularis muscle of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. Diltiazem showed the following effects: an increase in the Ca++ sensitivity of the contractile system, a decrease in the maximal tension developed in a saturating concentration of Ca++, an inhibition of Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, an inhibition of Ca++ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by caffeine, and an increase in the Ca++ permeability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The effects of the l-cis isomer were similar to those of diltiazem, and the potencies of the two substances were nearly equal, except with respect to the effect on the Ca++ release induced by caffeine: the l-cis isomer potentiated this type of Ca++ release. Diltiazem's effects on amphibian skinned skeletal muscle fibers may not be related qualitatively or quantitatively to the Ca++-antagonistic actions of the drug on mammalian cardiac and smooth muscles. The pharmacological spectrum of diltiazem on skinned skeletal muscle fibers is similar to that of some local anesthetics.

  15. Developmental toxicity and risk assessment of nonylphenol to the South American toad, Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Mariel, Aronzon Carolina; Alejandra, Babay Paola; Silvia, Pérez Coll Cristina

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of Nonylphenol, an emerging pollutant, on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum was stage and time dependent, thus Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50) for acute (96h), short-term chronic (168h) and chronic exposure (336h) were 1.06; 0.96 and 0.17mgNP/L from embryonic period (S.4), whereas for exposure from larvae (S.25), LC50 remained constant at 0.37mgNP/L from 96h to 168h, decreasing to 0.11mgNP/L at 336h. NOEC-168h for exposure from embryos was 0.025mgNP/L. The Teratogenic Potential (NOEC-lethality/NOEC-sublethal effects) was 23 times higher than the threshold value, indicating a high risk for embryos to be malformed in absence of significant lethality and representing a threat for the species conservation. By comparing with other amphibians, the early development of R. arenarum was very sensitive to NP. The results highlight the relevance of extending the exposure time and look for the most sensitive stage in order to perform the bioassays for conservation purposes.

  16. Molecular probes of phylogeny and biogeography in toads of the widespread genus Bufo.

    PubMed

    Maxson, L R

    1984-07-01

    Genetic relationships among 25 species of Central and South American Bufo and among representative North, Central, and South American, Asian, and African Bufo were probed, using the quantitative immunological technique of microcomplement fixation (MC'F) which indicated a clear separation of North, Central, and South American lineages of Bufo. The South American lineage likely diverged from the Central and North American lineages in the Eocene; the latter two lineages diverged later, probably in the mid-Oligocene. Some species groups of South American toads, defined on the basis of traditional morphological studies, are genetically quite similar within groups, whereas others are genetically divergent. The amount of albumin evolution does not appear to parallel the amount of karyotypic, morphological, ecological, or behavioral evolution documented. Comparisons suggest that the African lineages separated from the American and Asian lineages in the late Cretaceous, corresponding to the time of the final separation of Gondwanaland, the southern supercontinent including the modern continents of South America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, and India. The Asian lineages diverged from the lineage giving rise to all of the American species in the early Paleocene.

  17. Resolution of parameters in the equivalent electrical circuit of the sodium transport mechanism across toad skin.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, L C

    1977-01-28

    In amphibian epithelia, amiloride reduces net sodium transport by hindering the entry of sodium to the active transport mechanism, that is, by increasing the series resistance (Rser). Theoretically, therefore, analysis of amiloride-induced changes in potential differences and short-circuit current should yield numerical estimates of all the parameters in the equivalent electrical circuit of the sodium transport mechanism. The concept has been explored by analysis of such changes in toad skins (Xenopus laevis) bathed in hypotonic sulphate Ringer's, after exposure to varying doses of amiloride, or to amphotericin, dinitrophenol or Pitressin. The estimated values of Rser, of the electromotive force of the sodium pump (ENa), and of the shunt resistance (Rsh) were independent of the dose of amiloride employed. Skins bathed in hypotonic sulphate Ringer's exhibited a progressive rise in ENa. Amphotericin produced a fall in Rser, while dinitrophenol caused a fall in ENa; washout of the drugs reversed these effects. Pitressin produced a fall in both Rser and Rsh, with a rise in ENa. These results are in accord with earlier suggestions regarding the site(s) of action of these agents.

  18. Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract.

  19. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits.