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Sample records for adult chicken tissues

  1. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found.

  2. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    PubMed

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  3. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  4. Cellular and intracellular distribution of growth hormone in the adult chicken testis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, C G; Palma, L; Carranza, M; Harvey, S; Arámburo, C; Luna, M

    2011-07-01

    Endocrine actions of growth hormone (GH) have been implicated during the development of adult testicular function in several mammalian species, and recently intracrine, autocrine, and paracrine effects have been proposed for locally expressed GH. Previous reports have shown the distribution of GH mRNA and the molecular heterogeneity of GH protein in both adult chicken testes and vas deferens. This study provides evidence of the presence and distribution of GH and its receptor (GHR) during all stages of spermatogenesis in adult chicken testes. This hormone and its receptor are not restricted to the cytoplasm; they are also found in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. The pattern of GH isoforms was characterized in the different, isolated germ cell subpopulations, and the major molecular variant in all subpopulations was 17 kDa GH, as reported in other chicken extra-pituitary tissues. Another molecular variant, the 29 kDa moiety, was found mainly in the enriched spermatocyte population, suggesting that it acts at specific developmental stages. The co-localization of GH with the proliferative cell nuclear antigen PCNA (a DNA replication marker present in spermatogonial cells) was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. These results show for the first time that GH and GHR are present in the nuclei of adult chicken germinal cells, and suggest that GH could participate in proliferation and differentiation during the complex process of spermatogenesis.

  5. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    PubMed

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  6. Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria in an adult with chicken pox.

    PubMed

    Papalia, M A; Schwarer, A P

    2000-05-01

    Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria (PCH) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intravascular haemolysis causing haemoglobinuria. It is due to a biphasic haemolysin known as the Donath-Landsteiner antibody, which binds specifically to the P antigen of red blood cells at low temperatures, leading to complement activation and red cell lysis at 37 degrees C. PCH is a rare disease which predominantly affects the paediatric population, occurring mostly during viral infections. We report on what is possibly the first case of PCH in an adult to be precipitated by chicken pox infection.

  7. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein and mRNA are both differentially expressed in adult chickens but not chick embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, R J; Brow, M D; Cleveland, D W; Shinnick, T M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the 679 nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone which, by hybridization-translation experiments, corresponds to a 36K chick brain protein. Our studies provide a partial amino acid sequence for this protein, identifying it as chicken glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Antisera raised against purified chicken GAPDH reacted with a 36K protein present in chick brain extracts and estimated to be the fourth most prevalent protein, as determined by either Coomassie Blue staining or by in vitro translation of chick brain mRNA. The amounts of GAPDH mRNA in chick brain, liver and muscle and adult chicken brain are similar, whereas the relative amount of adult chicken muscle GPDH mRNA is greatly elevated and that of adult liver lowered. The GAPDH protein levels showed a similar variation between tissues, suggesting that the levels of GAPDH protein are largely regulated by the amount of available GAPDH mRNA. The chicken GAPDH clone does not hybridize to rat mRNA, even though GAPDH is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins, indicating that selection pressures are heavier at the primary protein sequence level than at the nucleic acid sequence level for this gene, a situation contrasting to that of the tubulins. Images PMID:6687938

  8. Three isozymes of peptidylarginine deiminase in the chicken: molecular cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Akira; Handa, Kenji; Honda, Tomonori; Abe, Naoki; Kojima, Toshio; Takahara, Hidenari

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC 3.5.3.15) is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline (deimination) in a calcium ion dependent manner. Although PADI genes are widely conserved among vertebrates, their function in the chicken is poorly understood. Here, we cloned and sequenced three chicken PADI cDNAs and analyzed the expression of their proteins in various tissues. Immunoblotting analysis showed that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 were present in cells of several central neuron system tissues including the retina; the chicken PAD2 protein was not detected in any tissue. We expressed recombinant chicken PADs in insect cells and characterized their enzymatic properties. The chicken PAD1 and PAD3 recombinant proteins required calcium ions as an essential cofactor for their catalytic activity. The two recombinant proteins showed similar substrate specificities toward synthetic arginine derivatives. By contrast to them, chicken PAD2 did not show any activity. We found that one of the conserved active centers in mammalian PADs had been altered in chicken PAD2; we prepared a reverse mutant but we did not detect an activity. We conclude that chicken PAD1 and PAD3 might play specific roles in the nervous system, but that chicken PAD2 might not be functional under normal physiological conditions.

  9. Public Health Risk of Arsenic Species in Chicken Tissues from Live Poultry Markets of Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2017-03-21

    Arsenic-based feed additives, such as roxarsone (ROX), are still legally and widely used in food animal production in many countries. This study was conducted to systematically characterize the content and speciation of arsenic in chicken tissues from live poultry markets and in commercial chicken feeds in Guangdong, a major poultry production and consumption province in China, and to assess the corresponding public health risk. The total arsenic contents in the commercial feeds could be modeled as a mixture of two log-normal distributions (geometric means: 0.66 and 17.5 mg/kg), and inorganic arsenic occurred at high levels (0.19-9.7 mg/kg) in those with ROX detected. In general, chicken livers had much higher contents of total arsenic compared to the muscle tissues (breast and drumstick), and chicken muscle from the urban markets contained arsenic at much higher levels than that from the rural markets. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (bladder and lung cancer) from dietary exposure to arsenic contained in chicken meat products on local markets was above the serious or priority level (10(-4)) for 70% and 30% of the adult populations in Guangzhou and Lianzhou, respectively. These findings indicate the significant need to phase out the use of arsenic-based feed additives in China.

  10. Tissue distribution and molecular characterization of chicken isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Peru.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Levy, M Z; Sreekumar, C; Kwok, O C H; Shen, S K; Dahl, E; Thulliez, P; Lehmann, T

    2004-10-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Peru was 26% on the basis of the modified agglutination test (MAT). Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of seropositive (MAT > or =1:5) chickens were bioassayed individually in mice. Tissues from the remaining 37 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 2 T. gondii-free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts; they did not shed oocysts. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the hearts of 10 seropositive chickens but not from their brains and pectoral muscles. Genotyping of these isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 7 isolates were type I and 3 were type III. Six of the 7 type-I isolates were avirulent for mice, which was unusual because type-I isolates are considered virulent for mice. The T. gondii isolates were from chickens from different properties that were at least 200 m apart. Thus, each isolate is likely to be different. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Peru.

  11. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  12. Comparison of the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of monensin and salinomycin in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Henri, J; Maurice, R; Postollec, G; Dubreil-Cheneau, E; Roudaut, B; Laurentie, M; Sanders, P

    2012-02-01

    The current study describes the pharmacokinetic parameters of two carboxylic polyether ionophores: monensin in turkeys and salinomycin in chickens. These data can be used to understand and predict the occurrence of undesirable residues of coccidiostats in edible tissues of these animal species. Special attention is paid to the distribution of residues between the different edible tissues during and at the end of the treatment period. For the bioavailability studies, monensin was administered to turkeys intravenously, in the left wing vein, at a dose of 0.4 mg /kg and orally at a dose of 20 mg /kg. Salinomycin was administered to chickens intravenously, in the left wing vein, at a dose of 0.25 mg /kg and orally at a dose of 2.5 mg /kg. Residue studies were carried out with supplemented feed at the rate of 100 mg /kg of feed for monensin in turkeys and 70 mg /kg for salinomycin in chickens, respectively. Coccidiostats had a low bioavailability in poultry (around 30% for monensin in chickens, around 1% for monensin in turkeys and around 15% for salinomycin in chickens). Monensin in chickens had a longer terminal half-life (between 3.07 and 5.55 h) than both monensin in turkeys (between 1.36 and 1.55 h) and salinomycin in chickens (between 1.33 and 1.79 h). The tissue /plasma partition coefficients showed a higher affinity of both monensin and salinomycin for fat, followed by liver and muscle tissue. The depletion data showed a fairly rapid elimination of coccidiostats in all the tissues after cessation of treatment. According to the results of depletion studies, a withdrawal period of 1 day seems sufficient to avoid undesirable exposure of consumers.

  13. Autophagy benefits the replication of Newcastle disease virus in chicken cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Na; Meng, Chunchun; Meng, Songshu; Zhang, Shilei; Zhan, Yuan; Qiu, Xusheng; Tan, Lei; Chen, Hongjun; Song, Cuiping; Ding, Chan

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an important avian pathogen. We previously reported that NDV triggers autophagy in U251 glioma cells, resulting in enhanced virus replication. In this study, we investigated whether NDV triggers autophagy in chicken cells and tissues to enhance virus replication. We demonstrated that NDV infection induced steady-state autophagy in chicken-derived DF-1 cells and in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, evident through increased double- or single-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 dots, and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. In addition, we measured autophagic flux by monitoring p62/SQSTM1 degradation, LC3-II turnover, and GFP-LC3 lysosomal delivery and proteolysis, to confirm that NDV infection induced the complete autophagic process. Inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference reduced virus replication, indicating an important role for autophagy in NDV infection. Furthermore, we conducted in vivo experiments and observed the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of NDV-infected chickens. Regulation of the induction of autophagy with wortmannin, chloroquine, or starvation treatment affects NDV production and pathogenesis in tissues of both lung and intestine; however, treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer of mammalian cells, showed no detectable changes in chicken cells and tissues. Moreover, administration of the autophagy inhibitor wortmannin increased the survival rate of NDV-infected chickens. Our studies provide strong evidence that NDV infection induces autophagy which benefits NDV replication in chicken cells and tissues.

  14. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  15. Observation of residues in tissues of chickens exposed to low dietary concentrations of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Čačková, Katarína; Bureš, Jiří; Vernerová, Eva; Hera, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    To investigate potential residues in tissues arising from naturally occurring low levels of chloramphenicol in plant material, feeding studies were conducted with chickens. A common chicken feed was prepared containing 0, 10, 50 and 200 μg kg(-1) chloramphenicol and levels were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Four separate groups of broiler chickens, eight animals in each group, were fed all their 35-day life with this contaminated feed. They were allowed ad libitum access to this feed and fresh water. After slaughtering the chickens, the residues in muscle and liver tissues were determined using GC/MS-NCI method. No residues were detected in tissues of animals from groups fed with feed containing 0, 10 or 50 µg kg(-1). Low chloramphenicol residual concentrations were observed in a few of the muscle samples obtained from the group of chickens fed with feed containing chloramphenicol in added concentration 200 µg kg(-1). No residues were detected in the remaining samples of this group. These results indicate that when residues of chloramphenicol are detected it is in all probability through illegal use.

  16. Identification of the rate of chimerism of different tissues with microsatellite markers in chicken chimeras.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Maria; Sławińska, Anna; Łakota, Paweł; Grajewski, Bartosz; Wawrzyńska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Pławski, Andrzej; Słomski, Ryszard; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2010-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether private alleles can be defined in microsatellite markers for the breeds under investigation; to evaluate if these private alleles distinguish chicken chimera when using different tissues; to trace them back to the donor: Green-Legged Partridgelike and recipient: White Leghorn chicken breeds, and further on, to estimate the level of chimerism in each tissue. Private and common alleles were defined for donor and recipient chicken breeds in 3 loci. The rate of chimerism was defined based on private alleles present in liver, heart, breast muscle, femoral muscle and gonads. The highest rate of chimerism was observed in liver. A lower rate of chimersim was observed in gonads, and femoral muscle, and finally the lowest rate of chimerism was observed in breast muscle and heart.

  17. Systematic pathogenesis and replication of avian hepatitis E virus in specific-pathogen-free adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Billam, P; Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Elvinger, F; Guenette, D K; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. Due to the lack of a cell culture system and a practical animal model for HEV, little is known about its pathogenesis and replication. The discovery of a strain of HEV in chickens, designated avian HEV, prompted us to evaluate chickens as a model for the study of HEV. Eighty-five 60-week-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 chickens (n=28) were each inoculated with 5 x 10(4.5) 50% chicken infectious doses of avian HEV by the oronasal route, group 2 chickens (n=29) were each inoculated with the same dose by the intravenous (i.v.) route, and group 3 chickens (n=28) were not inoculated and were used as controls. Two chickens from each group were necropsied at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 35, and 42 days postinoculation (dpi), and the remaining chickens were necropsied at 56 dpi. Serum, fecal, and various tissue samples, including liver and spleen samples, were collected at each necropsy for pathological and virological testing. By 21 dpi, all oronasally and i.v. inoculated chickens had seroconverted. Fecal virus shedding was detected variably from 1 to 20 dpi for the i.v. group and from 10 to 56 dpi for the oronasal group. Avian HEV RNA was detected in serum, bile, and liver samples from both i.v. and oronasally inoculated chickens. Gross liver lesions, characterized by subcapsular hemorrhages or enlargement of the right intermediate lobe, were observed in 7 of 28 oronasally and 7 of 29 i.v. inoculated chickens. Microscopic liver lesions were mainly lymphocytic periphlebitis and phlebitis. The lesion scores were higher for oronasal (P=0.0008) and i.v. (P=0.0029) group birds than for control birds. Slight elevations of the plasma liver enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were observed in infected chickens. The results indicated that chickens are a useful model for studying HEV replication and pathogenesis. This is the first report of HEV transmission via its natural

  18. Effect of in ovo administration of an adult-derived microbiota on establishment of the intestinal microbiome in chickens.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Batal, Amy B; Lee, Margie D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of in ovo administration of a probiotic on development of the intestinal microbiota of 2 genetic lineages (modern and heritage) of chickens. SAMPLE 10 newly hatched chicks and 40 fertile eggs to determine intestinal microbiota at hatch, 900 fertile eggs to determine effects of probiotic on hatchability, and 1,560 chicks from treated or control eggs. PROCEDURES A probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota was administered in ovo to fertile eggs of both genetic lineages. Cecal contents and tissues were collected from embryos, newly hatched chicks, and chicks. A PCR assay was used to detect bacteria present within the cecum of newly hatched chicks. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and vitality staining were used to detect viable bacteria within intestines of embryos. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by use of 16S pyrosequencing. RESULTS Microscopic evaluation of embryonic cecal contents and tissues subjected to differential staining techniques revealed viable bacteria in low numbers. Development of the intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks of both genetic lineages was enhanced by in ovo administration of adult microbiota. Although the treatment increased diversity and affected composition of the microbiota of chicks, most bacterial species present in the probiotic were transient colonizers. However, the treatment decreased the abundance of undesirable bacterial species within heritage lineage chicks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In ovo inoculation of a probiotic competitive-exclusion product derived from adult microbiota may be a viable method of managing development of the microbiota and reducing the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in chickens.

  19. Isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from chickens in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J R; Bhaiyat, M I; de Allie, C; Macpherson, C N L; Sharma, R N; Sreekumar, C; Vianna, M C B; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C H; Miska, K B; Hill, D E; Lehmann, T

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 102 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Grenada was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 53 (52%) chickens with titers of 1:5 in 6, 1:10 in 4, 1:20 in 4, 1:40 in 4, 1:80 in 15, 1:160 in 9, 1: 320 in 5, 1:640 in 4, and 1:1,280 or greater in 2. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 43 seropositive chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or greater were bioassayed individually in mice. Tissues of each of 10 chickens with titers of 1:5 and 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice. Tissues from the remaining 49 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 4 T. gondii-free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts; they did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated from 35 of 43 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or greater; from the hearts, brains, and pectoral muscles of 2, hearts and brains of 20, from the hearts alone of 11, and brains alone of 2. T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 10 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10. All 36 T. gondii isolates were avirulent for mice. Genotyping of these 36 isolates using polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus indicated that 29 were Type III, 5 were Type I, 1 was Type II, and 1 had both Type I and Type III. Genetically, the isolates from Grenada were different from those from the United States; Type II was the predominant type from the United States. Phenotypically, all isolates from Grenada were avirulent for mice, whereas those from Brazil were mouse-virulent. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Grenada, West Indies.

  20. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken.

    PubMed

    Han, Haixia; Lei, Qiuxia; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6-8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens.

  1. Association between BMP15 Gene Polymorphism and Reproduction Traits and Its Tissues Expression Characteristics in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Gao, Jinbo; Liu, Wei; Li, Fuwei; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yan; Cao, Dingguo

    2015-01-01

    BMP15 (Bone morphogenetic protein 15) is an oocyte-secreted growth factor required for ovarian follicle development and ovulation in mammals, but its effects on reproduction in chickens are unclear. In this study, the association between BMP15 polymorphisms and reproduction traits were analyzed, and its expression characteristics in different tissues were explored in LaiWu Black chickens. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in four hundred LaiWu Black chickens. One SNP (NC_006091.3:g.1773T>C) located in exon 2 which was significantly associated with egg weight at first egg (EWFE) (P = 0.0389), was novel. Diplotypes based on the three SNPs were found to be significantly associated with egg weight at age of 43W (EW43) (P = 0.0058). The chickens with H3H3 diplotype had their first egg 0.57 days later than chickens with H5H5 diplotype and 1.21 days-3.96 days earlier than the other five diplotype chickens. The egg production at age of 43W (E43), egg production at age of 46W (E46) and egg production at age of 48W (E48) for chickens with H3H3 diplotype were the highest among all the chickens, and the E48 of chickens with H3H3 diplotype had 11.83 eggs higher than chickens with H1H5 diplotype. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression level of BMP15 gene in ovarian follicle was in the order of 4 mm>6 mm -8 mm> 15 mm -19 mm> 23 mm -29 mm > 33 mm -34 mm in diameter. The mRNA level in follicles of 4 mm and 6–8 mm in diameter were significantly higher than that in the other follicles (P<0.01). In the same week, the highest mRNA level was found in the ovary, and it was significantly different from that found in the liver and oviduct (P<0.01). Our results indicate that BMP15 plays a vital role in the development of ovary and follicles, especially in the development of primary follicles. H3H3 may be an potential advantageous molecular marker for improving reproduction traits in chickens. PMID:26574748

  2. Emerging POPs in Edible Tissues: ADME Study of BDE-47 in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in mammals have shown that lipophilic tissues such as adipose and skin are the major reservoirs for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE’s). Because humans commonly consume the skin of chicken, it was of interest to study the metabolic behavior of the most abundant PBDE found in biota, i.e....

  3. FSH stimulates lipid biosynthesis in chicken adipose tissue by upregulating the expression of its receptor FSHR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huanxian; Zhao, Guiping; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wen, Jie

    2012-05-01

    Transcripts and protein for follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were demonstrated in abdominal adipose tissue of female chickens. There was no expression of the Fsh gene, but FSH and FSHR colocalized, suggesting that FSH was receptor bound. Partial correlations indicted that changes in abdominal fat (AF) content were most directly correlated with Fshr mRNA expression, and the latter was directly correlated with tissue FSH content. These relationships were consistent with FSH inducing Fshr mRNA expression and with the finding that FSH influenced the accumulation of AF in chickens, a novel role for the hormone. Chicken preadipocytes responded linearly to doubling concentrations of FSH in Fshr mRNA expression and quantities of FSHR and lipid, without discernable effect on proliferation. Cells exposed to FSH more rapidly acquired adipocyte morphology. Treatment of young chickens with chicken FSH (4 mIU/day, subcutaneous, days 7-13) did not significantly decrease live weight but increased AF weight by 54.61%, AF as a percentage of live weight by 55.45%, and FSHR transcripts in AF by 222.15% (2 h after injection). In cells stimulated by FSH, genes related to lipid metabolism, including Rdh10, Dci, RarB, Lpl, Acsl3, and Dgat2, were expressed differentially, compared with no FSH. Several pathways of retinal and fatty acid metabolism, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling changed. In conclusion, FSH stimulates lipid biosynthesis by upregulating Fshr mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue of chickens. Several genes involved in fatty acid and retinal metabolism and the PPAR signaling pathway mediate this novel function of FSH.

  4. Metabolic study of enrofloxacin and metabolic profile modifications in broiler chicken tissues after drug administration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gutiérrez, F J; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the identification and distribution of the metabolites from enrofloxacin (ENR) in liver, kidney and muscle tissues from broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment was studied. In addition, qualitative analyses of changes in the metabolic profile in those tissues after drug administration were also investigated. As a result, a total of 31 different metabolites from ENR were identified, which ciprofloxacin (CIP) and desethylene-ENR were the major metabolites. After four days of withdrawal period, most of the metabolites were excreted, but residues of ENR and CIP still persisted in tissues at a concentration under the permitted maximum residue limit (MRL). Non-medicated, medicated and post-treatment samples of chicken tissues were clearly clustered according to their metabolite profile by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, which indicates that endogenous metabolites have not returned to their original levels after the withdrawal period. A total of 22 relevant mass features contributing to this separation as potential markers of chicken samples were tentatively identified.

  5. Formation of ortho-tyrosine by radiation and organic solvents in chicken tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, L.R.; Simic, M.G. )

    1990-07-15

    Fresh chicken breast and beef incubated in water were found to contain no o-Tyr at the current levels of detection (0.1 ppm) by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and selective ion monitoring. In contrast, samples incubated at 37{degrees}C in the presence of ethanol, benzene, or carbon tetrachloride (used in fat extraction) contained large quantities (2.5-5.1 ppm) of o-Tyr. No o-Tyr was detected in the water-insoluble fraction of meat treated with carbon tetrachloride after triple extraction by water. However, reaction of radiation generated .OH in gamma-irradiated fresh chicken tissue with endogenous phenylalanine yields o-Tyr with a linear yield-dose response in both water-soluble and -insoluble tissue fractions. Nonradiolytically generated .OH is suggested to be formed through a mitochondrion-mediated Haber-Weiss reaction in association with water-soluble proteins since the yields of o-Tyr in beef, a tissue with a higher mitochondrial content, are four times greater than in the chicken breast tissue.

  6. Fatty acid turnover rates in the adipose tissues of the growing chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Foglia, T A; Cartwright, A L; Gyurik, R J; Philips, J G

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mobility of fatty acids in adipose tissue of the chicken and to determine whether adipose tissue dynamics are altered by dietary repartitioning agents. To this end, the turnover rates of fatty acids and triglycerides were estimated in adipose tissue of growing chicks by using isopentadecanoic acid (IPDA) and elaidic acid (EA) as marker dietary fatty acids. The half-life of IPDA in abdominal and sartorial adipose tissues of birds over 6 to 10 wk of age were 20 +/- 4 and 23 +/- 6 d, respectively. The half-life for the remaining total carcass lipids was 23 +/- 3 d. The corresponding half-life for EA in abdominal fat tissue of birds over 2 to 7 wk of age was 18 +/- 3 d, a half-life not significantly different from the IPDA half-lives. On the other hand, a thyromimetic repartitioning agent (L-94901) fed to birds at the 2 ppm level from 2 to 7 wk of age significantly decreased the half-life of EA in abdominal fat tissue to 6 +/- 2 d. The data suggest that fatty acids were released from a more labile adipose site and subsequently reincorporated into abdominal and sartorial tissues and that fat mobilization occurred at the same time as did adipose tissue deposition in the growing chicken.

  7. Molecular and metabolic profiles suggest that increased lipid catabolism in adipose tissue contributes to leanness in domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bo; Middleton, Jesse L; Ernest, Ben; Saxton, Arnold M; Lamont, Susan J; Campagna, Shawn R; Voy, Brynn H

    2014-05-01

    Domestic broiler chickens rapidly accumulate fat and are naturally hyperglycemic and insulin resistant, making them an attractive model for studies of human obesity. We previously demonstrated that short-term (5 h) fasting rapidly upregulates pathways of fatty acid oxidation in broiler chickens and proposed that activation of these pathways may promote leanness. The objective of the current study was to characterize adipose tissue from relatively lean and fatty lines of chickens and determine if heritable leanness in chickens is associated with activation of some of the same pathways induced by fasting. We compared adipose gene expression and metabolite profiles in white adipose tissue of lean Leghorn and Fayoumi breeds to those of fattier commercial broiler chickens. Both lipolysis and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were upregulated in lean chickens compared with broilers. Although there were strong similarities between the lean lines compared with broilers, distinct expression signatures were also found between Fayoumi and Leghorn, including differences in adipogenic genes. Similarities between genetically lean and fasted chickens suggest that fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue is adaptively coupled to lipolysis and plays a role in heritable differences in fatness. Unique signatures of leanness in Fayoumi and Leghorn lines highlight distinct pathways that may provide insight into the basis for leanness in humans. Collectively, our results provide a number of future directions through which to fully exploit chickens as unique models for the study of human obesity and adipose metabolism.

  8. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Wang, L; Shen, X; Gu, X; Zeng, D; Zeng, Z

    2013-10-01

    The plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli were studied. Marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. Plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. In the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin concentrations in plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were 1.84, 1.33, 7.35, 5.61, 3.12, 2.98, and 4.51 g/mL (g); the elimination half-lives of marbofloxacin were 6.8, 2.74, 9.31, 8.45, 9.55, 11.53 and 5.46 h for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. AUC were calculated to be 9.68, 8.04, 45.1, 27.03, 20.56, 19.47, and 32.68 μg/mL (g) for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. Marbofloxacin concentration in tissues except for brain exceeded marbofloxacin concentration in plasma, with AUC(tissue) /AUC(plasma) ranging from 2.01 to 4.66 and Peak(tissue) /Peak(plasma) ranging from 1.62 to 3.99. The results showed that a marbofloxacin dosage of 5 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals may provide successful treatment of chicken with MG and E. coli infection.

  9. Tissue- and breed-specific expression of the chicken fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO).

    PubMed

    Song, C; Song, W T; Shu, J T; Tao, Z Y; Zhu, W Q; Di, C; Li, H F

    2015-09-08

    The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is involved in energy metabolism, but little is known about the chicken FTO gene. The objective of the current study was to detect chicken FTO expression patterns in the hypothalamus, liver, and skeletal muscle during development, and analyze the effects of age and breed on FTO expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results revealed that chicken FTO mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues tested. Chicken FTO exhibited tissue- and breed-specific patterns in the recessive White Plymouth Rock chicken and the Qingyuan partridge chicken. The highest FTO expression level was in the hypothalami of 1-week-old chicks. FTO mRNA was expressed more in the breast muscles and livers of recessive White Plymouth Rock chickens than those of Qingyuan partridge chickens at 1 and 8 weeks of age. These results indicate that FTO probably plays a significant role in energy metabolism at 1 week old, when chicks have undergone metabolic adaptations from yolk dependence to the utilization of exogenous feed.

  10. How Somatic Adult Tissues Develop Organizer Activity.

    PubMed

    Vogg, Matthias C; Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The growth and patterning of anatomical structures from specific cellular fields in developing organisms relies on organizing centers that instruct surrounding cells to modify their behavior, namely migration, proliferation, and differentiation. We discuss here how organizers can form in adult organisms, a process of utmost interest for regenerative medicine. Animals like Hydra and planarians, which maintain their shape and fitness thanks to a highly dynamic homeostasis, offer a useful paradigm to study adult organizers in steady-state conditions. Beside the homeostatic context, these model systems also offer the possibility to study how organizers form de novo from somatic adult tissues. Both extracellular matrix remodeling and caspase activation play a key role in this transition, acting as promoters of organizer formation in the vicinity of the wound. Their respective roles and the crosstalk between them just start to be deciphered.

  11. Distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in tissues of hens and chickens from Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Doganoc, D.Z.

    1996-12-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are environmental contaminants which are present in almost all living organisms and are non-essential for plants, animals and human beings. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element which occurs together with Cd and is linked with it. Little information exists about the contamination of tissues of hens and chickens with these elements. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in different tissues of poultry and eggs in Slovenia. 10 refs., 7 tabs.

  12. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: Seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lehmann, T; Lautner, F; Kwok, O C H; Gamble, H R

    2015-11-30

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chickens. In the present study 90 Toxoplasma gondii seronegative, sentinel chickens were placed on three (30 each) swine farms in New England in November, 2003. Chickens were bled monthly and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Chickens that seroconverted were euthanized and their tissues were bioassayed in mice, cats, or both. Over the course of the experiment (7 months), 31 of 71 chickens seroconverted (MAT 1:100 or higher). Tissues of 26 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in both cats and mice; viable T. gondii was isolated, by bioassay in mice, from hearts (whole) of all 26 chickens, brains (whole) of 3 chickens and leg muscles (25 g) of 11 chickens; 21 of 26 cats fed 250 g of muscle from seropositive chickens excreted T. gondii oocysts. Results indicated that the density of T. gondii in poultry muscle is low but heart is the tissue of choice for isolation of viable parasites.

  13. Heat Shock Protein Alteration in the Gastrointestinal Tract Tissues of Chickens Exposed to Arsenic Trioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhang, Kexin; Guo, Guangyang; Sun, Xiao; Chai, Hongliang; Zhang, Wen; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in our living environment and is useful for industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and other fields. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an existing form of As. Exposure to As2O3 has a toxic effect on humans and animals. It not only leads to skin cancer, peripheral vascular disease, hyperkeratosis, etc. but also interferes with the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract is an important organ for animals to transform the food they eat into the nutrients their body needs for maintenance and growth. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) exist in the non-stress normal cells and their expression increases under stimuli. Therefore, we wonder whether the "stimulus" of As2O3 could change the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance and expression level of Hsps in the gastrointestinal tract of birds. To investigate the relation between arseniasis and Hsp alterations in the chicken's gastrointestinal tract induced by an As2O3-supplemented diet, we selected 72 one-day-old male Hy-line chickens and randomly divided them into four groups. They were fed either a commercial diet or an As2O3-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days, and gastrointestinal tract tissue samples (gizzard, glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) were collected at 30, 60, and 90 days. The mRNA contents of Hsps (including Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were examined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The correlation between As2O3 and Hsp genes was assessed. In addition, the protein expression levels of Hsp60 and Hsp70 in the gastrointestinal tract tissue samples were measured by western blot. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels and the Hsp expression levels in the gastrointestinal tract tissues of chickens with As2O3 supplementation increased at different time points in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). These data suggested that arseniasis influenced the

  14. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  15. [Comparison of pretreatment methods for the simultaneous determination of diclazuril and toltrazuril residues in chicken tissues].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zuhao; Ge, Qinglian; Lu, Junxian; Liu, Xuexian; Gong, Jiansen; Zhu, Liangqiang; Qi, Kezong; Chen, Dingding; Peng, Kaisong

    2009-05-01

    The effects of four pretreatment methods (acetonitrile extraction-evaporation concentration, acetonitrile extraction-solid phase extraction (SPE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and MSPD-SPE) for the simultaneous analysis of diclazuril and toltrazuril residues in chicken tissues were compared. The average recovery of 70% for the former three methods as achieved. In comparison with other methods, the MSPD method saved more than 60% in time and solvent. So, MSPD as the sample pretreatment method, an MSPD-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (MSPD-HPLC/UV) method was established for the analysis. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the linear range was between 50 and 1,000 microg/kg. At the added levels of 50, 500, 1,000 ng/g, the recoveries of diclazuril and toltrazuril in chicken tissues ranged from 71.13% - 84.02% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) in the range of 3.76% - 12.11%, and the RSDs of intra- and interday analyses ranged from 3.70% - 6.77%. The detection limits of diclazuril and toltrazuril were less than 10 microg/kg. The quantitative limits of diclazuril and toltrazuril were less than 20 microg/kg. The method meet the requirements of the residue analysis on accuracy and precision.

  16. Hyperglycemia and non-enzymatic glycation of serum and tissue proteins in chickens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Holt, S B; McGowan, J A; Pinchasov, Y; Deyette, D; Peterson, R A

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of these studies were to determine whether elevated plasma glucose concentrations in broiler breeder chickens (200-250 mg/dl) can result in the non-enzymatic attachment of glucose to serum proteins (fructosamine) and eventual cross-linking of tissue proteins (basement membrane thickness), and to investigate the effects of a factor that may influence this cross-linking process. In response to feeding the satiety factor calcium propionate (CaP, 1.7%), plasma glucose and fructosamine concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) from 1 to 9 weeks of age, whereas concentrations of plasma glucose and fructosamine in feed-restricted chicks were reduced for the first 7 weeks after hatch. In a second study, the age-related increase in kidney capillary basement membrane thickness was prevented (P < 0.05) by feeding the cross-linking inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG, 800 ppm) to 30-week-old broiler breeder hens for 34 weeks. The results from these studies suggest that concentrations of plasma glucose in chickens may, in fact, be exerting long-term detrimental effects on tissue proteins, which can be ameliorated by factors that limit the cross-linking reaction.

  17. Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, V M; Ata, F A; Storz, J

    1976-01-01

    Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. PMID:1000377

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  19. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  20. General Information about Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  1. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ... superficial (in subcutaneous tissue with no spread into connective tissue or muscle below) or deep (in the muscle ...

  2. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p < 0.05); Ascaridia galli (69% of growers, 29% of adults); Syngamus trachea (14%, 3%); Tetrameres americana (94%, 82%); Trichostrongylus tenuis (43%, 7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (15%, 6%); Davainea proglottina (9%, 2%); and Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p < 0.05). There were significantly higher worm burdens (p < 0.05) in growers than in adults for A. galli, Capillaria caudinflata, R. tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  3. Expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in lipoprotein-synthesizing tissues of the developing chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Eresheim, Christine; Plieschnig, Julia; Ivessa, N Erwin; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Hermann, Marcela

    2014-06-01

    In contrast to mammals, in the chicken major sites of lipoprotein synthesis and secretion are not only the liver and intestine, but also the kidney and the embryonic yolk sac. Two key components in the assembly of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). We have analyzed the expression of MTP in the embryonic liver, small intestine, and kidney, and have studied the expression of MTP in, and the secretion of apoB from, the developing yolk sac (YS). Transcript and protein levels of MTP increase during embryogenesis in YS, liver, kidney, and small intestine, and decrease in YS, embryonic liver, and kidney after hatching. In small intestine, the MTP mRNA level rises sharply during the last trimester of embryo development (after day 15), while MTP protein is detectable only after hatching (day 21). In the YS of 15- and 20-day old embryos, apoB secretion was detected by pulse-chase metabolic radiolabeling experiments and subsequent immunoprecipitation. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of coordinated production of MTP and apoB in chicken tissues capable of secreting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins even before hatching.

  4. Persistence of chloramphenicol residues in chicken muscle tissue after a therapeutic dose administration.

    PubMed

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Bureš, Jiří; Vernerová, Eva; Hera, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    One-day-old chickens were individually orally treated with chloramphenicol at a dose of 100 mg per kg of body weight per day for three consecutive days. After the final treatment, the groups of six birds were sacrificed in seven-day intervals up to 42 days. The muscle tissue collected from the breasts and legs of each bird was individually examined for the presence of chloramphenicol residues using a GC/MS-NCI analytical method, which was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCα) obtained for the method was 0.05 ng g(-1). The results showed a rapid decrease of chloramphenicol concentration in the muscle tissue after termination of the treatment, but also showed a relatively long persistence of low residue concentrations. Levels of chloramphenicol in muscle tissue averaged 64 ng g(-1) seven days after the final treatment and fell to 0.21 ng g(-1) after 35 days. All animals tested on the 35th day after the final treatment showed detectable chloramphenicol concentrations above the decision limit of the method used. No residues were detected in the animal tissues 42 days after the end of the treatment.

  5. Ionic factors in release of 45Ca2+ from chicken cerebral tissue by electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, S M; Adey, W R; Sabbot, I M

    1978-01-01

    Electrical stimulation with radiofrequency fields amplitude-modulated at brain wave frequencies increased 45Ca2+ efflux from isolated chicken cerebral tissue. The response was not sensitive to variations of the calcium concentration (0-4.16 mM) in the bathing solution but was enhanced by addition of H+ (0.108 mM HCl) and inhibited in the absence of normal bicarbonate levels (2.4 mM). Addition of lanthanum to the bicarbonate-free solution restored electrical responsiveness, but the stimulus decreased instead of increasing 45Ca2+ efflux. It is suggested that low-frequency, weak, extracellular electric gradients may be transduced in a specific class of extracellular negative binding sites normally occupied by Ca2+ and susceptible to competitive H+ binding. PMID:282648

  6. Adult tissue sources for new β cells.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Robert J; New, Connie; Annes, Justin P

    2014-04-01

    The diabetes pandemic incurs extraordinary public health and financial costs that are projected to expand for the foreseeable future. Consequently, the development of definitive therapies for diabetes is a priority. Currently, a wide spectrum of therapeutic strategies-from implantable insulin delivery devices to transplantation-based cell replacement therapy, to β-cell regeneration-focus on replacing the lost insulin-producing capacity of individuals with diabetes. Among these, β-cell regeneration remains promising but heretofore unproved. Indeed, recent experimental work has uncovered surprising biology that underscores the potential therapeutic benefit of β-cell regeneration. These studies have elucidated a variety of sources for the endogenous production of new β cells from existing cells. First, β cells, long thought to be postmitotic, have demonstrated the potential for regenerative capacity. Second, the presence of pancreatic facultative endocrine progenitor cells has been established. Third, the malleability of cellular identity has availed the possibility of generating β cells from other differentiated cell types. Here, we review the exciting developments surrounding endogenous sources of β-cell production and consider the potential of realizing a regenerative therapy for diabetes from adult tissues.

  7. Halogenated flame retardants during egg formation and chicken embryo development: maternal transfer, possible biotransformation, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Hen muscle, eggs, and newborn chick tissues (muscle and liver) were collected from an electronic waste recycling site in southern China. The authors examined the maternal transfer, potential metabolism, and tissue distribution of several halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) during egg formation and chicken embryo development. The pollutant composition changes significantly from hen muscle to eggs and from eggs to tissues of newborn chicks. Higher-halogenated chemicals, such as octa- to deca-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, deca-polybrominated biphenyl (PBB209), and dechlorane plus (DP), are less readily transferred to eggs compared with lower-halogenated chemicals. During embryo development, PBDEs are the most likely to be metabolized, whereas decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) is the least. The authors also observed selective maternal transfer of anti-DP and stereoselective metabolism of syn-DP during chicken embryo development. During tissue development, liver has greater affinity than the muscle for chemcials with a high log octanol-water partition coefficient, with the exception of DBDPE. The differences in metabolism potential of different chemicals in chicken embryos cause pollutant composition alterations. Halogenated flame retardant from maternal transfer and tissue distribution also exhibited chemical specificity, especially for DBDPE. Levels of DBDPE were elevated along with the full process from hen muscle to eggs and from eggs to chick tissues. More attention should be paid to the selective accumulation and biotransformation of HFRs in the early development stage of birds.

  8. High-resolution mass spectrometry applied to the study of metabolome modifications in various chicken tissues after amoxicillin administration.

    PubMed

    Hermo, M P; Saurina, J; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2014-06-15

    The performance of high resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HRMS) operating in full scan MS mode was investigated for the quantitative determination of amoxicillin (AMX) as well as qualitative analysis of metabolomic profiles in tissues of medicated chickens. The metabolomic approach was exploited to compile analytical information on changes in the metabolome of muscle, kidney and liver from chickens subjected to a pharmacological program with AMX. Data consisting of m/z features taken throughout the entire chromatogram were extracted and filtered to be treated by Principal Component Analysis. As a result, it was found that medicated and non-treated animals were clearly clustered in distinct groups. Besides, the multivariate analysis revealed some relevant mass features contributing to this separation. In this context, recognizing those potential markers of each chicken class was a priority research for both metabolite identification and, obviously, evaluation of food quality and health effects associated to food consumption.

  9. [Radiotherapy of adult soft tissue sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Moureau-Zabotto, L; Llacer, C; Ducassou, A; Sargos, P; Sunyach, M P; Thariat, J

    2016-09-01

    Incidence of soft tissue sarcoma is low and requires multidisciplinary treatment in specialized centers. The objective of this paper is to report the state of the art regarding indications and treatment techniques of main soft tissue sarcoma localisations.

  10. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens.

    PubMed

    Janardhana, Vijaya; Broadway, Mary M; Bruce, Matthew P; Lowenthal, John W; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Bean, Andrew G D

    2009-07-01

    The recent European Union ban on the prophylactic use of in-feed antibiotics has escalated the search for alternatives for use within the poultry industry. When evaluating the efficacy of potential antibiotic alternatives on bird health and productivity, it is important to analyze the competence of the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), because it is routinely involved in the surveillance of colonizing microbes as well as in interacting with the ingested feed antigens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the prebiotics mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the phenotypic and functional competence of immune cells in cecal tonsil (CT), which is a major GALT. Day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomized to 4 groups. Control chickens were fed the basal diet only. Chickens in experimental groups received 0.05 g/kg zinc bacitracin or 5 g/kg of either FOS or MOS in addition to basal diet. At the end of 25 d, our comparison of the experimental groups with controls revealed that the addition of prebiotics to diet resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of B cells and in mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes in CT. Furthermore, FOS treatment significantly enhanced the IgM and IgG antibody titers in plasma. These findings emphasize the need for the analyses of the gut immune function following treatment with novel feed additives. The knowledge obtained from such analyses may aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the immune competence of the birds, which needs consideration when selecting and optimizing new feed additives instead of antibiotics for poultry production.

  11. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (−) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken. PMID:27819361

  12. Expressions of multiple umami taste receptors in oral and gastrointestinal tissues, and umami taste synergism in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuta; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-10-23

    Umami taste is one of the five basic taste qualities, along with sweet, bitter, sour, and salty, and is elicited by some l-amino acids and their salts, including monopotassium l-glutamate (MPG). The unique characteristic of umami taste is that it is synergistically enhanced by 5'-ribonucleotides such as inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Unlike the other four basic taste qualities, the presence of umami taste sense in avian species is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of multiple umami taste receptor candidates in oral and gastrointestinal tract tissues in chickens using RT-PCR analysis. We first showed the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed in these tissues. Furthermore, we examined the preference for umami taste in chickens, focusing on the synergistic effect of umami taste as determined by the two-feed choice test. We concluded that chickens preferred feed containing both added MPG and added IMP over feeds containing either added MPG or added IMP alone and over the control feed. These results suggest that the umami taste sense and synergism are conserved in chickens.

  13. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

  14. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (‑) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken.

  15. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseedmeal in the diets of broiler chickens*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  16. Development of a simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for multiresidue determination of antifungal drugs in chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing; Wu, Yongning; Duan, Hejun; Liu, Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    A method involving LC coupled with MS/MS (LC/MS/MS) was designed for simultaneous quantification of 10 antifungal drugs (voriconazole, griseofulvin, clotrimazole, bifonazole, econazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, terconazole, and fluconazole) in the liver and muscles of chickens. Homogenized tissue samples were extracted with acetonitrile and subsequently underwent freezing-delipidation. A Waters Acquity Ultra Performance LC BEH C18 column was used to separate the analytes, coupled with MS/MS using an electrospray ionization source. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with a mean recovery of 71-121%, and acceptable coefficients of variation (4-23%, n = 6). The detection capability of these compounds in two different matrixes was 0.50-2.82 microg/kg. This method can be applied for the screening and confirmation of target antifungal drugs in chicken tissues.

  17. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for six inorganic and organic arsenic species in chicken tissues using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-09-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for microwave-assisted extraction of six major inorganic and organic arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone) from chicken tissues, followed by detection using a high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry detection method, which allows the simultaneous analysis of both inorganic and organic arsenic species in the extract in a single run. Effects of extraction medium, solution pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, and the temperature and time of microwave-assisted extraction on the extraction of the targeted arsenic species were studied. The optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions were: 100 mg of chicken tissue, extracted by 5 mL of 22% v/v methanol, 90 mmol/L (NH4 )2 HPO4 , and 0.07% v/v trifluoroacetic acid (with pH adjusted to 10.0 by ammonium hydroxide solution), ramping for 10 min to 71°C, and holding for 11 min. The method has good extraction performance for total arsenic in the spiked and nonspiked chicken tissues (104.0 ± 13.8% and 91.6 ± 7.8%, respectively), except for the ones with arsenic contents close to the quantitation limits. Limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) for As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsenic acid, monomethyl arsenic acid, p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone in chicken tissues using this method were 0.012, 0.058, 0.039, 0.061, 0.102, and 0.240 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively.

  18. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor...

  19. Accelerated tissue aging and increased oxidative stress in broiler chickens fed allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Rathore, D S; Iqbal, M; Shi, X; Van Dyke, K

    2001-06-01

    Uric acid has been hypothesized as being one of the more important antioxidants in limiting the accumulation of glycosylated endproducts in birds. Study 1 was designed to quantitatively manipulate the plasma concentrations of uric acid using hemin and allopurinol while study 2 determined their effects on skin pentosidine, the shear force value of Pectoralis major muscle, plasma glucose, body weight and chemiluminescence monitored oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Hemin was hypothesized to raise uric acid concentrations thereby lowering oxidative stress whereas allopurinol was hypothesized to lower uric acid concentrations and raise measures of oxidative stress. In study 1 feeding allopurinol (10 mg/kg body weight) to 8-week-old broiler chicks (n=50) for 10 days decreased plasma uric acid by 57%. However, hemin (10 mg/kg body weight) increased uric acid concentrations 20%. In study 2, 12-week-old broiler chicks (n=90) were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum (AL) diet or a diet restricted (DR) group. Each group was further divided into three treatments (control, allopurinol or hemin fed). Unexpectedly, hemin did not significantly effect uric acid concentrations but increased (P<0.05) measures of chemiluminescence dependent oxidative stress in both the DR and AL birds probably due to the ability of iron to generate oxygen radicals. Allopurinol lowered concentrations of uric acid and increased (P<0.05) the oxidative stress in the AL birds at week 22, reduced (P<0.05) body weight in both the AL and DR fed birds at 16 and 22 weeks of age, and markedly increased (P<0.001) shear force values of the pectoralis major muscle. Skin pentosidine levels increased (P<0.05) in AL birds fed allopurinol or hemin fed birds, but not in the diet restricted birds at 22 weeks. The significance of these studies is that concentrations of plasma uric acid can be related to measures of oxidative stress, which can be linked to tissue aging.

  20. Chicken thymocyte-specific antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies: characterization and distribution in normal tissues and in tumoral tissues from Marek's disease chicken.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, O; Cauchy, L; Coudert, F; Richard, J

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained against purified thymocyte membrane extracts. Five MAbs TA3, TB1, TB6 (IgG1), TC4, and TA1 (IgG2a), were tested by immunofluorescence and by immunoperoxidase tests against normal cells from different organs, Marek's disease (MD) cell lines, and MD tumoral cells from chickens. Three of them, TA3, TB1, and TB6, reacted exclusively with lymphoid cells in both cortical and medullary areas of the thymus and with less than 8% bursa cells. They identified a protein of apparently 40 kD. The other two revealed antigenic determinants on most medullar thymocytes and some cortical thymocytes, and on some splenic and peripheral blood lymphocytes. They were positive with MD cell lines and cells deriving from MD tumors. TC4 and TA1 detected molecular masses of about 110 kD and 16 kD, respectively. No MAbs reacted with erythrocytes, bone marrow, liver, brain, and skin cells. Not all of the tested cells were stained after contact with an anti-chicken immunoglobulin serum. In this paper, we determine a specific antigen restricted to T cells from thymus and different markers belonging to the mature T cells. The latter are also present on MD cell lines and MD tumoral cells.

  1. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors.

    PubMed

    Belgard, T Grant; Montiel, Juan F; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Margulies, Elliott H; Ponting, Chris P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2013-08-06

    The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14-27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676-12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates.

  2. A long non-coding RNA promotes full activation of adult gene expression in the chicken α-globin domain.

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Canon, Cristian; Fonseca-Guzmán, Yael; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Arzate-Mejía, Rodrigo; Guerrero, Georgina; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were recently shown to regulate chromatin remodelling activities. Their function in regulating gene expression switching during specific developmental stages is poorly understood. Here we describe a nuclear, non-coding transcript responsive for the stage-specific activation of the chicken adult α(D) globin gene. This non-coding transcript, named α-globin transcript long non-coding RNA (lncRNA-αGT) is transcriptionally upregulated in late stages of chicken development, when active chromatin marks the adult α(D) gene promoter. Accordingly, the lncRNA-αGT promoter drives erythroid-specific transcription. Furthermore, loss of function experiments showed that lncRNA-αGT is required for full activation of the α(D) adult gene and maintenance of transcriptionally active chromatin. These findings uncovered lncRNA-αGT as an important part of the switching from embryonic to adult α-globin gene expression, and suggest a function of lncRNA-αGT in contributing to the maintenance of adult α-globin gene expression by promoting an active chromatin structure.

  3. The statistical and fractal properties of surface reflectivity of raw chicken tissue with application to public health safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Raji; Sullivan, R.; Schneider, P. S.; Flamholz, A.; Cheung, E.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Wong, P. K.; Lieberman, D. H.; Cheung, T. D.; Garcia, F.; Bewry, N.; Yee, A.

    2006-10-01

    Images of packaged raw chicken purchased in neighborhood supermarkets were captured via a digital camera in laboratory and home settings. Each image contained the surface reflectivity information of the chicken tissue. The camera's red, green and blue light signals fluctuated and each spectral signal exhibited a random series across the surface. The Higuchi method, where the length of each increment in time (or spatial) lag is plotted against the lag, was used to explore the fractal property of the random series. (Higuchi, T., "Approach to an irregular time series on the basis of fractal theory", Physica D, vol 31, 277-283, 1988). The fractal calculation algorithm was calibrated with the Weierstrass function. The standard deviation and fractal dimension were shown to correlate with the time duration that a package was left at room temperature within a 24-hour period. Comparison to packaged beef results suggested that the time dependence could be due microbial spoilage. The fractal dimension results in this study were consistent with those obtained from yeast cell, mammalian cell and bacterial cell studies. This analysis method can be used to detect the re-refrigeration of a "left-out" package of chicken. The extension to public health issues such as consumer shopping is also discussed.

  4. Analysis of gelsolin expression pattern in developing chicken embryo reveals high GSN expression level in tissues of neural crest origin.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Antonina Joanna; Morosan-Puopolo, Gabriela; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria; Nowak, Dorota; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Gelsolin is one of the most intensively studied actin-binding proteins. However, in the literature comprehensive studies of GSN expression during development have not been performed yet in all model organisms. In zebrafish, gelsolin is a dorsalizing factor that modulates bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathways, whereas knockout of the gelsolin coding gene, GSN is not lethal in murine model. To study the role of gelsolin in development of higher vertebrates, it is crucial to estimate GSN expression pattern during development. Here, we examined GSN expression in the developing chicken embryo. We applied numerous methods to track GSN expression in developing embryos at mRNA and protein level. We noted a characteristic GSN expression pattern. Although GSN transcripts were present in several cell types starting from early developmental stages, a relatively high GSN expression was observed in eye, brain vesicles, midbrain, neural tube, heart tube, and splanchnic mesoderm. In older embryos, we observed a high GSN expression in the cranial ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. A detailed analysis of 10-day-old chicken embryos revealed high amounts of gelsolin especially within the head region: in the olfactory and optic systems, meninges, nerves, muscles, presumptive pituitary gland, and pericytes, but not oligodendrocytes in the brain. Obtained results suggest that GSN is expressed at high levels in some tissues of ectodermal origin including all neural crest derivatives. Additionally, we describe that silencing of GSN expression in brain vesicles leads to altered morphology of the mesencephalon. This implies gelsolin is crucial for chicken brain development.

  5. Tissue adaptations to gravitational stress - Newborn versus adult giraffes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R; Gershuni, David H.; Danzig, Larry A.; Millard, Ronald W.; Pettersson, Knut

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results on developmental alterations in load-bearing tissues of newborn and adult giraffes are presented. Attention is focused on vascular wall thickness in relation to local blood pressure, and on meniscal adaptations to increased load bearing in the developing giraffe. It is believed that the developing giraffe provides an excellent model for investigations of adaptive mechanisms of increased weight bearing.

  6. The association of SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region with thermo tolerance traits and tissue mRNA expression in two chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Gan, Jian-Kang; Xiao, Xiong; Jiang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Luo, Qing-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Thermo stress induces heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression and HSP90 family is one of them that has been reported to involve in cellular protection against heat stress. But whether there is any association of genetic variation in the Hsp90β gene in chicken with thermo tolerance is still unknown. Direct sequencing was used to detect possible SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region in 3 chicken breeds (n = 663). Six mutations, among which 2 SNPs were chosen and genotypes were analyzed with PCR-RFLP method, were found in Hsp90β gene in these 3 chicken breeds. Association analysis indicated that SNP of C.-141G>A in the 5' flanking region of the Hsp90β gene in chicken had some effect on thermo tolerance traits, which may be a potential molecular marker of thermo tolerance, and the genotype GG was the thermo tolerance genotype. Hsp90β gene mRNA expression in different tissues detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay were demonstrated to be tissue dependent, implying that different tissues have distinct sensibilities to thermo stress. Besides, it was shown time specific and varieties differences. The expression of Hsp90β mRNA in Lingshan chickens in some tissues including heart, liver, brain and spleen were significantly higher or lower than that of White Recessive Rock (WRR). In this study, we presume that these mutations could be used in marker assisted selection for anti-heat stress chickens in our breeding program, and WRR were vulnerable to tropical thermo stress whereas Lingshan chickens were well adapted.

  7. In Vitro Spermatogenesis in Explanted Adult Mouse Testis Tissues.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takuya; Katagiri, Kumiko; Kojima, Kazuaki; Komeya, Mitsuru; Yao, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Research on in vitro spermatogenesis is important for elucidating the spermatogenic mechanism. We previously developed an organ culture method which can support spermatogenesis from spermatogonial stem cells up to sperm formation using immature mouse testis tissues. In this study, we examined whether it is also applicable to mature testis tissues of adult mice. We used two lines of transgenic mice, Acrosin-GFP and Gsg2-GFP, which carry the marker GFP gene specific for meiotic and haploid cells, respectively. Testis tissue fragments of adult GFP mice, aged from 4 to 29 weeks old, which express GFP at full extension, were cultured in medium supplemented with 10% KSR or AlbuMAX. GFP expression decreased rapidly and became the lowest at 7 to 14 days of culture, but then slightly increased during the following culture period. This increase reflected de novo spermatogenesis, confirmed by BrdU labeling in spermatocytes and spermatids. We also used vitamin A-deficient mice, whose testes contain only spermatogonia. The testes of those mice at 13-21 weeks old, showing no GFP expression at explantation, gained GFP expression during culturing, and spermatogenesis was confirmed histologically. In addition, the adult testis tissues of Sl/Sld mutant mice, which lack spermatogenesis due to Kit ligand mutation, were cultured with recombinant Kit ligand to induce spermatogenesis up to haploid formation. Although the efficiency of spermatogenesis was lower than that of pup, present results showed that the organ culture method is effective for the culturing of mature adult mouse testis tissue, demonstrated by the induction of spermatogenesis from spermatogonia to haploid cells.

  8. Asymptomatic and isolated accessory mitral valve tissue in an adult.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Kazuki; Hashizume, Koji; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Matsukuma, Seiji; Yokose, Shogo; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2016-02-01

    Accessory mitral valve (AMV) tissue is a congenital anomaly that occurs in association with other congenital anomalies, and is an uncommon cause of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. It is usually detected in early childhood when accompanied by symptoms of obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract, and is rarely diagnosed in adults. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who was referred to our institution for evaluation of a systolic heart murmur. Echocardiography disclosed a diagnosis of AMV tissue. This case was uncommon because of the lack of severe obstruction of left ventricular outflow, cardiac symptoms, or other cardiac anomalies. We were able to carry out surgical resection of AMV tissue to avert possible progression of aortic insufficiency and the risk of a cerebrovascular embolization. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative echocardiography showed no residual accessory mitral tissue.

  9. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  10. Tissue migration capability of larval and adult Brugia pahangi.

    PubMed

    Chirgwin, Sharon R; Coleman, Sharon U; Porthouse, Kristina H; Klei, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    Infection with mosquito-born filarial nematodes occurs when hosts are bitten by a vector carrying the infective third stage larvae (L3) of the parasites. These larvae, deposited on the skin by the feeding mosquito, are presumed to enter the skin via the vector-induced puncture wound. Larvae of Brugia spp. must then migrate from the entry site, penetrate various skin layers, and locate a lymphatic vessel that leads to their lymphatic predilection site. We have recently established an intradermal (ID) infection model using B. pahangi and the Mongolian gerbil, allowing us to investigate the migratory capability ofB. pahangi. Larval and adult parasites recovered from the peritoneal cavities of gerbils were capable of establishing an infection following ID (larvae) or subcutaneous (adult) injection. Third and fourth stage larvae both migrated away from the injection site within hours, although data suggest they localize to different lymphatic tissues at 3 days postinfection (DPI). Immature adult (28 day) B. pahangi also migrated away from their SC inoculation site within 7 DPI. Mature (45 day) adult B. pahangi displayed little migration away from the SC infection site, suggesting tissue migration may be limited to developing stages of the parasite.

  11. Homology of the mesopallium in the adult chicken identified by gene expression of the neocortical marker cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro; Karim, Mohammad Rabiul

    2014-03-06

    Studies of gene expression and fiber connections have suggested that the primary visual (entopallium) and auditory (field L2) centers in the avian telencephalon are homologous to layer 4 of extrastriate and auditory neocortices of mammals, respectively. In addition, it has been proposed that the arcopallium contains neurons homologous to layers 5/6 and that the mesopallium may be homologous to superficial neocortical layers, but gene expression evidence for the latter is lacking in adult birds. In the present study using adult chickens we have examined the gene expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) mRNA, a selective marker for layers 2/3 of mammalian neocortex. CCK mRNA was expressed in neurons of the entire mesopallium, but not in any part of the nidopallium. Together with hodological evidence of connections between the mesopallium and the two primary sensory areas, our results are consistent with the suggestion that the mesopallium is comparable to certain superficial layers of mammalian neocortex.

  12. Ultrasonic assessment of facial soft tissue thicknesses in adult Egyptians.

    PubMed

    El-Mehallawi, I H; Soliman, E M

    2001-03-01

    The production of a three-dimensional plastic face on an unknown human skull has been practiced sporadically since the latter part of the last century. In recent years, the technique has been revived and applied to forensic science cases. The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. Moreover, it has been established that measurements made on the living are of more value than those made on the dead. In view of the well-known genetic complexities of the Egyptians, and the lack of knowledge of average facial soft tissue depths of the Egyptians that makes facial reconstruction questionable, it was decided to set up a table of norms for facial tissue thicknesses in 204 adult Egyptians aged 20-35 years. Tissue depths at 17 established landmarks (according to Aulsebrook et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 79 (1996) 83]) were obtained using ultrasonic probing. The study revealed a unique spectrum of measurements for the Egyptians that might be useful for facial reconstruction purposes with obvious sexual dimorphism in facial soft tissue thickness. Additionally, the study provided evidence for the presence of interpopulation differences in average facial soft tissue thicknesses as evidenced from the comparison of the present data of Egyptians with those previously reported for some other populations.

  13. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor (GHR) and leptin receptor (LPR) genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for real time RT-PCR analysis with custom-designed primers and probes. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chick...

  14. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  15. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vineet; Johnson, Scott A; Reing, Janet; Zhang, Li; Tottey, Stephen; Wang, Gang; Hirschi, Karen K; Braunhut, Susan; Gudas, Lorraine J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2010-02-23

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor and stem cells to a site of injury. Bioactive molecules resulting from degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to recruit a variety of progenitor and stem cells in vitro in adult mammals. The ability to recruit multipotential cells to the site of injury by in vivo administration of chemotactic ECM degradation products in a mammalian model of digit amputation was investigated in the present study. Adult, 6- to 8-week-old C57/BL6 mice were subjected to midsecond phalanx amputation of the third digit of the right hind foot and either treated with chemotactic ECM degradation products or left untreated. At 14 days after amputation, mice treated with ECM degradation products showed an accumulation of heterogeneous cells that expressed markers of multipotency, including Sox2, Sca1, and Rex1 (Zfp42). Cells isolated from the site of amputation were capable of differentiation along neuroectodermal and mesodermal lineages, whereas cells isolated from control mice were capable of differentiation along only mesodermal lineages. The present findings demonstrate the recruitment of endogenous stem cells to a site of injury, and/or their generation/proliferation therein, in response to ECM degradation products.

  16. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-06-21

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications.

  17. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. PMID:27338364

  18. Optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver tissue measured ex-vivo with diffuse reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez-Ullah; Atif, M.; Firdous, S.; Mehmood, M. S.; Hamza, M. Y.; Imran, M.; Hussain, G.; Ikram, M.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the optical properties of normal and thermally coagulated chicken liver at 720, 740, 770, 810, 825 and 840 nm wavelengths of laser irradiation. So, we were able to evaluate these optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients) with ex-vivo study using Kubelka Munk Model (KMM) from the radial dependence of the diffuse reflectance with femtosecond pulsed laser in near IR region. These coefficients were significantly increased with coagulation. The penetration depths of the diffused light have been reported to a maximum value of 8.12 ± 0.36 mm in normal liver and 2.49 ± 0.17 mm in coagulated liver at 840 nm showing increasing behavior towards IR region. The Monte Carlo simulation was used to check the theoretical validation of measured optical properties of the tissue that showed a good match with our experimental results. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding arid optimal use of laser applications in medicine and differential diagnosis of tissues by using different optical methods. Especially for the investigation of biological tissue for photodynamic therapy (PDT), the knowledge of the specific optical properties and their thermo-induced changes is important.

  19. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikin, Jamilah; Abdullah, Aminah

    2013-11-01

    A methodusingliquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)MS) for the simultaneous determination of three macrolides (tylosin, spiramycin and tilmicosin) in poultry muscle has been developed. The drugs were extracted with EDTA McIlvaine buffer, filter through celite 545 and the extracts were cleaned up by SPE Oasis HLB cartridge. Separation was carried out in end-capped silica-based C18 column and mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile with a binary gradient system at a flow rate 0.5 ml/min. Detection was performed by single mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the positive mode. Several parameters affecting the mass spectra were studied. Chicken samples from the market were analyzed to check the residue of macrolide antibiotics.

  20. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) gene in chickens: functional analysis, tissue distribution, and identification of its transcript variants.

    PubMed

    Huang, G; Li, J; Fu, H; Yan, Z; Bu, G; He, X; Wang, Y

    2012-07-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor plays a critical role in mediating the biological actions of GLP1 in mammals and fish; however, the gene structure, expression, and functionality of GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) remain largely unknown in birds. In this study, the full-length cDNA of chicken GLP1R (cGLP1R) was first cloned from brain tissue by reverse transcription PCR. The putative cGLP1R is 459 amino acids in length and shares high amino acid sequence identity with that of human (79%), rat (80%), and Xenopus (75%). Using a pGL3-CRE luciferase reporter system, we found that cGLP1R expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells could be potently activated by cGLP1 (EC(50), 0.11 nM) but not by other structurally related peptides, indicating that cGLP1R is a functional receptor specific to cGLP1. Interestingly, in addition to identification of the transcript encoding cGLP1R of 459 amino acids, eight transcript variants, which were generated by alternative mRNA splicing and predicted to encode either C-terminally or N-terminally truncated cGLP1Rs, were also identified from chicken brain or testis. In line with this finding, multiple cGLP1R transcripts were detected to be expressed in most chicken tissues examined, including pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and various brain regions by reverse transcription PCR. Using the dual-luciferase reporter assay system, we further found that the 5'-flanking region of cGLP1R gene displays promoter activities in cultured HepG2 and HEK293 cells, suggesting that it may control cGLP1R gene transcription in chicken tissues, including nonpancreatic tissues. Taken together, the results from the present study establish a molecular basis to investigate the roles of GLP1 in chickens.

  1. [Effects of lindane upon the reproductive function in four generations running in the quail. Studies of gonads and müllerian tract in embryos, one day chicken and adults (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y

    1981-01-01

    The effect of lindane commercial solution spraying on quail eggs is studied in four generations running issued from a single parental strain. Observations have been made on fourteen-day embryos, one-day chicken and also two-or eight-month adults quail. The results lead to conclude that pathogenous effects of lindane on gonads and müllerian tract are slowly annuled through successive generations when the experimental procedure consists in treating only the parental eggs. Conversely, following pesticide administration repeated at every generation, the action becomes cumulative and the ratio of aberrations increases. In ovarian and testicular tissues there are cyto-histopathological modifications. Many gonocytes are abnormal and cannot divide. Some of these cells degenerate at the meiotic prophase. Egg production and fertility in adults depend on these phenomenons.

  2. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.

  3. The Antagonistic Effect of Selenium on Lead-Induced Inflammatory Factors and Heat Shock Protein mRNA Level in Chicken Cartilage Tissue.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shufang; Song, Huanyu; Gao, Han; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Fu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is recognized as a necessary trace mineral in animal diets, including those of birds. Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal and can damage organs in humans and animals. Complex antagonistic interactions between Se and heavy metals have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Se on Pb-induced toxicity and the expression of inflammatory factors and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the cartilage of chickens. In this present study, we fed chickens either with Se or Pb or both Se and Pb supplement and later analyzed the mRNA expressions of inflammatory factors (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and HSPs (Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90). The results showed that Se and Pb influenced the expression of inflammatory factors and HSP genes in the chicken cartilage tissues. Additionally, we also found that antagonistic interaction existed between Se and Pb supplementation. Our findings suggested that Se could exert a antagonistic effect on Pb in chicken cartilage tissues.

  4. Changes in tissue free amino acid pools in growing chickens fed thermally treated vetch diets.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Lachica, M

    2014-04-01

    A three-day assay was developed to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on protein quality of vetch as an alternative to classical growth methods. Male chickens (n = 10/diet) were given approximately isonitrogenous diets based on raw or autoclaved vetch for 3 days. Samples of plasma, muscle and liver were obtained for free amino acid analysis. Heating vetch depressed growth (11.9 vs. 23.2 g/d; p < 0.05). Plasma methionine and histidine increased (0.05 < p < 0.06), while gluconeogenic amino acids tended to decrease (p < 0.10) after heating. Muscle free amino acids did not change except for a trend to increased methionine (p = 0.06) in birds fed autoclaved vetch. In liver, most essential amino acids, glycine, proline and tyrosine increased markedly with heated vetch diet. Correlations between plasma and muscle free amino acids were poor compared with those between plasma and liver free amino acids. Liver free amino acid pool was more sensitive than muscle or plasma pool to amino acid inflow modifications after vetch heating.

  5. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity on mRNA Levels of 25 Selenoprotein Genes in the Cartilage Tissue of Broiler Chicken.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Liu, C P; Song, S Q; Fu, J

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between the essential element selenium (Se) and the toxic element lead (Pb) have been reported extensively; however, little is known about the effect of Se on Pb toxicity and the expression pattern of selenoproteins in the cartilage of chicken. To investigate the effects of Se on Pb toxicity and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of selenoproteins in cartilage tissue, an in vitro study was performed on 1-day-old broiler chickens (randomly allocated into four groups) with diet of different concentration of Se and Pb. After 90 days, the meniscus cartilage and sword cartilage tissue were examined for the mRNA levels of 25 selenoprotein genes. The results showed that Se and Pb influenced the expression of selenoprotein genes in the chicken cartilage tissue. In detail, Se could alleviate the downtrend of the expression of Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx4, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Seli, Selu, Sepx1, Selk, Selw, Selo, Selm, Sep15, Sepnn1, Sels, and Selt induced by Pb exposure in the meniscus cartilage. In the sword cartilage, Se alleviated the downtrend of the expression of Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Dio2, Dio3, Seli, Selh, SPS2, Sepx1, Selk, Selw, Selo, Selm, Sep15, Selpb, Sepn1, and Selt induced by Pb exposure. The present study provided some compensated data about the roles of Se against Pb toxicity in the regulation of selenoprotein expression.

  6. Contribution of oligosaccharide and polysaccharide digestion, and excreta losses of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids, to dietary metabolisable energy values in broiler chickens and adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Carré, B; Gomez, J; Chagneau, A M

    1995-09-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted, using both adult cockerels from a layer strain and 3-week-old broiler chickens. In the first experiment, one of the 2 diets investigated was composed mainly of maize and soyabean meals, the other one containing the latter ingredients diluted with 475 g/kg mature pea seeds. For these 2 diets, the apparent metabolisable energy values corrected to 0 nitrogen retention (AMEn) were derived, together with the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, amino acids, total lipids, starch, individual oligosaccharides, and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Excretions of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were also determined. 2. In the first experiment, the mean apparent digestibilities of starch, lipids, total amino acids, NSP, sucrose and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides in adult cockerels were 0.946, 0.785, 0.835, 0.045, 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. In broiler chickens, they were 0.938, 0.675, 0.830, -0.016, 0.988 and 0.867, respectively. The bird type effects were significant (P < 0.05) for the digestibilities of starch, lipids, NSP (for the maize-soyabean meal diet, only) and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. Broiler chickens excreted a mean of 11.032 g organic acids/kg diet against 4.190 in adult cockerels (P < 0.001). These digestibility measurements enabled the contribution made by each dietary component to the AMEn value of the diets to be calculated. AMEn values were lower in broiler chickens than in adult cockerels, with on average 0.8 MJ/kg dry matter difference resulting from bird type. This difference was accounted for by differences between bird types in energy supplied by lipids (34.0%), starch (7.5%), alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (8.7%), NSP (14.2%), and in energy losses from lactic acid excretion (16.4% of the difference in AMEn between bird types). 3. In the second experiment 2 diets were studied, consisting of a basal and the basal diluted with 30 g/kg lactose (a fermentable sugar in chickens) and 12 g/kg of a water

  7. Clarifying tetrapod embryogenesis by a dorso-ventral analysis of the tissue flows during early stages of chicken development.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The formation of an animal body remains largely a mystery. It is still not clear whether anything like an organization plan or an "archetype" as coined by Darwin himself, actually exists, or whether animals are organized by a succession of stop-and-go genetic, non-linear, instructions with no global pattern. Nevertheless, it was recognized long ago that the early stages of amniote development consist of large scale rotatory movements over a discoidal blastula (Wetzel, 1924). Such rotatory movements reshuffle a mass inside a finite volume, and thus may have to bear physical conservation laws which contribute to establish the plan of animals in a global fashion. In this article I use dual dorso-ventral imaging of the chicken blastula, to show experimentally that the global movement of early vertebrate embryogenesis is organized with a very simple topology, around and away of a series of hyperbolic points in the vector flow of movement. At the first hyperbolic point, a layer of tissue (the mesoderm) ingresses and moves as a viscous sheet radially. It is found that the sheet flows away with a scaling law for the radius R(t)∼exp(t/τ). Also, the movement of this mesoderm changes the flow on the other layer (the ectoderm) by the principle of action and reaction. By mesoderm wetting the ectoderm, the first hyperbolic point migrates from the anal region, to the umbilical region. The final location of the hyperbolic point defines eventually the central part of the body (the umbilical region). Thus, the formation of the vertebrate body is fixed, as a global movement, by the dynamics of singular points in the visco-elastic flow, governed by mechanical forces within the tissue.

  8. Adult Tissue Sources for New β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Robert J.; New, Connie; Annes, Justin P.

    2014-01-01

    The diabetes pandemic incurs extraordinary public health and financial costs that are projected to expand for the foreseeable future. Consequently, the development of definitive therapies for diabetes is a priority. Currently, a wide spectrum of therapeutic strategies, from implantable insulin-delivery devices to transplantation-based cell replacement therapy, to β-cell regeneration, focus on replacing the lost insulin-production capacity of diabetics. Among these, β-cell regeneration remains promising but heretofore unproven. Indeed, recent experimental work has uncovered surprising biology that underscores the potential therapeutic benefit of β-cell regeneration. These studies have elucidated a variety of sources for the endogenous production of new β-cells from existing cells. First, β-cells, long thought to be post-mitotic, have demonstrate potential for regenerative capacity. Second, the presence of pancreatic facultative endocrine progenitor cells has been established. Third, the malleability of cellular identity has availed the possibility of generating β-cells from other differentiated cell types. Here, we will review the exciting developments surrounding endogenous sources of β-cell production and consider the potential of realizing a regenerative therapy for diabetes from adult tissues. PMID:24345765

  9. Association analysis between SNPs in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken GRP78 gene, thermotolerance parameters, and tissue mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kong, L N; Zhang, D X; Ji, C L; Zhang, X Q; Luo, Q B

    2015-06-10

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and can be induced by different kinds of environmental and physiological stress. Thus far, the role of the GRP78 gene in thermotolerance in chickens has not been investigated. In the present study, we detected sequence variations in the 5ꞌ-flanking region of the GRP78 gene and evaluated several thermotolerance parameters, such as T3, corticosterone, H/L ratio, and levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells, to further determine its associations at 35° and 15°C. The sequencing results revealed 10 SNPs in the 5'-flanking region of the GRP78 gene, and seven mutations were chosen for further genotyping in a White Recessive Rock (WRR) chicken population. The SNP C.-744C>G in WRR chickens was significantly correlated with heat tolerance parameters under both conditions; it may therefore exert a potential hereditary effect on heat tolerance, and the genotype GG may be advantageous for thermotolerance. The heart, liver, brain, and leg muscle tissues of 8-day-old WRR chickens were sampled from heat stress groups, which were defined by exposure to 1, 2, 3, and 6 h of persistent thermal stress, and a control group, which was not exposed to thermal stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that the mRNA expression level of the GRP78 gene increased gradually under heat stress, peaked at 3 h, and then decreased. We conclude that the mRNA expression of the GRP78 gene is time- and tissue-dependent.

  10. Dietary pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids and tissue distribution of copper and vitamin A in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huan, J; Cheeke, P R; Lowry, R R; Nakaue, H S; Snyder, S P; Whanger, P D

    1992-09-01

    The effect of feeding a diet containing 5% tansy ragwort (TR) (Senecio jacobaea), a poisonous plant containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), on the blood and liver levels of copper, zinc, iron and vitamin A in broiler chicks was examined. Serum and liver copper and liver iron concentrations were increased in chicks fed a diet with 5% TR, while serum and liver zinc and vitamin A decreased. When PA were removed from the diet, partial restoration of normal serum vitamin A level occurred, indicating that the ability to mobilize liver vitamin A is not irreversibly inhibited by PA. The decline in serum vitamin A occurred by 8 days of TR feeding with a concurrent decline in growth rate. When chicks were fed a diet high in vitamin A (25,000 IU/kg), followed by a basal diet containing TR, serum vitamin A levels were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased, while liver vitamin A level increased. This indicates that mobilization of previously stored vitamin A from the liver is impaired by PA. Prior feeding of a high vitamin A level resulted in protective effects against PA toxicity, as assessed by histopathology. This study shows that a dietary source of PA modifies metabolism and tissue distribution of minerals and vitamin A.

  11. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and tissue distribution of EW135, a novel chicken egg white protein with group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Whayoung; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Asanuma, Hideki; Matsushita, Misao

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 80 proteins are reported to be present in chicken egg white. The major function of egg white proteins isolated so far is to defend the egg yolk against infections. We recently isolated a novel protein termed EW135 from chicken egg white. In this paper, we have determined the complete amino acid sequence of EW135 based on cDNA cloning. EW135 consists of 970 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. It is composed exclusively of tandem repeats of nine group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by eight seven-amino acid peptides. The features of consensus sequences found in the group B SRCR domain were well conserved in EW135. The EW135 gene consists of putative 11 exons, with each SRCR domain being encoded by a single exon. Reverse transcription PCR showed that EW135 is expressed in only the oviduct among the 11 types of tissues tested. EW135 is a second soluble protein belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily identified in chickens. One of the important functions of proteins belonging to the group B SRCR domain superfamily is to recognize pathogens in innate immunity. It is, therefore, conceivable that EW135 could be involved in host defense in egg white.

  12. Expression of perforin, granzyme A and Fas ligand mRNA in caecal tissues upon Eimeria tenella infection of naïve and immune chickens.

    PubMed

    Wattrang, E; Magnusson, S E; Näslund, K; Thebo, P; Hagström, Å; Smith, A L; Lundén, A

    2016-07-01

    Cytotoxic cells of the immune system may kill infected or transformed host cells via the perforin/granzyme or the Fas ligand (FasL) pathways. The purpose of this study was to determine mRNA expression of perforin, granzyme A and FasL in Eimeria tenella-infected tissues at primary infection and infection of immune chickens as an indirect measure of cytotoxic cell activity. Chickens were rendered immune by repeated E. tenella infections, which were manifested as an absence of clinical signs or pathological lesions and significantly reduced oocyst production upon challenge infection. During primary E. tenella infection, perforin, granzyme A and FasL mRNA expression in caecal tissue was significantly increased at 10 days after infection, compared to uninfected birds. In contrast, at infection of immune birds, perforin and granzyme A mRNA expression in caecal tissue was significantly increased during the early stages of E. tenella challenge infection, days 1-4, which coincided with a substantial reduction of parasite replication in these birds. These results indicate the activation of cytotoxic pathways in immune birds and support a role for cytotoxic T cells in the protection against Eimeria infections.

  13. Ovarian teratoma displaying a wide variety of tissue components in a broiler chicken (Gallus Domesticus): morphological heterogeneity of pluripotential germ cell during tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ohfuji, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin. These heterogeneous teratoma tissues consisted of a variety of glandular, cystic, duct-like, and tubular structures, some of which exhibited a lining by a mixture of both keratinizing/non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelial cells and cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells. The ovarian tetatoma was considered a benign and congenital one. The highly diverse differentiation of the teratoma might have manifested a morphological aspect of intrinsic character of the pluripotential germ cells during tumorigenesis. PMID:27303655

  14. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 4. The influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on amino acid uptake by plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G; Reinhart, B S; Summers, J D

    1975-03-01

    The influence of exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) or tetraiodothyronine (T4) on the incorporation of 3H-labelled methionine, alanine and lysine into plasma, liver and kidney was studied in 4 wk. old dwarf and non-dwarf female, White Leghorn chickens. The response to exogenous T3 or T4 of the birds was directly dependent on the dwarf status as well as the tissue and/or amino acid studied. In general, there was a decreased amino acid uptake by dwarfs and T3 and/or T4 depressed amino acid uptake in all combinations studied except for the uptake of lysine by the kidney of the dwarf. In that tissue, T4 administration caused a significant increase in lysine incorporation. The results found probably were due to different tissue amino compositions or rates of synthesis of proteins by dwarf birds when compared to normals and a differential sensitivity of dwarf birds to changed T3/T4 ratios.

  15. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP2R) gene in chickens: functional analysis, tissue distribution, and developmental expression profile of GLP2R in embryonic intestine.

    PubMed

    Mo, C; Zhong, Y; Wang, Y; Yan, Z; Li, J

    2014-07-01

    This study characterized the glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP2R) gene of chickens because relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism of GLP2 actions in nonmammalian species. With the use of reverse transcription PCR, we first cloned the chicken GLP2R (cGLP2R) from adult intestine, which was predicted to encode a 529-amino acid receptor precursor. With the use of a pGL3-CRE luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that cGLP2R expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells could be potently activated by cGLP2 (half maximal effective concentration, 1.06 nM) but not by its structurally related peptides, including the newly identified glucagon-like peptide, indicating that cGLP2R is a functional receptor specific to cGLP2. Reverse transcription PCR assay revealed that cGLP2R mRNA was widely expressed in adult chicken tissues, including pancreas and various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. With the use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays, we further investigated the mRNA expression of cGLP2R and its potential downstream mediators, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, epiregulin, and amphiregulin), in the distal duodenum of developing embryos. The mRNA expression levels of GLP2R and EGFR ligands (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and amphiregulin) were shown to increase (P < 0.05 or 0.01) during the late embryonic stages (E16 and E20), implying a potential coordinated action of GLP2 and EGFR ligands on embryonic intestine development. Taken together, our findings not only establish a molecular basis to explore the physiological roles of GLP2 in birds, but they also provide comparative insights into the roles of GLP2R and its ligand in vertebrates, such as its roles in embryonic intestine development.

  16. The composition of trigeminal nerve branches in normal adult chickens and after debeaking at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dubbeldam, J L; De Bakker, M A; Bout, R G

    1995-06-01

    The long term effects of amputation of the tip of the beak were studied in adult hens that were debeaked on the day of hatching, at the age of 8 d and at 6 wk, by EM analysis of fibre spectra of the medial branch of the ophthalmic nerve and of the intramandibular nerve. Three categories of fibre were distinguished for further analysis, i.e. unmyelinated axons, small myelinated fibres and large myelinated fibres. In normal birds the ophthalmic nerve contains relatively more large fibres than the intramandibular nerve. Amputation consistently results in a reduction of the number of large fibres and a substantial increase in the number of small myelinated fibres. The proportion of unmyelinated axons is rather variable, but is not affected by beak trimming. Age at debeaking has no effect. The observations are inconclusive concerning the possibility of heightened nociception.

  17. Optical properties of tumor tissues grown on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs: tumor model to assay of tumor response to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Norihiro; Kariyama, Yoichiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Ishii, Takuya; Kitajima, Yuya; Inoue, Katsushi; Ishizuka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tohru; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Herein, the optical adequacy of a tumor model prepared with tumor cells grown on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken egg is evaluated as an alternative to the mouse tumor model to assess the optimal irradiation conditions in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The optical properties of CAM and mouse tumor tissues were measured with a double integrating sphere and the inverse Monte Carlo technique in the 350- to 1000-nm wavelength range. The hemoglobin and water absorption bands observed in the CAM tumor tissue (10 eggs and 10 tumors) are equal to that of the mouse tumor tissue (8 animals and 8 tumors). The optical intersubject variability of the CAM tumor tissues meets or exceeds that of the mouse tumor tissues, and the reduced scattering coefficient spectra of CAM tumor tissues can be equated with those of mouse tumor tissues. These results confirm that the CAM tumor model is a viable alternative to the mouse tumor model, especially for deriving optimal irradiation conditions in PDT.

  18. Sex-related differences in hemato-biochemical indices of adult Vanaraja chickens during summer and winter seasons

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Kuldeep Kumar; Behera, Kumaresh; Mohapatra, Lal Mohan; Acharya, Aditya Prasad; Sethy, Kamdev; Panda, Sasmita; Gupta, Shailesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in hemato-biochemical indices in male and female Vanaraja chickens under tropical environment during summer and winter season. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks were selected as experimental chickens and distributed equally in two groups having 60 female and 60 male chickens in each group, respectively. The experiment was continued for 8 weeks (56 days) and both male and female chickens were slaughtered by cervical dislocation method. All parameters were estimated at the end of the experiment in both seasons. Results: Male had higher blood glucose, Ca and P level. Blood glucose level significantly (p<0.05) reduced in summer. Female had higher total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme concentration were significantly (p<0.05) higher in summer. Total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), Hb/lymphocyte ratio, and packed cell volume were significantly (p<0.05) higher in males. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular Hb were significantly (p<0.05) higher in females. Conclusion: Sex of chickens had a significant (p<0.05) effect on different parameters whereas season had nonsignificant (p>0.05) effect in most of the observed parameters. Hence, Vanaraja chickens are adaptable to local tropical climate and can be reared efficiently as backyard poultry. PMID:28344400

  19. Influence of dietary nano elemental selenium on growth performance, tissue selenium distribution, meat quality, and glutathione peroxidase activity in Guangxi Yellow chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Wang, Y

    2011-03-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of feed supplementation with nano elemental Se (Nano-Se) on growth performance, tissue Se distribution, meat quality, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in Guangxi Yellow chicken. Four treatments (control, T-1, T-2, and T-3 treatment groups) with 3 replicates of 30 chickens each were carried out. Diets for the control, T-1, T-2, and T-3 groups consisted of the basal diet supplemented with, respectively, 0.00, 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 mg/kg of Nano-Se. Improved final BW, daily BW gain (DWG), feed conversion ratios, and survival rate (P < 0.05) were observed in the groups supplemented with Nano-Se as compared with the control groups after 90 d of feeding. The groups that received Nano-Se showed higher (P < 0.05) hepatic and muscle Se contents, drip loss percentage, inosine 5'-monophosphate content, and GSH-Px activities in the serum and liver than that did the control groups. For the T-2 and T-3 groups, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in final BW, DWG, muscle Se content, breast drip loss, and GSH-Px activities in the serum and liver compared with the T-1 group. However, no significant differences were observed in final BW, DWG, and GSH-Px activities in the serum and liver between the T-2 and T-3 groups. It could be concluded from this study that supplementing diets with 0.30 mg/kg of Nano-Se for was effective in increasing the growth performance and feed conversion ratios of chickens, the Se content of tissues, and the quality of the meat.

  20. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-12-01

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted.

  1. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×104 N/m2, of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×104 N/m2, and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×104 N/m2, respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  2. Antibodies to two major chicken heat shock proteins cross-react with similar proteins in widely divergent species.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, P M; Schlesinger, M J

    1982-01-01

    Three of the proteins induced by heat shock of chicken embryo fibroblasts have been purified, and rabbit antibodies have been raised against them. These antibodies have been used in radioimmune precipitation reactions and in a solid-phase immune assay to detect antigenic material in non-heat-shocked chicken tissues and in extracts of widely different species ranging from yeast to mammalian tissue culture cells and human erythrocyte ghosts. Antibodies to two of the major chicken heat shock proteins, chsp89 and chsp70, cross-reacted with proteins of similar molecular weights in normal embryonic and adult chicken tissues and in extracts from widely different organisms. These data provide further evidence for the university of the heat shock response and conservation of proteins induced by this type of stress. Images PMID:7110134

  3. Determination and confirmation of nicarbazin, measured as 4,4-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), in chicken tissues by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: First Action 2013.07.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Mark R; Rodewald, John M; Brunelle, Sharon L; Nelson, Maria; Bailey, Lauryn; Burnett, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) study was conducted on an LC/MS/MS method for the determination and confirmation of nicarbazin, expressed as 4,4-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), in chicken tissues, including liver, kidney, muscle, skin with adhering fat, and eggs. Linearity was demonstrated with DNC standard curve solutions using a weighted (1/x) regression and confirmed with matrix-matched standards. Intertrial repeatability precision (relative standard deviation of repeatability; RSD(r) was from 2.5 to 11.3%, as determined in fortified tissues. The precision was verified with incurred tissue, and varied from 0.53 to 2.5%. Average recoveries ranged from 82% in egg to 98% in kidney. Although the average recoveries across all concentrations were within the acceptable range, the method was improved with the inclusion of an internal standard and the use of matrix-matched standards. Accuracy for the improved method in chicken liver varied from 93 to 99% across all concentrations (100-8000 ng/g) compared to recoveries below 80% at concentrations, between 100-400 ng/g in chicken liver for the original method. The limit of detection was estimated to be less than 3.0 ng/g in all tissue types, and the limit of quantitation was validated at 20 ng/g. Based on confirmatory ion ratios and peak retention times, the false-negative rate was estimated as 0.00% (95% confidence limits 0.00, 0.74%) from 484 fortified samples and 12 incurred residue samples analyzed using the U.S. and EU confirmation criteria. Small variations to the method parameters, with the exception of injection volume, did not have a significant effect on recoveries. Stability was determined for fortified tissues, extracts, and standard curve solutions. The data collected in this study satisfy the requirements of SLV studies established by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel for Veterinary Drug Residue and the method was awarded First Action Official Method status by the Expert Review Panel for Veterinary Drug Residues on

  4. Experimental study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on a model of starving chickens: is generalization of steatosis accompanied by fibrosis of the liver tissue?

    PubMed

    Makovicky, Peter; Dudova, Marketa; Tumova, Eva; Rajmon, Radko; Vodkova, Zuzana

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study the mechanism of liver parenchyma development under the influence of restriction of diet. Useful information is presented about the pathologic features associated with diet restriction in a chicken animal model of NAFLD. There were 96 chickens of two genotypes, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, in the experiment. The control group was fed a standard mixture ad libitum (ADL). The first experimental group, under restriction from the age of 2 weeks, was fed 80% ADL. The second experimental group was fed 65% ADL from the age of 2 weeks. There were 16 animals in each group. The experiment lasted 5 weeks. Liver parenchyma samples were obtained at the age of 35 days by the necropsy method and then processed by standard histologic methods. The slices were stained by standard staining: hematoxylin-eosin and by Sirius red kit for collagen type I and reticulin visualization. Hepatocyte diameter and the proportion of interstitial tissue to the parenchyma of the liver were measured objectively. Microvesicular liver steatosis was observed after 35 days of restriction. Hepatocyte diameter was significantly influenced by sex, genotype, and the experimental group. The proportion of interstitial tissue to the liver parenchyma was highly influenced by genotype and group, but there were no interactions. An increase in the steatosis histologic grade is associated with inflammatory changes, with decrease of hepatocyte diameter and with a decreasing proportion of interstitial tissue to the liver parenchyma. The results show that early restriction is not associated with the development of fibrosis of the liver tissue.

  5. Facial soft-tissue thicknesses in the adult male Zulu.

    PubMed

    Aulsebrook, W A; Becker, P J; Işcan, M Y

    1996-05-31

    The morphometric method of forensic facial reconstruction rests heavily on the use of facial soft tissue depth measurements. In reconstructing the Negroid face, much use has been made of the tables of soft tissue thickness of American Negroid cadavers. However, the genetic complexities of American blacks are well known. In addition it is felt that measurements made on the living are of more value than those made on the dead. In view of this it was decided to set up a table of norms for facial soft tissue depths of the living Zulu, an African Negroid who has remained relatively free from genetic admixture with other populations. The tightly controlled sample consisted of 55 healthy male Zulus, aged 20 to 35. Tissue depths at established landmarks were measured from lateral and oblique cephalometric radiographs. These were then combined with ultrasonic readings at other landmarks on the subject's face to yield a comprehensive set of tissue depth data. This paper presents a set of average facial soft tissue depth measurements from the Zulu face that results in the development of a new profile. It also provides a method for linking two systems of measurement.

  6. Debra-mediated Ci degradation controls tissue homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouhua; Guo, Yueqin; Han, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Lai; Huang, Xudong; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-02-11

    Adult tissue homeostasis is maintained by resident stem cells and their progeny. However, the underlying mechanisms that control tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Debra-mediated Ci degradation is important for intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation in Drosophila adult midgut. Debra inhibition leads to increased ISC activity and tissue homeostasis loss, phenocopying defects observed in aging flies. These defects can be suppressed by depleting Ci, suggesting that increased Hedgehog (Hh) signaling contributes to ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Consistently, Hh signaling activation causes the same defects, whereas depletion of Hh signaling suppresses these defects. Furthermore, the Hh ligand from multiple sources is involved in ISC proliferation and tissue homeostasis. Finally, we show that the JNK pathway acts downstream of Hh signaling to regulate ISC proliferation. Together, our results provide insights into the mechanisms of stem cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis control.

  7. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells: Biological Significance and Relevance to Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rumman, Mohammad; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-10-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biological mechanisms of ASC quiescence and their role in tissue regeneration.

  8. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  9. Constitutive gene expression and specification of tissue identity in adult planarian biology

    PubMed Central

    Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Planarians are flatworms that constitutively maintain adult tissues through cell turnover and can regenerate entire organisms from tiny body fragments. In addition to requiring new cells (from neoblasts), these feats require mechanisms that specify tissue identity in the adult. Critical roles for Wnt and BMP signaling in regeneration and maintenance of the body axes have been uncovered, among other regulatory factors. Available data indicate that genes involved in positional identity regulation at key embryonic stages in other animals display persisting regionalized expression in adult planarians. These expression patterns suggest that a constitutively active gene expression map exists for maintenance of the planarian body. Planarians therefore present a fertile ground for identification of factors regulating regionalization of the metazoan body plan and for study of the attributes of these factors that can lead to maintenance and regeneration of adult tissues. PMID:21680047

  10. Muscle regeneration by adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells attached to injectable PLGA spheres.

    PubMed

    Kim, MiJung; Choi, Yu Suk; Yang, Seung Hye; Hong, Hea-Nam; Cho, Sung-Woo; Cha, Sang Myun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Chan Wha; Kwon, Seog Woon; Park, Chan Jeoung

    2006-09-22

    The [corrected] use of adult stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising approach for skeletal muscle repair. We have evaluated the combination of adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) obtained from autologous liposuction and injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) spheres for muscle regeneration. ADSCs attached to PLGA spheres and PLGA spheres alone were cultured in myogenic medium for 21 days and injected subcutaneously into the necks of nude mice. After 30 and 60 days, the mice were sacrificed, and newly formed tissues were analyzed by immunostaining, H and E staining, and RT-PCR. We found that ADSCs attached to PLGA spheres, but not PLGA spheres alone, were able to generate muscle tissue. These findings suggest that ADSCs and PLGA spheres are useful materials for muscle tissue engineering and that their combination can be used in clinical settings for muscle regeneration.

  11. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Ma, Lijun; Sharma, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardio-metabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ≥40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (Group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (Group 2). Subjects in Group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (p=0.005), LDL cholesterol (p=0.006), 2h-Insulin during OGTT (p=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, p=0.029) compared to Group 1. We identified significant up-regulation of 141 genes (e.g. MMP9 and SPP1) and down-regulation of 17 genes (e.g. NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (p=2.81×10−11–3.74×10−02) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (p=8.32×10−5–0.04). Two down-regulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  12. Acute retinal necrosis complicating chicken pox in a healthy adult: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tajunisah, Iqbal; Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of unilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN) with marked vitritis and retinal necrosis leading to retinal breaks following chicken pox successfully treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral acyclovir, orbital floor triamcinolone injections to contain the inflammation, and barrier laser therapy to secure the retinal breaks with good visual outcome. This case is unusual in its severity and the novel use orbital floor triamcinolone therapy to contain ARN inflammation.

  13. LC-MS/MS measurement of ampicillin residue in chicken tissues at 2 days after in-feed administration

    PubMed Central

    HAMAMOTO, Kouko; MIZUNO, Yasuharu

    2017-01-01

    We assessed ampicillin (ABPC) concentrations of liver, kidney and skin at a 2-day withdrawal period in ten male and ten female White Leghorn chickens fed the diet containing ABPC (ABPC medicated feed 40 mg/kg body weight/day) for a week. The ABPC residues were measured with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and the mean recoveries and quantitation limits ranged from 93.0% to 102.7% and from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/g, respectively. The residual ABPC concentrations were ≤7.82 ng/g for the skin and ≤0.64 ng/g for the kidney, suggesting below the Japanese provisional maximum residue limits. These results revealed that the analytical method is developed for residue ABPC and that the withdrawal period is appropriate. PMID:28190817

  14. Brain tissue pressure measurements in perinatal and adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hornig, G W; Lorenzo, A V; Zavala, L M; Welch, K

    1987-12-01

    Brain tissue pressure (BTP) in pre- and post-natal anesthetized rabbits, held in a stereotactic head holder, was measured with a fluid filled 23 gauge open-ended cannula connected distally to a pressure transducer. By advancing the cannula step wise through a hole in the cranium it was possible to sequentially measure pressure from the cranial subarachnoid space, cortex, ventricle and basal ganglia. Separate cannulas and transducers were used to measure CSFP from the cisterna magna and arterial and/or venous pressure. Pressure recordings obtained when the tip of the BTP cannula was located in the cranial subarachnoid space or ventricle exhibited respiratory and blood pressure pulsations equivalent to and in phase with CSF pulsations recorded from the cisterna magna. When the tip was advanced into brain parenchymal sites such pulsations were suppressed or non-detectable unless communication with a CSF compartment had been established inadvertently. Although CSF pressures in the three spinal fluid compartments were equivalent, in most animals BTP was higher than CSFP. However, after momentary venting of the system BTP equilibrated at a pressure below that of CSFP. We speculate that venting of the low compliance system (1.20 x 10(-5) ml/mmHg) relieves the isometric pressure build-up due to insertion of the cannula into brain parenchyma. Under these conditions, and at all ages examined, BTP in the rabbit is consistently lower than CSFP and, as with CSFP, it increases as the animal matures.

  15. Great promise of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells in transplantation and cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cell research has inspired great interest because these immature cells from your own body can act as potential, easily accessible cell sources for cell transplantation in regenerative medicine and cancer therapies. The use of adult stem/progenitor cells endowed with a high self-renewal ability and multilineage differentiation potential, which are able to regenerate all the mature cells in the tissues from their origin, offers great promise in replacing non-functioning or lost cells and regenerating diseased and damaged tissues. The presence of a small subpopulation of adult stem/progenitor cells in most tissues and organs provides the possibility of stimulating their in vivo differentiation, or of using their ex vivo expanded progenies for cell-replacement and gene therapies with multiple applications in humans without a high-risk of graft rejection and major side effects. Among the diseases that could be treated by adult stem cell-based therapies are hematopoietic and immune disorders, multiple degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, Types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus as well as skin, eye, liver, lung, tooth and cardiovascular disorders. In addition, a combination of the current cancer treatments with an adjuvant treatment consisting of an autologous or allogeneic adult stem/progenitor cell transplantation also represents a promising strategy for treating and even curing diverse aggressive, metastatic, recurrent and lethal cancers. In this chapter, we reviewed the most recent advancements on the characterization of phenotypic and functional properties of adult stem/progenitor cell types found in bone marrow, heart, brain and other tissues and discussed their therapeutic implications in the stem cell-based transplantation therapy.

  16. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; Godbout, R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternatively-spliced genes and 50 frequently accessed genes. Our results support a high frequency of splicing events in chicken, similar to that observed in mammals. PMID:17675855

  17. Generation of a conditional mouse model to target Acvr1b disruption in adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Ripoche, Doriane; Gout, Johann; Pommier, Roxane M; Jaafar, Rami; Zhang, Chang X; Bartholin, Laurent; Bertolino, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Alk4 is a type I receptor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It takes part in the signaling of TGF-β ligands such as Activins, Gdfs, and Nodal that had been demonstrated to participate in numerous mechanisms ranging from early embryonic development to adult-tissue homeostasis. Evidences indicate that Alk4 is a key regulator of many embryonic processes, but little is known about its signaling in adult tissues and in pathological conditions where Alk4 mutations had been reported. Conventional deletion of Alk4 gene (Acvr1b) results in early embryonic lethality prior gastrulation, which has precluded study of Alk4 functions in postnatal and adult mice. To circumvent this problem, we have generated a conditional Acvr1b floxed-allele by flanking the fifth and sixth exons of the Acvr1b gene with loxP sites. Cre-mediated deletion of the floxed allele generates a deleted allele, which behaves as an Acvr1b null allele leading to embryonic lethality in homozygous mutant animals. A tamoxifen-inducible approach to target disruption of Acvr1b specifically in adult tissues was used and proved to be efficient for studying Alk4 functions in various organs. We report, therefore, a novel conditional model allowing investigation of biological role played by Alk4 in a variety of tissue-specific contexts.

  18. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  19. Chicken Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  20. Ion microscopic imaging of calcium transport in the intestinal tissue of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens: A sup 44 Ca stable isotope study

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Smith, C.A.; Wasserman, R.H.; Morrison, G.H. )

    1990-08-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium includes at least three definable steps; transfer across the microvillar membrane, movement through the cytosolic compartment, and energy-dependent extrusion into the lamina propria, Tracing the movement of calcium through the epithelium has been hampered by lack of suitable techniques and, in this study, advantage was taken of ion microscopy in conjunction with cryosectioning and use of the stable isotope 44Ca to visualize calcium in transit during the absorptive process. The effect of vitamin D, required for optimal calcium absorption, was investigated. Twenty millimolar 44Ca was injected into the duodenal lumen in situ of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens. At 2.5, 5.0, and 20.0 min after injection, duodenal tissue was obtained and processed for ion microscopic imaging. At 2.5 min. 44Ca was seen to be concentrated in the region subjacent to the microvillar membrane in tissue from both groups. At 5.0 and 20.0 min, a similar pattern of localization was evident in D-deficient tissues. In D-replete tissues, the distribution of 44Ca became more homogenous, indicating that vitamin D increased the rate of transfer of Ca2+ from the apical to the basolateral membrane, a function previously ascribed to the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D). Quantitative aspects of the calcium absorptive process were determined in parallel experiments with the radionuclide 47Ca. Complementary information on the localization of the naturally occurring isotopes of calcium (40Ca) and potassium (39K) is also described.

  1. Determination of Oxytetracycline and 4-Epi-Oxytetracycline Residues in Feathers and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chickens Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Javiera; Pokrant, Ekaterina; Krogh, Magdalena; Briceño, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Héctor; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Martín, Betty San

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, drug residues can remain in products derived from animals after the cessation of the drug therapies. Feathers, in particular, have shown an affinity for antibiotics such as tetracycline, suggesting the persistence of these drugs in nonedible tissue. After the birds are slaughtered, feathers are ground into feather meals, which are used as organic fertilizer or an ingredient in animal diets, thereby entering into the food chain and becoming a potential risk for public health. To evaluate the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in the muscles, liver, and feathers, 64 broiler chickens, bred under controlled conditions, were treated orally with a commercial formulation of 10% OTC for 7 days. The analytes were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OTC and 4-epi-OTC were found in the feathers for 46 days, whereas they were found in the muscle and liver for only 12 and 6 days, respectively. These results prove that the analytes remain in feathers in higher concentrations than they do in edible tissues after treatment with tetracyclines. Thus, feather meals represent a potential source of antimicrobial residue contamination in the food chain.

  2. Changes in nucleosomal core histone variants during chicken development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Urban, M K; Zweidler, A

    1983-02-01

    The nucleosomal core histones H2A, H2B, and H3 of the chicken can be resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of nonionic detergents into two primary structure variants each, which occur in different relative amounts in various adult tissues. Quantitative analysis of the histone components throughout embryonic development and posthatching maturation of the chicken revealed that the proportions of the three pairs of variants change independently. Thus, the two H2A variants occur in similar proportions throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. In contrast, only one variant each of H2B and H3 is detectable at the earliest stages (primitive streak). The second variant of these histones becomes detectable and increases gradually during somite formation (2-12 days of incubation) to reach a plateau at a level of about 3 and 10% of total H2B and H3 histones, respectively. After hatching, the relative amounts of the minor H2B and H3 variants remain at embryonic levels in those tissues which maintain a high mitotic activity such as blood-forming tissues, but increase with different kinetics in tissues which essentially stop cell division in adults (e.g., liver, kidney, etc.). However, while H2B.2 remains a very minor component in all tissues, H3.3 increases at a relatively high rate for more than a year to become the predominant H3 variant in the liver and kidney of older chickens. The changes in chicken core histone variant proportions appear to be related to changes in growth rate rather than cell differentiation. The extensive change of H3 variant proportions in nondividing adult tissues is most likely due to replication-independent incorporation of H3.3 into nucleosomes.

  3. Wound healing in a fetal, adult, and scar tissue model: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Neeltje A; Schouten, Kelly C W M; Boekema, Bouke K H L; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M W

    2010-01-01

    Early gestation fetal wounds heal without scar formation. Understanding the mechanism of this scarless healing may lead to new therapeutic strategies for improving adult wound healing. The aims of this study were to develop a human fetal wound model in which fetal healing can be studied and to compare this model with a human adult and scar tissue model. A burn wound (10 x 2 mm) was made in human ex vivo fetal, adult, and scar tissue under controlled and standardized conditions. Subsequently, the skin samples were cultured for 7, 14, and 21 days. Cells in the skin samples maintained their viability during the 21-day culture period. Already after 7 days, a significantly higher median percentage of wound closure was achieved in the fetal skin model vs. the adult and scar tissue model (74% vs. 28 and 29%, respectively, p<0.05). After 21 days of culture, only fetal wounds were completely reepithelialized. Fibroblasts migrated into the wounded dermis of all three wound models during culture, but more fibroblasts were present earlier in the wound area of the fetal skin model. The fast reepithelialization and prompt presence of many fibroblasts in the fetal model suggest that rapid healing might play a role in scarless healing.

  4. Spontaneous myogenic differentiation of Flk-1-positive cells from adult pancreas and other nonmuscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Tritarelli, Alessandra; Toietta, Gabriele; Gatto, Ilaria; Iachininoto, Maria Grazia; Pagani, Francesca; Mangoni, Antonella; Straino, Stefania; Capogrossi, Maurizio C

    2008-02-01

    At the embryonic or fetal stages, autonomously myogenic cells (AMCs), i.e., cells able to spontaneously differentiate into skeletal myotubes, have been identified from several different sites other than skeletal muscle, including the vascular compartment. However, in the adult animal, AMCs from skeletal muscle-devoid tissues have been described in only two cases. One is represented by thymic myoid cells, a restricted population of committed myogenic progenitors of unknown derivation present in the thymic medulla; the other is represented by a small subset of adipose tissue-associated cells, which we recently identified. In the present study we report, for the first time, the presence of spontaneously differentiating myogenic precursors in the pancreas and in other skeletal muscle-devoid organs such as spleen and stomach, as well as in the periaortic tissue of adult mice. Immunomagnetic selection procedures indicate that AMCs derive from Flk-1(+) progenitors. Individual clones of myogenic cells from nonmuscle organs are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from skeletal muscle-derived primary myoblasts. Moreover, they can be induced to proliferate in vitro and are able to participate in muscle regeneration in vivo. Thus, we provide evidence that fully competent myogenic progenitors can be derived from the Flk-1(+) compartment of several adult tissues that are embryologically unrelated to skeletal muscle.

  5. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  6. Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in Chinese adults with esthetic facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Lew, K K; Ho, K K; Keng, S B; Ho, K H

    1992-11-01

    Using a double selection process comprised of professional and lay judges, the cephalometric tracings on a final sample of 48 Chinese adults with esthetically pleasing profiles were analyzed. The soft-tissue cephalometric norms and standard deviations of two widely accepted soft-tissue analyses, the Legan and Burstone analysis and the Holdaway analysis, were determined. In comparison with white norms, the Chinese nose was less prominent (P < .01), the nasolabial angle was less obtuse (P < .01), both the upper and lower lips were more protrusive (P < .05), the upper lip curvature was greater (P < .01), and the soft-tissue chin thickness was less (P < .05). This variance between racial types emphasizes the need to recognize that soft-tissue lateral cephalometric norms are specific for the racial group and cannot always be applied across different racial types.

  7. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Brown, Ronald P.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 {mu}g/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 {mu}g/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  8. Adipose tissue α-linolenic acid is inversely associated with insulin resistance in adults1

    PubMed Central

    Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence of the beneficial effects of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) on cardiometabolic risk factors. Nevertheless, not much is known about the association between adipose tissue α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and insulin resistance. Objective: We determined the association between adipose tissue n–3 FAs (total n–3 FAs, ALA, and EPA plus DHA) and insulin resistance in healthy adults. Design: In this cross-sectional study, multivariable analyses were used to assess the association between adipose tissue FAs (ALA, EPA plus DHA, and total n–3 FAs) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a subset of adult participants (n = 716; mean age: 58 y) from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort. Results: Compared with the lowest tertile, the third tertile (β = −0.13; 95% CI: −0.24, −0.01) of adipose tissue ALA was inversely associated with the HOMA-IR. When stratified by waist circumference, ALA continued to be inversely associated [third tertile: β = −0.17 (95% CI: −0.31, −0.02)] with the HOMA-IR in subjects with a waist circumference ≤88 cm in women or ≤102 cm in men but not in those with a larger waist circumference. No significant association was noted between adipose tissue EPA plus DHA and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Higher adipose tissue ALA was inversely associated with insulin resistance in this cohort of healthy adult men and women. This finding appears to be more pronounced in individuals with a normal waist circumference. PMID:26912497

  9. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-03-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  10. The connective tissue of the adductor canal – a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-01-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 µm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop. PMID:19245505

  11. Head, Neck, Trunk and Pelvis Tissue Mass Predictions for Young Adults using Anthropometric Measures and DXA.

    PubMed

    Gyemi, Danielle L; Kahelin, Charles; George, Nicole C; Andrews, David M

    2017-03-24

    Accurate prediction of wobbling mass (WM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and bone mineral content (BMC) of living people using regression equations developed from anthropometric measures (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) has previously been reported, but only for the extremities. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to generate comparable equations for the head, neck, trunk and pelvis of young adults (38 males, 38 females). Equations were validated using actual tissue masses from an independent sample of 13 males and 13 females by manually segmenting full body Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans. Prediction equations exhibited adjusted R(2) values ranging from .249 to .940, with more explained variance for LM and WM than BMC and FM, especially for the head and neck. Mean relative errors between predicted and actual tissue masses ranged from -11.07% (trunk FM) to 7.61% (neck FM). Actual and predicted tissue masses from all equations were significantly correlated (R(2) = .329 to .937), except head BMC (R(2) = .046). These results show promise for obtaining in-vivo head, neck, trunk and pelvis tissue mass estimates in young adults. Further research is needed to improve head and neck FM and BMC predictions and develop tissue mass prediction equations for older populations.

  12. Hereditary Connective Tissue Diseases in Young Adult Stroke: A Comprehensive Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; De Paepe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Though the genetic background of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke is often polygenetic or multifactorial, it can in some cases result from a monogenic disease, particularly in young adults. Besides arteriopathies and metabolic disorders, several connective tissue diseases can present with stroke. While some of these diseases have been recognized for decades as causes of stroke, such as the vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, others only recently came to attention as being involved in stroke pathogenesis, such as those related to Type IV collagen. This paper discusses each of these connective tissue disorders and their relation with stroke briefly, emphasizing the main clinical features which can lead to their diagnosis. PMID:21331163

  13. Identifying proteins in zebrafish embryos using spectral libraries generated from dissected adult organs and tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Plas-Duivesteijn, Suzanne J; Mohammed, Yassene; Dalebout, Hans; Meijer, Annemarie; Botermans, Anouk; Hoogendijk, Jordy L; Henneman, Alex A; Deelder, André M; Spaink, Herman P; Palmblad, Magnus

    2014-03-07

    Spectral libraries provide a sensitive and accurate method for identifying peptides from tandem mass spectra, complementary to searching genome-derived databases or sequencing de novo. Their application requires comprehensive libraries including peptides from low-abundant proteins. Here we describe a method for constructing such libraries using biological differentiation to "fractionate" the proteome by harvesting adult organs and tissues and build comprehensive libraries for identifying proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae (an important and widely used model system). Hierarchical clustering using direct comparison of spectra was used to prioritize organ selection. The resulting and publicly available library covers 14,164 proteins, significantly improved the number of peptide-spectrum matches in zebrafish developmental stages, and can be used on data from different instruments and laboratories. The library contains information on tissue and organ expression of these proteins and is also applicable for adult experiments. The approach itself is not limited to zebrafish but would work for any model system.

  14. Limited Accuracy of Colour Doppler Ultrasound Dynamic Tissue Perfusion Measurement in Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stoperka, Felix; Karger, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM) is a pre-described and available method in pediatric ultrasound to quantify tissue perfusion in renal Doppler ultrasound by particular video analysis software. This study evaluates DTPM during single and between repeated visits after 6 months, calibrates repeated DTPM within different region of interest (ROI) and compares DTPM with kidney function markers in adult patients with early diabetic nephropathy (n = 17). During repeated measurements, no association of readings at the same patients in the same (n = 3 readings) as well as repeated visit (n = 2 visits) could be retrieved. No association between DTPM, MDRD-GFR, albuminuria, age and duration of diabetes was observed. These negative results are presumably related to inconsistency of DTPM due to non-fixed ROI position as could be shown in calibrating series. Further development of the method should be performed to enable reproducible DTPM readings in adults. PMID:28033403

  15. An Overview of Notch Signaling in Adult Tissue Renewal and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Chihiro; Zhao, Guojun; Ilagan, Ma. Xenia G.

    2015-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a critical mediator of short-range cell-cell communication that is reiteratively used to regulate a diverse array of cellular processes during embryonic development and the renewal and maintenance of adult tissues. Most Notch-dependent processes utilize a core signaling mechanism that is dependent on regulated intramembrane proteolysis: Upon ligand binding, Notch receptors undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAM metalloproteases, followed by γ-secretase-mediated intramembrane proteolysis. This releases the Notch intracellular domain, which translocates to the nucleus to activate transcription. In this review, we highlight the roles of Notch signaling particularly in self-renewing tissues in adults and several human diseases and raise some key considerations when targeting ADAMs and γ-secretase as disease-modifying strategies for Alzheimer's Disease. PMID:21605032

  16. Soft Tissue Deformations Contribute to the Mechanics of Walking in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-Yu; Zelik, Karl E.; Board, Wayne J.; Browning, Raymond C.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity not only adds to the mass that must be carried during walking, but also changes body composition. Although extra mass causes roughly proportional increases in musculoskeletal loading, less well understood is the effect of relatively soft and mechanically compliant adipose tissue. Purpose To estimate the work performed by soft tissue deformations during walking. The soft tissue would be expected to experience damped oscillations, particularly from high force transients following heel strike, and could potentially change the mechanical work demands for walking. Method We analyzed treadmill walking data at 1.25 m/s for 11 obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and 9 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) adults. The soft tissue work was quantified with a method that compares the work performed by lower extremity joints as derived using assumptions of rigid body segments, with that estimated without rigid body assumptions. Results Relative to body mass, obese and non-obese individuals perform similar amounts of mechanical work. But negative work performed by soft tissues was significantly greater in obese individuals (p= 0.0102), equivalent to about 0.36 J/kg vs. 0.27 J/kg in non-obese individuals. The negative (dissipative) work by soft tissues occurred mainly after heel strike, and for obese individuals was comparable in magnitude to the total negative work from all of the joints combined (0.34 J/kg vs. 0.33 J/kg for obese and non-obese adults, respectively). Although the joints performed a relatively similar amount of work overall, obese individuals performed less negative work actively at the knee. Conclusion The greater proportion of soft tissues in obese individuals results in substantial changes in the amount, location, and timing of work, and may also impact metabolic energy expenditure during walking. PMID:25380475

  17. Electric fish: new insights into conserved processes of adult tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Unguez, Graciela A

    2013-07-01

    Biology is replete with examples of regeneration, the process that allows animals to replace or repair cells, tissues and organs. As on land, vertebrates in aquatic environments experience the occurrence of injury with varying frequency and to different degrees. Studies demonstrate that ray-finned fishes possess a very high capacity to regenerate different tissues and organs when they are adults. Among fishes that exhibit robust regenerative capacities are the neotropical electric fishes of South America (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes). Specifically, adult gymnotiform electric fishes can regenerate injured brain and spinal cord tissues and restore amputated body parts repeatedly. We have begun to identify some aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tail regeneration in the weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus (long-tailed knifefish) with a focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ. Application of in vivo microinjection techniques and generation of myogenic stem cell markers are beginning to overcome some of the challenges owing to the limitations of working with non-genetic animal models with extensive regenerative capacity. This review highlights some aspects of tail regeneration in S. macrurus and discusses the advantages of using gymnotiform electric fishes to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that produce new cells during regeneration in adult vertebrates.

  18. Electric fish: new insights into conserved processes of adult tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Unguez, Graciela A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biology is replete with examples of regeneration, the process that allows animals to replace or repair cells, tissues and organs. As on land, vertebrates in aquatic environments experience the occurrence of injury with varying frequency and to different degrees. Studies demonstrate that ray-finned fishes possess a very high capacity to regenerate different tissues and organs when they are adults. Among fishes that exhibit robust regenerative capacities are the neotropical electric fishes of South America (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes). Specifically, adult gymnotiform electric fishes can regenerate injured brain and spinal cord tissues and restore amputated body parts repeatedly. We have begun to identify some aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tail regeneration in the weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus (long-tailed knifefish) with a focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ. Application of in vivo microinjection techniques and generation of myogenic stem cell markers are beginning to overcome some of the challenges owing to the limitations of working with non-genetic animal models with extensive regenerative capacity. This review highlights some aspects of tail regeneration in S. macrurus and discusses the advantages of using gymnotiform electric fishes to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that produce new cells during regeneration in adult vertebrates. PMID:23761473

  19. Effects of dietary organic zinc and α-tocopheryl acetate supplements on growth performance, meat quality, tissues minerals, and α-tocopherol deposition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Bakhshalinejad, R; Hassanabadi, A; Ferket, P

    2016-11-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of zinc (Zn) and α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) on broilers performance, meat quality, Zn, selenium (Se), and α-tocopherol (α-TO) tissue depositions. A total of 1,080 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens (mixed-sex) were allocated to nine dietary treatments. Three levels of supplemental Zn (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg of diet) and three levels of α-TOA (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg of diet) were combined as a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Chicks were penned in groups of 20 with six pens per treatment. The ADFI, ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate, and European production efficiency factor (EPEF) were not affected by dietary treatments. In addition, supplementation of Zn and α-TOA and their interaction did not affect carcass parts yield. Drip loss of the breast and thigh muscles were significantly reduced 1.27 and 1.47% by α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) supplementation, respectively (P < 0.01). Deposition of Zn in liver, breast, and thigh muscles were linearly increased by dietary Zn supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of Zn increased Se content in the breast and thigh muscles and liver. Supplementation of either α-TOA or Zn increased deposition of α-TO in liver and the muscles. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the breast and thigh muscles and the liver were diminished by supplementation of α-TOA (P = 0.0001) and there was positive interaction between Zn and α-TOA (P < 0.01), in which within each increase in Zn supplementation level, α-TOA supplementation resulted in a reduction of TBARS values. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg dietary supplementation of α-TOA could improve drip loss, nutritional content, and oxidation stability of muscle without any adverse effect on growth performance of chickens. In addition, 120 mg/kg dietary supplementation of Zn could fortify α-TOA effect to improve oxidation stability

  20. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  1. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  2. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Ross, J Perran; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Terrell, Scott P; Woodward, Allan R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Perceval, H Franklin; Hinterkopf, Joy P

    2008-04-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities.

  3. Selectively adsorptive extraction of phenylarsonic acids in chicken tissue by carboxymethyl α-cyclodextrin immobilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles followed ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Peilong; Zhu, Ruohua

    2014-01-01

    Carboxymethyl α-cyclodextrin immobilized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (CM-α-CD-Fe3O4) were synthesized for the selectively adsorptive extraction of five phenylarsonic acids including p-amino phenylarsonic acid, p-nitro phenylarsonic acid, p-hydroxy phenylarsonic acid, p-acylamino phenylarsonic acid and p-hydroxy-3-nitro phenylarsonic acid in chicken tissue. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), a highly sensitive analytical method was proposed for the determination of five phenylarsonic acids. It was shown that CM-α-CD-Fe3O4 could extract the five phenylarsonic acids in complex chicken tissue samples with high extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, a high enrichment factor, ranging from 349 to 606 fold, was obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) were in the range of 0.05-0.11 µg/kg for the five phenylarsonic acids. The proposed method was applied for the determination of five target phenylarsonic acids in chicken muscle and liver samples. Recoveries for the spiked samples with 0.2 µg/kg, 2.0 µg/kg and 20 µg/kg of each phenylarsonic acids were in the range of 77.2%-110.2%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 12.5%.

  4. A Complex Genomic Rearrangement Involving the Endothelin 3 Locus Causes Dermal Hyperpigmentation in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M.; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals. PMID:22216010

  5. Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution.

    PubMed

    Alenkina, I V; Oshtrakh, M I; Klepova, Yu V; Dubiel, S M; Sadovnikov, N V; Semionkin, V A

    2013-01-01

    Application of Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for comparative analysis of iron cores in a human liver ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models Imferon, Maltofer(®) and Ferrum Lek as well as in iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues allowed to reveal small variations in the (57)Fe hyperfine parameters related to differences in the iron core structure. Moreover, it was shown that the best fit of Mössbauer spectra of these samples required different number of components. The latter may indicate that the real iron core structure is more complex than that following from a simple core-shell model. The effect of different living conditions and age on the iron core in chicken liver was also considered.

  6. Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokzijl, Francis; de Ligt, Joep; Jager, Myrthe; Sasselli, Valentina; Roerink, Sophie; Sasaki, Nobuo; Huch, Meritxell; Boymans, Sander; Kuijk, Ewart; Prins, Pjotr; Nijman, Isaac J.; Martincorena, Inigo; Mokry, Michal; Wiegerinck, Caroline L.; Middendorp, Sabine; Sato, Toshiro; Schwank, Gerald; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Vries, Robert G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Stratton, Michael R.; Clevers, Hans; Cuppen, Edwin; van Boxtel, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The gradual accumulation of genetic mutations in human adult stem cells (ASCs) during life is associated with various age-related diseases, including cancer. Extreme variation in cancer risk across tissues was recently proposed to depend on the lifetime number of ASC divisions, owing to unavoidable random mutations that arise during DNA replication. However, the rates and patterns of mutations in normal ASCs remain unknown. Here we determine genome-wide mutation patterns in ASCs of the small intestine, colon and liver of human donors with ages ranging from 3 to 87 years by sequencing clonal organoid cultures derived from primary multipotent cells. Our results show that mutations accumulate steadily over time in all of the assessed tissue types, at a rate of approximately 40 novel mutations per year, despite the large variation in cancer incidence among these tissues. Liver ASCs, however, have different mutation spectra compared to those of the colon and small intestine. Mutational signature analysis reveals that this difference can be attributed to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosine residues in the colon and small intestine, probably reflecting their high ASC division rate. In liver, a signature with an as-yet-unknown underlying mechanism is predominant. Mutation spectra of driver genes in cancer show high similarity to the tissue-specific ASC mutation spectra, suggesting that intrinsic mutational processes in ASCs can initiate tumorigenesis. Notably, the inter-individual variation in mutation rate and spectra are low, suggesting tissue-specific activity of common mutational processes throughout life.

  7. Fetal and adult liver stem cells for liver regeneration and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, H C; Lange, Claudia; Kneser, U; Lambrecht, W; Zander, A R; Rogiers, X; Kluth, D

    2006-01-01

    For the development of innovative cell-based liver directed therapies, e.g. liver tissue engineering, the use of stem cells might be very attractive to overcome the limitation of donor liver tissue. Liver specific differentiation of embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells is currently under investigation. Different types of fetal liver (stem) cells during development were identified, and their advantageous growth potential and bipotential differentiation capacity were shown. However, ethical and legal issues have to be addressed before using fetal cells. Use of adult stem cells is clinically established, e.g. transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells. Other bone marrow derived liver stem cells might be mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the transdifferentiation potential is still in question due to the observation of cellular fusion in several in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments revealed a crucial role of the environment (e.g. growth factors and extracellular matrix) for specific differentiation of stem cells. Co-cultured liver cells also seemed to be important for hepatic gene expression of MSC. For successful liver cell transplantation, a novel approach of tissue engineering by orthotopic transplantation of gel-immobilized cells could be promising, providing optimal environment for the injected cells. Moreover, an orthotopic tissue engineering approach using bipotential stem cells could lead to a repopulation of the recipients liver with healthy liver and biliary cells, thus providing both hepatic functions and biliary excretion. Future studies have to investigate, which stem cell and environmental conditions would be most suitable for the use of stem cells for liver regeneration or tissue engineering approaches.

  8. Dedifferentiated fat cells: an alternative source of adult multipotent cells from the adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie-fei; Sugawara, Atsunori; Yamashita, Joe; Ogura, Hideo; Sato, Soh

    2011-01-01

    When adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are retrieved from the stromal vascular portion of adipose tissue, a large amount of mature adipocytes are often discarded. However, by modified ceiling culture technique based on their buoyancy, mature adipocytes can be easily isolated from the adipose cell suspension and dedifferentiated into lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, named dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells re-establish active proliferation ability and undertake multipotent capacities. Compared with ASCs and other adult stem cells, DFAT cells showed unique advantages in their abundance, isolation and homogeneity. In this concise review, the establishment and culture methods of DFAT cells are introduced and the current profiles of their cellular nature are summarized. Under proper induction culture in vitro or environment in vivo, DFAT cells could demonstrate adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and myogenic potentials. In angiogenic conditions, DFAT cells could exhibit perivascular characteristics and elicit neovascularization. Our preliminary findings also suggested the pericyte phenotype underlying such cell lineage, which supported a novel interpretation about the common origin of mesenchymal stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells within blood vessel walls. Current research on DFAT cells indicated that this alternative source of adult multipotent cells has great potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21789960

  9. Dedifferentiated fat cells: an alternative source of adult multipotent cells from the adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie-fei; Sugawara, Atsunori; Yamashita, Joe; Ogura, Hideo; Sato, Soh

    2011-07-01

    When adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are retrieved from the stromal vascular portion of adipose tissue, a large amount of mature adipocytes are often discarded. However, by modified ceiling culture technique based on their buoyancy, mature adipocytes can be easily isolated from the adipose cell suspension and dedifferentiated into lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, named dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells re-establish active proliferation ability and undertake multipotent capacities. Compared with ASCs and other adult stem cells, DFAT cells showed unique advantages in their abundance, isolation and homogeneity. In this concise review, the establishment and culture methods of DFAT cells are introduced and the current profiles of their cellular nature are summarized. Under proper induction culture in vitro or environment in vivo, DFAT cells could demonstrate adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and myogenic potentials. In angiogenic conditions, DFAT cells could exhibit perivascular characteristics and elicit neovascularization. Our preliminary findings also suggested the pericyte phenotype underlying such cell lineage, which supported a novel interpretation about the common origin of mesenchymal stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells within blood vessel walls. Current research on DFAT cells indicated that this alternative source of adult multipotent cells has great potential in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  10. Methylation of DNA in mouse early embryos, teratocarcinoma cells and adult tissues of mouse and rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, J; Roberts-Ems, J; Luthardt, F W; Riggs, A D

    1979-01-01

    The distribution and amount of 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) in DNA was measured for early embryos of mouse strain CF1 (2 to 4 cell stage to blastocyst) and mouse teratocarcinoma cells. In each case, the pattern of methylation was examined by use of the restriction enzymes Hha I and HPA II HPA II, which cut DNA at the sites 5'GCGC and 5'CCGG respectively, when the cytosines at these sites are not methylated. Mouse embryo DNA was found to have the same level of methylation as adult mouse tissues, and no changes in methylation were seen during differentiation of the teratocarcinoma cells. The ratio of 5-MeCyt/Cyt in DNA was measured by high performance liquid chromatography for the differentiating teratocarcinoma cells and for several adult mouse and rabbit tissues. The variation between tissues or between teratocarcinoma cells at different stages of differentiation was less than 10 percent. These results are discussed in view of proposals that 5-MeCyt plays a role in differentiation. Images PMID:523320

  11. Embryonic origin of adult stem cells required for tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erin L; Lei, Kai; Seidel, Christopher W; Kroesen, Amanda E; McKinney, Sean A; Guo, Longhua; Robb, Sofia Mc; Ross, Eric J; Gotting, Kirsten; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2017-01-10

    Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors that are required for the production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during Schmidtea mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis. Early embryonic piwi-1+ cells are molecularly and functionally distinct from neoblasts: they express unique cohorts of early embryo enriched transcripts and behave differently than neoblasts in cell transplantation assays. Neoblast lineages arise as organogenesis begins and are required for construction of all major organ systems during embryogenesis. These subpopulations are continuously generated during adulthood, where they act as agents of tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  12. Localisation of embryonic prealbumin in formalin-fixed human fetal and adult tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Gallon, M E; Reid, W A; McHardie, G A; Hardman, R; Smith, G D; Horne, C H; Kalashnikov, V V; Tatarinov, Y S

    1981-01-01

    The presence of embryonic prealbumin (EPA) has been confirmed in fetal fibroblasts, chondrocytes, and distal tubular epithelial cells by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. EPA has often been found also in the stromal cells of benign and malignant mesodermal tumours, but not in the epithelial cells of benign and malignant epithelial tumours. That EPA is not an exclusive product of neoplastic mesodermal cells is demonstrated by our finding of EPA in fibroblasts of granulation tissue, irradiated fibroblasts, and in distal tubular epithelial cells of miscellaneous adult kidneys. Images PMID:7021602

  13. Fourier analysis of human soft tissue facial shape: sex differences in normal adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Schmitz, J H; Miani, A; Taroni, G

    1995-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human facial form involves both size and shape variations of the soft tissue structures. These variations are conventionally appreciated using linear and angular measurements, as well as ratios, taken from photographs or radiographs. Unfortunately this metric approach provides adequate quantitative information about size only, eluding the problems of shape definition. Mathematical methods such as the Fourier series allow a correct quantitative analysis of shape and of its changes. A method for the reconstruction of outlines starting from selected landmarks and for their Fourier analysis has been developed, and applied to analyse sex differences in shape of the soft tissue facial contour in a group of healthy young adults. When standardised for size, no sex differences were found between both cosine and sine coefficients of the Fourier series expansion. This shape similarity was largely overwhelmed by the very evident size differences and it could be measured only using the proper mathematical methods. PMID:8586558

  14. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of soft tissue of the index finger in an adult. A case report].

    PubMed

    Berrada, N; Bellarbi, S; El Mannouar, M; Errihani, H

    2012-12-01

    The primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) of soft tissues belong to the Ewing's tumors family and affects particularly the child. The localization of the disease at the extremities is very rare within the adult population and raises the problem of differential diagnosis with others tumors of the soft tissues. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a localized tumor, at the level of the second right finger, of six months evolution. The biopsy showed the infiltrating nature of the tumour; and the diagnosis of (PNET) was confirmed after the histological and immunohistochemical study. The extension assessment was negative and the patient had an amputation of the second and third rays of the right hand. Four years afterwards, the patient showed no recurrence or metastases.

  15. Efficient Cargo Delivery into Adult Brain Tissue Using Short Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Caghan; Iltzsche, Anne; Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose; Bhattarai, Prabesh; Zhang, Yixin; Brand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish brains can regenerate lost neurons upon neurogenic activity of the radial glial progenitor cells (RGCs) that reside at the ventricular region. Understanding the molecular events underlying this ability is of great interest for translational studies of regenerative medicine. Therefore, functional analyses of gene function in RGCs and neurons are essential. Using cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI), RGCs can be targeted efficiently but the penetration capacity of the injected molecules reduces dramatically in deeper parts of the brain tissue, such as the parenchymal regions that contain the neurons. In this report, we tested the penetration efficiency of five known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and identified two- polyR and Trans - that efficiently penetrate the brain tissue without overt toxicity in a dose-dependent manner as determined by TUNEL staining and L-Plastin immunohistochemistry. We also found that polyR peptide can help carry plasmid DNA several cell diameters into the brain tissue after a series of coupling reactions using DBCO-PEG4-maleimide-based Michael's addition and azide-mediated copper-free click reaction. Combined with the advantages of CVMI, such as rapidness, reproducibility, and ability to be used in adult animals, CPPs improve the applicability of the CVMI technique to deeper parts of the central nervous system tissues.

  16. Efficient Cargo Delivery into Adult Brain Tissue Using Short Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose; Bhattarai, Prabesh; Zhang, Yixin; Brand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish brains can regenerate lost neurons upon neurogenic activity of the radial glial progenitor cells (RGCs) that reside at the ventricular region. Understanding the molecular events underlying this ability is of great interest for translational studies of regenerative medicine. Therefore, functional analyses of gene function in RGCs and neurons are essential. Using cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI), RGCs can be targeted efficiently but the penetration capacity of the injected molecules reduces dramatically in deeper parts of the brain tissue, such as the parenchymal regions that contain the neurons. In this report, we tested the penetration efficiency of five known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and identified two– polyR and Trans – that efficiently penetrate the brain tissue without overt toxicity in a dose-dependent manner as determined by TUNEL staining and L-Plastin immunohistochemistry. We also found that polyR peptide can help carry plasmid DNA several cell diameters into the brain tissue after a series of coupling reactions using DBCO-PEG4-maleimide-based Michael’s addition and azide-mediated copper-free click reaction. Combined with the advantages of CVMI, such as rapidness, reproducibility, and ability to be used in adult animals, CPPs improve the applicability of the CVMI technique to deeper parts of the central nervous system tissues. PMID:25894337

  17. A hypothesis for an embryonic origin of pluripotent Oct-4(+) stem cells in adult bone marrow and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, M Z; Machalinski, B; Wojakowski, W; Ratajczak, J; Kucia, M

    2007-05-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that adult tissues contain a population of stem cells that express early developmental markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen and transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog. These are the markers characteristic for embryonic stem cells, epiblast stem cells and primordial germ cells. The presence of these stem cells in adult tissues including bone marrow, epidermis, bronchial epithelium, myocardium, pancreas and testes supports the concept that adult tissues contain some population of pluripotent stem cells that is deposited in embryogenesis during early gastrulation. In this review we will discuss these data and present a hypothesis that these cells could be direct descendants of the germ lineage. The germ lineage in order to pass genes on to the next generations creates soma and thus becomes a 'mother lineage' for all somatic cell lineages present in the adult body.

  18. A prospective study of prenatal and postnatal development of thymus of Deshi chicken.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M; Khan, Z I; Khalil, M; Islam, R

    2003-01-01

    Thymus was one of the primary lymphoid organs along with the bursa in birds. The growth of the thymus of deshi chicken (Gallus Domesticus) from prenatal embryonic day fifteen (ED15) to postnatal day ninety (D90) were studied. In macroscopic study, it was found as a paired, lobulated gland, one half of which was located on either side of the neck. Each half consists of six to eight, flattened, ovoid to elongated, pale white to yellowish white lobes of varing size and shape of lymphoid tissue lying in the sub-dermal connective tissue of the neck. Histologically, the thymus of deshi chicken at embryonic day fifteen was covered by a very thin connective tissue capsule from which septa arises and divides the gland into lobes and lobules. The lobules were homogenous, small in size and the cortex and medulla were demarcated. Lobules have developing Hassall's corpuscles and they were of uniform shape and size. The lobules become well developed with advancing age. The cortex gradually becomes thicker and was packed with large lymphocytes. Hassall's corpuscles became larger and there number increases at postnatal period (D90) in the medulla of the thymus. The growth and development of thymus at each stage of the study period were found to be significantly high. The present finding of thymus of deshi chicken was found similar to the adult hybrid chicken. The study also indicates that the chicken thymic cell population, structure & functions was similar to the human thymus histologically. It was also found that the chicken embryo allows easy experimental access to all the stages of the thymic development so the present study will be helpful for experimentation on lymphoid organs and to understand pathophysiology of immunological diseases of human.

  19. Effect of Anti-Sclerostin Therapy and Osteogenesis Imperfecta on Tissue-level Properties in Growing and Adult Mice While Controlling for Tissue Age

    PubMed Central

    Sinder, Benjamin P.; Lloyd, William R.; Salemi, Joseph D.; Marini, Joan C.; Caird, Michelle S.; Morris, Michael D.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly→Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5 weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2–4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages >3wk) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages > 4wk) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age

  20. Effect of anti-sclerostin therapy and osteogenesis imperfecta on tissue-level properties in growing and adult mice while controlling for tissue age.

    PubMed

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Lloyd, William R; Salemi, Joseph D; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Morris, Michael D; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-03-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly➔Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2-4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages>3wks) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages>4wks) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels, adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age and

  1. Variations of midline facial soft tissue thicknesses among three skeletal classes in Central Anatolian adults.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Kahraman; Bulut, Ozgur; Hizliol, Ismail; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gurcan, Safa

    2015-11-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique employed in a forensic investigation as a last resort to recreate an individual's facial appearance from his/her skull. Forensic anthropologists or artists use facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) measurements as a guide in facial reconstructions. The aim of this study was to develop FSTT values for Central Anatolian adults, taking into consideration sex and skeletal classes; first, to achieve better results obtaining the likenesses of deceased individuals in two or three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions and, second, to compare these values to existing databases. Lateral cephalograms were used to determine FSTT values at 10 midline facial landmarks of 167 adults. Descriptive statistics were calculated for these facial soft tissue thickness values, and these values were compared to those reported in two other comparable databases. The majority of the landmarks showed sex-based differences. Males were found to have significantly larger landmark values than female subjects. These results point not only to the necessity to present data in accordance with sexual dimorphism, but also the need to consider that individuals from different geographical areas have unique facial features and that, as a result, geographical population-specific FSTT values are required.

  2. Differences in tissue distribution of HBCD alpha and gamma between adult and developing mice.

    PubMed

    Szabo, David T; Diliberto, Janet J; Huwe, Janice K; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2011-09-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a mixture of three stereoisomers alpha (α), beta (β), and gamma (γ). γ-HBCD dominates the mixture (∼70%), and despite α-HBCD's minor contribution to global HBCD production and usage (∼10%), it is the dominant congener found in most biotic samples worldwide. Evidence of toxicity and lack of stereoisomer studies drives the importance of understanding HBCD toxicokinetics in potentially susceptible populations. The majority of public health concern has focused on hazardous effects resulting from exposure of infants and young children to HBCD due to reports on adverse developmental effects in rodent studies, in combination with human exposure estimates suggesting that nursing infants and young children have the highest exposure to HBCD. This study was designed to investigate differences in the disposition of both γ-HBCD and α-HBCD in infantile mice reported to be susceptible to the HBCD commercial mixture. The tissue distribution of α-[(14)C]HBCD- and γ-[(14)C]HBCD-derived radioactivity was monitored in C57BL/6 mice following a single oral dose of either compound (3 mg/kg) after direct gavage at postnatal day 10. Mice were held up to 7 days in shoebox cages after which pups were sacrificed, tissue collected, and internal dosimetry was measured. Developing mice exposed to α-HBCD had an overall higher body burden than γ-HBCD at every time point measured; at 4 days postexposure, they retained 22% of the α-HBCD administered dose, whereas pups exposed to γ-HBCD retained 10%. Total body burden in infantile mice after exposure to γ-HBCD was increased 10-fold as compared with adults. Similarly, after exposure to α-HBCD, infantile mice contained 2.5-fold higher levels than adult. These differences lead to higher concentrations of the HBCD diastereomers at target tissues during critical windows of development. The results indicate that the toxicokinetics of the two HBCD diastereomers differ between developing and adult mice

  3. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  4. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of /sup 125/I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens.

  5. Comparative pathologic features and development of Sphaeridiotrema globulus (Trematoda) infections in the mute swan and domestic chicken and chicken chorioallantois.

    PubMed

    Huffman, J E; Fried, B; Roscoe, D E; Cali, A

    1984-02-01

    The natural infection of Sphaeridiotrema globulus in the mute swan and the experimental infection in the chicken resulted in an ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis. Swans and chickens died from the resultant blood loss. Culturing of the parasite on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken egg resulted in hemorrhage and a cellular response of the chorioallantois to the trematode. Experimental infections in the domestic chicken and chicken embryo can be of use for the study of ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis produced by the trematode, pathologic features, identification of the metacercaria to the adult, and developmental aspects of the parasite.

  6. The effect of allopurinol administration on mitochondrial respiration and gene expression of xanthine oxidoreductase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inflammatory cytokines in selected tissues of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Settle, T; Falkenstein, E; Klandorf, H

    2015-10-01

    Birds have a remarkable longevity for their body size despite an increased body temperature, higher metabolic rate, and increased blood glucose concentrations compared to most mammals. As the end-product of purine degradation, uric acid (UA) is generated in the xanthine/hypoxanthine reactions catalyzed by xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). In the first study, Cobb × Cobb broilers (n = 12; 4 weeks old) were separated into 2 treatments (n = 6); control (CON) and allopurinol (AL) 35 mg/kg BW (ALLO). The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial function in broiler chickens in response to potential oxidative stress generated from the administration of AL for 1 wk. There was a significant reduction in state 3 respiration (P = 0.01) and state 4 respiration (P = 0.007) in AL-treated birds compared to the controls. The purpose of the second study was to assess the effect of AL on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN)-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p35, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and XOR in liver tissue. Cobb × Cobb broilers were separated into two groups at 4 wk age (n = 10); CON and ALLO. After 1 wk AL treatment, half of the birds in each group (CON 1 and ALLO 1) were euthanized while the remaining birds continued on AL treatment for an additional week (CON 2 and ALLO 2). A significant increase in gene expression of XOR, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-12p35 in ALLO 2 birds as compared to birds in CON 2 was detected. Liver UA content was significantly decreased in both ALLO 1(P = 0.003) and ALLO 2 (P = 0.012) birds when compared to CON 1 and CON 2, respectively. The AL reduced liver UA concentrations and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Additional studies are needed to determine if AL causes a direct effect on mitochondria or if mitochondrial dysfunction observed in liver mitochondria was due indirectly through increased oxidative stress or increased inflammation.

  7. Cranial irradiation induces bone marrow-derived microglia in adult mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Suto, Nana; Suzue, Kazutomo; Kaminuma, Takuya; Nakano, Takashi; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2014-07-01

    Postnatal hematopoietic progenitor cells do not contribute to microglial homeostasis in adult mice under normal conditions. However, previous studies using whole-body irradiation and bone marrow (BM) transplantation models have shown that adult BM cells migrate into the brain tissue and differentiate into microglia (BM-derived microglia; BMDM). Here, we investigated whether cranial irradiation alone was sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse brain. Transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter (MSCV-GFP mice) were used. MSCV-GFP mice express GFP in BM cells but not in the resident microglia in the brain. Therefore, these mice allowed us to detect BM-derived cells in the brain without BM reconstitution. MSCV-GFP mice, aged 8-12 weeks, received 13.0 Gy irradiation only to the cranium, and BM-derived cells in the brain were quantified at 3 and 8 weeks after irradiation. No BM-derived cells were detected in control non-irradiated MSCV-GFP mouse brains, but numerous GFP-labeled BM-derived cells were present in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex of the irradiated MSCV-GFP mice. These BM-derived cells were positive for Iba1, a marker for microglia, indicating that GFP-positive BM-derived cells were microglial in nature. The population of BMDM was significantly greater at 8 weeks post-irradiation than at 3 weeks post-irradiation in all brain regions examined. Our results clearly show that cranial irradiation alone is sufficient to induce the generation of BMDM in the adult mouse.

  8. Organ and tissue donation: a survey of nurse's knowledge and educational needs in an adult ITU.

    PubMed

    Collins, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey that was undertaken to assess nurses' knowledge and educational needs towards organ donation within one adult general intensive care unit. The survey consists of 31 registered nurses who completed a confidential questionnaire that aimed to assess their existing knowledge and deficits in organ and tissue donation. The survey highlights the sample lacked confidence in approaching relatives for donation consent, deficits in brain stem death testing and donor criteria. It was also apparent that a significant number of nurses could not identify which tissues can be donated and the contraindications for tissue donation. A majority of the sample stated their knowledge of donation issues would improve if an educational programme were developed on organ donation. This is further supported by previous work by [Bidigare S, Oermann M, 1991. Attitudes and knowledge of nurses regarding organ procurement. Heart & lung 1:20-3; Smith-Brew S, Yanai L, 1996. The organ donation process through a review of the literature. Part 1. Accident & emergency nursing 4:5-11; Roark D, 2000. Overhauling the organ donation system. Am J Nurs 6:44-9] who suggest that educational programmes covering donation issues should enhance nurses' knowledge and confidence in the organ donation process and ultimately increase the number of potential donors.

  9. SpSM30 gene family expression patterns in embryonic and adult biomineralized tissues of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Killian, Christopher E; Croker, Lindsay; Wilt, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    The SpSM30 gene family of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is comprised of six members, designated SpSM30A through SpSM30F (Livingston et al., 2006). The SpSM30 proteins are found uniquely in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of the sea urchin. Previous studies have revealed that SpSM30 proteins are occluded within the embryonic endoskeleton and adult mineralized tissues (Killian and Wilt, 1996; Mann et al., 2008a,b; Urry et al., 2000). Furthermore, some of the SpSM30 proteins are among the most abundant of the approximately four-dozen integral matrix proteins of the larval spicule (Killian and Wilt, 1996). The amino acid sequence, protein domain architecture, and contiguity within the genome strongly support the supposition that the six genes constitute a gene family. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used in the present study to describe the time course of expression of the family members during embryonic development, and their expression in adult tissues. SpSM30A, B, C and E are expressed, albeit at different levels, during overt spicule deposition in the embryo with some differences in the precise timing of expression. SpSM30D is not expressed in the embryo, and SpSM30F is expressed transiently and at low levels just prior to overt spicule formation. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that SpSM30A, B, C, and E are expressed exclusively in primary mesenchyme (PMC) cells and their descendants. In addition, tissue fractionation studies indicate that SpSM30F expression is highly enriched in PMCs. Each adult tissue examined expresses a different cohort of the SpSM30 family members at varying levels: SpSM30A mRNA is not expressed in adult tissues. Its expression is limited to the embryo. Conversely, SpSM30D mRNA is not expressed in the embryo, but is expressed in adult spines and teeth. SpSM30B and SpSM30C are expressed at modest levels in all mineralized adult tissues; SpSM30E is expressed highly in tooth and

  10. Distribution of avian influenza H5N1 viral RNA in tissues of AI-vaccinated and unvaccinated contact chickens after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed K; Kilany, Walid H; Abdelwhab, E M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Selim, Abdullah; Samy, Ahmed; Samir, M; Le Brun, Yvon; Jobre, Yilma; Aly, Mona M

    2012-05-01

    Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface.

  11. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  12. Adult stem cells, scaffolds for in vivo and in vitro myocardial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Di Felice, Valentina; De Luca, Angela; Serradifalco, Claudia; Di Marco, Patrizia; Verin, Lucia; Motta, Antonella; Guercio, Annalisa; Zummo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The main goal in the last few years in cardiac research has been to isolate cardiac potential stem cells from adult myocardium and to demonstrate their differentiation potential. We have previously demonstrated that c-Kit positive cardiac stem cells are able to organize themselves into a tissue-like cell mass. In this 3D mass, they can produce a high concentration of natural extracellular matrix, can create vessels, a capsule and, with the help of an Open-pore Polylactic Acid scaffold, many cells can organize an elementary myocardium. Drawing from this background, we decided to design and use poly-lactic scaffolds and the model of the athymic Nude-Foxn1(nu) mouse to evaluate the extent of the myogenic vs endothelial differentiation in vivo, and to evaluate the presence or the absence of a foreign body reaction.

  13. The sequential tissue distribution of duck Tembusu virus in adult ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Liu, Jinxiong; Chen, Pucheng; Jiang, Yongping; Ding, Leilei; Lin, Yuan; Li, Qimeng; He, Xijun; Chen, Qiusheng; Chen, Hualan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a novel Tembusu virus (TMUV) that caused a severe decrease in the egg production of ducks was isolated in southeast China. Given the novelty of this duck pathogen, little information is available regarding its pathogenesis. Here, we systematically investigated the replication kinetics of TMUV PTD2010 in adult male and female ducks. We found that PTD2010 was detectable in most of the parenchymatous organs as well as the oviduct and intestinal tract from days 1 to 7 after inoculation. Viral titers were maintained at high levels for at least 9 days in the spleen, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, brain, and ovary. No virus was detected in any of these organs or tissues at 18 days after inoculation. PTD2010, thus, causes systemic infections in male and female ducks; its replication kinetics show similar patterns in most organs, with the exception of the ovaries and testes.

  14. Transcription levels of sirtuin family in neural stem cells and brain tissues of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, H F; Li, Q; Feng, R L; Wen, T Q

    2012-09-10

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) has been used as a well-known model to investigate apoptosis, differentiation, maintenance of stem cells status, and therapy of neurological disease. The C17.2 NSCs line was produced after v-myc transformation of neural progenitor from mouse cerebellar cortex. Sirtuin family plays important roles involved in neuronal differentiation, genomic stability, lifespan, cell survival. However, little is known about gene expression variation of sirtuin family in C17.2 NSCs, primary NSCs, and different brain tissues in adult mice. Here, we confirmed that the mRNA expression levels of sirt2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 in E14.5 NSCs were significantly higher than in C17.2 NSCs, whereas that sirt 6 displayed an opposing mode. Moreover, a higher mRNA level of sirtuin family was observed in the adult mouse brain compared to C17.2 NSCs. In addition, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors nicotinamide and Trichostatin A (TSA) were used to explore differential changes at the transcriptional level of sirtuins. Results indicated that the expression of sirt1, sirt5 and sirt6 was significant downregulated by nicotinamide treatment. Whereas, a significant downregulation in sirt1 and sirt3 and a significant upregulation in sirt2, sirt4, sirt6, and sirt7 were observed in the treatment of TSA. Thus our studies indicate different sirtuin mRNA expression profiles between C17.2 NSCs, E14.5 NSCs and brain tissues, suggesting the transcriptional regulation of sirtuin family could be mediated by different histone acetylation.

  15. Embryonic origin of adult stem cells required for tissue homeostasis and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Erin L; Lei, Kai; Seidel, Christopher W; Kroesen, Amanda E; McKinney, Sean A; Guo, Longhua; Robb, Sofia MC; Ross, Eric J; Gotting, Kirsten; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors that are required for the production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during Schmidtea mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis. Early embryonic piwi-1+ cells are molecularly and functionally distinct from neoblasts: they express unique cohorts of early embryo enriched transcripts and behave differently than neoblasts in cell transplantation assays. Neoblast lineages arise as organogenesis begins and are required for construction of all major organ systems during embryogenesis. These subpopulations are continuously generated during adulthood, where they act as agents of tissue homeostasis and regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21052.001 PMID:28072387

  16. Targeted therapy for soft tissue sarcomas in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Steppan, Diana A; Pratilas, Christine A; Loeb, David M

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors originating from the mesenchyme. Even though they affect individuals in all age groups, the prevalence of subtypes of STSs changes significantly from childhood through adolescence into adulthood. The mainstay of therapy is surgery, with or without the addition of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. These treatment modalities are associated, in many cases, with significant morbidity and, given the heterogeneity of tumor histologies encompassed by the term “STS”, have not uniformly improved outcomes. Moreover, some subgroups of STSs appear to be more, and others less, responsive to conventional chemotherapy agents. Over the last two decades, our understanding of the biology of STSs is slowly increasing, allowing for the development of more targeted therapies. We review the new treatment modalities that have been tested on patients with STSs, with a special focus on adolescents and young adults, a group of patients that is often underrepresented in clinical trials and has not received the dedicated attention it deserves, given the significant differences in biology and treatment response in comparison to children and adults.

  17. Mutation of the f-protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus type 7 results in furin cleavage, fusion promotion, and increased replication in vitro but not increased replication, tissue tropism, or virulence in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sa; Khattar, Sunil K; Subbiah, Madhuri; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2012-04-01

    We constructed a reverse genetics system for avian paramyxovirus serotype 7 (APMV-7) to investigate the role of the fusion F glycoprotein in tissue tropism and virulence. The AMPV-7 F protein has a single basic residue arginine (R) at position -1 in the F cleavage site sequence and also is unusual in having alanine at position +2 (LPSSR↓FA) (underlining indicates the basic amino acids at the F protein cleavage site, and the arrow indicates the site of cleavage.). APMV-7 does not form syncytia or plaques in cell culture, but its replication in vitro does not depend on, and is not increased by, added protease. Two mutants were successfully recovered in which the cleavage site was modified to mimic sites that are found in virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates and to contain 4 or 5 basic residues as well as isoleucine in the +2 position: (RRQKR↓FI) or (RRKKR↓FI), named Fcs-4B or Fcs-5B, respectively. In cell culture, one of the mutants, Fcs-5B, formed protease-independent syncytia and grew to 10-fold-higher titers compared to the parent and Fcs-4B viruses. This indicated the importance of the single additional basic residue (K) at position -3. Syncytium formation and virus yield of the Fcs-5B virus was impaired by the furin inhibitor decanoyl-RVKR-CMK, whereas parental APMV-7 was not affected. APMV-7 is avirulent in chickens and is limited in tropism to the upper respiratory tract of 1-day-old and 2-week-old chickens, and these characteristics were unchanged for the two mutant viruses. Thus, the acquisition of furin cleavability by APMV-7 resulted in syncytium formation and increased virus yield in vitro but did not alter virus yield, tropism, or virulence in chickens.

  18. Isolation of pluripotent neural crest-derived stem cells from adult human tissues by connexin-43 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Daniel; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Cheung, Herman S

    2013-11-01

    Identification and isolation of pluripotent stem cells in adult tissues represent an important advancement in the fields of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. For several years, research has been performed on the identification of biomarkers that can isolate stem cells residing in neural crest (NC)-derived adult tissues. The NC is considered a good model in stem cell biology as cells from it migrate extensively and contribute to the formation of diverse tissues in the body during organogenesis. Migration of these cells is modulated, in part, by gap junction communication among the cell sheets. Here we present a study in which, selection of connexin 43 (Cx43) expressing cells from human adult periodontal ligament yields a novel pluripotent stem cell population. Cx43⁺ periodontal ligament stem cells express pluripotency-associated transcription factors OCT4, Nanog, and Sox2, as well as NC-specific markers Sox10, p75, and Nestin. When injected in vivo into an immunodeficient mouse model, these cells were capable of generating teratomas with tissues from the three embryological germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Furthermore, the cells formed mature structures of tissues normally arising from the NC during embryogenesis such as eccrine sweat glands of the human skin, muscle, neuronal tissues, cartilage, and bone. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the human origin of the neoplastic cells as well as the ectodermal and endodermal nature of some of the structures found in the tumors. These results suggest that Cx43 may be used as a biomarker to select and isolate the remnant NC pluripotent stem cells from adult human tissues arising from this embryological structure. The isolation of these cells through routine medical procedures such as wisdom teeth extraction further enhances their applicability to the regenerative medicine field.

  19. Ex-Vivo Tissues Engineering Modeling for Reconstructive Surgery Using Human Adult Adipose Stem Cells and Polymeric Nanostructured Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Morena, Francesco; Argentati, Chiara; Calzoni, Eleonora; Cordellini, Marino; Emiliani, Carla; D’Angelo, Francesco; Martino, Sabata

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge for stem cell translation regenerative medicine is the regeneration of damaged tissues by creating biological substitutes capable of recapitulating the missing function in the recipient host. Therefore, the current paradigm of tissue engineering strategies is the combination of a selected stem cell type, based on their capability to differentiate toward committed cell lineages, and a biomaterial, that, due to own characteristics (e.g., chemical, electric, mechanical property, nano-topography, and nanostructured molecular components), could serve as active scaffold to generate a bio-hybrid tissue/organ. Thus, effort has been made on the generation of in vitro tissue engineering modeling. Here, we present an in vitro model where human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate adipose tissue and breast adipose tissue, cultured on polymeric INTEGRA® Meshed Bilayer Wound Matrix (selected based on conventional clinical applications) are evaluated for their potential application for reconstructive surgery toward bone and adipose tissue. We demonstrated that human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate and breast tissue have similar stemness properties and are suitable for tissue engineering applications. Finally, the overall results highlighted lipoaspirate adipose tissue as a good source for the generation of adult adipose stem cells.

  20. A Digital Gene Expression-Based Bovine Gene Atlas Evaluating 92 Adult, Juvenile and Fetal Cattle Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive transcriptome survey, or “Gene Atlas,” provides information essential for a complete understanding of the genomic biology of an organism. Using a digital gene expression approach, we developed a Gene Atlas of RNA abundance in 92 adult, juvenile and fetal cattle tissues. The samples...

  1. Facial soft tissue thickness among various vertical facial patterns in adult Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Waqar; Fida, Mubassar; Shaikh, Attiya

    2015-12-01

    Facial reconstruction techniques are used to obtain an approximation of an individual's appearance thus helping identification of unidentified decedents from their dried skeletal remains. Many of these techniques rely on the sets of average facial soft tissue thickness (FST) values at different anatomical landmarks provided by the previous studies. FST is influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity and the body mass index of the individual. Recent literature has shown that the anthropological variations of the skull may also affect FST at certain points. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of such variations in vertical skull morphology on FST as around one third of different population groups have either a long or short facial pattern as compared to the average facial pattern. Moreover, this study also provides a FST database for the adult Pakistani subjects that may have potential implications in the facial reconstruction of the local subjects. A retrospective analysis of 276 lateral cephalograms of adult subjects having normal sagittal facial pattern was performed. Subjects were categorized into three vertical facial patterns (long face=95, average face=102, short face=79) according to the vertical dimensions of the skull and the FST was measured at 11 midline points. To compare the FST between males and females Mann-Whitney U test was used. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare FST among three vertical facial patterns. The results of our study revealed significant differences in FST at nine landmarks between males and females. These sex-based differences were more pronounced in the long and short facial patterns as compared to the average facial pattern. FST at stomion, pogonion, gnathion and menton was significantly greater in the short facial pattern as compared to the long facial pattern in both the sexes. The results of the present study highlight the importance of anthropological analysis of the skull and taking the vertical skeletal dimension

  2. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Pediatric and Young Adult Nonrhabdomyosarcoma Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kristy B.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Knapik, Jacquelyn A.; Lagmay, Joanne P.; Morris, Christopher; Kirwan, Jessica M.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Marcus, Robert B.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors, outcomes, and complications in patients aged {<=}30 years with resectable nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcoma treated at the University of Florida with radiotherapy (RT) during a 34-year period. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 pediatric or young adult patients with nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcoma were treated with curative intent with surgery and RT at the University of Florida between 1973 and 2007. The most common histologic tumor subtypes were synovial sarcoma in 22 patients, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 19, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in 11 patients. The mean age at RT was 22 years (range, 6-30). Of the 95 patients, 73 had high-grade tumors; 45 had undergone preoperative RT and 50 postoperative RT. The prognostic factors for survival, local recurrence, and distant recurrence were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up was 7.2 years (range, 0.4-30.5). The actuarial 5-year local control rate was 88%. A microscopically negative margin was associated with superior local control. Although 83% of local recurrence cases initially developed in the absence of metastases, all patients with local failure ultimately died of their disease. The actuarial estimate of 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival was 65% and 63%, respectively. Of all the deaths, 92% were disease related. An early American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, tumor <8 cm, and the absence of neurovascular invasion were associated with superior disease-free survival. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, Grade 3-4 treatment complication rate was 9%. No secondary malignancies were observed. Conclusion: In the present large single-institution study, we found positive margins and locally advanced features to be poor prognostic factors for both local progression and survival. The results from the present study have helped to characterize the therapeutic ratio of RT in pediatric and young

  3. New aspects in fenestrated capillary and tissue dynamics in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult brains.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) generally consists of endothelial tight junction barriers that prevent the free entry of blood-derived substances, thereby maintaining the extracellular environment of the brain. However, the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which are located along the midlines of the brain ventricles, lack these endothelial barriers and have fenestrated capillaries; therefore, they have a number of essential functions, including the transduction of information between the blood circulation and brain. Previous studies have demonstrated the extensive contribution of the CVOs to body fluid and thermal homeostasis, energy balance, the chemoreception of blood-derived substances, and neuroinflammation. In this review, recent advances have been discussed in fenestrated capillary characterization and dynamic tissue reconstruction accompanied by angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis in the sensory CVOs of adult brains. The sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP), have size-selective and heterogeneous vascular permeabilities. Astrocyte-/tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs) sense blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-derived information through the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a mechanical/osmotic receptor, Toll-like receptor 4, a lipopolysaccharide receptor, and Nax, a Na-sensing Na channel. They also express tight junction proteins and densely and tightly surround mature neurons to protect them from blood-derived neurotoxic substances, indicating that the NSCs of the CVOs perform BBB functions while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into new neurons and glial cells. In addition to neurogliogenesis, the density of fenestrated capillaries is regulated by angiogenesis, which is accompanied by the active proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling may be involved in angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis, both of

  4. J-chain-positive cells in immunodeficient chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1993-01-01

    Before and after hatching, J-chain-positive cells (JPC) were observed by immunoelectron microscopy in lymphoid tissues from chickens that had been chemically bursectomized (Bx) in ovo. These JPC were detected in spleens both of normal and Bx birds. Subcellular localization of J chains showed more variations in normal than Bx chickens. From these findings, JPC could be divided into JPC subpopulations in chickens.

  5. High-resolution mass spectrometry applied to the identification of transformation products of quinolones from stability studies and new metabolites of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gutiérrez, F J; Hermo, M P; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was the identification of new metabolites and transformation products (TPs) in chicken muscle from enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SAR), which are antibiotics that belong to the fluoroquinolones family. The stability of ENR, CIP, DIF and SAR standard solutions versus pH degradation process (from pH 1.5 to 8.0, simulating the pH since the drug is administered until its excretion) and freeze-thawing (F/T) cycles was tested. In addition, chicken muscle samples from medicated animals with ENR were analyzed in order to identify new metabolites and TPs. The identification of the different metabolites and TPs was accomplished by comparison of mass spectral data from samples and blanks, using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QqToF) and multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) technique as a pre-filter to remove most of the background noise and endogenous components. Confirmation and structure elucidation was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap (LC-LTQ-Orbitrap), due to its mass accuracy and MS/MS capacity for elemental composition determination. As a result, 21 TPs from ENR, 6 TPs from CIP, 14 TPs from DIF and 12 TPs from SAR were identified due to the pH shock and F/T cycles. On the other hand, 14 metabolites were identified from the medicated chicken muscle samples. Formation of CIP and SAR, from ENR and DIF, respectively, and the formation of desethylene-quinolone were the most remarkable identified compounds.

  6. A case of adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing successfully regenerated osseous tissue of the skull after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Izutsu, Koji; Kako, Shinichi; Ohta, Satoshi; Hangaishi, Akira; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells and extremely rare in adults. Adult LCH is often associated with osteolytic bone lesions, but large bone-defective lesions have been rarely reported. We report an adult case of LCH accompanied by large osteolytic lesions in the skull that successfully responded to chemotherapy. A 47-year-old woman with LCH who had multiple, large osteolytic areas of more than 3 cm in diameter in the skull was admitted to our hospital. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Twelve months later, when she completed the treatment, osteolytic areas were covered with hard osseous tissue, and X-ray examination confirmed regeneration of the bone. This case indicates that chemotherapy can be effective even for the treatment of large osteolytic lesions in adult LCH patients.

  7. A mystery unraveled: nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells in human adult tissues

    PubMed Central

    Simerman, Ariel A; Perone, Marcelo J; Gimeno, María L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have emerged as the gold standard of pluripotent stem cells and the class of stem cell with the highest potential for contribution to regenerative and therapeutic application; however, their translational use is often impeded by teratoma formation, commonly associated with pluripotency. We discuss a population of nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells, which offer an innovative and exciting avenue of exploration for the potential treatment of various human diseases. Areas covered: This review discusses the origin of Muse cells, describes in detail their various unique characteristics, and considers future avenues of their application and investigation with respect to what is currently known of adult pluripotent stem cells in scientific literature. We begin by defining cell potency, then discuss both mesenchymal and various reported populations of pluripotent stem cells, and finally delve into Muse cells and the characteristics that set them apart from their contemporaries. Expert opinion: Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT) are efficiently, routinely and painlessly isolated from human lipoaspirate material, exhibit tripoblastic differentiation both spontaneously and under media-specific induction, and do not form teratomas. We describe qualities specific to Muse-AT cells and their potential impact on the field of regenerative medicine and cell therapy. PMID:24745973

  8. Cloning and study of adult-tissue-specific expression of Sox9 in Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Yan; Wang, Feng-Yu; Hua, Hui-Ying; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2007-08-01

    The Sox9 gene is one of the important transcription factors in the development of many tissues and organs, particularly in sex determination and chondrogenesis. We amplified the genomic DNA of Cyprinus carpio using degenerate primers, and found that there were two versions of Sox9 in this species: Sox9a and Sox9b, that differ in having an intron of different length (704 bp and 616 bp, respectively) in the conserved HMG box region that codes for identical amino acid sequences. We used a two-phase rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the isolation of full-length cDNA of Sox9b. Sequence analyses revealed a 2447-bp cDNA containing 233-bp 5' untranslated region, a 927-bp 3' untranslated region, including poly(A), and a 1287 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 428 amino acids. The HMG box of 79 amino acid motif was confirmed from positions 96-174. Sequence alignment showed that the identity of amino acids of Sox9 among ten animal species, including C. carpio, is 75%, indicating that the Sox9 gene is evolutionarily quite conserved. The expression level of Sox9b gene varied among several organs of adult C. carpio, with the level of expression being highest in the brain and testis.

  9. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability.

  10. TRAF-4 expression in epithelial progenitor cells. Analysis in normal adult, fetal, and tumor tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, M.; Krajewski, S.; Zapata, J. M.; Van Arsdale, T.; Gascoyne, R. D.; Berern, K.; McFadden, D.; Shabaik, A.; Hugh, J.; Reynolds, A.; Clevenger, C. V.; Reed, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    TRAF-4 was discovered because of its expression in breast cancers and is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family of putative signal-transducing proteins. In vitro binding assays demonstrated that TRAF-4 interacts with the cytosolic domain of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LT beta R) and weakly with the p75 nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) but not with TNFR1, TNFR2, Fas, or CD40. Immunofluorescence analysis of TRAF-4 in transfected cells demonstrated localization to cytosol but not nucleus. Immunohistochemical assays of normal human adult tissues revealed prominent cytosolic immunostaining in thymic epithelial cells and lymph node dendritic cells but not in lymphocytes or thymocytes, paralleling the reported patterns of LT beta R expression. The basal cell layer of most epithelia in the body was very strongly TRAF-4 immunopositive, including epidermis, nasopharynx, respiratory tract, salivary gland, and esophagus. Similar findings were obtained in 12- to 18-week human fetal tissue, indicating a highly restricted pattern of expression even during development in the mammary gland, epithelial cells of the terminal ducts were strongly TRAF-4 immunopositive whereas myoepithelial cells and most of the mammary epithelial cells lining the extralobular ducts were TRAF-4 immunonegative. Of 84 primary breast cancers evaluated, only 7 expressed TRAF-4. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were uniformly TRAF-4 immunonegative (n = 21). In the prostate, the basal cells were strongly immunostained for TRAF-4, whereas the secretory epithelial cells were TRAF-4 negative. Basal cells in prostate hypertrophy (n = 6) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN; n = 6) were strongly TRAF-4 positive, but none of the 32 primary and 16 metastatic prostate cancer specimens examined contained TRAF-4-positive malignant cells. Although also expressed in some types of mesenchymal cells, these findings suggest that TRAF-4 is a marker of normal

  11. The adult brain tissue response to hollow fiber membranes of varying surface architecture with or without cotransplanted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning

    A variety of biomaterials have been chronically implanted into the central nervous system (CNS) for repair or therapeutic purposes. Regardless of the application, chronic implantation of materials into the CNS induces injury and elicits a wound healing response, eventually leading to the formation of a dense extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich scar tissue that is associated with the segregation of implanted materials from the surrounding normal tissue. Often this reaction results in impaired performance of indwelling CNS devices. In order to enhance the performance of biomaterial-based implantable devices in the CNS, this thesis investigated whether adult brain tissue response to implanted biomaterials could be manipulated by changing biomaterial surface properties or further by utilizing the biology of co-transplanted cells. Specifically, the adult rat brain tissue response to chronically implanted poly(acrylonitrile-vinylchloride) (PAN-PVC) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) of varying surface architecture were examined temporally at 2, 4, and 12 weeks postimplantation. Significant differences were discovered in the brain tissue response to the PAN-PVC HFMs of varying surface architecture at 4 and 12 weeks. To extend this work, whether the soluble factors derived from a co-transplanted cellular component further affect the brain tissue response to an implanted HFM in a significant way was critically exploited. The cells used were astrocytes, whose ability to influence scar formation process following CNS injury by physical contact with the host tissue had been documented in the literature. Data indicated for the first time that astrocyte-derived soluble factors ameliorate the adult brain tissue reactivity toward HFM implants in an age-dependent manner. While immature astrocytes secreted soluble factors that suppressed the brain tissue reactivity around the implants, mature astrocytes secreted factors that enhanced the gliotic response. These findings prove the feasibility

  12. The Three-Dimensional Culture of Epithelial Organoids Derived from Embryonic Chicken Intestine.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Panek, Malgorzata; Czyrnek, Malgorzata; Grabacka, Maja

    2016-10-28

    The intestinal epithelium isolated from chicken embryos in last 3 days of development can be used to establish the 3D culture of intestinal organoids. When fragments of epithelial tissue released by incubation with EGTA (2.5 mM, 2 h) are embedded in Matrigel matrix on cell culture inserts the formation of empty spheres covered by epithelial cells is observed in first 24 h of culture. The growth and survival of organoids are supported by the addition of R-spondin 1, Noggin, and prostaglandin E2 to the culture medium. The organoids are accompanied by myofibroblasts which become visible in the next 2 days of culture. The intestinal enteroids (free of myofibroblasts) can be obtained from adult chicken intestine.

  13. Ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens in the Goromonzi District in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Permin, A; Esmann, J B; Hoj, C H; Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S

    2002-07-25

    A cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. All chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. Eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): Argas persicus (6; 14), Cnemidocoptes mutans (6; 32), Echidnophaga gallinacea (72; 74), Goniocotes gallinae (0; 22), Menacanthus stramenius (90; 88) and Menopon gallinea (24; 66). The prevalences of C. mutans, G. gallinae and M. gallinae were higher in adults compared to young chickens. The mean (+/-S.D.) number of helminth species per chicken was 6.7+/-2.0 for young chickens and 6.4+/-2.0 for adult chickens with a range of 1-10 for young chickens and a range of 1-11 for adult chickens. The most prevalent nematodes identified were (with prevalence in % for young/adult birds): Allodapa suctoria (76; 72), Ascaridia galli (48; 24), Gongylonema ingluvicola (28; 56), Heterakis gallinarum (64; 62) and Tetrameres americana (70; 62). For cestodes the prevalences were: Amoebotaenia cuneata (60; 68), Hymenolepis spp. (62; 80), Raillietina echinobothrida (66; 34), Raillietina tetragona (94; 100) and Skrjabinia cesticillus (50; 76). The young chickens had higher prevalences of A. galli and R. echinobothrida compared to adults, but lower prevalence of G. ingluvicola and S. cesticillus. Eimeria spp. oocysts were isolated in 36% of 47 investigated samples. The prevalence was 47% for young chickens and 18% for adult chickens. Prevalences (in %) of haemoparasites in young and adult chickens were: Aegyptinella pullorum (7; 6), Leucocytozoon sabrazesi (3; 1), Plasmodium gallinaceum (8; 6) and Trypanosoma avium (2; 3).

  14. Quantity of glucose transporter and appetite-associated factor mRNA in various tissues after insulin injection in chickens selected for low or high body weight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sumners, Lindsay H; Siegel, Paul B; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2013-11-15

    Chickens from lines selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight differ by 10-fold in body weight at 56 days old with differences in food intake, glucose regulation, and body composition. To evaluate if there are differences in appetite-regulatory factor and glucose transporter (GLUT) mRNA that are accentuated by hypoglycemia, blood glucose was measured, and hypothalamus, liver, pectoralis major, and abdominal fat collected at 90 days of age from female HWS and LWS chickens, and reciprocal crosses, HL and LH, at 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of insulin. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and receptor (NPYR) subtypes 1 and 5 mRNA were greater in LWS compared with HWS hypothalamus (P < 0.05), but greater in HWS than LWS in fat (P < 0.05). Expression of NPYR2 was greater in LWS than HWS in pectoralis major (P < 0.05). There was greater expression in HWS than LWS for GLUT1 in hypothalamus and liver (P < 0.05), GLUT2 in fat and liver (P < 0.05), and GLUT9 in liver (P < 0.05). Insulin was associated with reduced blood glucose in all populations (P < 0.05) and reduced mRNA of insulin receptor (IR) and GLUT 2 and 3 in liver (P < 0.05). There was heterosis for mRNA, most notably NPYR1 (-78%) and NPYR5 (-81%) in fat and GLUT2 (-70%) in liver. Results suggest that NPY and GLUTs are associated with differences in energy homeostasis in LWS and HWS. Reduced GLUT and IR mRNA after insulin injection suggest a compensatory mechanism to prevent further hypoglycemia.

  15. Production of transgenic chickens using an avian retroviral vector

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchick, J.; Mills, E.; Rosenblum C.; Taylor, J.; Kelder, B.; Smith, J.; Chen, H.

    1987-05-01

    The authors efforts to insert genes into the chicken germ line are dependent upon the ability of exogenous avian retroviruses to infect chicken germ cells. They have used a transformation defective Schmidt Ruppin A strain of Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV-SRA) in their initial experiments. The general protocol involved generating RSV-SRA viremic female chickens (Go), which shed exogenous virus via the oviduct. As the fertilized egg passes through the oviduct, embryonic cells are exposed to the virus. If the germ cell precursors are infected by the virus, offspring (G1) should be generated which are capable of passing the viral DNA to the next generation (G2). Fifteen viremic G1 males were selected for breeding and progeny testing. Since male chickens do not congenitally pass retroviruses through semen, production of viremic G2 offspring indicates germ line DNA transmission. This is confirmed by DNA analysis of the experimental chickens. Using a specific probe for exogenous retrovirus, they have detected the presence of RSV-SRA DNA in viremic chickens. Southern DNA analysis revealed junction fragments for RSV-SRA DNA in viremic G2 chickens, but not in non-viremic siblings. Furthermore, DNA isolated from various tissues of a viremic G2 chicken showed an identical DNA junction fragment pattern, indicating all tissues were derived from the same embryonic cell which contained integrated provirus. To date they have generated 50 transgenic chickens.

  16. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  17. Expression of myogenic factors in denervated chicken breast muscle: isolation of the chicken Myf5 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, O; Fujisawa-Sehara, A; Nabeshima, Y; Periasamy, M

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we have isolated and characterized the chicken Myf5 gene, and cDNA clones encoding chicken MyoD1 and myogenin. The chicken Myf5 and MRF4 genes are tandemly located on a single genomic DNA fragment, and the chicken Myf5 gene is organized into at least three exons. Using genomic and cDNA probes, we further analyzed the mRNA levels of four myogenic factors during chicken breast muscle development. This analysis revealed that myogenin expression is restricted to in ovo stages in breast muscle, and is not detectable in neonatal and adult stages. On the other hand, Myf5 expression is detectable until day 7 post-hatching, and is not found in adult muscle, whereas high levels of MyoD1 and MRF4 are detectable at all stages. To further understand the roles of innervation on muscle maturation, we analyzed the expression of the four myogenic factors in denervated adult breast muscle. We found that MyoD1, myogenin, and MRF4 are induced at high levels in denervated muscle, whereas no change occurs in the level of Myf5. These studies suggest that innervation controls the relative abundance and type of myogenic factors that are expressed in adult muscle, and that when nerve control is removed, the muscle reverts to a neonatal phenotype, with the enhanced expression of three myogenic factors (MyoD1, myogenin, and MRF4). Images PMID:8389445

  18. Bone marrow stromal cell-mediated tissue sparing enhances functional repair after spinal cord contusion in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ritfeld, Gaby J; Nandoe Tewarie, Rishi D S; Vajn, Katarina; Rahiem, Sahar T; Hurtado, Andres; Wendell, Dane F; Roos, Raymund A C; Oudega, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation has shown promise for repair of the spinal cord. We showed earlier that a BMSC transplant limits the loss of spinal nervous tissue after a contusive injury. Here, we addressed the premise that BMSC-mediated tissue sparing underlies functional recovery in adult rats after a contusion of the thoracic spinal cord. Our results reveal that after 2 months BMSCs had elicited a significant increase in spared tissue volumes and in blood vessel density in the contusion epicenter. A strong functional relationship existed between spared tissue volumes and blood vessel density. BMSC-transplanted rats exhibited significant improvements in motor, sensorimotor, and sensory functions, which were strongly correlated with spared tissue volumes. Retrograde tracing revealed that rats with BMSCs had twice as many descending brainstem neurons with an axon projecting beyond the contused spinal cord segment and these correlated strongly with the improved motor/sensorimotor functions but not sensory functions. Together, our data indicate that tissue sparing greatly contributes to BMSC-mediated functional repair after spinal cord contusion. The preservation/formation of blood vessels and sparing/regeneration of descending brainstem axons may be important mediators of the BMSC-mediated anatomical and functional improvements.

  19. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  20. Metabolism and tissue distribution of trace elements in broiler chickens' fed diets containing deficient and plethoric levels of copper, manganese, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sovik; Haldar, Sudipto; Saha, Pinaki; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Supplementation of broiler diets with copper, manganese, and zinc at levels higher than that stipulated by the National Research Council 1994 reportedly improved live weight, feed conversion, and cured leg abnormality supposedly caused by inadequate intake of Mn and Zn. The objective of the study was to ascertain the effects of plethoric supplementation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) on performance and metabolic responses in broiler chickens. The study also aimed to discriminate the responses of the birds when the mineral elements were supplemented either in an inorganic or in an organic form. Cobb 400 broiler chickens (1-day old, n = 300) were assigned to three dietary treatments each containing nine replicates with ten birds for 39 days. The treatments included a control in which the diet was devoid of supplemental trace elements and treatments supplemented with an inorganic trace element premix (ITM) and supplemented with a combination of the inorganic and an organic trace element premix (OTM). The ITM contained (per kilogram) copper, 15 g; iron, 90 g; manganese, 90 g; zinc, 80 g (all as sulfated salts); iodine (as potassium iodide), 2 g; and selenium (as sodium selenite), 0.3 g. The OTM on the other hand, contained copper, 2.5 g; iron, 15 g; manganese, 15 g; zinc, 13.33 g; and chromium, 0.226 g (all as protein chelates). Plethoric supplementation of trace elements improved live weight gain and feed/gain ratio (p < 0.05). Leg abnormality developed in the 16% of the control group of birds but not in the supplemented group. Metabolizability of dry matter, organic matter, and protein was higher (p < 0.01) in the ITM and OTM groups. Excretion of Cu, Fe, and Zn decreased (p < 0.1) due to supplementation of the trace elements leading to increased apparent absorption of the said mineral elements (p < 0.01). Concentration of the concerned trace elements in serum, liver, and composite muscle samples was higher (p < 0.05) in the ITM and OTM dietary groups

  1. Genome-Wide Characterization of RNA Editing in Chicken Embryos Reveals Common Features among Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome. PMID:26024316

  2. Genome-Wide Characterization of RNA Editing in Chicken Embryos Reveals Common Features among Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Roux, Pierre-François; Klopp, Christophe; Fabre, Stéphane; Esquerré, Diane; Dehais, Patrice; Djari, Anis; Gourichon, David; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    RNA editing results in a post-transcriptional nucleotide change in the RNA sequence that creates an alternative nucleotide not present in the DNA sequence. This leads to a diversification of transcription products with potential functional consequences. Two nucleotide substitutions are mainly described in animals, from adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) and from cytidine to uridine (C-to-U). This phenomenon is described in more details in mammals, notably since the availability of next generation sequencing technologies allowing whole genome screening of RNA-DNA differences. The number of studies recording RNA editing in other vertebrates like chicken is still limited. We chose to use high throughput sequencing technologies to search for RNA editing in chicken, and to extend the knowledge of its conservation among vertebrates. We performed sequencing of RNA and DNA from 8 embryos. Being aware of common pitfalls inherent to sequence analyses that lead to false positive discovery, we stringently filtered our datasets and found fewer than 40 reliable candidates. Conservation of particular sites of RNA editing was attested by the presence of 3 edited sites previously detected in mammals. We then characterized editing levels for selected candidates in several tissues and at different time points, from 4.5 days of embryonic development to adults, and observed a clear tissue-specificity and a gradual increase of editing level with time. By characterizing the RNA editing landscape in chicken, our results highlight the extent of evolutionary conservation of this phenomenon within vertebrates, attest to its tissue and stage specificity and provide support of the absence of non A-to-I events from the chicken transcriptome.

  3. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Marcet, Paula L; Lehmann, T

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 61 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from provinces of Santiago del Estero and Entre Rios, Argentina was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and were found in 25 chickens; titers were 1:5 in 6 chickens, 1:10 in 1 chicken, 1:20 in 2 chickens, 1:40 in 1 chicken, 1:80 in 2 chickens, 1:60 in 4 chickens, 1:120 in 2 chickens, 1:640 in 3 chickens, and 1: 1,280 or higher in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 22 seropositive (MAT 1:10 or higher) chickens were bioassayed individually in mice. Tissue from 39 chickens with titers of 1:5 or less were pooled and fed to 3 T. gondii-free cats. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts, but none was found. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 17 of 22 chickens with MAT titers of 1:10 or higher. Genotyping of these 17 isolates using polymorphisms at the SAG2 locus indicated that 4 were Type I, 3 were Type II, and 10 were Type III. Toxoplasma gondii isolates (2 Type I and I Type III) from 3 chickens were virulent for mice and 1 Type I was not mouse virulent. Prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in chickens varied among regions, being 3 times greater in the humid Pampeana region (61.2%) than in the semiarid plain of Santiago del Estero (20%).

  4. Farnesoid X receptor immunolocalization in reproductive tissues of adult female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Hernández, Arely; Méndez-Tepepa, Maribel; Hernández-Aragón, Laura G; Pacheco, Pablo; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2014-07-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been involved in lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and aromatase expression, as well as in the steroid synthesis and signaling. Considering that these events occur in reproductive tissues in females, the aim of the present study was to determine the immunolocalization of FXR in the ovary, oviduct, uterus, and vagina of rabbits. Rabbits were sacrificed and their reproductive tissues were excised and histologically processed. Immunohistochemistry for FXR was done and reproductive tissues were photographed. FXR immunoreactivity was found in all types of ovarian follicles, ovarian stroma, and corpus luteum of virgin and pregnant rabbits. Also, oviductal and vaginal epithelium of virgins, as well as the oviductal smooth muscle, showed anti-FXR immunoreactivity. The uterine epithelium and musculature of virgins had scarce anti-FXR immunoreactivity. Although the role of FXR in female reproductive tissues is still not known, it is possible to consider various functions related to the reproductive tissue.

  5. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus strains augment NLRP3 expression in newborn and adult porcine gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Tohno, Masanori; Shimosato, Takeshi; Aso, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2011-12-15

    We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of human than the mouse counterpart. The predicted amino acid sequence of porcine NLRP3 presented nine C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. In newborn swine, the expression of NLRP3 was detected at higher levels in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, while lower levels were observed in intestinal tissues. In adult swine, NLRP3 was strongly expressed in Peyer's patches and the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the expression level in the lower intestinal tissues was comparable to that in spleen. Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding domain ligands, as well as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus gasseri, enhanced NLRP3 expression in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) of newborn and adult swine. Our results should aid in understanding the intestinal immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying NLRP3 activation and the priming ability of immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in porcine GALT.

  6. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  7. A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Catherine A; Wang, Zhen; Li, Emma; Tran, Misha C; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel; Pantalena-Filho, Luiz; Yang, George P; Kingsley, David M

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. Previous studies have shown that null mutations in the mouse Bmp5 gene alter the size, shape and number of multiple bone and cartilage structures during development. Bmp5 mutations also delay healing of rib fractures in adult mutants, suggesting that the same signals used to pattern embryonic bone and cartilage are also reused during skeletal regeneration and repair. Despite intense interest in BMPs as agents for stimulating bone formation in clinical applications, little is known about the regulatory elements that control developmental or injury-induced BMP expression. To compare the DNA sequences that activate gene expression during embryonic bone formation and following acute injuries in adult animals, we assayed regions surrounding the Bmp5 gene for their ability to stimulate lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic mice. Multiple genomic fragments, distributed across the Bmp5 locus, collectively coordinate expression in discrete anatomic domains during normal development, including in embryonic ribs. In contrast, a distinct regulatory region activated expression following rib fracture in adult animals. The same injury control region triggered gene expression in mesenchymal cells following tibia fracture, in migrating keratinocytes following dorsal skin wounding, and in regenerating epithelial cells following lung injury. The Bmp5 gene thus contains an "injury response" control region that is distinct from embryonic enhancers, and that is activated by multiple types of injury in adult animals.

  8. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used the (14)C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of (14)C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of (14)C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples (donor birth years 1945-1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of (14)C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited tissue turnover. The tendon concentrations of (14)C approximately reflected the atmospheric levels present during the first 17 yr of life, indicating that the tendon core is formed during height growth and is essentially not renewed thereafter. In contrast, (14)C levels in muscle indicated continuous turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.

  9. Lack of organ specific commitment of vagal neural crest cell derivatives as shown by back-transplantation of GFP chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Freem, Lucy J; Delalande, Jean Marie; Campbell, Alison M; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) are multipotent progenitors that migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo and generate a diverse range of cell types. Vagal NCC migrate from the hindbrain into the foregut and from there along the gastrointestinal tract to form the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gut, and into the developing lung buds to form the intrinsic innervation of the lungs. The aim of this study was to determine the developmental potential of vagal NCC that had already colonised the gut or the lungs. We used transgenic chicken embryos that ubiquitously express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to permanently mark and fate-map vagal NCC using intraspecies grafting. This was combined with back-transplantation of gut and lung segments, containing GFP-positive NCC, into the vagal region of a second recipient embryo to determine, using immunohistochemical staining, whether gut or lung NCC are competent of re-colonising both these organs, or whether their fate is restricted. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting efficiently labelled NCC within the gut and lung of chick embryos. When segments of embryonic day (E)5.5 pre-umbilical midgut containing GFP-positive NCC were back-transplanted into the vagal region of E1.5 host embryos, the GFP-positive NCC remigrated to colonise both the gut and lungs and differentiated into neurons in stereotypical locations. However, GFP-positive lung NCC did not remigrate when back-transplanted. Our studies suggest that gut NCC are not restricted to colonising only this organ, since upon back-transplantation GFP-positive gut NCC colonised both the gut and the lung.

  10. Lipoprotein metabolism differs between Marek's disease susceptible and resistant chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, P; Yu, Y; Luo, J; Tian, F; Zhang, H; Chang, S; Ramachandran, R; Zhang, L; Song, J

    2012-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by MD virus and has an important impact on the poultry industry worldwide. There have been reports showing different physiological characteristics between MD susceptible and resistant chickens. However, little is known about whether there are differences in lipid metabolism between MD susceptible and resistant lines of chickens. In this study, we examined the BW and the weight of tissues (abdominal fat, breast muscle with bone, leg muscle with bone, liver, and heart), the lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations and distributions, and the plasma and tissue levels of adiponectin and its receptors in the highly resistant and susceptible lines during chicken growth. Our data showed that the increase in total cholesterol during growth was mainly due to the elevation of cholesterol in the low-density/very low-density lipoprotein fraction in MD susceptible chickens, whereas the increase of total cholesterol was mainly attributable to the increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in MD resistant chickens. Meanwhile, the MD resistant line appeared to have increased plasma adiponectin levels compared with MD susceptible chickens during growth. Taken together, our data suggested that lipoprotein-cholesterol and adiponectin metabolism are different between MD susceptible and resistant chickens.

  11. Histological image data of limb skeletal tissue from larval and adult Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Catherine D; Diaz-Castillo, Carlos; Sosnik, Julian; Phan, Anne; Gardiner, David M

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled "Cartilage and bone cells do not participate in skeletal regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum limbs" [1]. Here we present image data of the post-embryonic development of the forelimb skeletal tissue of Ambystoma Mexicanum. Histological staining was performed on sections from the intact limbs of young (6.5 cm) and old (25 cm) animals, and on dissected skeletal tissues (cartilage, bone, and periosteum) from these animals.

  12. Facial soft tissue thickness in a sample of Sudanese adults with different occlusions.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sama; Abuaffan, Amal H

    2016-09-01

    Facial soft tissue thickness is essential to orthodontists and plastic surgeons for treatment planning, and to forensic anthropologists for facial reconstruction, a process combining science and art to recreate a recognizable face from an unidentified skull. The facial profile, together with the age and sex of a person, is related to facial soft tissue thickness, which is required for accurate facial reconstruction and recognition. Skeletal occlusions in orthodontics are classified according to the basic human facial profiles: straight, convex, and concave or skeletal class I, II, and III, respectively. In the present study, the facial soft tissue thickness of 233 Sudanese subjects (105 men and 128 women), ranging in age from 18 to 35 years, with different facial profiles at 20 landmarks was measured (10 soft tissue and 10 dentoskeletal). Sexual dimorphism was noted, with males having thicker facial soft tissue at all measured points. The facial soft tissue thickness varied among different occlusions. Individuals with skeletal class II occlusion had the thickest lower lip, and class III individuals had the thickest upper lip. In general, the Sudanese sample had a unique spectrum of measurements, with thick upper and lower lips, compared with African and Caucasoid subjects, pointing to the need for ethnic-specific data.

  13. Neonatal Tissue Damage Promotes Spike Timing-Dependent Synaptic Long-Term Potentiation in Adult Spinal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence from both humans and rodents suggests that tissue damage during the neonatal period can “prime” developing nociceptive pathways such that a subsequent injury during adulthood causes an exacerbated degree of pain hypersensitivity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this priming effect remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury relaxes the timing rules governing long-term potentiation (LTP) at mouse primary afferent synapses onto mature lamina I projection neurons, which serve as a major output of the spinal nociceptive network and are essential for pain perception. In addition, whereas LTP in naive mice was only observed if the presynaptic input preceded postsynaptic firing, early tissue injury removed this temporal requirement and LTP was observed regardless of the order in which the inputs were activated. Neonatal tissue damage also reduced the dependence of spike-timing-dependent LTP on NMDAR activation and unmasked a novel contribution of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs. These results suggest for the first time that transient tissue damage during early life creates a more permissive environment for the production of LTP within adult spinal nociceptive circuits. This persistent metaplasticity may promote the excessive amplification of ascending nociceptive transmission to the mature brain and thereby facilitate the generation of chronic pain after injury, thus representing a novel potential mechanism by which early trauma can prime adult pain pathways in the CNS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tissue damage during early life can “prime” developing nociceptive pathways in the CNS, leading to greater pain severity after repeat injury via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury widens the timing window during which correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity can evoke long-term potentiation (LTP) at sensory synapses onto adult lamina I

  14. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in serum and adipose tissue following intravenous administration to adult female CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Doerge, Daniel R; Twaddle, Nathan C; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2012-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for use in food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine consistent with pervasive exposure at levels typically below 1 μg/kg bw/day. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of unconjugated (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult female CD-1 mice following intravenous (IV) injection, which produces higher serum levels by circumventing the processes of absorption from the GI tract and presystemic metabolism that occur after oral administration. Deuterated BPA (100 μg/kg bw) was used to avoid interference by background contamination from trace amounts of native BPA. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of unconjugated BPA were determined in adipose tissue, a proposed site of action and "depot" for BPA. After IV injection, unconjugated BPA rapidly distributed out of the circulation (t(1/2)=0.2 h) and terminal elimination also proceeded rapidly (t(1/2)=0.8 h). Consistent with the degree of aqueous solubility, lipid/water solubility ratio, and partitioning from blood into adipose tissue in vivo, the levels of unconjugated BPA in mouse adipose tissue rapidly reached a maximal level (0.25 h) that did not exceed the serum maximum at the initial sampling time (0.08 h). Terminal elimination of unconjugated BPA from adipose tissue (t(1/2)=7.0 h) was similar to that for conjugated BPA in serum (t(1/2)=6.6 h) and <0.01% of the administered dose remained in adipose tissue after 24 h. These plasma and tissue kinetics are consistent with rapid equilibria and underscore the non-persistent nature of BPA, particularly when compared with slowly metabolized lipophilic organic pollutants like halogenated dibenzodioxins.

  15. Liver Progenitors Isolated from Adult Healthy Mouse Liver Efficiently Differentiate to Functional Hepatocytes In Vitro and Repopulate Liver Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Ishii, Masayuki; Kino, Junichi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that tissue stem cells supply multiple epithelial cells in mature tissues and organs. However, it is unclear whether tissue stem cells generally contribute to cellular turnover in normal healthy organs. Here, we show that liver progenitors distinct from bipotent liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs) persistently exist in mouse livers and potentially contribute to tissue maintenance. We found that, in addition to LPCs isolated as EpCAM(+) cells, liver progenitors were enriched in CD45(-) TER119(-) CD31(-) EpCAM(-) ICAM-1(+) fraction isolated from late-fetal and postnatal livers. ICAM-1(+) liver progenitors were abundant by 4 weeks (4W) after birth. Although their number decreased with age, ICAM-1(+) liver progenitors existed in livers beyond that stage. We established liver progenitor clones derived from ICAM-1(+) cells between 1 and 20W and found that those clones efficiently differentiated into mature hepatocytes (MHs), which secreted albumin, eliminated ammonium ion, stored glycogen, and showed cytochrome P450 activity. Even after long-term culture, those clones kept potential to differentiate to MHs. When ICAM-1(+) clones were transplanted into nude mice after retrorsine treatment and 70% partial hepatectomy, donor cells were incorporated into liver plates and expressed hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I. Moreover, after short-term treatment with oncostatin M, ICAM-1(+) clones could efficiently repopulate the recipient liver tissues. Our results indicate that liver progenitors that can efficiently differentiate to MHs exist in normal adult livers. Those liver progenitors could be an important source of new MHs for tissue maintenance and repair in vivo, and for regenerative medicine ex vivo. Stem Cells 2016;34:2889-2901.

  16. In vivo adeno-associated viral vector-mediated genetic engineering of white and brown adipose tissue in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  17. Repair of tissues by adult stem/progenitor cells (MSCs): controversies, myths, and changing paradigms.

    PubMed

    Prockop, Darwin J

    2009-06-01

    Research on stem cells has progressed at a rapid pace and, as might be anticipated, the results have generated several controversies, a few myths and a change in a major paradigm. Some of these issues will be reviewed in this study with special emphasis on how they can be applied to the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, referred to as MSCs.

  18. Mass spectral determination of phenylacetonitrile (PAN) levels in body tissues of adult desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Wings and legs of the gregarious desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria have been shown to be release sites of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major adult male-produced pheromone. However, there is limited information on the distribution of PAN within the locust. Here we show, using gas chromatograph...

  19. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  20. Incidence and Survival of Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Comparison between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sun Min; Yoo, Cheol Joo; Han, Jung Woo; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Soo Hee; Ahn, Joong Bae; Rha, Sun Young; Shin, Sang Joon; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoo-Ho; Rho, Jae Kyung; Kim, Hyo Song

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric-type sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma (EWS), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT) are rare in adults, with limited studies on their prognosis and optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to examine the outcome of children and adult patients with RMS, EWS, PNET, and DSRCT and relevant prognostic factors. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 220 pediatric-type sarcoma patients at a single institution between 1985 and 2011. Comparisons were made in order to examine differences in demographics, disease characteristics, and survival. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 220 consecutive patients were identified at our institute. Median age was 15.6 years (range, 0 to 81 years) and there were 108 children (49%) and 112 adult patients (51%). According to histological classification, 106 patients (48.2%) had RMS, 60 (27.3%) had EWS, 50 (22.7%) had PNET, and 4 (1.8%) had DSRCT. With a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, the estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 75 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.2 to 122.8 months) and median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients was 11 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 13.2 months). No significant difference in OS and EFS was observed between adults and children. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.617; 95% CI, 1.022 to 2.557; p=0.040) and no debulking surgery (HR, 1.443; 95% CI, 1.104 to 1.812; p=0.012) showed independent association with worse OS. Conclusion Metastatic disease and no surgical treatment are poor prognostic factors for OS among pediatric-type sarcomas for both adults and children. PMID:25143049

  1. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery.

  2. CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. Mouse matriptase-2: identification, characterization and comparative mRNA expression analysis with mouse hepsin in adult and embryonic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, John D; Campagnolo, Luisa; Goodarzi, Goodarz; Truong, Tony N; Stuhlmann, Heidi; Quigley, James P

    2003-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of mouse matriptase-2 (m-matriptase-2), an 811-amino-acid protein composed of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning domain, two CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains, three LDLR (low-density-lipoprotein receptor class A) domains and a C-terminal serine-protease domain. All m-matriptase-2 protein domain boundaries corresponded with intron/exon junctions of the encoding gene, which spans approx. 29 kb and comprises 18 exons. Matriptase-2 is highly conserved in human, mouse and rat, with the rat matriptase-2 gene ( r-maltriptase-2 ) predicted to encode transmembrane and soluble isoforms. Western-blot analysis indicated that m-matriptase-2 migrates close to its theoretical molecular mass of 91 kDa, and immunofluorescence analysis was consistent with the proposed surface membrane localization of this protein. Reverse-transcription PCR and in-situ -hybridization analysis indicated that m-matriptase-2 expression overlaps with the distribution of mouse hepsin (m-hepsin, a cell-surface serine protease identified in hepatoma cells) in adult tissues and during embryonic development. In adult tissues both are expressed at highest levels in liver, kidney and uterus. During embryogenesis m-matriptase-2 expression peaked between days 12.5 and 15.5. m-hepsin expression was biphasic, with peaks at day 7.5 to 8.5 and again between days 12.5 and 15.5. In situ hybridization of embryonic tissues indicated abundant expression of both m-matriptase-2 and m-hepsin in the developing liver and at lower levels in developing pharyngo-tympanic tubes. While m-hepsin was detected in the residual embryonic yolk sac and with lower intensity in lung, heart, gastrointestinal tract, developing kidney tubules and epithelium of the oral cavity, m-matriptase-2 was absent in these tissues, but strongly expressed within the nasal cavity by olfactory epithelial

  4. Anterior eye tissue morphology: Scleral and conjunctival thickness in children and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Read, Scott A.; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J.; Bremner, Alexander; Fothergill, Annabel; Ismail, Brittney; McGraw, Rebecca; Quirk, Charlotte J.; Wrigley, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    The sclera and conjunctiva form part of the eye’s tough, protective outer coat, and play important roles in the eye’s mechanical protection and immune defence, as well as in determining the size and shape of the eye globe. Advances in ocular imaging technology now allow these tissues in the anterior eye to be imaged non-invasively and with high resolution, however there is a paucity of data examining the dimensions of these tissues in paediatric populations. In this study, we have used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to examine the normal in vivo thickness profile of the anterior sclera and overlying conjunctiva in 111 healthy young participants, including a large proportion of paediatric subjects. We demonstrate that the thickness of the anterior sclera varies significantly with measurement location and meridian. Tissue thickness also varied significantly with age, with younger subjects exhibiting significantly thinner scleras and significantly greater conjunctival thickness. Males were also found to exhibit significantly greater scleral thickness. Refractive error however was not significantly associated with either scleral or conjunctival thickness in this population. These findings provide new data describing the normative dimensions of anterior eye tissues in children and the factors that can influence these dimensions in young populations. PMID:27646956

  5. A CT-scan database for the facial soft tissue thickness of Taiwan adults.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Hsu, Wan-Yi; Huang, Guo-Shu; Shaw, Kai-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Facial reconstruction is a branch of forensic anthropology used to assist in the identification of skeletal remains. The majority of facial reconstruction techniques use facial soft tissue depth chart data to recreate facial tissue on a skull or a model of a skull through the use of modeling clay. This study relied on 193 subjects selected from the Taiwanese population on the basis of age and gender to determine the average values of 32 landmarks, include midline and bilateral measures, by means of CT scans. The mean age of the subjects was 46.9±16.4 years, with a mean age of 43.8±16.6 for males and 49.9±15.8 for females respectively. There were 16 landmarks with statistically significant differences between male and female subjects, namely S, G, N, Na, Ph, Sd and Id in the midline portion, FE, LO, ZA and Sub M2 in the bilateral-right and left portion, and IM point in the bilateral-left portion (abbreviations adapted from Karen T. Taylor's work). The mean soft tissue depth was greater in males than in females, and there was significant difference between the right and left sides of the face in Za point. This study's findings were compared with those of Bulut et al.

  6. Isolation and characterization of the promoter region of the chicken N-cadherin gene.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Paradies, N E; Brackenbury, R W

    1997-05-20

    N-cadherin (CDH2) is a member of the cadherin family of Ca2(+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules. To investigate mechanisms controlling CDH2 transcription, we isolated and analyzed a genomic DNA sequence containing 2.8 kb of 5' flanking region and the first two exons of chicken CDH2. Sequence analysis of the promoter region of CDH2 revealed no CCATT or TATA boxes, but showed a high overall GC content, high CpG dinucleotide content, and several consensus Sp1 and Ap2 binding sequences. When fused to the cat reporter gene in transient transfection experiments, the sequence from positions -3231 to -118 (relative to the translation start site) directed high-level expression in CDH2-expressing chicken primary retinal cells and mouse N2A cells, but was much less active in chicken embryonic fibroblast cells and mouse 3T3 cells which do not express CDH2. Similarly, this promoter fragment directed variable, but neuronal-specific, expression of reporter genes in adult transgenic mice, but failed to produce the correct pattern of expression in other tissues, implying that additional sequences further upstream and/or within introns of CDH2 may play important roles in the transcriptional control.

  7. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Thomas, Anthony P; Gertz, Erik R; Souza, Elaine C; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Newman, John W; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Van Loan, Marta D

    2013-08-26

    Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.

  8. Adult marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kucia, Magda; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Wu, Wan; Ratajczak, Janina; Machalinski, Boguslaw; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2007-10-01

    A population of CXCR4(+) lin(-) CD45(-) cells that express SSEA, Oct-4 and Nanog has been identified in adult bone marrow. These cells are very small and display several features typical for primary embryonic stem cells such as: i) a large nuclei surrounded by a narrow rim of cytoplasm; ii) open-type chromatin (euchromatin); and iii) high telomerase activity. These cells were named very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SC). The authors hypothesized that they are direct descendants of the germ lineage. Germ lineage, in order to pass genes on to the next generation, has to create soma and thus becomes a 'mother lineage' for all somatic cell lineages present in the adult body. Germ potential is established after conception in a totipotent zygote and retained subsequently during development in blastomers of morula, cells form the inner cell mass of blastocyst, epiblast and population of primordial germ cells. The authors envision that VSEL-SC are epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells and could potentially become a less-controversial source of stem cells for regeneration.

  9. Acute pancreatitis: rare complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, A P; Pandit, A K

    2007-01-01

    Chicken pox is a highly contagious infection, caused by the varicella zoster virus. Although generally a benign, self-limited disease, varicella may be associated with serious complications especially in adults. We present acute pancreatitis- a rare complication, in otherwise healthy patients suffering from chicken pox. The presence of pancreatitis in association with chickenpox in immunocompetent patients can influence the outcome of the latter. This interesting case will hopefully increase awareness about this complication and its fatality in chicken pox.

  10. RNA sequencing analysis of the developing chicken retina

    PubMed Central

    Langouet-Astrie, Christophe J.; Meinsen, Annamarie L.; Grunwald, Emily R.; Turner, Stephen D.; Enke, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis using massively parallel next generation sequencing technology provides the capability to understand global changes in gene expression throughout a range of tissue samples. Development of the vertebrate retina requires complex temporal orchestration of transcriptional activation and repression. The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus) is a classic model system for studying developmental biology and retinogenesis. Existing retinal transcriptome projects have been critical to the vision research community for studying aspects of murine and human retinogenesis, however, there are currently no publicly available data sets describing the developing chicken retinal transcriptome. Here we used Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to characterize the mRNA transcriptome of the developing chicken retina in an effort to identify genes critical for retinal development in this important model organism. These data will be valuable to the vision research community for characterizing global changes in gene expression between ocular tissues and critical developmental time points during retinogenesis in the chicken retina. PMID:27996968

  11. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Plikus, Maksim V.; Van Spyk, Elyse Noelani; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-01-01

    Historically work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as liver, fat and muscle. In recent years, skin is emerging as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging and carcinogenesis. Morphologically skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration -- the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell-type specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of the skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar UV radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. The skin also provides opportunities to interrogate clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model for investigating the

  12. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  13. "The preadipocyte factor" DLK1 marks adult mouse adipose tissue residing vascular cells that lack in vitro adipogenic differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Jensen, Line; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    2009-09-03

    Delta-like 1 (Dlk1) is expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and has frequently been referred to as "the" preadipocyte marker, yet the phenotype of DLK1(+) cells in adipose tissue remains undetermined. Herein, we demonstrate that DLK1(+) cells encompass around 1-2% of the adult mouse adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Unexpectedly, the DLK1(+)SVF population was enriched for cells expressing genes generally ascribed to the vascular lineage and did not possess any adipogenic differentiation potential in vitro. Instead, DLK1(+) cells comprised an immediate ability for cobblestone formation, generation of tube-like structures on matrigel, and uptake of Acetylated Low Density-Lipoprotein, all characteristics of endothelial cells. We therefore suggest that DLK1(+)SVF cells are of a vascular origin and not them-selves committed preadipocytes as assumed hitherto.

  14. Loss of HtrA2/Omi activity in non-neuronal tissues of adult mice causes premature aging.

    PubMed

    Kang, S; Louboutin, J-P; Datta, P; Landel, C P; Martinez, D; Zervos, A S; Strayer, D S; Fernandes-Alnemri, T; Alnemri, E S

    2013-02-01

    mnd2 mice die prematurely as a result of neurodegeneration 30-40 days after birth due to loss of the enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial quality control protease HtrA2/Omi. Here, we show that transgenic expression of human HtrA2/Omi in the central nervous system of mnd2 mice rescues them from neurodegeneration and prevents their premature death. Interestingly, adult transgenic mnd2 mice develop accelerated aging phenotypes, such as premature weight loss, hair loss, reduced fertility, curvature of the spine, heart enlargement, increased autophagy, and death by 12-17 months of age. These mice also have elevated levels of clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in their tissues. Our results provide direct genetic evidence linking mitochondrial protein quality control to mtDNA deletions and aging in mammals.

  15. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient. PMID:27630505

  16. Group B streptococcus infections of soft tissue and bone in California adults, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Khan, M A; Reingold, A; Watt, J P

    2015-11-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an increasing cause of disease in adults. We present long-term trends in incidence of overall infections and identify characteristics of patients with GBS cellulitis, bone and joint infections. Active, population-based surveillance was conducted from 1995-2012 in three California counties and the data were analysed retrospectively. All cases had isolation of GBS from a normally sterile site. Cases of cellulitis were classified based on clinical diagnosis. GBS bone or joint infection was defined as isolation of GBS from a bone or joint or a diagnosis of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Medical charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. There were 3917 cases of GBS; the incidence of disease increased from 5·8 to 8·3 cases/100 000 persons (P < 0·001) from 1995 to 2012. In adults aged ⩾40 years, the overall incidence of GBS increased from 8·5 to 14·2 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001) persons during the study period. The incidence of cellulitis increased from 1·6 to 3·8 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001), bone infection increased from 0·7 to 2·6 cases/100 000 (P < 0·001), and the incidence of joint infection remained approximately constant at an average rate of 1·0 case/100 000. The highest incidence rates were observed in men, persons aged ⩾80 years, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (51·2% cellulitis cases, 76·3% bone infections, 29·8% joint infections).

  17. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of glucocorticoid residues in edible tissues of swine, cattle, sheep, and chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhaoying; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2010-10-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine the presence of eight glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, betamethasone, beclomethasone, and fludrocortisone) in the muscles and livers of swine, cattle, and sheep and the muscle of chicken is described. After deconjugation in alkali media, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate for glucocorticoids followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and reconstitution in the LC mobile phase. The hydrolysis procedure with sodium hydroxide was used to reduce handling time. A single-step solid-phase extraction method was optimized which is suitable for the clean-up of the compounds of interest in many diverse tissue matrices. LC separations were performed on a C(18) column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and the two epimers betamethasone and dexamethasone were successfully separated. LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS in negative mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was performed to improve method sensitivity and reduce matrix interference. Two SRM transitions were used for each compound. The recovery of glucocorticoids spiked at levels of 0.5-16 microg kg(-1) ranged from 55% to 107%; the between-day relative standard deviations were no more than 15%. The limits of quantification were 0.5-2.0 microg kg(-1) in muscle and 1-4 microg kg(-1) in liver. The optimized procedure was successfully applied to monitor the food at the 2008 Summer Olympics Games in Beijing, China, demonstrating the method to be simple, fast, robust, and suitable for identification and quantification of glucocorticoids residues in foods of animal origin.

  18. Studies on renal adaptation to altered dietary amino acid intake: tissue taurine responses in nursing and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chesney, R W; Lippincott, S; Gusowski, N; Padilla, M; Zelikovic, I

    1986-10-01

    This study examines the effect of a low sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) and a high taurine diet (HTD), compared with a normal diet, on the plasma, urine, muscle, brain and renal cortex levels of taurine in immature and adult rats. Milk taurine from lactating dams reflected the taurine content of the diet, being low in LTD-fed and high in HTD-fed animals. Nursing pups (7, 14 and 21 d old) often had plasma, urine and tissue--renal cortex, heart, skeletal muscle--levels of taurine related to dietary exposure, a situation also found in adult animals. These diets did not influence the urinary excretion of the sulfur-containing alpha-amino acids methionine and cystine but a sulfur aminoaciduria of immaturity was evident. By contrast, the content of taurine in brain was constant regardless of dietary intake of sulfur amino acids. An age-related decline in brain taurine content was found--as noted by others--but this too was influenced by diet. This dual finding of brain taurine constancy despite wide differences in sulfur amino acid intake and changes in the renal handling of taurine as influenced by diet suggest that the renal adaptive response serves to maintain the stability of brain taurine content.

  19. Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kiczorowska, Bożena; Samolińska, Wioletta; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of micronized pea seeds introduced into feed mixes for broilers on the slaughter yield, blood lipid parameters, content of fatty acids in selected tissues, and meat quality. The studies involved 150 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks split into three groups (for 42 days). The feed rations differed in terms of the source of proteins: in the control group (C), it was post-extraction soybean meal (SBM) 100%; in group I, SBM 50% and micronized peas 50%; and in group II, micronized peas only, 100%. Irradiated pea seeds added to the feed ration for chicks reduced the fattening grade of carcasses (P < 0.05). Additionally, significant improvement of blood lipid indices was recorded. The share of the irradiated pea seeds in feed mixes decreased the share of saturated fatty acids in the muscles and abdominal fat and had a positive effect on the n-6/n-3 ratio, hypocholesterolemic / hypercholesterolemic ratio, as well as the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (P < 0.05).

  20. Expression of putative markers of pluripotency in equine embryonic and adult tissues.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cristina L; Sharma, Ruchi; Dawson, Lucy; Taylor, Sarah E; Pearson, Gemma; Keen, John A; McDonald, Kieran; Aurich, Christine; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Expression of several putative markers of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28A, REX1, DNMT3B and TERT) was examined in a range of equine tissues, including early embryos, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), testis, adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and keratinocytes. Transcript levels of all markers were highest in embryos and iPSCs and, except for SOX2, were very low or undetectable in keratinocytes. Mean expression levels of all markers were lower in testis than in embryos or iPSCs and, except for DNMT3B, were higher in testis than in MSCs. Expression of OCT4, NANOG and DNMT3B, but not the other markers, was detected in MSCs. Of all markers analysed, only LIN28A, REX1 and TERT were associated exclusively with pluripotent cells in the horse.

  1. Excessive energy intake does not modify fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Adéchian, Solange; Giardina, Silvana; Rémond, Didier; Papet, Isabelle; Buonocore, Daniela; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Marzatico, Fulvio; Mosoni, Laurent

    2009-07-01

    The impact of chronic excessive energy intake on protein metabolism is still controversial. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum during 5 weeks with either a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HF: n = 9) containing 45% of total energy as lipids (protein 14%; carbohydrate 40% with 83.5% sucrose) or a standard diet (controls: n = 10). Energy intake and body weight were recorded. At the end of the experiment, we measured body composition, metabolic parameters (plasma amino acid, lipid, insulin, and glucose levels), inflammatory parameter (plasma alpha2-macroglobulin), oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant enzyme activities, lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl content in liver and muscle), and in vivo fed-state fractional protein synthesis rates (FSRs) in muscle and liver. Energy intake was significantly higher in HF compared with control rats (+28%). There were significant increases in body weight (+8%), body fat (+21%), renal (+41%), and epidydimal (+28%) fat pads in HF compared with control rats. No effect was observed in other tissue weights (liver, muscle, spleen, kidneys, intestine). Liver and muscle FSRs, plasma levels of lipids, glucose, insulin and alpha2-macroglobulin, soleus and liver glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities, MnSOD activity, LPO, and protein carbonyl content were not altered by the HF diet. Only soleus muscle and liver Cu/ZnSOD activity and soleus muscle catalase activities were reduced in HF rats compared with control rats. Thus, chronic excessive energy intake and increased adiposity, in the absence of other metabolic alterations, do not stimulate fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates.

  2. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  3. Three-dimensional hard tissue palatal size and shape: a 10-year longitudinal evaluation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Colombo, Anna; Ferrari, Raffaella P

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year longitudinal evaluation of the morphology (size and shape) of hard tissue palate was performed in 6 female and 6 male healthy adults (mean age at the second evaluation was 33 years, SD = 2.2). All subjects had a complete permanent dentition, including the second molars, and were free from respiratory problems. Palatal landmarks were digitized with a computerized 3D instrument, and their coordinates were used to derive a mathematical model of palatal form. Palatal shape (size-independent) was assessed by a fourth-grade polynomial in the sagittal and frontal plane projections. Palatal dimensions in the frontal and sagittal planes were computed and compared between the 2 evaluations by paired Student t tests. A great variability was observed, and no significant modifications in size were found (P > .05 for all variables). No variations in shape were observed. Sex had no significant effect for any variable (Student t for independent samples, P > .05). This study showed that in healthy subjects, hard tissue palatal morphology does not seem to change between the third and the fourth decades of life.

  4. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  5. Eggcited about Chickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION MODULATES DIVERSE FUNCTIONAL PROCESSES OF CHICKEN MACROPHAGE AT THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL LEVEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a major etiologic agent of non-typhoid salmonellosis. The organisms colonize adult chicken hosts without causing overt clinical signs. The immunological mechanisms underlying the silent and persistent infection of chickens by SE are not clearly underst...

  7. Depleted uranium induces sex- and tissue-specific methylation patterns in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gombeau, Kewin; Pereira, Sandrine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Camilleri, Virginie; Cavalie, Isabelle; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to different concentrations (2 and 20 μg L(-)(1)) of environmentally relevant waterborne depleted uranium (DU) on the DNA methylation patterns both at HpaII restriction sites (5'-CCGG-3') and across the whole genome in the zebrafish brain, gonads, and eyes. We first identified sex-dependent differences in the methylation level of HpaII sites after exposure. In males, these effects were present as early as 7 days after exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU, and were even more pronounced in the brain, gonads, and eyes after 24 days. However, in females, hypomethylation was only observed in the gonads after exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU for 24 days. Sex-specific effects of DU were also apparent at the whole-genome level, because in males, exposure to 20 μg L(-)(1) DU for 24 days resulted in cytosine hypermethylation in the brain and eyes and hypomethylation in the gonads. In contrast, in females, hypermethylation was observed in the brain after exposure to both concentrations of DU for 7 days. Based on our current knowledge of uranium toxicity, several hypotheses are proposed to explain these findings, including the involvement of oxidative stress, alteration of demethylation enzymes and the calcium signaling pathway. This study reports, for the first time, the sex- and tissue-specific epigenetic changes that occur in a nonhuman organism after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium, which could induce transgenerational epigenetic effects.

  8. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  9. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma or Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  10. Chicken from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stuffed Chicken Marinating Partial Cooking Color of Skin Dark Bones Pink Meat Storage Times Color of Giblets ... mature male chicken with coarse skin and tough, dark meat. Requires long, moist cooking. [ Top of Page ] ...

  11. Housing system influences abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P < 0.05). These data indicate that housing system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles.

  12. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  13. Age-Dependent Changes in Geometry, Tissue Composition and Mechanical Properties of Fetal to Adult Cryopreserved Human Heart Valves.

    PubMed

    van Geemen, Daphne; Soares, Ana L F; Oomen, Pim J A; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Janssen-van den Broek, Marloes W J T; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Goumans, Marie-José T H; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information about age-specific structural and functional properties of human heart valves, while this information is key to the development and evaluation of living valve replacements for pediatric and adolescent patients. Here, we present an extended data set of structure-function properties of cryopreserved human pulmonary and aortic heart valves, providing age-specific information for living valve replacements. Tissue composition, morphology, mechanical properties, and maturation of leaflets from 16 pairs of structurally unaffected aortic and pulmonary valves of human donors (fetal-53 years) were analyzed. Interestingly, no major differences were observed between the aortic and pulmonary valves. Valve annulus and leaflet dimensions increase throughout life. The typical three-layered leaflet structure is present before birth, but becomes more distinct with age. After birth, cell numbers decrease rapidly, while remaining cells obtain a quiescent phenotype and reside in the ventricularis and spongiosa. With age and maturation-but more pronounced in aortic valves-the matrix shows an increasing amount of collagen and collagen cross-links and a reduction in glycosaminoglycans. These matrix changes correlate with increasing leaflet stiffness with age. Our data provide a new and comprehensive overview of the changes of structure-function properties of fetal to adult human semilunar heart valves that can be used to evaluate and optimize future therapies, such as tissue engineering of heart valves. Changing hemodynamic conditions with age can explain initial changes in matrix composition and consequent mechanical properties, but cannot explain the ongoing changes in valve dimensions and matrix composition at older age.

  14. Prevalence of amyloid deposition in mature healthy chickens in the flock that previously had outbreaks of vaccine-associated amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    IBI, Kanata; MURAKAMI, Tomoaki; GODA, Wael Mohamed; KOBAYASHI, Naoki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; YANAI, Tokuma

    2015-01-01

    Avian amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds with chronic inflammation, such as that caused by bacterial infection. We previously described vaccine-associated AA amyloidosis in juvenile chickens. In this study, the prevalence of amyloid deposition was measured in mature healthy chickens that survived a previous outbreak of avian AA amyloidosis while they were juveniles. Herein, we analyzed the amyloid deposition in mature chickens and compared the prevalence of amyloid deposition with juvenile chickens obtained in our previous study (Murakami et al., 2013). We found that: 1) amyloid deposition in the liver was absent in mature chickens, while juvenile chickens had a rate of 24%; 2) amyloid deposition in the spleen was observed in 36% of juvenile chickens and in 40% of mature chickens; 3) amyloid deposition in the pectoral muscle of mature chickens (43.75%) was approximately half that of juvenile chickens (88%). These results suggest that additional amyloid deposition in chickens previously exposed to AA amyloidosis may not worsen with age. Further, amyloid deposition in chickens may tend to regress when causative factors, such as vaccinations and/or chronic inflammation, are absent. PMID:25985816

  15. Prevalence of amyloid deposition in mature healthy chickens in the flock that previously had outbreaks of vaccine-associated amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ibi, Kanata; Murakami, Tomoaki; Goda, Wael Mohamed; Kobayashi, Naoki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Yanai, Tokuma

    2015-10-01

    Avian amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds with chronic inflammation, such as that caused by bacterial infection. We previously described vaccine-associated AA amyloidosis in juvenile chickens. In this study, the prevalence of amyloid deposition was measured in mature healthy chickens that survived a previous outbreak of avian AA amyloidosis while they were juveniles. Herein, we analyzed the amyloid deposition in mature chickens and compared the prevalence of amyloid deposition with juvenile chickens obtained in our previous study (Murakami et al., 2013). We found that: 1) amyloid deposition in the liver was absent in mature chickens, while juvenile chickens had a rate of 24%; 2) amyloid deposition in the spleen was observed in 36% of juvenile chickens and in 40% of mature chickens; 3) amyloid deposition in the pectoral muscle of mature chickens (43.75%) was approximately half that of juvenile chickens (88%). These results suggest that additional amyloid deposition in chickens previously exposed to AA amyloidosis may not worsen with age. Further, amyloid deposition in chickens may tend to regress when causative factors, such as vaccinations and/or chronic inflammation, are absent.

  16. Biodegradation of the ZnO:Eu nanoparticles in the tissues of adult mouse after alimentary application.

    PubMed

    Kielbik, Paula; Kaszewski, Jaroslaw; Rosowska, Julita; Wolska, Ewelina; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S; Gralak, Mikolaj A; Gajewski, Zdzisław; Godlewski, Marek; Godlewski, Michal M

    2016-11-21

    Biodegradable zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered promising materials for future biomedical applications. To fulfil this potential, biodistribution and elimination patterns of ZnO NPs in the living organism need to be resolved. In order to investigate gastrointestinal absorption of ZnO NPs and their intra-organism distribution, water suspension of ZnO or fluorescent ZnO:Eu (Europium-doped zinc oxide) NPs (10mg/ml; 0.3ml/mouse) was alimentary-administered (IG: intra-gastric) to adult mice. Internal organs collected at key time-points after IG were evaluated by AAS for Zn concentration and analysed by cytometric techniques. We found that Zn-based NPs were readily absorbed and distributed (3 h post IG) in the nanoparticle form throughout the organism. Results suggest, that liver and kidneys were key organs responsible for NPs elimination, while accumulation was observed in the spleen and adipose tissues. We also showed that ZnO/ZnO:Eu NPs were able to cross majority of biological barriers in the organism (including blood-brain-barrier).

  17. A new method of infrared thermography for quantification of brown adipose tissue activation in healthy adults (TACTICAL): a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ang, Qi Yan; Goh, Hui Jen; Cao, Yanpeng; Li, Yiqun; Chan, Siew-Pang; Swain, Judith L; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2017-05-01

    The ability to alter the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human adults is a potential strategy to manage obesity and related metabolic disorders associated with food, drug, and environmental stimuli with BAT activating/recruiting capacity. Infrared thermography (IRT) provides a non-invasive and inexpensive alternative to the current methods (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET) used to assess BAT. We have quantified BAT activation in the cervical-supraclavicular (C-SCV) region using IRT video imaging and a novel image computational algorithm by studying C-SCV heat production in healthy young men after cold stimulation and the ingestion of capsinoids in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Subjects were divided into low-BAT and high-BAT groups based on changes in IR emissions in the C-SCV region induced by cold. The high-BAT group showed significant increases in energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and heat output in the C-SCV region post-capsinoid ingestion compared to post-placebo ingestion, but the low-BAT group did not. Based on these results, we conclude that IRT is a promising tool for quantifying BAT activity.

  18. Stage- and tissue-specific expression of two homeo box genes in sea urchin embryos and adults.

    PubMed

    Dolecki, G J; Wang, G; Humphreys, T

    1988-12-23

    We report the isolation of two different homeo box genes, HB3 and HB4, from the Hawaiian sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. DNA sequencing revealed a definitive Antennapedia (Antp) class homeo box in each gene. Southern transfer hybridizations showed the genes to be single-copy. A 5.7-kb transcript of the HB3 gene was found in ovary, testis, small intestine and gastrula poly(A)+ RNA. The HB4 gene produces three transcripts. A 3.7-kb and a 4.4-kb transcript are expressed during embryogenesis. A 3.5-kb transcript appears in each of the adult tissues studied. The HB4 gene appears to be the sea urchin cognate of the Drosophila infrabdominal-7 (iab-7) gene, the mouse Hox 1.7 and Hox 3.2 genes and the Xenopus X1Hbox 6 gene. An examination of Antp class homeo box genes in deuterostomes indicates that a chromosomal duplication has taken place in the evolutionary line leading to the vertebrates after the divergence of the echinoderms. Thus, the sea urchin represents the primitive condition.

  19. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Adult Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Adult Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma; Malignant Adult Hemangiopericytoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  20. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.

  1. Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage.

    PubMed

    Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W; Burt, David W; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A; Sang, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens.

  2. Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage

    PubMed Central

    Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W.; Burt, David W.; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A.; Sang, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. PMID:25063453

  3. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jennifer L; Castro, Victor M; Moore, Carolyn E; Kaplan, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that calcium and vitamin D (CaD) may play a role in the regulation of abdominal fat mass. Objective: This study investigated the effect of CaD-supplemented orange juice (OJ) on weight loss and reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in overweight and obese adults (mean ± SD age: 40.0 ± 12.9 y). Design: Two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted with either regular or reduced-energy (lite) orange juice. For each 16-wk trial, 171 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The treatment groups consumed three 240-mL glasses of OJ (regular or lite) fortified with 350 mg Ca and 100 IU vitamin D per serving, and the control groups consumed either unfortified regular or lite OJ. Computed tomography scans of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue were performed by imaging a single cut at the lumbar 4 level. Results: After 16 wk, the average weight loss (∼2.45 kg) did not differ significantly between groups. In the regular OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.024) in the CaD group (−12.7 ± 25.0 cm2) than in the control group (−1.3 ± 13.6 cm2). In the lite OJ trial, the reduction of VAT was significantly greater (P = 0.039) in the CaD group (−13.1 ± 18.4 cm2) than in the control group (−6.4 ± 17.5 cm2) after control for baseline VAT. The effect of calcium and vitamin D on VAT remained highly significant when the results of the 2 trials were combined (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The findings suggest that calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation contributes to a beneficial reduction of VAT. This trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov as NCT00386672, NCT01363115. PMID:22170363

  4. Primary intracranial soft tissue sarcomas in children, adolescents, and young adults: single institution experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Khatua, Soumen; Mukherjee, Devashis; Olar, Adriana; Lazar, Alexander; Luthra, Raja; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Ketonen, Leena; Zaky, Wafik

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature reporting the outcome of intracranial sarcomas (IS) in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA). A multimodal therapeutic approach is commonly used, with no well-established treatment consensus. We conducted a retrospective review of CAYA with IS, treated at our institution, to determine their clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes. Immunohistochemistry (PDGFRA and EGFR) and DNA sequencing were performed on 5 tumor samples. A literature review of IS was also conducted. We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 7 years) with a primary diagnosis of IS between 1990 and 2015. Diagnoses included unclassified sarcoma (n = 9), chondrosarcoma (n = 2), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2). Five patients underwent upfront gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor. The 5-drug regimen (vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and ifosfamide) was the most common treatment used. Nine patients died due to progression or recurrence (n = 8) or secondary malignancy (n = 1). The median follow-up period of the 4 surviving patients was 1.69 years (range 1.44-5.17 years). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 21 and 44 %, respectively. BRAF, TP53, KRAS, KIT, ERBB2, MET, RET, ATM, and EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of the 5 tissue samples. All 5 samples were immunopositive for PDGFRA, and only 2 were positive for EGFR. IS remain a therapeutic challenge due to high progression and recurrence rates. Collaborative multi-institutional studies are warranted to delineate a treatment consensus and investigate tumor biology to improve the disease outcome.

  5. Sensorimotor experience influences recovery of forelimb abilities but not tissue loss after focal cortical compression in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Xerri, Christian

    2011-02-16

    Sensorimotor activity has been shown to play a key role in functional outcome after extensive brain damage. This study was aimed at assessing the influence of sensorimotor experience through subject-environment interactions on the time course of both lesion and gliosis volumes as well as on the recovery of forelimb sensorimotor abilities following focal cortical injury. The lesion consisted of a cortical compression targeting the forepaw representational area within the primary somatosensory cortex of adult rats. After the cortical lesion, rats were randomly subjected to various postlesion conditions: unilateral C5-C6 dorsal root transection depriving the contralateral cortex from forepaw somatosensory inputs, standard housing or an enriched environment promoting sensorimotor experience and social interactions. Behavioral tests were used to assess forelimb placement during locomotion, forelimb-use asymmetry, and forepaw tactile sensitivity. For each group, the time course of tissue loss was described and the gliosis volume over the first postoperative month was evaluated using an unbiased stereological method. Consistent with previous studies, recovery of behavioral abilities was found to depend on post-injury experience. Indeed, increased sensorimotor activity initiated early in an enriched environment induced a rapid and more complete behavioral recovery compared with standard housing. In contrast, severe deprivation of peripheral sensory inputs led to a delayed and only partial sensorimotor recovery. The dorsal rhizotomy was found to increase the perilesional gliosis in comparison to standard or enriched environments. These findings provide further evidence that early sensory experience has a beneficial influence on the onset and time course of functional recovery after focal brain injury.

  6. Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropil reaction was evaluated in chickens inoculated with four different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, including Texas GB, Turkey North Dakota, Nevada Cormorant (velogenic neurotropic) and Anhinga (mesogenic). Tissues for this study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded br...

  7. Probiotics Stimulate Production of Natural Antibodies in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-01-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation. PMID:16960107

  8. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  9. A method for high purity intestinal epithelial cell culture from adult human and murine tissues for the investigation of innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christina L; Harden, Scott W; LaPato, Melissa; Nelson, Michael; Amador, Byron; Sorenson, Heather; Frazier, Charles J; Wallet, Shannon M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) serve as an important physiologic barrier between environmental antigens and the host intestinal immune system. Thus, IECs serve as a first line of defense and may act as sentinel cells during inflammatory insults. Despite recent renewed interest in IEC contributions to host immune function, the study of primary IEC has been hindered by lack of a robust culture technique, particularly for small intestinal and adult tissues. Here, a novel adaptation for culture of primary IEC is described for human duodenal organ donor tissue as well as duodenum and colon of adult mice. These epithelial cell cultures display characteristic phenotypes and are of high purity. In addition, the innate immune function of human primary IEC, specifically with regard to Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and microbial ligand responsiveness, is contrasted with a commonly used intestinal epithelial cell line (HT-29). Specifically, TLR expression at the mRNA level and production of cytokine (IFNγ and TNFα) in response to TLR agonist stimulation is assessed. Differential expression of TLRs as well as innate immune responses to ligand stimulation is observed in human-derived cultures compared to that of HT-29. Thus, use of this adapted method to culture primary epithelial cells from adult human donors and from adult mice will allow for more appropriate studies of IECs as innate immune effectors.

  10. Detection and quantification of a very high density lipoprotein in different tissues of Triatoma infestans during the last nymphal and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, O J; Córsico, B; González, M S; Brenner, R R

    1996-07-01

    The presence of a very high density lipoprotein (VHDL), an hexameric protein, was explored in different tissues of Triatoma infestans throughout the last nymphal and adult stages, and in egg extracts by Western blot assays. The VHDL was always detected in both, hemolymph and fat body, during the above mentioned stages and it was also observed in the buffer soluble fraction of testis and egg homogenates. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the VHDL titer in these tissues. Hemolymph VHDL reaches a maximum value before the last molt, then it abruptly declines in males and females just after emergence, but during adult life it increases again. Fat body VHDL decreases slowly and continuously during the nymph growth reaching a minimum value prior to molting, and in the first week of adult life the values were even two-fold lower; then, it shows a different cycle of accumulation and depletion in males and females. In adult testis the VHDL undergoes a cycle similar to the one observed in male fat body. This protein increases progressively during embryonic development and, at the time of larval hatching it reaches its maximum value. The hexameric protein presents homologies in its N-terminal sequence with storage hexamerins of Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera.

  11. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines.

  12. Skin Transcriptome Profiles Associated with Skin Color in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqin; Liu, Fuzhu; Cao, Junting; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional and medicinal benefits have been attributed to the consumption of tissues from the black-boned chickens in oriental countries. Lueyang black-boned chicken is one of the native chicken breeds. However, some birds may instead have white or lighter skin, which directly causes economic losses every year. Previous studies of pigmentation have focused on a number of genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation. Illumina2000 sequencing technology was used to catalog the global gene expression profiles in the skin of the Lueyang chicken with white versus black skin. A total of 18,608 unigenes were assembled from the reads obtained from the skin of the white and black chickens. A total of 649 known genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, with 314 genes that were up regulated and 335 genes that were down-regulated, and a total of 162 novel genes were differentially expressed in the black versus white chickens, consisting of 73 genes that were up-regulated (including 4 highly expressed genes that were expressed exclusively in the skin of the black chickens) and 89 genes that were down-regulated. There were also a total of 8 known coat-color genes expressed in previous studies (ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R). In this study, 4 of which showed greater expression in the black chickens, and several were up-regulated, such as KIT, ASIP, TYR and OCA2. To our surprise, KITLG, MITF and MC1R showed no significant difference in expression between the black- and white-skinned chickens, and the expression of TYRP1 was not detected in either skin color. The expression of ASIP, TYR, KIT, TYRP1, OCA2, KITLG, MITF and MC1R was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the results of the qPCR were consistent with the RNA-seq. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of black versus white skin. More importantly, the fact that the MC1R

  13. Progress from chicken genetics to the chicken genome.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P B; Dodgson, J B; Andersson, L

    2006-12-01

    The chicken has a proud history, both in genetic research and as a source of food. Here we attempt to provide an overview of past contributions of the chicken in both arenas and to link those contributions to the near future from a genetic perspective. Companion articles will discuss current poultry genetics research in greater detail. The chicken was the first animal species in which Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated. A century later, the chicken was the first among farm animals to have its genome sequenced. Between these firsts, the chicken remained a key organism used in genetic research. Breeding programs, based on sound genetic principles, facilitated the global emergence of the chicken meat and egg industries. Concomitantly, the chicken served as a model whose experimental populations and mutant stocks were used in basic and applied studies with broad application to other species, including humans. In this paper, we review some of these contributions, trace the path from the origin of molecular genetics to the sequence of the chicken genome, and discuss the merits of the chicken as a model organism for furthering our understanding of biology.

  14. Depsipeptide (Romidepsin) in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-03

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  15. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  16. CD107a as a marker of activation in chicken cytotoxic T cells.

    PubMed

    Wattrang, Eva; Dalgaard, Tina S; Norup, Liselotte R; Kjærup, Rikke B; Lundén, Anna; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate cell surface mobilisation of CD107a as a general activation marker on chicken cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Experiments comprised establishment of an in vitro model for activation-induced CD107a mobilisation and design of a marker panel for the detection of CD107a mobilisation on chicken CTL isolated from different tissues. Moreover, CD107a mobilisation was analysed on CTL isolated from airways of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)-infected birds direct ex vivo and upon in vitro stimulation. Results showed that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in combination with ionomycin was a consistent inducer of CD107a cell surface mobilisation on chicken CTL in a 4h cell culture model. In chickens experimentally infected with IBV, higher frequencies of CTL isolated from respiratory tissues were positive for CD107a on the cell surface compared to those from uninfected control chickens indicating in vivo activation. Moreover, upon in vitro PMA+ ionomycin stimulation, higher proportions of CTL isolated from the airways of IBV-infected chickens showed CD107a mobilisation compared to those from uninfected control chickens. Monitoring of CD107a cell surface mobilisation may thus be a useful tool for studies of chicken CTL cytolytic potential both in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 supports growth of chicken embryo intestinal organoids in Matrigel matrix.

    PubMed

    Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Grabacka, Maja; Michalik, Marta; Zyla, Krzysztof; Pierzchalski, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Investigating intestinal physiology in vitro remains challenging due to the lack of an effective primary enterocyte culture system. Recently developed protocols for growing organoids containing crypts and villus from adult mouse intestinal epithelium in Matrigel present an attractive alternative to the classical techniques. However, these approaches require the use of sophisticated and expensive serum-free medium supplemented with epithelial growth factor (EGF), Wnt agonist (R-spondin 1), and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor (Noggin) in high concentrations. Here we demonstrate that is possible to use an isolated chicken embryonic intestinal epithelium to create such an organoid culture. Structures formed in Matrigel matrix in the first two days following isolation survive and enlarge during ensuing weeks. They have the appearance of empty spheres and comprise cells expressing cytokeratin (an epithelial cell marker), villin (a marker of enterocytes), and Sox-9 (a transcription factor characteristic of progenitors and stem cells of intestinal crypts). With chicken embryonic tissue as a source of organoids, prostaglandin E2 is as effective as R-spondin 1 and Noggin in promoting sustained growth and survival of epithelial spheroids.

  18. Haemolysis in chicken serum

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielsen, Ann E.; Pickering, R. J.; Linna, T. J.; Good, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Development of total complement (C) and C1 activity was followed in Line 96 chickens from day 13 of embryonic life to 40 days post-hatching. Both activities were demonstrable on day 13, and levels rose slowly in the late prehatching period. At hatching, on day 21, there was a sharp rise in both activities; both titres were roughly five times those of day 19 embryos. Further increases were seen to about day 10, followed by a levelling off (perhaps even a drop in the case of C1) for about 10 days. On about the twenty-first day the titration curve rose again. The source of the C detected in the embryo and young chicken is unknown. The pattern is consistent with transfer from the egg, but it might also reflect synthesis by the developing animal. PMID:4733800

  19. Separate physiological roles for two isozymes of pyridine nucleotide-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in chicken.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, H. B., III; Kaplan, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The isozymes considered are designated 'liver type' and 'muscle type' based on the tissue of highest concentration. Electrophoretic analysis shows that the liver type is found in small amounts or is undetectable in all tissues studied except liver. The muscle type is found in skeletal muscles and kidney. Presumptive hybrid enzymes occur at low levels in chicken liver and kidney. The tissue distribution of glyceron-3-P dehydrogenase in several birds capable of sustained flight is different than in chicken.

  20. Integrin α1β1 is involved in the differentiation into myofibroblasts in adult reactive tissues in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alejandro; Karen, Jakob; Gardner, Humphrey; Gerdin, Bengt; Rubin, Kristofer; Sundberg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Connective tissue cell activation is of importance during reactive conditions such as solid tumour growth, wound healing and pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we have compared connective tissue cells of mesenchymal origin in human tissues from these conditions and their normal counterparts using a panel of cell-type-specific markers. In particular, we investigated variations of integrin expression among connective tissue cell phenotypes. Connective tissue cell populations were defined based on their association with the microvasculature and their expression of activation markers. The phenotype of these cells varied according to the type of pathological connective tissue examined. Our morphological data from human tissues suggested that the α1β1 integrin, a collagen/laminin receptor, is involved in the differentiation of precursor cells into myofibroblasts. To mechanistically investigate this hypothesis, we employed experimental models for carcinoma growth and wound healing utilizing α1 integrin-deficient mice. The data confirmed that the α1β1 integrin is of importance not only for the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into myofibroblasts but also for the neovascularization and connective tissue organization and emphasize the importance of myofibroblasts in the pathophysiology of tissue repair, inflammation and tumour growth. PMID:19397781

  1. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Lee, William R.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47–48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR < 0.1 and fold-change A/U > 1.3 or < 0.77) between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens. PMID:27097013

  2. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F; Michalek, Ryan D; Lee, William R

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR<0.1 and fold-change A/U>1.3 or <0.77) between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  3. A multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized cardiac tissue constructs using adult stem sells, dynamic cell cultures, and porous scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, Stefania; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Duim, Sjoerd; Goumans, Marie-Josè; Aoyagi, Takao; Forte, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D) cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment toward the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment. PMID:24917827

  4. Association between vitamin D metabolites in fat tissue and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cholecalciferol has been measured in human white adipose tissue (WAT), but little is known about the relationship between the other circulating vitamin D metabolites and WAT. We measured concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D in subcutaneous fat tissue from 20 overweight and obese subjects partic...

  5. Lack of an association of depression with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Jansen, Eugene; Cremers, Hans; Strien, Carlo; Hatzis, Christos; Moschandreas, Joanna; Linardakis, Manolis; Kromhout, Daan; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-03-01

    Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short-term and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers is more closely related to depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of depression with both adipose tissue and serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and to assess the importance of each of these two biomarkers in relating to depression. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the island of Crete. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Subjects were 394 healthy adults (175 males, 219 females) aged 18-60. The sample consisted of farmers from a number of rural communities of Crete. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids. Information about depression was obtained through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSRDS). Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (C18:3n-3) was inversely correlated to BDI (r=-0.17, p<0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis taking into account the possible confounding effect of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking and educational level did not confirm this association. The other polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue were not related to depression. Serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids did not correlate with depression. This study did not show that the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue are better predictors of depression than those in serum phospholipids.

  6. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression of Toll-like receptor 5 gene from turkeys.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, V P; Biswas, Moanaro; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Raja, A; Kumanan, A K; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2011-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of transmembrane and cytosolic proteins, detect microbial patterns, initiating innate immune responses in various organisms. Although they are abundant, genetic characterization and functional differences of TLRs in economically important avian species such as chickens and turkeys have not been investigated in detail. In this study, the putative TLR5 coding region from turkey genome was sequenced, and its homology to other vertebrate species was analyzed. Secondary structure analysis revealed protein motifs typical of the chicken TLR5 protein structure, with 97% amino acid identity between them. mRNA expression profiling in adult turkeys revealed abundant TLR5 expression in a broad range of tissues. Stimulation with the TLR5 ligand flagellin resulted in the production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and nitric oxide in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To our knowledge, this is the first complete turkey TLR5 coding DNA sequence reported in sequence databases.

  7. Tissue-resident Eomes(hi) T-bet(lo) CD56(bright) NK cells with reduced proinflammatory potential are enriched in the adult human liver.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Cathal; Robinson, Mark W; Fahey, Ronan; Whelan, Sarah; Houlihan, Diarmaid D; Geoghegan, Justin; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2016-09-01

    The adult human liver is enriched with natural killer (NK) cells, accounting for 30-50% of hepatic lymphocytes, which include tissue-resident hepatic NK-cell subpopulations, distinct from peripheral blood NK cells. In murine liver, a subset of liver-resident hepatic NK cells have altered expression of the two highly related T-box transcription factors, T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes). Here, we investigate the heterogeneity of T-bet and Eomes expression in NK cells from healthy adult human liver with a view to identifying human liver-resident populations. Hepatic NK cells were isolated from donor liver perfusates and biopsies obtained during orthotopic liver transplantation (N = 28). Hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells were Eomes(hi) T-bet(lo) , a phenotype virtually absent from peripheral blood. These NK cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR6 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6), a marker of tissue residency, which is absent from hepatic CD56(dim) and blood NK cells. Compared to blood populations, these hepatic CD56(bright) NK cells have increased expression of activatory receptors (NKp44, NKp46, and NKG2D). They show reduced ability to produce IFN-γ but enhanced degranulation in response to challenge with target cells. This functionally distinct population of hepatic NK cells constitutes 20-30% of the total hepatic lymphocyte repertoire and represents a tissue-resident immune cell population adapted to the tolerogenic liver microenvironment.

  8. The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone administration on the labelling index and size of chromaffin tissue in the postnatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S

    1986-01-01

    Hydrocortisone administration in vivo to neonatal mice for seven days led to a significant increase in both the size and the labelling index of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue (as represented by the para-aortic body) of 8 days old mice. In untreated animals at this age, the para-aortic body was in most cases too small to obtain a valid labelling index. In the para-aortic bodies of 14 days old, 21 days old and adult mice, the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue was too dispersed to obtain values for either volumetric analysis or labelling indices, and hydrocortisone was without significant effect in promoting a hyperplastic response. In the postnatal adrenal medulla at all ages studied, hydrocortisone had no effect on the medullary size or on the labelling indices of either adrenaline- or noradrenaline-storing cells, although it led to a marked diminution of adrenocortical volume. The relative proportion of adrenaline-storing cells increased between the values for 8 days old animals and those for adults; this was unaffected by hydrocortisone. The cortico-medullary ratio remained unchanged from the eighth postnatal day onwards. The results are discussed and related to those of other workers. It is suggested that factors as yet unknown might modulate the response to corticosteroids of developing intra- and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3693040

  9. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    PubMed

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  10. Comparison of gene-specific DNA methylation patterns in equine induced pluripotent stem cell lines with cells derived from equine adult and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Catherine H; Greve, Line; Novakofski, Kira D; Fortier, Lisa A

    2012-07-01

    Cellular pluripotency is associated with expression of the homeobox transcription factor genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 (OCT3/4 protein). Some reports suggest that mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) may express increased quantities of these genes, creating the possibility that MPCs are more "pluripotent" than other adult cell types. The objective of this study was to determine whether equine bone marrow-derived MPCs had gene expression or DNA methylation patterns that differed from either early fetal-derived or terminally differentiated adult cells. Specifically, this study compared DNA methylation of the NANOG and SOX2 promoter regions and concurrent gene expression of NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 in equine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, fetal fibroblasts, fetal brain cells, adult chondrocytes, and MPCs. Results indicate that NANOG and POU5F1 were not detectable in appreciable quantities in tissues other than the equine iPS cell lines. Equine iPS cells expressed large quantities of all three genes examined. Significantly increased quantities of SOX2 were noted in iPS cells and both fetal-derived cell types compared with adult cells. MPCs and adult chondrocytes expressed equivalent, low quantities of SOX2. Further, NANOG and SOX2 expression inversely correlated with the DNA methylation pattern in the promoter region, such that as gene expression increased, DNA methylation decreased. The equine iPS cell lines examined demonstrated DNA methylation and gene expression patterns that were consistent with pluripotency features described in other species. Results do not support previous reports that NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1 are poised for increased activity in MPCs compared with other adult cells.

  11. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-08-11

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth-second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later.

  12. Earliest economic exploitation of chicken outside East Asia: Evidence from the Hellenistic Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Perry-Gal, Lee; Erlich, Adi; Gilboa, Ayelet; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is today one of the most widespread domesticated species and is a main source of protein in the human diet. However, for thousands of years exploitation of chickens was confined to symbolic and social domains such as cockfighting. The question of when and where chickens were first used for economic purposes remains unresolved. The results of our faunal analysis demonstrate that the Hellenistic (fourth–second centuries B.C.E.) site of Maresha, Israel, is the earliest site known today where economic exploitation of chickens was widely practiced. We base our claim on the exceptionally high frequency of chicken bones at that site, the majority of which belong to adult individuals, and on the observed 2:1 ratio of female to male bones. These results are supported further by an extensive survey of faunal remains from 234 sites in the Southern Levant, spanning more than three millennia, which shows a sharp increase in the frequency of chicken during the Hellenistic period. We further argue that the earliest secure evidence for economic exploitation of chickens in Europe dates to the first century B.C.E. and therefore is predated by the finds in the Southern Levant by at least a century. We suggest that the gradual acclimatization of chickens in the Southern Levant and its gradual integration into the local economy, the latter fully accomplished in the Hellenistic period, was a crucial step in the adoption of this species in European husbandry some 100 y later. PMID:26195775

  13. Improved adipose tissue metabolism after 5-year growth hormone replacement therapy in growth hormone deficient adults: The role of zinc-α2-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Balaž, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Vlcek, Miroslav; Surova, Martina; Krumpolec, Patrik; Vanuga, Peter; Gašperíková, Daniela; Klimeš, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) supplementation therapy to adults with GH deficiency has beneficial effects on adipose tissue lipid metabolism, improving thus adipocyte functional morphology and insulin sensitivity. However, molecular nature of these effects remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that lipid-mobilizing adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein is causally linked to GH effects on adipose tissue lipid metabolism. Seventeen patients with severe GH deficiency examined before and after the 5-year GH replacement therapy were compared with age-, gender- and BMI-matched healthy controls. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used to assess whole-body and adipose tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Glucose tolerance was determined by oGTT, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity by MRI, adipocyte size morphometrically after collagenase digestion, lipid accumulation and release was studied in differentiated human primary adipocytes in association with GH treatment and zinc-α2-glycoprotein gene silencing. Five-year GH replacement therapy improved glucose tolerance, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and reduced adipocyte size without affecting adiposity and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression was positively associated with whole-body and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and negatively with adipocyte size. GH treatment to adipocytes in vitro increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression (>50%) and was paralleled by enhanced lipolysis and decreased triglyceride accumulation (>35%). Moreover, GH treatment improved antilipolytic action of insulin in cultured adipocytes. Most importantly, silencing zinc-α2-glycoprotein eliminated all of the GH effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism. Effects of 5-year GH supplementation therapy on adipose tissue lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity are associated with zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Presence of this adipokine is required for the GH action on adipocyte lipid metabolism in vitro

  14. Annotation and genetic diversity of the chicken collagenous lectins.

    PubMed

    Hamzić, Edin; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2015-06-01

    Collectins and ficolins are multimeric proteins present in various tissues and are actively involved in innate immune responses. In chickens, six different collagenous lectins have been characterized so far: mannose-binding lectin (MBL), surfactant protein A (SP-A), collectin 10 (COLEC10), collectin 11 (COLEC11), collectin 12 (COLEC12), lung lectin (LL) and one ficolin (FCN). However, the structural and functional features of the chicken collectins and ficolin are still not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to make an overview of the genetic structure and function of chicken collectins and the ficolin, (ii) to investigate the variation in the chicken collectins and the ficolin gene in different chicken populations, and (iii) to assess the presence of MBL gene variants in different chicken populations. We performed comparative genomic analysis using publically available data. The obtained results showed that collectins and ficolins have conserved protein sequences and gene structure across all vertebrate groups and this is especially notable for COLEC10, COLEC11 and COLEC12. For the purpose of studying the genetic variation, 179 animals from 14 populations were genotyped using 31 SNPs covering five genomic regions. The obtained results revealed low level of heterozygosity in the collagenous lectins except for the COLEC12 gene and the LL-SPA-MBL region compared to heterozygosity at neutral microsatellite markers. In addition, the MBL gene variants were assessed in different chicken populations based on the polymorphisms in the promoter region. We observed 10 previously identified MBL variants with A2/A8 and A4 as the most frequent alleles.

  15. Transcriptomic profile of leg muscle during early growth in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Genxi; Li, Tingting; Ling, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Xiangqian; Wang, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth. In total, 978 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change ≥ 2; false discovery rate < 0.05) were detected by pairwise comparison. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs are mainly involved in the processes of cell growth, muscle development, and cellular activities (such as junction, migration, assembly, differentiation, and proliferation). Many of the DEGs are well known to be related to chicken growth, such as MYOD1, GH, IGF2BP2, IGFBP3, SMYD1, CEBPB, FGF2, and IGFBP5. KEGG pathway analysis identified that the DEGs were significantly enriched in five pathways (P < 0.1) related to growth and development: extracellular matrix–receptor interaction, focal adhesion, tight junction, insulin signaling pathway, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. A total of 42 DEGs assigned to these pathways are potential candidate genes inducing the difference in growth among the three developmental stages, such as MYH10, FGF2, FGF16, FN1, CFL2, MAPK9, IRS1, PHKA1, PHKB, and PHKG1. Thus, our study identified a series of genes and several pathways that may participate in the regulation of early growth in chicken. These results should serve as an important resource revealing the molecular basis of chicken growth and development. PMID:28291821

  16. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis by a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing IBV-S1 and chicken IFNgamma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei

    2009-11-23

    A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.

  17. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  18. Different outcomes of infection of chickens and ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P

    2014-01-01

    As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel isoform of chicken myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yafeng; Shen, Yang; Li, Xiangdong; Ding, Chan; Ma, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor- and Toll-like receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). A novel isoform of chicken MyD88, designated chicken MyD88-2, has been cloned and functionally characterized. Its open reading frame is of length 900bp, and it encodes a predicted 299 residue protein, similar in length to its mammalian orthologues, but, respectively, 77 and 69 amino acids shorter than the previously described chicken MyD88-1 and -3. The amino acid sequence of chicken MyD88-2 displays 96.9%, 96.9%, 70.4% and 70.2% identity with, respectively, chicken MyD88-1, -3, human and mouse MyD88. Chicken MyD88-2 expression was detected in a range of tissues tested, but no expression of either chicken MyD88-1 or -3 was observed. The over-expression of chicken MyD88-2 significantly induced the activation of NF-kappaB in vitro, suggesting that chicken MyD88-2 plays an important role in the innate immune responses of chicken.

  20. Adamts5, the gene encoding a proteoglycan-degrading metalloprotease, is expressed by specific cell lineages during mouse embryonic development and in adult tissues.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Daniel R; Le Goff, Carine; Bhatt, Sumantha; Dixon, Laura J; Sandy, John D; Apte, Suneel S

    2009-06-01

    The secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS5 is implicated in destruction of the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan in arthritis, but its physiological functions are unknown. Its expression profile during embryogenesis and in adult tissues is therefore of considerable interest. beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) histochemistry, enabled by a LacZ cassette inserted in the Adamts5 locus, and validated by in situ hybridization with an Adamts5 cRNA probe and ADAMTS5 immunohistochemistry, was used to profile Adamts5 expression during mouse embryogenesis and in adult mouse tissues. Embryonic expression was scarce prior to 11.5 days of gestation (E11.5) and noted only in the floor plate of the developing brain at E 9.5. After E11.5 there was continued expression in brain, especially in the choroid plexus, peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglia, cranial nerve ganglia, spinal and cranial nerves, and neural plexuses of the gut. In addition to nerves, developing limbs have Adamts5 expression in skeletal muscle (from E13.5), tendons (from E16.5), and inter-digital mesenchyme of the developing autopod (E13.5-15.5). In adult tissues, there is constitutive Adamts5 expression in arterial smooth muscle cells, mesothelium lining the peritoneal, pericardial and pleural cavities, smooth muscle cells in bronchi and pancreatic ducts, glomerular mesangial cells in the kidney, dorsal root ganglia, and in Schwann cells of the peripheral and autonomic nervous system. Expression of Adamts5 during neuromuscular development and in smooth muscle cells coincides with the broadly distributed proteoglycan versican, an ADAMTS5 substrate. These observations suggest the major contexts in which developmental and physiological roles could be sought for this protease.

  1. Pathogenesis of chicken-passaged Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chickens and wild and exotic birds.

    PubMed

    Kommers, Glaucia D; King, Daniel J; Seal, Bruce S; Brown, Corrie C

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from chickens (Ckn-LBM and Ckn-Australia) and wild (Anhinga) and exotic (YN parrot, pheasant, and dove) birds was examined after the isolates had been passaged four times in domestic chickens. Groups of 10 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with each one of the isolates. The infected birds were observed for clinical disease and were euthanatized and sampled at selected times from 12 hr to 14 days postinoculation or at death. Tissues were examined by histopathology, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect viral nucleoprotein (IHC/NP), and by in situ hybridization to detect viral mRNA and were double labeled for apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling ([TUNEL] or IHC/caspase-3) and viral nucleoprorein (IHC/NP). Birds infected with the three low virulence viruses (Ckn-LBM, YN parrot, and Ckn-Australia) did not develop clinical disease. Microscopic lesions were observed only at the inoculation site and in organs of the respiratory system. The detection of viral nucleoprotein (N) was restricted to the inoculation site. The pheasant and dove isolates were highly virulent for chickens with marked tropism for lymphoid tissues, confirmed by the presence of large numbers of cells positive for viral N protein and viral mRNA. Viral N protein was detected early in the cytoplasm of cells in the center of the splenic ellipsoids. The apoptosis assays (TUNEL and IHC/caspase-3) showed increased apoptosis in the splenic ellipsoids as well. Apparently, apoptosis is an important mechanism in lymphoid depletion during NDV infection.

  2. Embryonic development of endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Dayane; Rodrigues, Marcio N; Franciolli, André L R; Da Fonseca, Erika T; Silva, Fernanda M O; Carvalho, Rafael C; Fratini, Paula; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto P; Ferreira, Antonio José P; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2013-08-01

    The poultry industry is a sector of agribusiness which represents an important role in the country's agricultural exports. Therefore, the study about embryogenesis of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has a great economic importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryonic development of the endoderm in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Forty fertilized eggs of domestic chickens, starting from the 1st day of gestation and so on until the 19 days of the incubation were collected from the Granja São José (Amparo, SP, Brazil). Embryos and fetus were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, identified, weighed, measured, and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy. The endoderm originates the internal lining epithelium of the digestive, immune, respiratory systems, and the organs can be visualized from the second day (48 h) when the liver is formed. The formation of the digestive system was complete in the 12th day. Respiratory system organs begin at the fourth day as a disorganized tissue and undifferentiated. Their complete differentiation was observed at the 10 days of incubation, however, until the 19 days the syrinx was not observed. The formation of immune system at 10th day was observed with observation of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa. The study of the organogenesis of the chicken based on germ layers is very complex and underexplored, and the study of chicken embryology is very important due the economic importance and growth of the use of this animal model studies such as genetic studies.

  3. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  4. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  5. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  6. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  8. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  9. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  10. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  11. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens.

  12. Muse Cells: Nontumorigenic Pluripotent Stem Cells Present in Adult Tissues—A Paradigm Shift in Tissue Regeneration and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Muse cells are a novel population of nontumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, highly resistant to cellular stress. These cells are present in every connective tissue and intrinsically express pluripotent stem markers such as Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, and TRA1-60. Muse cells are able to differentiate into cells from all three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. Unlike ESCs and iPSCs, Muse cells exhibit low telomerase activity and asymmetric division and do not undergo tumorigenesis or teratoma formation when transplanted into a host organism. Muse cells have a high capacity for homing into damaged tissue and spontaneous differentiation into cells of compatible tissue, leading to tissue repair and functional restoration. The ability of Muse cells to restore tissue function may demonstrate the role of Muse cells in a highly conserved cellular mechanism related to cell survival and regeneration, in response to cellular stress and acute injury. From an evolutionary standpoint, genes pertaining to the regenerative capacity of an organism have been lost in higher mammals from more primitive species. Therefore, Muse cells may offer insight into the molecular and evolutionary bases of autonomous tissue regeneration and elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms that prevent mammals from regenerating limbs and organs, as planarians, newts, zebrafish, and salamanders do. PMID:28070194

  13. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence.

  14. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-23

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  15. Effects of Neural Stem Cell and Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Co-transplants on Tissue Remodelling After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Adult Rat.

    PubMed

    Augestad, Ingrid Lovise; Nyman, Axel Karl Gottfrid; Costa, Alex Ignatius; Barnett, Susan Carol; Sandvig, Axel; Håberg, Asta Kristine; Sandvig, Ioanna

    2017-01-24

    Effective transplant-mediated repair of ischemic brain lesions entails extensive tissue remodeling, especially in the ischemic core. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are promising reparative candidates for stroke induced lesions, however, their survival and integration with the host-tissue post-transplantation is poor. In this study, we address this challenge by testing whether co-grafting of NSCs with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), a special type of glia with proven neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and angiogenic effects, can promote graft survival and host tissue remodelling. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult rats by a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by reperfusion. Ischemic lesions were verified by neurological testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Transplantation into the globus pallidus of NSCs alone or in combination with OECs was performed at two weeks post-MCAo, followed by histological analyses at three weeks post-transplantation. We found evidence of extensive vascular remodelling in the ischemic core as well as evidence of NSC motility away from the graft and into the infarct border in severely lesioned animals co-grafted with OECs. These findings support a possible role of OECs as part of an in situ tissue engineering paradigm for transplant mediated repair of ischemic brain lesions.

  16. Low Level Laser Therapy: laser radiation absorption in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Orlando, Stefano; Dell'Ariccia, Marco; Brandimarte, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experimental study in which we have measured the transmitted laser radiation through dead biological tissues of various animals (chicken, adult and young bovine, pig) in order to evaluate the maximum thickness through which the power density could still produce a reparative cellular effect. In our experiments we have utilized a pulsed laser IRL1 ISO model (based on an infrared diode GaAs, λ=904 nm) produced by BIOMEDICA s.r.l. commonly used in Low Level Laser Therapy. Some of the laser characteristics have been accurately studied and reported in this paper. The transmission results suggest that even with tissue thicknesses of several centimeters the power density is still sufficient to produce a cell reparative effect.

  17. Potential of Newborn and Adult Stem Cells for the Production of Vascular Constructs Using the Living Tissue Sheet Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bourget, Jean-Michel; Gauvin, Robert; Duchesneau, David; Remy, Murielle; Auger, François A.; Germain, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Bypass surgeries using native vessels rely on the availability of autologous veins and arteries. An alternative to those vessels could be tissue-engineered vascular constructs made by self-organized tissue sheets. This paper intends to evaluate the potential use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from two different sources: (1) bone marrow-derived MSCs and (2) umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs. When cultured in vitro, a proportion of those cells differentiated into smooth muscle cell- (SMC-) like cells and expressed contraction associated proteins. Moreover, these cells assembled into manipulable tissue sheets when cultured in presence of ascorbic acid. Tubular vessels were then produced by rolling those tissue sheets on a mandrel. The architecture, contractility, and mechanical resistance of reconstructed vessels were compared with tissue-engineered media and adventitia produced from SMCs and dermal fibroblasts, respectively. Histology revealed a collagenous extracellular matrix and the contractile responses measured for these vessels were stronger than dermal fibroblasts derived constructs although weaker than SMCs-derived constructs. The burst pressure of bone marrow-derived vessels was higher than SMCs-derived ones. These results reinforce the versatility of the self-organization approach since they demonstrate that it is possible to recapitulate a contractile media layer from MSCs without the need of exogenous scaffolding material. PMID:26504783

  18. Cloning and Expression of SFRP5 in Tibetan Chicken and its Relationship with IMF Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Zuo, Lu-Lu; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Ya-Ou; Zhu, Jiang-Jiang; Liao, Hong-Hai; Lin, Sen; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Wang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Secreted frizzled related protein 5 (SFRP5), an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is relevant to the adipocyte differentiation. In order to clarify its role in regulating intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Tibetan chicken, the full-length sequence of the Tibetan chicken SFRP5 gene was cloned. The relative expression of SFRP5 gene was detected using quantitative RT-PCR in various tissues of 154 days old Tibetan chicken, as well as in breast muscle, thigh muscle, and adipose tissue at different growth stages. The results showed that SFRP5 gene was expressed in all examined tissues but highly enriched in adipose tissue. Temporal expression profile showed that the expression of SFRP5 was gradually decreased in breast muscle, but was fluctuated in thigh muscle and adipose tissue with the growth of Tibetan chicken. Furthermore, correlation analysis demonstrated that the expression of SFRP5 in breast muscle, thigh muscle and adipose tissue was correlated with IMF content at different levels. The results indicated that Tibetan chicken SFRP5 is involved in IMF deposition.

  19. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle-tissue of rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, J.E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1994-01-01

    Malachite green, an effective antifungal therapeutant used in fish culture, is a known teratogen. We developed a method to simultaneously detect both the chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Homogenates of these tissues were fortified with [c-14] malachite green chloride and extracted with 1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile or in methanol. The extracts were partitioned with chloroform, dried, redissolved in mobile phase, and analyzed by liquid chromatography (lc) with postcolumn oxidation of leuco malachite green to the chromatic form. Lc fractions were collected every 30 s for quantitation by scintillation counting. Recoveries of total [c-14] malachite green chloride residue were 85 and 98% in eggs fortified with labeled malachite green at concentrations of 0.5 And 1.00 Mug/g, respectively; 68% in fry similarly fortified at a concentration of 0.65 Mug/g; and 66% in muscle homogenate similarly fortified at a level of 1.00 Mug/g. The method was tested under operational conditions by exposing adult rainbow trout to 1.00 Mg/l [c-14] malachite green chloride bath for 1 h. Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 And 0.5 Mug/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively.

  20. Mast cells and histamine are triggering the NF-κB-mediated reactions of adult and aged perilymphatic mesenteric tissues to acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Dusio, Giuseppina F.; Gasheva, Olga Yu.; Skoog, Hunter; Tobin, Richard; Peddaboina, Chander; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Zawieja, David C.; Newell-Rogers, M. Karen; Gashev, Anatoliy A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish mechanistic links between the aging-associated changes in the functional status of mast cells and the altered responses of mesenteric tissue and mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) to acute inflammation. We used an in vivo model of acute peritoneal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide treatment of adult (9-month) and aged (24-month) F-344 rats. We analyzed contractility of isolated MLVs, mast cell activation, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) without and with stabilization of mast cells by cromolyn or blockade of all types of histamine receptors and production of 27 major pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult and aged perilymphatic mesenteric tissues and blood. We found that the reactivity of aged contracting lymphatic vessels to LPS-induced acute inflammation was abolished and that activated mast cells trigger NF-κB signaling in the mesentery through release of histamine. The aging-associated basal activation of mesenteric mast cells limits acute inflammatory NF-κB activation in aged mesentery. We conclude that proper functioning of the mast cell/histamine/NF-κB axis is necessary for reactions of the lymphatic vessels to acute inflammatory stimuli as well as for interaction and trafficking of immune cells near and within the collecting lymphatics. PMID:27875806

  1. Mycological examinations on the fungal flora of the chicken comb.

    PubMed

    Gründer, S; Mayser, P; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2005-03-01

    A total of 500 combs of adult chickens from two different locations in Germany (Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein) were clinically and mycologically examined. The chickens came from three battery cages (n = 79), one voliere system (n=32), six flocks maintained on deep litter (n = 69) and 12 flocks kept on free outdoor range (n=320). Twenty-two of the 500 chicken combs (4.4%) were found to have clinical signs: only non-specific lesions neither typical of mycosis nor of avian pox such as desquamation with crust formation, yellow to brown or black dyschromic changes, alopecia in the surrounding area and moist inflammation. Only seven of the 22 clinically altered combs showed a positive mycological result; the non-pathogenic and geophilic Trichophyton terrestre in one case and non-pathogenic yeast in six cases. The following fungi were seen in the different housing systems: 13 dermatophytes (2.6% of 500 samples): 12 x T. terrestre, 1 x Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 11 isolates of Chrysosporium georgiae (2.2% of 500 samples) and 149 isolates of yeasts (29.8%): Malassezia sympodialis: n = 52, Kloeckera apiculata: n = 33, Trichosporon capitatum (syn. Geotrichum capitatum): n = 23, Trichosporon cutaneum/Trichosporon mucoides: n = 12, Trichosporon inkin (syn. Sarcinosporon inkin): n = 8 and Candida spp.: n = 21, including pathogenic or possibly pathogenic species: Candida albicans: n = 3, Candida famata: n = 4, Candida guilliermondii: n = 3, Candida lipolytica: n = 3, Candida dattila: n = 2 and one isolate each of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida aaseri, Candida catenulata sive brumpti, Candida fructus and Candida kefyr sive pseudotropicalis. There is no stringent correlation between the clinical symptoms diagnosed on the chicken combs and the species of yeasts isolated. The causative agent of favus in chickens, Trichophyton gallinae, and the saprophytic yeast in pigeons, Cr. neoformans were not isolated. The most frequently isolated yeasts M. sympodialis and

  2. Use of Anthropometry for the Prediction of Regional Body Tissue Distribution in Adults: Benefits and Limitations in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Cattrysse, Erik; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Regional body composition changes with aging. Some of the changes in composition are considered major risk factors for developing obesity related chronic diseases which in turn may lead to increased mortality in adults. The role of anthropometry is well recognized in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of adults for risk classification, regardless of age. Regional body composition is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therapeutic measures recommended to lower cardiovascular disease risk include lifestyle changes. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize studies that assessed the relationships between anthropometry and regional body composition. The potential benefits and limitations of anthropometry for use in clinical practice are presented and suggestions for future research given. PMID:25489489

  3. CNS Metastases from Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: Are They Really So Rare?

    PubMed Central

    Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Duczkowski, Marek; Bragoszewska, Hanna; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Anna; Iwanowska, Beata; Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Madzik, Jaroslaw; Bilska, Katarzyna; Raciborska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To check whether primary involvement of brain/spinal cord by bone/soft tissue sarcomas' metastases in children is as rare as described and to present various morphological forms of bone/soft tissue sarcomas' CNS metastases. Methods. Patients with first diagnosis in 1999–2014 treated at single center were included with whole course of disease evaluation. Brain/spinal canal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography were performed in cases suspicious for CNS metastases. Extension from skull/vertebral column metastases was excluded. Results. 550 patients were included. MRI revealed CNS metastases in 19 patients (incidence 3.45%), 14 boys, aged 5–22 years. There were 12/250 osteosarcoma cases, 2/200 Ewing's sarcoma, 1/50 chondrosarcoma, 3/49 rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and 1/1 malignant mesenchymoma. There were 10 single metastases and 7 cases of multiple ones; in 2 RMS cases only leptomeningeal spread in brain and spinal cord was found. Calcified metastases were found in 3 patients and hemorrhagic in 4. In one RMS patient there were numerous solid, cystic, hemorrhagic lesions and leptomeningeal spread. Conclusions. CNS metastases are rare and late in children with bone/soft tissue sarcomas, although in our material more frequent (3.45%) than in other reports (0.7%). Hematogenous spread to brain and hemorrhagic and calcified lesions dominated in osteosarcoma. Ewing sarcoma tended to metastasize to skull bones. Soft tissue sarcomas presented various morphological forms. PMID:28243595

  4. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  6. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  7. Comparison of specific absorption rate induced in brain tissues of a child and an adult using mobile phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2012-04-01

    The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.

  8. Circadian rhythms of chicken brain temperatures.

    PubMed

    Aschoff, C; Aschoff, J; von Saint Paul, U

    1973-04-01

    1. Brain temperature was recorded continuously for up to 18 days in unanaesthetized adult male chickens. With the use of a guide box of plexiglas screwed into a trephine of the calvarium, several thermocouples could be inserted at various depths into the brain at the same time.2. While brain temperatures were being recorded, each chicken was placed in a small circular arena and kept either in a light-dark cycle (LD 12:12 hr) or in conditions of constant dim illumination (LL) within a soundproof chamber.3. Under LD-conditions, the range of oscillation (the difference between maximum and minimum within one period) in brain temperature at any one site was about 1.5 degrees C. During the 12 hr of light the temperature often reached a plateau for several hours. During darkness, a minimum of temperature was usually reached shortly after light-off. Brain temperature started to rise several hours before light-on.4. All eleven chickens tested under LL-conditions showed free running circadian rhythms of brain temperature, with mean periods varying between 22.75 and 25.00 hr (overall mean: 23.69 hr). The range of oscillation in LL-conditions was smaller than in LD-conditions, but was seldom less than 1.0 degrees C.5. In LD as well as in LL, continuous fluctuations of temperature with a much higher frequency were superimposed on the circadian cycle. The fluctuations occurred synchronously at all sites of the brain and were of the same order of magnitude (frequency and range) during wakefulness as during sleep.

  9. In vivo stage- and tissue-specific DNA-protein interactions at the D. melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase distal promoter and adult enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J R; Benyajati, C

    1992-01-01

    We performed a high resolution analysis of the chromatin structure within the regions required for distal transcription of the Drosophila melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh). Using dimethyl sulfate, DNase I, and micrococcal nuclease as structural probes, and comparing chromatin structure in tissues isolated from several developmental stages, we have identified several sites of stage- and tissue-specific DNA-protein interactions that correlate with distal transcription initiation. Most were within previously identified cis-acting elements and/or in vitro protein binding sites of the adult enhancer (AAE) and distal promoter, including the TATA box. We also detected a novel stage-specific DNA-protein interaction at the Adf-2a binding site where a non-histone protein was bound to the DNA on the surface of a positioned nucleosome previously identified between the distal promoter and adult enhancer. In addition to footprints, we have also revealed stage- and tissue-specific DNA helix deformations between many of the non-histone protein binding sites. These helix distortions suggest there are interactions among the adjacently bound proteins that result in bending or kinking of the intervening DNA. The distal promoter and AAE have an accessible chromatin conformation in fat body prior to the third larval instar and many of the regulatory proteins that bind in these regions are also available before distal transcription begins. Nevertheless, the timing of DNA-protein interactions in the distal promoter and AAE suggest these proteins do not bind individually or assemble progressively as they and their binding sites become available. Instead, there appears to be a coordinated assembly of a large cooperative complex of proteins interacting with the distal promoter, the positioned nucleosome, the enhancer of the distal promoter (the AAE), and each other. Images PMID:1437559

  10. Point-of-care musculoskeletal ultrasound is critical for the diagnosis of hemarthroses, inflammation and soft tissue abnormalities in adult patients with painful haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kidder, W; Nguyen, S; Larios, J; Bergstrom, J; Ceponis, A; von Drygalski, A

    2015-07-01

    We previously demonstrated in adult patients with haemophilia (PWH) that hemarthrosis is present in only ~1/3rd of acutely painful joints by using point-of-care-musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS). Therefore, other unrecognized tissue abnormalities must contribute to pain. Using high resolution MSKUS, employing grey scale and power Doppler, we sought to retrospectively (i) investigate soft tissue abnormalities in painful haemophilic joints and (ii) to determine to what extent MSKUS findings, functional or radiographic joint scores correlate with biomarkers of inflammation in PWH. Findings were correlated with Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (HJHS), Pettersson scores, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and von Willebrand factor activity and antigen levels. A total of 65 MSKUS examinations for acute and chronic joint pains were performed for 34 adult haemophilia patients, mostly for chronic joint pains (72.3%). The most prominent findings (66.5%) pertained to inflammatory soft tissue changes including synovitis, tendinitis, enthesitis, bursitis and fat pad inflammation. Effusions were present in 55.5% and 46.8% of MSKUS performed for acute and chronic pain, respectively. Of those, 90.0% were bloody during acute and 47.6% during persistent pains. While inflammatory biomarkers correlated well with overall HJHS and total Pettersson scores (P < 0.05), they did not differ between those patients with synovitis and those without. MSKUS is emerging as an important modality to diagnose treatable musculoskeletal abnormalities contributing to pain in haemophilic arthropathy, and therefore seems critical for a personalized approach to haemophilia care. The role of biomarkers in this setting remains less clear and requires further investigation.

  11. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy Improves the Prognosis of Unresectable Adult Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jingu, Keiichi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Bessho, Hiroki; Takagi, Ryo; Morikawa, Takamichi; Tonogi, Morio; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with 70.4 GyE for unresectable bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 46.2 years) were enrolled in this prospective study on C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fractions (fr) between April 2001 and February 2008. The primary end points were acute and late reactions of normal tissues, local control rate, and overall survival rate. The secondary end point was efficacy of the treatment in comparison to historical results with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE/16 fr. Results: The 3-year local control rate and overall survival rate for all patients were 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81.0-100%) and 74.1% (95% CI = 57.5-90.6%), respectively. Acute reaction of Grade 3 or more was observed in only 1 patient. With regard to late reactions, visual loss was observed in 1 patient and a Grade 3 reaction of the maxillary bone was observed in 4 patients. A comparison with historical results revealed that the local control rate with 70.4 GyE was significantly higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 91.8% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the overall survival with 70.4 GyE tended to be higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 74.1% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.09). Conclusion: C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fr for bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck appears to be effective with acceptable toxicities in comparison to conventional RT and C-ion RT with lower doses.

  12. Oviduct-specific expression of human neutrophil defensin 4 in lentivirally generated transgenic chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful.

  13. Comparative study on the pathogenesis of the generated 9a5b Newcastle disease virus mutant isolate between chickens and waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

    2013-07-01

    Lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), circulating among waterfowl, have the potential to become highly pathogenic by replication in chickens. The pathological studies that compare NDV infections in chickens and waterfowl are rare. The virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was generated by passaging the lentogenic Goose/Alaska/415/91 NDV isolate in chickens. The pathogenesis of the virulent 9a5b mutant isolate is unknown in both chickens and waterfowl. In this study, the virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally in 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. Unlike ducks, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, chickens had depression, gasping, oral discharges, and greenish-white soft feces. Gross and histologic lesion patterns as well as viral replication supported the differing clinical outcome. Ducks had slight inflammation mainly in respiratory and digestive tracts, whereas slight nonpurulent encephalitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and mild inflammation in respiratory and digestive tracts were detected in chickens. In agreement, interferon-beta (IFN-β)-immunopositive signals were more intense in lung tissue of ducks than that of chickens, and NDV replications were detected intensively in chicken tissues. These results suggest that the 9a5b mutant NDV isolate is more virulent in chickens, and slight histological lesions were induced in ducks even with virulent NDVs.

  14. Identification of the Long-Sought Leptin in Chicken and Duck: Expression Pattern of the Highly GC-Rich Avian leptin Fits an Autocrine/Paracrine Rather Than Endocrine Function.

    PubMed

    Seroussi, Eyal; Cinnamon, Yuval; Yosefi, Sara; Genin, Olga; Smith, Julia Gage; Rafati, Nima; Bornelöv, Susanne; Andersson, Leif; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    More than 20 years after characterization of the key regulator of mammalian energy balance, leptin, we identified the leptin (LEP) genes of chicken (Gallus gallus) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos). The extreme guanine-cytosine content (∼70%), the location in a genomic region with low-complexity repetitive and palindromic sequence elements, the relatively low sequence conservation, and low level of expression have hampered the identification of these genes until now. In vitro-expressed chicken and duck leptins specifically activated signaling through the chicken leptin receptor in cell culture. In situ hybridization demonstrated expression of LEP mRNA in granular and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, anterior pituitary, and in embryonic limb buds, somites, and branchial arches, suggesting roles in adult brain control of energy balance and during embryonic development. The expression patterns of LEP and the leptin receptor (LEPR) were explored in chicken, duck, and quail (Coturnix japonica) using RNA-sequencing experiments available in the Short Read Archive and by quantitative RT-PCR. In adipose tissue, LEP and LEPR were scarcely transcribed, and the expression level was not correlated to adiposity. Our identification of the leptin genes in chicken and duck genomes resolves a long lasting controversy regarding the existence of leptin genes in these species. This identification was confirmed by sequence and structural similarity, conserved exon-intron boundaries, detection in numerous genomic, and transcriptomic datasets and characterization by PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and bioassays. Our results point to an autocrine/paracrine mode of action for bird leptin instead of being a circulating hormone as in mammals.

  15. Mapping of the environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii by georeferencing isolates from chickens in an endemic area in Southeast Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casartelli-Alves, Luciana; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Ferreira, Luiz Cláudio; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo; Nicolau, José Leonardo; de Freitas Trindade, Eloiza Paula; de Barros Peixoto, Julia Novaes; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2015-05-18

    The environmental contamination of Toxoplasma gondii in an endemic area in Brazil was mapped by georeferencing isolates from chickens in farms in the Southeast of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Tissue samples obtained from 153 adult chickens were analyzed by the mouse bioassay for T. gondii infection. These animals were reared free-range on 51 farms in the municipalities of Rio Bonito and Maricá. The ArcGIS kernel density estimator based on the frequency of T. gondii-positive chickens was used to map the environmental contamination with this parasite. A questionnaire was applied to obtain data on the presence and management of cats and the type of water consumed. Of the farms studied, 64.7% were found to be located in areas of low to medium presence of T. gondii, 27.5% in areas with a high or very high contamination level and 7.8% in non-contaminated areas. Additionally, 70.6% kept cats, 66.7% were near water sources and 45.0% were in or near dense vegetation. Humans used untreated water for drinking on 41.2% of the farms, while all animals were given untreated water. The intensity of environmental T. gondii contamination was significantly higher on farms situated at a distance >500 m from water sources (P=0.007) and near (≤500 m) dense vegetation (P=0.003). Taken together, the results indicate a high probability of T. gondii infection of humans and animals living on the farms studied. The kernel density estimator obtained based on the frequency of chickens testing positive for T. gondii in the mouse bioassay was useful to map environmental contamination with this parasite.

  16. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  17. Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult human optic nerve for NEIBank: Identification of cell type and tissue markers

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Steven L; Guo, Yan; Peterson, Katherine; Wistow, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Background The optic nerve is a pure white matter central nervous system (CNS) tract with an isolated blood supply, and is widely used in physiological studies of white matter response to various insults. We examined the gene expression profile of human optic nerve (ON) and, through the NEIBANK online resource, to provide a resource of sequenced verified cDNA clones. An un-normalized cDNA library was constructed from pooled human ON tissues and was used in expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. Location of an abundant oligodendrocyte marker was examined by immunofluorescence. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western analysis were used to compare levels of expression for key calcium channel protein genes and protein product in primate and rodent ON. Results Our analyses revealed a profile similar in many respects to other white matter related tissues, but significantly different from previously available ON cDNA libraries. The previous libraries were found to include specific markers for other eye tissues, suggesting contamination. Immune/inflammatory markers were abundant in the new ON library. The oligodendrocyte marker QKI was abundant at the EST level. Immunofluorescence revealed that this protein is a useful oligodendrocyte cell-type marker in rodent and primate ONs. L-type calcium channel EST abundance was found to be particularly low. A qRT-PCR-based comparative mammalian species analysis reveals that L-type calcium channel expression levels are significantly lower in primate than in rodent ON, which may help account for the class-specific difference in responsiveness to calcium channel blocking agents. Several known eye disease genes are abundantly expressed in ON. Many genes associated with normal axonal function, mRNAs associated with axonal transport, inflammation and neuroprotection are observed. Conclusion We conclude that the new cDNA library is a faithful representation of human ON and EST data provide an initial overview

  18. The effect of tannic acid on the bone tissue of adult male Wistar rats exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk, Agnieszka; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2017-03-02

    Toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) accumulate to the largest extent in bones. Rats at the age of 12 weeks were used to check whether tannic acid (TA) at the concentration of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%. 2.0% or 2.5% would have a protective effect on the structure and properties of bones in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb (diet: 7mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg) for 12 weeks. The effects of administration of TA in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on bone mechanical and geometric properties, trabecular histomorphometry as well as the morphology of articular and growth cartilages were determined. All the rats co-exposured to Cd and Pb had enhanced heavy metals concentration in blood plasma and bone and reduced bone Ca content irrespective of the tannic acid administration. Heave metals given to adult rats did not influence the morphology and geometry of the femur, but reduced the mechanical endurance and histomorphometric parameters of trabecular bone irrespective of the treatment. A diet rich in TA improved articular cartilage and growth plate constituents in heavy metal-poisoned rats, as indicated by the measurement of the thickness of particular zones. It seems that a use of alimentary TA supplementation in adult rats can counteract, in a dose-dependent manner, only some of the destructive changes evoked by Cd and Pb excess.

  19. CRISPR mediated somatic cell genome engineering in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Véron, Nadège; Qu, Zhengdong; Kipen, Phoebe A S; Hirst, Claire E; Marcelle, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Gene-targeted knockout technologies are invaluable tools for understanding the functions of genes in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9 system of RNA-guided genome editing is revolutionizing genetics research in a wide spectrum of organisms. Here, we combined CRISPR with in vivo electroporation in the chicken embryo to efficiently target the transcription factor PAX7 in tissues of the developing embryo. This approach generated mosaic genetic mutations within a wild-type cellular background. This series of proof-of-principle experiments indicate that in vivo CRISPR-mediated cell genome engineering is an effective method to achieve gene loss-of-function in the tissues of the chicken embryo and it completes the growing genetic toolbox to study the molecular mechanisms regulating development in this important animal model.

  20. Unique profile of chicken adiponectin, a predominantly heavy molecular weight multimer, and relationship to visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gilbert L; Hadley, Jill A; Krzysik-Walker, Susan M; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vasilatos-Younken, Regina; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2009-07-01

    Adiponectin, a 30-kDa adipokine hormone, circulates as heavy, medium, and light molecular weight isoforms in mammals. Plasma heavy molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin isoform levels are inversely correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in humans. The objectives of the present study were to characterize adiponectin protein and quantify plasma adiponectin levels in chickens, which are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. Using gel filtration column chromatography and Western blot analysis under nonreducing and non-heat-denaturing native conditions, adiponectin in chicken plasma, and adipose tissue is predominantly a multimeric HMW isoform that is larger than 669 kDa mass. Under reducing conditions and heating to 70-100 C, however, a majority of the multimeric adiponectin in chicken plasma and adipose tissue was reduced to oligomeric and/or monomeric forms. Immunoprecipitation and elution under neutral pH preserved the HMW adiponectin multimer, whereas brief exposure to acidic pH led to dissociation of HMW multimer into multiple oligomers. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken adiponectin revealed the presence of hydroxyproline and differential glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues in the collagenous domain. An enzyme immunoassay was developed and validated for quantifying plasma adiponectin in chickens. Plasma adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in 8- compared with 4-wk-old male chickens and inversely related to abdominal fat pad mass. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that adiponectin in chicken plasma and tissues is predominantly a HMW multimer, suggesting the presence of unique multimerization and stabilization mechanisms in the chicken that favors preponderance of HMW adiponectin over other oligomers.

  1. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Militino Dias, Flavia; Nayak, Baibaswata; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2010-01-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) are divided into nine serotypes. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most extensively characterized, while relatively little information is available for the other APMV serotypes. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two divergent strains of APMV-3, Netherlands and Wisconsin, in (i) 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, (ii) 1-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks and turkeys, and (iii) 2-week-old SPF chickens and turkeys. The mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs was 112 h for APMV-3 strain Netherlands and > 168 h for strain Wisconsin. The intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1-day-old chicks for strain Netherlands was 0.39 and for strain Wisconsin was zero. Thus, both strains are lentogenic. Both the strains replicated well in brain tissue when inoculated intracerebrally in 1-day-old SPF chicks, but without causing death. Mild respiratory disease signs were observed in 1-day-old chickens and turkeys when inoculated through oculonasal route with either strain. There were no overt signs of illness in 2-weeks-old chickens and turkeys by either strain, although all the birds seroconverted after infection. The viruses were isolated predominantly from brain, lungs, spleens, trachea, pancreas and kidney. Immunohistochemistry studies also showed the presence of large amount of viral antigens in both epithelial and sub-epithelial lining of respiratory and alimentary tracts. Our result suggests systemic spread of APMV-3 even though the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin proteases cleavage site. Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested.

  2. Pattern of Pax7 expression during myogenesis in the posthatch chicken establishes a model for satellite cell differentiation and renewal.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Orna; Piestun, Yogev; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Rosser, Benjamin W C; Rinkevich, Yuval; Reshef, Ram; Rozenboim, Israel; Wleklinski-Lee, Monika; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2004-11-01

    The paired-box transcription factor Pax7 plays a critical role in the specification of satellite cells in mouse skeletal muscle. In the present study, the position and number of Pax7-expressing cells found in muscles of growing and adult chickens confirm the presence of this protein in avian satellite cells. The expression pattern of Pax7 protein, along with the muscle regulatory proteins MyoD and myogenin, was additionally elucidated in myogenic cultures and in whole muscle from posthatch chickens. In cultures progressing from proliferation to differentiation, the expression of Pax7 in MyoD+ cells declined as the cells began expressing myogenin, suggesting Pax7 as an early marker for proliferating myoblasts. At all time points, some Pax7+ cells were negative for MyoD, resembling the reserve cell phenotype. Clonal analysis of muscle cell preparations demonstrated that single progenitors can give rise to both differentiating and reserve cells. In muscle tissues, Pax7 protein expression was the strongest by 1 day posthatch, declining on days 3 and 6 to a similar level. In contrast, myogenin expression peaked on day 3 and then dramatically declined. This finding was accompanied by a robust growth in fiber diameter between day 3 and 6. The distinctions in Pax7 and myogenin expression patterns, both in culture and in vivo, indicate that while some of the myoblasts differentiate and fuse into myofibers during early stages of posthatch growth, others retain their reserve cell capacity.

  3. Molecular cloning of chicken IL-7 and characterization of its antiviral activity against IBDV in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Shanshan; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Jianlou; Zuo, Yuzhu; Xu, Jian; Cui, Dan; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian interleukin-7 (IL-7) is able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and maturation, and reverse immunosuppression. However, whether poultry IL-7 has similar functions remains unclear. Chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes serious immunosuppression in chicken due to virus-induced immune disorder. Whether chicken IL-7 (chIL-7) has the ability to restore the immunity during IBDV-induced immunosuppression is not clear. To test this, we amplified chIL-7 gene by RT-PCR, prepared recombinant chIL-7 using HEK293T cells and treated the chicken with the chIL-7 prior to IBDV infection. Our results indicate that chIL-7 promoted mouse B cell proliferation in vitro, and significantly reduced virus titer in bursal tissue and chicken morbidity of IBDV-infected chicken. Mechanically, chIL-7 induced chicken lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-γ production, but down-regulated TGF-β expression, suggesting that chIL-7 has the ability to reverse IBDV-induced immunosuppression and might be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention and treatment of infectious bursal disease. PMID:27466431

  4. Downregulation of chicken interleukin-17 receptor A during Eimeria infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Suk; Chang, Hong H; Yang, Seung-Hak; Kim, Dong-Hee; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-09-01

    Both interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are proinflammatory cytokines that have an important role in intestinal homeostasis via receptor signaling. These cytokines have been characterized in chickens, but very little is known about their receptors and their functional activity. We provide here the first description of the sequence analysis, bioactivity, and comparative expression analysis of chicken IL-17RA (chIL-17RA) in chickens infected with Salmonella and Eimeria, two major infectious agents of gastrointestinal diseases of poultry of economic importance. A full-length chIL-17RA cDNA with a 2,568-bp coding region was identified from chicken thymus cDNA. chIL-17RA shares ca. 46% identity with mammalian homologues and 29.2 to 31.5% identity with its piscine counterparts. chIL-17RA transcript expression was relatively high in the thymus and in the chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The chIL-17RA-specific small interfering RNA inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1β mRNA expression in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (but not in DF-1 cells) stimulated with chIL-17A or chIL-17F. Interaction between chIL-17RA and chIL-17A was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Downregulation of chIL-17RA occurred in concanavalin A- or lipopolysaccharide-activated splenic lymphocytes but not in poly(I·C)-activated splenic lymphocytes. In Salmonella- and Eimeria-infected chickens, the expression levels of the chIL-17RA transcript were downregulated in intestinal tissues from chickens infected with two Eimeria species, E. tenella or E. maxima, that preferentially infect the cecum and jejunum, respectively. However, chIL-17RA expression was generally unchanged in Salmonella infection. These results suggest that chIL-17RA has an important role in mucosal immunity to intestinal intracellular parasite infections such as Eimeria infection.

  5. Differences in compact bone tissue microscopic structure between adult humans (Homo sapiens) and Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis).

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Phatsara, Manussabhorn; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the osteon structure of adult humans and Assam macaques, which served as a nonhuman primate model, to find an adequate key for species identification. Samples of compact bone from humans (n=5) and Assam macaques (n=5) - including humerus (n=20), radius (n=20), ulna (n=20), femur (n=20), tibia (n=20) and fibula (n=20) - were processed using conventional histological techniques. 100 secondary osteons from each sample were evaluated under light microscopy. Parameter measurements included: diameter, perimeter and area of Haversian canal and osteon; distance between centers of Haversian canals; and ratio between diameter of Haversian canal and osteon. Four parameters, including diameters and areas of Haversian canal and osteon, demonstrated significantly higher (P<0.05) values in humans than in Assam macaques. Therefore, compact bone microstructure could thus be used as a potential tool to differentiate human and nonhuman primates.

  6. Long-term physical exercise induces changes in sirtuin 1 pathway and oxidative parameters in adult rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Bayod, S; Del Valle, J; Lalanza, J F; Sanchez-Roige, S; de Luxán-Delgado, B; Coto-Montes, A; Canudas, A M; Camins, A; Escorihuela, R M; Pallàs, M

    2012-12-01

    The protein deacetylase, sirtuin 1, is suggested as a master regulator of exercise-induced beneficial effects. Sirtuin 1 modulates mitochondrial biogenesis, primarily via its ability to deacetylate and activate proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), interacting with AMPK kinase. Redox cell status can also influence this regulatory axis and together they form an important convergence point in hormesis during the aging process. Here, we tested whether treadmill training (36weeks), as a paradigm of long-term moderate exercise, modifies the AMPK-sirtuin 1-PGC-1α axis and redox balance in rat gastrocnemius muscle, liver and heart. Physical activity induced increases in sirtuin 1 protein levels in all the aged rat tissues studied, as well as total PGC-1α levels. However, no changes in AMPK activation or significant differences in mitochondrial biogenesis (by measuring electron transport chain protein content) were found after exercise training. Parallel to these changes, we observed an improvement of oxidative stress defenses, mainly in muscle, with modification of the antioxidant enzyme machinery resulting in a reduction in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Thus, we demonstrate that moderate long-term exercise promotes tissue adaptations, increasing muscle, liver and heart sirtuin 1 protein content and activity and increasing PGC-1α protein expression. However, AMPK activation or mitochondrial biogenesis is not modified, but it cannot be discarded that its participation in the adaptive mechanism which prevents the development of the deleterious effects of age.

  7. The E3 ligase axotrophin/MARCH-7: protein expression profiling of human tissues reveals links to adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Szigyarto, Cristina A; Sibbons, Paul; Williams, Gill; Uhlen, Mathias; Metcalfe, Su M

    2010-04-01

    Axotrophin/MARCH-7 was first identified in mouse embryonic stem cells as a neural stem cell gene. Using the axotrophin/MARCH-7 null mouse, we discovered profound effects on T lymphocyte responses, including 8-fold hyperproliferation and 5-fold excess release of the stem cell cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Our further discovery that axotrophin/MARCH-7 is required for targeted degradation of the LIF receptor subunit gp190 implies a direct role in the regulation of LIF signaling. Bioinformatics studies revealed a highly conserved RING-CH domain in common with the MARCH family of E3-ubiquitin ligases, and accordingly, axotrophin was renamed "MARCH-7." To probe protein expression of human axotrophin/MARCH-7, we prepared antibodies against different domains of the protein. Each antibody bound its specific target epitope with high affinity, and immunohistochemistry cross-validated target specificity. Forty-eight human tissue types were screened. Epithelial cells stained strongly, with trophoblasts having the greatest staining. In certain tissues, specific cell types were selectively positive, including neurons and neuronal progenitor cells in the hippocampus and cerebellum, endothelial sinusoids of the spleen, megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, crypt stem cells of the small intestine, and alveolar macrophages in the lung. Approximately 20% of central nervous system neuropils were positive. Notably, axotrophin/MARCH-7 has an expression profile that is distinct from that of other MARCH family members. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

  8. Ecdysone Receptor-based Singular Gene Switches for Regulated Transgene Expression in Cells and Adult Rodent Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seoghyun; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Won, Minho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Ju, Sung-Kyu; Kang, Kidong; Bae, Young-Ki; Hur, Gang Min; Ro, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    Controlled gene expression is an indispensable technique in biomedical research. Here, we report a convenient, straightforward, and reliable way to induce expression of a gene of interest with negligible background expression compared to the most widely used tetracycline (Tet)-regulated system. Exploiting a Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR)-based gene regulatory system, we generated nonviral and adenoviral singular vectors designated as pEUI(+) and pENTR-EUI, respectively, which contain all the required elements to guarantee regulated transgene expression (GAL4-miniVP16-EcR, termed GvEcR hereafter, and 10 tandem repeats of an upstream activation sequence promoter followed by a multiple cloning site). Through the transient and stable transfection of mammalian cell lines with reporter genes, we validated that tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, reversibly induced gene expression, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with negligible background expression. In addition, we created an adenovirus derived from the pENTR-EUI vector that readily infected not only cultured cells but also rodent tissues and was sensitive to tebufenozide treatment for regulated transgene expression. These results suggest that EcR-based singular gene regulatory switches would be convenient tools for the induction of gene expression in cells and tissues in a tightly controlled fashion. PMID:27673563

  9. The amount of periosteal apposition required to maintain bone strength during aging depends on adult bone morphology and tissue-modulus degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karl J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly

    2012-09-01

    Although the continued periosteal apposition that accompanies age-related bone loss is a biomechanically critical target for prophylactic treatment of bone fragility, the magnitude of periosteal expansion required to maintain strength during aging has not been established. A new model for predicting periosteal apposition rate for men and women was developed to better understand the complex, nonlinear interactions that exist among bone morphology, tissue-modulus, and aging. Periosteal apposition rate varied up to eightfold across bone sizes, and this depended on the relationship between cortical area and total area, which varies with external size and among anatomical sites. Increasing tissue-modulus degradation rate from 0% to -4%/decade resulted in 65% to 145% increases in periosteal apposition rate beyond that expected for bone loss alone. Periosteal apposition rate had to increase as much as 350% over time to maintain stiffness for slender diaphyses, whereas robust bones required less than a 32% increase over time. Small changes in the amount of bone accrued during growth (ie, adult cortical area) affected periosteal apposition rate of slender bones to a much greater extent compared to robust bones. This outcome suggested that impaired bone growth places a heavy burden on the biological activity required to maintain stiffness with aging. Finally, sex-specific differences in periosteal apposition were attributable in part to differences in bone size between the two populations. The results indicated that a substantial proportion of the variation in periosteal expansion required to maintain bone strength during aging can be attributed to the natural variation in adult bone width. Efforts to identify factors contributing to variation in periosteal expansion will benefit from developing a better understanding of how to adjust clinical data to differentiate the biological responses attributable to size-effects from other genetic and environmental factors.

  10. Enhanced propagation of adult human renal epithelial progenitor cells to improve cell sourcing for tissue-engineered therapeutic devices for renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Westover, Angela J; Buffington, Deborah A; Humes, H D

    2012-08-01

    Renal cell therapy employing cells derived from adult renal epithelial cell (REC) progenitors promises to reduce the morbidity of patients with renal insufficiency due to acute renal failure and end stage renal disease. To this end, tissue engineered devices addressing the neglected biologic component of renal replacement therapy are being developed. Because human donor tissue is limited, novel enhanced progenitor cell propagation (EP) techniques have been developed and applied to adult human kidney transplant discards from six donors. Changes include more efficient digestion and the amplification of progenitors prior to terminal epithelial differentiation promoted by contact inhibition and the addition of retinoic acid. Differentiated morphology in EP populations was demonstrated by the ability to form polarized epithelium with tight junctions, apical central cilia and expression of brush border membrane enzymes. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharide stimulated interleukin-8 secretion and γ-glutamyl transpeptisade activity in EP derived cells was used to confirm therapeutic equivalence to REC obtained using published techniques, which have previously shown efficacy in large animal models and clinical trials. Yield exceeded 10(16) cells/gram cortex from the only kidney obtained due to an anatomical defect, while the average yield from diseased kidneys ranged from 1.1 × 10(9) to 8.8 × 10(11) cells/gram cortex, representing an increase of more than 10 doublings over standard methods. Application of the EP protocol to REC expansion has solved the problem of cell sourcing as the limiting factor to the manufacture of cell based therapies targeting renal diseases and may provide a method for autologous device fabrication from core kidney biopsies.

  11. Intestinal nutrient uptake measurements and tissue damage: validating the everted sleeves method.

    PubMed

    Starck, J M; Karasov, W H; Afik, D

    2000-01-01

    The reliability of methods for nutrient uptake measurements across the intestinal epithelium relies on the integrity of the mucosal epithelium and the enterocytes. We tested effects of tissue handling during the "everted sleeves method" on the length of intestinal villi, the surface magnification, the circumference of the gut, and the thickness of the muscle layer in sunbirds (Nectarinia osea), chicken (Gallus gallus), and mice (Mus domesticus). The sunbird has thin and delicate intestinal villi that are greatly affected by the everted sleeves method. After eversion and incubation, villi lost 30% of their original length. The severe tissue damage coincides with uptake measurements for glucose that were an order of magnitude lower than in other nectar-feeding (nectarivorous) birds of similar body size. Tissue handling during the everted sleeves method had significant effects on morphometric parameters of chicken and mouse intestines, but on a light-microscopical level, the tissue integrity and the cytology of the enterocytes were not altered. Therefore, we think that the everted sleeves method renders reliable and reproducible measurements of nutrient uptake in those species. We conclude that a histological evaluation is necessary to assess the reliability of the method before it is applied to adults or to the developmental stage of any species.

  12. Paediatric and adult soft tissue sarcomas with NTRK1 gene fusions: a subset of spindle cell sarcomas unified by a prominent myopericytic/haemangiopericytic pattern.

    PubMed

    Haller, Florian; Knopf, Jasmin; Ackermann, Anne; Bieg, Matthias; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Schlesner, Matthias; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Will, Rainer; Satir, Ali Abdel; Abdelmagid, Ibtihalat E; Giedl, Johannes; Carbon, Roman; Rompel, Oliver; Hartmann, Arndt; Wiemann, Stefan; Metzler, Markus; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Neoplasms with a myopericytomatous pattern represent a morphological spectrum of lesions encompassing myopericytoma of the skin and soft tissue, angioleiomyoma, myofibromatosis/infantile haemangiopericytoma and putative neoplasms reported as malignant myopericytoma. Lack of reproducible phenotypic and genetic features of malignant myopericytic neoplasms have prevented the establishment of myopericytic sarcoma as an acceptable diagnostic category. Following detection of a LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion in an index case of paediatric haemangiopericytoma-like sarcoma by combined whole-genome and RNA sequencing, we identified three additional sarcomas harbouring NTRK1 gene fusions, termed 'spindle cell sarcoma, NOS with myo/haemangiopericytic growth pattern'. The patients were two children aged 11 months and 2 years and two adults aged 51 and 80 years. While the tumours of the adults were strikingly myopericytoma-like, but with clear-cut atypical features, the paediatric cases were more akin to infantile myofibromatosis/haemangiopericytoma. All cases contained numerous thick-walled dysplastic-like vessels with segmental or diffuse nodular myxohyaline myo-intimal proliferations of smooth muscle actin-positive cells, occasionally associated with thrombosis. Immunohistochemistry showed variable expression of smooth muscle actin and CD34, but other mesenchymal markers, including STAT6, were negative. This study showed a novel variant of myo/haemangiopericytic sarcoma with recurrent NTRK1 gene fusions. Given the recent introduction of a novel therapeutic approach targeting NTRK fusion-positive neoplasms, recognition of this rare but likely under-reported sarcoma variant is strongly encouraged.

  13. The Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha3 locus encodes an essential gene required for the development of both larval and adult tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Adam; Máthé, Endre; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear transport of classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins is mediated by the cNLS receptor importin alpha. The conventional importin alpha gene family in metazoan animals is composed of three clades that are conserved between flies and mammals and are referred to here as alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. In contrast, plants and fungi contain only alpha1 genes. In this study we report that Drosophila importin alpha3 is required for the development of both larval and adult tissues. Importin alpha3 mutant flies die around the transition from first to second instar larvae, and homozygous importin alpha3 mutant eyes are defective. The transition to second instar larvae was rescued with importin alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 transgenes, indicating that Importin alpha3 is normally required at this stage for an activity shared by all three importin alpha's. In contrast, an alpha3-specific biochemical activity(s) of Importin alpha3 is probably required for development to adults and photoreceptor cell development, since only an importin alpha3 transgene rescued these processes. These results are consistent with the view that the importin alpha's have both overlapping and distinct functions and that their role in animal development involves the spatial and temporal control of their expression. PMID:14704178

  14. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  15. Meat Juice Serology for Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Bacci, Cristina; Kramer, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 free-range chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4%) were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls), while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  16. The promise of perfect adult tissue repair and regeneration in mammals: Learning from regenerative amphibians and fish.

    PubMed

    Godwin, James

    2014-09-01

    Regenerative medicine promises to greatly impact on human health by improving repair outcomes in a range of tissues and injury contexts. Successful therapies will rely on identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic biological circuits that control wound healing, proliferation, cell survival, and developmental cell fate. Animals such as the zebrafish and the salamander display powerful examples of near-perfect regeneration and scar-free healing in a range of injury contexts not attained in mammals. By studying regeneration in a range of highly regenerative species that maintain regenerative potential throughout life, many instructive and permissive factors have been identified that could assist in the development of regenerative therapies. This review highlights some of the recent observations in immune regulation, epigenetic regulation, stem cell mobilization, and regenerative signatures that have improved our understanding of the regenerative process. Potential opportunities in harnessing this knowledge for future translation into the clinic are discussed.

  17. Observation, Radiation Therapy, Combination Chemotherapy, and/or Surgery in Treating Young Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-08

    Adult Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Adult Angiosarcoma; Adult Epithelioid Sarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma; Adult Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma; Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Neurofibrosarcoma; Adult Synovial Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  18. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  19. Attenuation, transmission, and immunogenicity of an ORF-C gene deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in specific pathogen free chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...

  20. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Love, M.J.; Booker, T.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  1. Comparison of human adult stem cells from adipose tissue and bone marrow in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While administration of ex vivo culture-expanded stem cells has been used to study immunosuppressive mechanisms in multiple models of autoimmune diseases, less is known about the uncultured, nonexpanded stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-based therapy. The SVF is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells and has been used clinically to treat acute and chronic diseases, alleviating symptoms in a range of tissues and organs. Methods In this study, the ability of human SVF cells was compared with culture-expanded adipose stem cells (ASCs) and bone-derived marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a treatment of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35–55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis in C57Bl/6J mice, a well-studied multiple sclerosis model (MS). A total of 1 × 106 BMSCs, ASCs, or SVF cells were administered intraperitoneally concomitantly with the induction of disease. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease by three independent, blinded investigators and rated on a scale of 0 to 5. Spinal cords were obtained after euthanasia at day 30 and processed for histological staining using luxol fast blue, toluidine blue, and hematoxylin and eosin to measure myelin and infiltrating immune cells. Blood was collected from mice at day 30 and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Results The data indicate that intraperitoneal administration of all cell types significantly ameliorates the severity of disease. Furthermore, the data also demonstrate, for the first time, that the SVF was as effective as the more commonly cultured BMSCs and ASCs in an MS model. All cell therapies also demonstrated a similar reduction in tissue damage, inflammatory infiltrates, and sera levels of IFNγ and IL-12. While IFNγ levels were reduced to comparable levels between treatment groups, levels of IL-12 were significantly lower in SVF-treated than BMSC-treated or ASC-treated mice. Conclusions Based

  2. Controversies in chicken-pox immunization.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Swati Y

    2003-06-01

    Chicken-pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature, varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000 required hospitalization and 100 died. Although varicella is not commonly perceived as an important public health problem, the socioeconomic consequences in industrialized countries of a disease that affects practically every child and causes the carrier absence from work should not be underestimated. The varicella vaccines available in the market are safe and effective. A recent cost-benefit analysis in USA showed that routine chicken-pox vaccination is likely to save five times the investment. Even when only direct costs were considered, benefits almost balanced the costs. At present similar studies from developing countries are not available. The public health impact of varicella and zoster may be increasing in regions with high endemic rates of HIV infection. Varicella vaccine may be used either at an individual level to protect susceptible adolescents and adults, or at a population level, to cover all children as part of a national immunization programme. Vaccination of adolescents and adults will protect at-risk individuals, but will not have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease on a population basis. On the other hand, extensive use as a routine vaccine in children will have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. If sustained high coverage can be achieved, the disease may virtually disappear. If only partial coverage can be obtained, the epidemiology may shift, leading to an increase in the number of cases in older children and adults. Hence, routine childhood varicella immunization programmes should emphasize high, sustained coverage. At present

  3. Distribution of viral antigen gp85 and provirus in various tissues from commercial meat-type and experimental white leghorn line 0 chickens with different subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test for the presence of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV J) envelope antigen gp85 and provirus, respectively in various tissues (adrenal gland, bone marrow, gonad, heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, proventriculus, s...

  4. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P < 0.05). The expression of huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, adult transgenic rooster showed reduced (P < 0.05) fertility, as revealed by reduced volume of semen ejaculate, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Taken together, our data suggest that huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  5. The Effects of Partial Mechanical Loading and Ibandronate on Skeletal Tissues in the Adult Rat Hindquarter Suspension Model for Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultheis, Lester W.

    1999-01-01

    We report initial data from a suspended rat model that quantitatively relates chronic partial weightbearing to bone loss. Chronic partial weightbearing is our simulation of the effect of limited artificial gravity aboard spacecraft or reduced planetary gravity. Preliminary analysis of bone by PQCT, histomorphometry, mechanical testing and biochemistry suggest that chronic exposure to half of Earth gravity is insufficient to prevent severe bone loss. The effect of episodic full weightbearing activity (Earth Gravity) on rats otherwise at 50% weightbearing was also explored. This has similarity to treatment by an Earth G-rated centrifuge on a spacecraft that normally maintained artificial gravity at half of Earth G. Our preliminary evidence, using the above techniques to analyze bone, indicate that 2 hours daily of full weightbearing was insufficient to prevent the bone loss observed in 50% weightbearing animals. The effectiveness of partial weightbearing and episodic full weightbearing as potential countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight was compared with treatment by ibandronate. Ibandronate, a long-acting potent bisphosphonate proved more effective in preventing bone loss and associated functionality based upon structure than our first efforts at mechanical countermeasures. The effectiveness of ibandronate was notable by each of the testing methods we used to study bone from gross structure and strength to tissue and biochemistry. These results appear to be independent of generalized systemic stress imposed by the suspension paradigm. Preliminary evidence does not suggest that blood levels of vitamin D were affected by our countermeasures. Despite the modest theraputic benefit of mechanical countermeasures of partial weightbearing and episodic full weightbearing, we know that some appropriate mechanical signal maintains bone mass in Earth gravity. Moreover, the only mechanism that correctly assigns bone mass and strength to oppose regionally specific force

  6. Seasonal variation in plasma catecholamines and adipose tissue lipolysis in adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Hamann, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Whittier, Joan M

    2003-02-15

    We investigated three aspects of potential interrenal regulation of reproduction in female green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas. First, seasonal trends in plasma catecholamines were examined from female C. mydas at different stages of their reproductive cycles. Second, variation in catecholamine levels during a nesting season were analysed in relation to restraint time, and ecological variables such as nesting habitat, body size, and reproductive investment. Third, catecholamine and corticosterone (CORT) induced lipolysis was investigated with adipose tissue collected from gravid green turtles, using in vitro incubations. Plasma epinephrine (EPI) was lowest in non-vitellogenic (1.55 +/- 0.26 ng/ml) and post-breeding (1.57 +/- 0.22 ng/ml) females, and highest in courting females (2.87 +/- 0.28). Concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and EPI were relatively constant throughout a nesting season, and not significantly related to restraint time, reproductive investment or nesting habitat. In vitro concentrations of CORT (>3 ng/ml) and NE (2 ng/ml) induced significant release of glycerol after 6h of incubation. Epinephrine tended to induce an antilipolytic affect at low concentrations (0.25 ng/ml) and a net lipolytic response at higher concentrations (>1 ng/ml). Our data suggest that EPI may play a role in regulating body condition during vitellogenesis, and maintaining energy stores during prolonged aphagia during courtship and nesting in female green sea turtles. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence that suggests that catecholamine production may be either down regulated or de-sensitised in gravid female C. mydas.

  7. Anatomical parameters of cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens: further evidence for involvement in ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Gilanpour, Hassan; Charkhkar, Saied; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy

    2005-06-01

    The present study was designed to compare the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system in three different lines of chickens with different susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Eggs from three different genetic lines-commercial broiler and layer lines and one native to Iran--were incubated and hatched, and 1-day-old chicks used. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the related physiological parameters in these chickens were followed. Lung weight as a percentage of body weight, the relative lung and heart volume, and the volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared with the layer and native chickens. Additionally, most of these parameters (e.g. relative lung weight, lung volume and thorax cavity) were significantly decreased with age in broiler chickens but were increased in layer and native chickens, which was concomitant with the incidence of ascites in broiler chickens. Our data indicate that all cardiopulmonary parameters investigated are extremely unfavourable to broiler chickens and suggest a reduction in gas exchange area in broilers, and therefore higher susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension and ascites.

  8. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens.

  9. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  10. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  11. Expressed microRNA associated with high rate of egg production in chicken ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Gaur, U; Zhu, Q; Chen, B; Xu, Z; Zhao, X; Yang, M; Li, D

    2016-10-26

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing. By comparing low rate of egg production chickens with high rate of egg production chickens, 17 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found (P < 0.05), including 11 known and six novel miRNAs. We found that all 11 known miRNAs were involved mainly in pathways of reproduction regulation, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis and dopaminergic synapse. Additionally, expression profiling of six randomly selected differentially regulated miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Some miRNAs, such as gga-miR-34b, gga-miR-34c and gga-miR-216b, were reported to regulate processes such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis and were expressed differentially in ovaries of chickens with high rates of egg production, suggesting that these miRNAs have an important role in ovary development and reproductive management of chicken. Furthermore, we uncovered that a significantly up-regulated miRNA-gga-miR-200a-3p-is ubiquitous in reproduction-regulation-related pathways. This miRNA may play a special central role in the reproductive management of chicken, and needs to be further studied for confirmation.

  12. Organization and expression of the chicken N-myc gene.

    PubMed

    Sawai, S; Kato, K; Wakamatsu, Y; Kondoh, H

    1990-05-01

    We cloned the chicken N-myc gene and analyzed its structure and expression. We found that it consisted of three exons with coding regions in exons 2 and 3. Comparison to mammalian N-myc genomic sequence indicated that nucleotide sequences of the 5'-flanking region, noncoding exon 1, and introns were not conserved, but coding and 3' noncoding sequences showed significant homology to mammalian N-myc. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of chicken and mammalian N-myc proteins revealed nine conserved domains interrupted by different lengths of nonhomologous sequences. Two of the domains were specific to N-myc proteins, and the other seven were common to c-myc proteins. Northern blot (immunoblot) and in situ hybridization analyses of 3.5-day-old chicken embryos revealed that high-level expression of the N-myc gene was confirmed to certain tissues, e.g., the central nervous system, neural crest derivatives, and mesenchyme of limb buds. In the beak and limb primordia, N-myc expression in the mesenchyme was higher toward the distal end, suggesting possible involvement in positional assignment of the tissue within the rudimentary structures.

  13. First biologic and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Africa (Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Karhemere, S; Dahl, E; Sreekumar, C; Diabaté, A; Dabiré, K R; Vianna, M C B; Kwok, O C H; Lehmann, T

    2005-02-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. In the present study, prevalence of T. gondii in chickens from Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Kenya is reported. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in sera of 50 free-range chickens from Congo was 50% based on the modified agglutination test (MAT); antibody titers were 1:5 in 7, 1:10 in 7, 1:20 in 6, 1:40 in 1, and 1:160 or more in 4 chickens. Hearts, pectoral muscles, and brains of 11 chickens with titers of 1:20 or more were bioassayed individually in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 9, from the hearts of 9, brains of 3, and muscles of 3 chickens. Tissues of each of the 14 chickens with titers of 1:5 or 1:10 were pooled and bioassayed in mice; T. gondii was isolated from 1 chicken with a titer of 1:10. Tissues from the remaining 25 seronegative chickens were pooled and fed to 1 T. gondii-free cat. Feces of the cat were examined for oocysts, but none was seen. The results indicate that T. gondii localizes in the hearts more often than in other tissues of naturally infected chickens. Genotyping of these 10 isolates using the SAG2 locus indicated that 8 were isolates were type III, 1 was type II, and 1 was type I. Two isolates (1 type I and 1 type III) were virulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by mouse bioassay from a pool of brains and hearts of 5 of 48 chickens from Mali and 1 of 40 chickens from Burkina Faso; all 6 isolates were avirulent for mice. Genetically, 4 isolates were type III and 2 were type II. Sera were not available from chickens from Mali and Burkina Faso. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (MAT 100 or more) were found in 4 of 30 chickens from Kenya, and T. gondii was isolated from the brain of 1 of 4 seropositive chickens; this strain was avirulent for mice and was type II. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping

  14. Expression of heavy chain‐only antibodies can support B‐cell development in light chain knockout chickens

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Collarini, Ellen J.; Pedersen, Darlene; Yi, Henry; Ching, Kathryn; Izquierdo, Shelley; Thoma, Theresa; Lettmann, Sarah; Kaspers, Bernd; Etches, Robert J.; van de Lavoir, Marie‐Cecile; Harriman, William

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of antibody‐producing B cells in chickens six decades ago, chickens have been a model for B‐cell development in gut‐associated lymphoid tissue species. Here we describe targeting of the immunoglobulin light chain locus by homologous recombination in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and generation of VJCL knockout chickens. In contrast to immunoglobulin heavy chain knockout chickens, which completely lack mature B cells, homozygous light chain knockout (IgL−/−) chickens have a small population of B lineage cells that develop in the bursa and migrate to the periphery. This population of B cells expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain molecule on the cell surface. Soluble heavy‐chain‐only IgM and IgY proteins of reduced molecular weight were detectable in plasma in 4‐week‐old IgL−/− chickens, and antigen‐specific IgM and IgY heavy chain proteins were produced in response to immunization. Circulating heavy‐chain‐only IgM showed a deletion of the CH1 domain of the constant region enabling the immunoglobulin heavy chain to be secreted in the absence of the light chain. Our data suggest that the heavy chain by itself is enough to support all the important steps in B‐cell development in a gut‐associated lymphoid tissue species. PMID:27392810

  15. Long-Term Transcriptomic Effects of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Delivered In Ovo in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Slawinska, Anna; Plowiec, Arkadiusz; Siwek, Maria; Jaroszewski, Marcin; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S), cecal tonsils (CT), and large intestine (LI) of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) alone (P2) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 (S2); control group (C) was mock injected with physiological saline. Gene expression analysis was conducted using an Affymetrix Chicken Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEG) were detected in the cecal tonsils of P2 (378 DEG), and were assigned to gene ontology categories: lymphocyte proliferation, activation and differentiation, and cytokine production. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the DEG (CT of P2) indicated the inhibition of humoral and cellular immune responses, e.g., role of NFAT in regulation of immune responses, phagocytosis, production of nitric oxide, NF-κB, IL-8, and CXCR4 signaling. The DEG with the highest up-regulation from S1 and P2 were involved in gene expression (PAPOLA, RPL27A, RPLP1, and RPS29) from P1 and P2 in transport (BEST4, SLC9A3, and SLC13A2), metabolism (OGT, ALPP, CA4, and CA7), signaling (FGG, G3BP2, UBB, G3BP2, CACNA1G, and ATP6V0A4), and immune responses (MSMB, LGALS3, CABIN1, CXCR5, PAX5, and TNFRSF14). Two DEG influencing the complement system (SERPING1 and MIR1674) were down-regulated in P2 and S1. In conclusion, GOS injected in ovo provided the most potent stimulation of the host transcriptome. This is likely due to its strong bifidogenic effect, which triggers proliferation of indigenous embryonic microflora in ovo, and indirectly influences gene expression regulation in

  16. AZD0530 in Treating Patients With Recurrent Locally Advanced or Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-02

    Adult Fibrosarcoma; Adult Leiomyosarcoma; Adult Liposarcoma; Adult Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans; Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma; Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

  17. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Pineda, N; Kyvsgaard, N C; Luna, L A; Rimbaud, E; Oliveira, J B; Kwok, O C H; Qi, Y; Su, C

    2006-11-30

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in 84 (85.7%) of 98 chickens with titers of 1:5 in 10, 1:10 in eight, 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in nine, 1:80 in 11, 1:160 in one, 1:200 in 27, 1:400 in six, 1:800 four, and 1:3200 in one bird. Hearts and brains of 32 chickens with titers of 1:10 or less were pooled and fed to three T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 66 chickens with titers of 1:20 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. The cat fed tissues from eight chickens with titers of 1:10 shed T. gondii oocysts. The two cats fed tissues of 24 chickens with titers of 1:5 or less did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 47 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from six isolates died of toxoplasmosis. Overall, 41 of 170 (24.1%) mice that became infected after inoculation with chicken tissues died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 48 isolates (47 from mice and 1 from pooled tissues) using polymorphisms at the loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 revealed eight genotypes. Six isolates had Type I alleles, three isolate had Type II alleles and six isolates had Type III alleles at all loci. Four isolates had mixed infections. Two isolates have a unique allele at SAG1 locus and combination of I and III alleles at other loci. The rest 27 isolates contained the combination of Type I and III alleles and were divided into four genotypes. More than one genotypes were often isolated in chickens from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed

  18. A novel 29-kDa chicken heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Einat, M F; Haberfeld, A; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Hurwitz, S; Yahav, S

    1996-12-01

    The family of small heat shock proteins is the more variable among the highly conserved superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSP). Using a metabolic labeling procedure with tissue explants, we have detected in chickens a new member of the small HSP family with an apparent molecular weight of 29-kDa. This protein was induced in broiler chickens' heart muscle and lungs following an in vivo heat stress. The 29-kDa band appears after 3 h of heat stress, much later than the induction of HSP 90, HSP 70, and HSP 27. The late onset of induction suggests that HSP 29 plays a more specific role of a "second stage defense protein".

  19. Nutritional status induces divergent variations of GLUT4 protein content, but not lipoprotein lipase activity, between adipose tissues and muscles in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Muriel; Faulconnier, Yannick; Hocquette, Jean-François; Bocquier, François; Leroux, Christine; Martin, Patrice; Chilliard, Yves

    2004-10-01

    Metabolic adaptations to variations in food supply are incompletely understood in ruminant animal adipose tissue (AT) and muscle. To explore this, we studied lipid metabolism and glucose transport potential in one internal and one external AT, as well as in one oxidative and one glycolytic muscle from control, 7 d underfed and 21 d refed adult cows. Refeeding increased (+79 to +307 %) the activities of enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in perirenal and subcutaneous AT; underfeeding did not modify these variables. Underfeeding decreased the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in perirenal AT (-70 %) and cardiac muscle (-67 %), but did not modify the activities in subcutaneous AT and longissimus thoracis. Refeeding increased LPL activities in all tissues (+40 to +553 %) to levels comparable with (cardiac muscle) or greater than (AT, longissimus thoracis) those observed in control cows. Such variations in perirenal and cardiac muscle LPL activities did not result from variations in LPL mRNA levels, but suggest a post-transcriptional regulation of LPL in these nutritional conditions. Underfeeding did not modify GLUT4 contents in perirenal AT and muscles, while refeeding increased it only in perirenal AT (+250 %). Our present results contrast with previous results in rats, where LPL is regulated in opposite directions in AT and muscles, and GLUT4 is generally increased by fasting and decreased by refeeding in skeletal muscles. The present results highlight the bovine specificity of the response, which probably arises in part from peculiarities of ruminant animals for nutrient digestion and absorption.

  20. Teratogenic effects of pyridoxine on the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of embryonic chickens.

    PubMed

    Sharp, A A; Fedorovich, Y

    2015-03-19

    Our understanding of the role of somatosensory feedback in regulating motility during chicken embryogenesis and fetal development in general has been hampered by the lack of an approach to selectively alter specific sensory modalities. In adult mammals, pyridoxine overdose has been shown to cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by a loss of both muscle and cutaneous afferents, but predominated by a loss of proprioception. We have begun to explore the sensitivity of the nervous system in chicken embryos to the application of pyridoxine on embryonic days 7 and 8, after sensory neurons in the lumbosacral region become post-mitotic. Upon examination of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and peripheral nerves, we find that pyridoxine causes a loss of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3-positive neurons, a decrease in the diameter of the muscle innervating nerve tibialis, and a reduction in the number of large diameter axons in this nerve. However, we found no change in the number of Substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons, the number of motor neurons or the diameter or axonal composition of the femoral cutaneous nerve. Therefore, pyridoxine causes a peripheral sensory neuropathy in embryonic chickens largely consistent with its effects in adult mammals. However, the lesion may be more restricted to proprioception in the chicken embryo. Therefore, pyridoxine lesion induced during embryogenesis in the chicken embryo can be used to assess how the loss of sensation, largely proprioception, alters spontaneous embryonic motility and subsequent motor development.

  1. RNA Interference in Chicken Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, Nick J.; Jones, Rachel S.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    The chicken has played an important role in biological discoveries since the 17th century (Stern, 2005). Many investigations into vertebrate development have utilized the chicken due to the accessibility of the chick embryo and its ease of manipulation (Brown et al., 2003). However, the lack of genetic resources has often handicapped these studies and so the chick is frequently overlooked as a model organism for the analysis of vertebrate gene function in favor of mice or zebrafish. In the past six years this situation has altered dramatically with the generation of over half a million expressed sequence tags and >20,000 fully sequenced chicken cDNAs (Boardman et al. 2002; Caldwell et al., 2005; Hubbard et al., 2005) together with a 6X coverage genome sequence (Hillier et al., 2004). These resources have created a comprehensive catalogue of chicken genes with readily accessible cDNA and EST resources available via ARK-GENOMICS (www.ark-genomics.org) for the functional analysis of vertebrate gene function.

  2. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  3. Serotonin and Aggressiveness in Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggressive behavior in animals. This study examined if 5-HT regulation of aggressiveness is gene-dependent. Chickens from two divergently selected lines KGB and MBB (Kind Gentle Birds and Mean Bad Birds displaying low and high aggressiveness, respectively) and DXL (Dekalb ...

  4. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  5. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  6. Possible correlation of selenoprotein W with inflammation factors in chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Yao, Hai-Dong; Tan, Si-Ran; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.

  7. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and mRNA expression profiles of two Kiss genes in the adult male and female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) during different gonadal stages.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Ohga, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Shimizu, Akio; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2010-10-01

    Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as key modulators of reproduction in mammals. In contrast to the placental mammals, some teleosts express two Kiss genes, Kiss1 and Kiss2. In the present study, full-length cDNAs of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the chub mackerel were cloned and sequenced. Chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs encode 105 and 123 amino acids, respectively. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 with those of other vertebrate species showed a high degree of conservation only in the kisspeptin-10 region (Kp-10). The Kp-10 of chub mackerel Kiss1 (YNFNSFGLRY) and Kiss2 (FNFNPFGLRF) showed variations at three amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts were expressed in different tissues of adult chub mackerel. In addition, their levels in the adipose tissue exhibited sexually dimorphic expression. Further, to have a basic understanding on the involvement of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the seasonal gonadal development, their relative mRNA expression profiles in the brain, pituitary, and gonads at different gonadal stages were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels in the brain showed a differential expression profile between male and female fish. In males, Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels gradually decreased from the immature stage to spermiation and reached a minimal level during the post-spawning period. In contrast, Kiss1 levels in the brain of females did not vary significantly among the different gonadal stages. However, Kiss2 levels fluctuated as that of males, gradually declining from the immature stage to the post-spawning period. The pituitary Kiss1 levels did not show significant fluctuations. However, Kiss1 levels in the gonads were highly elevated during spermiation and late vitellogenesis compared to the immature and post-spawning period. These results suggest the possible involvement of two Kiss genes in the brain and

  8. Comparison of the effects of human and chicken ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Grossmann, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to examine the species-specific and cell-specific effects of ghrelin on chicken ovarian hormone release. For this purpose, we compared the effects of chicken and human ghrelin on the release of estradiol (E), testosterone (T), progesterone (P) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by cultured fragments of chicken ovarian follicles and on the release of T and AVT by cultured ovarian granulosa cells. In cultured chicken ovarian fragments, both human and chicken ghrelin promoted E release. T output was stimulated by chicken ghrelin but not by human ghrelin. No effect of either human or chicken ghrelin on P release was observed. Human ghrelin promoted but chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT release by chicken ovarian fragments. In cultured ovarian granulosa cells, human ghrelin inhibited while chicken ghrelin stimulated T release. Both human and chicken ghrelin suppressed AVT output by chicken granulosa cells. These data confirm the involvement of ghrelin in the control of ovarian secretory activity and demonstrate that the effect of ghrelin is species-specific. The similarity of avian ghrelin on avian ovarian granulosa cells and ovarian fragments (containing both granulosa and theca cells) suggests that ghrelin can influence chicken ovarian hormones primarily by acting on granulosa cells.

  9. Microscopic comparative study of the exposure effects of testosterone cypionate and ethinylestradiol during prenatal life on the prostatic tissue of adult gerbils.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana P S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing variety of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) either with (anti)estrogenic or (anti)androgenic potential widely present in the environment. These xenosteroids may mimic endogenous steroid hormones disrupting the homeostasis of physiological pathways and leading to several disturbances, especially in tissues highly dependent on steroid hormones such as the prostate. Taking this into account, this comparative study aimed to verify the potential of ethinylestradiol (EE) and testosterone acting as ECDs on the prostate of both male and female adult gerbils exposed to these agents during the embryonic phase. Consequently, pregnant gerbils were treated either with 10 μg/kg/day of EE or with a single dose of 1 mg of testosterone cypionate. The pups that were born 6-8 days after testosterone exposure and the pups that were born after 3 days of EE exposure were allowed to grow but were sacrificed within 4 months. Serological, morphological, stereological, and immunohistochemical analyses were used. Overall, the results showed that both sexes exposed to testosterone and EE during gestation had a prostatic gland with an increased stromal and epithelial and a reduced luminal compartment. Moreover, we observed that glands affected with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia showed intense stromal reshuffling. In conclusion, although these alterations were observed in both sexes, more relevant to this study was the differential responsiveness of males and females exposed to these different drugs. Whereas the EE affected males more, the testosterone was more harmful to the females.

  10. DNA-methylation dependent regulation of embryo-specific 5S ribosomal DNA cluster transcription in adult tissues of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Naselli, Flores; Caradonna, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported a molecular and cytogenetic characterization of three different 5S rDNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and recently, demonstrated the presence of high heterogeneity in functional 5S rRNA. In this paper, we show some important distinctive data on 5S rRNA transcription for this organism. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we demonstrate the existence of two classes of 5S rRNA, one which is embryo-specific and encoded by the smallest (700 bp) cluster and the other which is expressed at every stage and encoded by longer clusters (900 and 950 bp). We also demonstrate that the embryo-specific class of 5S rRNA is expressed in oocytes and embryonic stages and is silenced in adult tissue and that this phenomenon appears to be due exclusively to DNA methylation, as indicated by sensitivity to 5-azacytidine, unlike Xenopus where this mechanism is necessary but not sufficient to maintain the silenced status.

  11. The gene encoding the VP16-accessory protein HCF (HCFC1) resides in human Xq28 and is highly expressed in fetal tissues and the adult kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.C.; Herr, W.; Parrish, J.E.; Massa, H.F.

    1995-01-20

    After herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, the viral regulatory protein VP16 activates transcription of the HSV immediate-early promoters by directing complex formation with two cellular proteins, the POU-homeodomain transcription factor Oct-1 and the host cell factor HCF. The function of HCF in uninfected cells is unknown. Here we show by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid analysis that the gene encoding human HCF, HCFC1, maps to the q28 region of the X chromosome. Yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid mapping localizes the HCFC1 gene within 100 kb distal of the renal vasopressin type-2 receptor (V2R) gene and adjacent to the renin-binding protein gene (RENBP). The HCFC1 gene is apparently unique. HCF transcripts and protein are most abundant in fetal and placental tissues and cell lines, suggesting a role in cell proliferation. In adults, HCF protein is abundant in the kidney, but not in the brain, a site of latent HSV infection and where HCF levels may influence progression of HSV infection. 42 refs., 3 figs.

  12. γ-Crystallins of the chicken lens: remnants of an ancient vertebrate gene family in birds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwei; Sagar, Vatsala; Len, Hoay-Shuen; Peterson, Katherine; Fan, Jianguo; Mishra, Sanghamitra; McMurtry, John; Wilmarth, Phillip A; David, Larry L; Wistow, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    γ-Crystallins, abundant proteins of vertebrate lenses, were thought to be absent from birds. However, bird genomes contain well-conserved genes for γS- and γN-crystallins. Although expressed sequence tag analysis of chicken eye found no transcripts for these genes, RT-PCR detected spliced transcripts for both genes in chicken lens, with lower levels in cornea and retina/retinal pigment epithelium. The level of mRNA for γS in chicken lens was relatively very low even though the chicken crygs gene promoter had lens-preferred activity similar to that of mouse. Chicken γS was detected by a peptide antibody in lens, but not in other ocular tissues. Low levels of γS and γN proteins were detected in chicken lens by shotgun mass spectroscopy. Water-soluble and water-insoluble lens fractions were analyzed and 1934 proteins (< 1% false discovery rate) were detected, increasing the known chicken lens proteome 30-fold. Although chicken γS is well conserved in protein sequence, it has one notable difference in leucine 16, replacing a surface glutamine conserved in other γ-crystallins, possibly affecting solubility. However, L16 and engineered Q16 versions were both highly soluble and had indistinguishable circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and heat stability (melting temperature Tm ~ 65 °C) profiles. L16 has been present in birds for over 100 million years and may have been adopted for a specific protein interaction in the bird lens. However, evolution has clearly reduced or eliminated expression of ancestral γ-crystallins in bird lenses. The conservation of genes for γS- and γN-crystallins suggests they may have been preserved for reasons unrelated to the bulk properties of the lens.

  13. NHE1 gene associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J infection in chicken.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Pan, Weiling; Zhang, Liangyu; Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Hongjia; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2014-10-01

    As a kind of binding protein, the type 1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) is a receptor for the highly pathogenic Avian leukosis viruses-J subgroup (ALV-J) in chicken. In order to investigate the potential effect of chicken NHE1 gene on leukosis, we compared its expression between ALV-J-affected and -unaffected chicken, screened variations across the whole gene, and then performed association analysis with ALV-J affected/unaffected trait in three un-related chicken populations. We found that the NHE1 gene expressed in four immune tissues including spleen, bursa fabricius, liver, and thymus, and its expression was significantly up-regulated in liver and thymus of ALV-J-affected chickens (with leukosis phenotype) compared to -unaffected ones (ALV-J-negative controls). Thirty-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in a 6,105 bp region of the chicken NHE1 gene, giving rise to every 170 bp per SNP. Two SNP of g.4405A>G and g.5886C>G were genotyped with PCR-RFLP method. Results showed that g.4405A>G was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with ALV-J infection in all of the three chicken populations, including White Recessive Rock (WRR), Dwarf Yellow (DY) and Shiki Yellow (SY), while g.5886C>G was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with ALV-J infection in SY. These results indicated that the NHE1 gene was related to ALV-J infection in chicken.

  14. Phylogenesis and Biological Characterization of a New Glucose Transporter in the Chicken (Gallus gallus), GLUT12

    PubMed Central

    Coudert, Edouard; Pascal, Géraldine; Dupont, Joëlle; Simon, Jean; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Tesseraud, Sophie; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-sensitive GLUTs, including GLUT4, are recruited to the plasma membrane of adipose and muscle tissues in response to insulin. The GLUT4 gene is absent from the chicken genome, and no functional insulin-sensitive GLUTs have been characterized in chicken tissues to date. A nucleotide sequence is predicted to encode a chicken GLUT12 ortholog and, interestingly, GLUT12 has been described to act as an insulin-sensitive GLUT in mammals. It encodes a 596 amino acid protein exhibiting 71% identity with human GLUT12. First, we present the results of a phylogenetic study showing the stability of this gene during evolution of vertebrates. Second, tissue distribution of chicken SLC2A12 mRNA was characterized by RT-PCR. It was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Protein distribution was analysed by Western blotting using an anti-human GLUT12 antibody directed against a highly conserved region (87% of identity). An immuno-reactive band of the expected size (75kDa) was detected in the same tissues. Third a physiological characterization was performed: SLC2A12 mRNA levels were significantly lowered in fed chickens subjected to insulin immuno-neutralization. Finally, recruitment of immuno-reactive GLUT12 to the muscle plasma membrane was increased following 1h of intraperitoneal insulin administration (compared to a control fasted state). Thus insulin administration elicited membrane GLUT12 recruitment. In conclusion, these results suggest that the facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT12 could act in chicken muscle as an insulin-sensitive transporter that is qualitatively similar to GLUT4 in mammals. PMID:26431526

  15. Echocardiographic characteristics of chickens with ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C

    2006-12-01

    1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload.

  16. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Arco, Raquel; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Noemí Blanco, Rosario; Alén, Francisco; Suárez, Juan; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a) the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b) the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c) the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a) sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b) features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c) tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed.

  17. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Arco, Raquel; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Noemí Blanco, Rosario; Alén, Francisco; Suárez, Juan; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a) the adult expression of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b) the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c) the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a) sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b) features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and c) tissue and sex-specific changes in the expression of both CB1 and CB2 receptors and in that of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes FAAH and MAGL, being the adipose tissue the most affected organ analyzed. Since the effects were observed in adult animals that were weaned while consuming a normal diet, the present results indicate that the ECS is one of the targets of maternal programming of the offspring energy expenditure. These results clearly indicate that the maternal diet has long-term effects on the development of pups through multiple alterations of signaling homeostatic pathways that include the ECS. The potential relevance of these alterations for the current obesity epidemic is discussed. PMID:27806128

  18. Insulin immuno-neutralization in fed chickens: effects on liver and muscle transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean; Milenkovic, Dragan; Godet, Estelle; Cabau, Cedric; Collin, Anne; Métayer-Coustard, Sonia; Rideau, Nicole; Tesseraud, Sophie; Derouet, Michel; Crochet, Sabine; Cailleau-Audouin, Estelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Gespach, Christian; Porter, Tom E; Duclos, Michel J; Dupont, Joëlle; Cogburn, Larry A

    2012-03-01

    Chickens mimic an insulin-resistance state by exhibiting several peculiarities with regard to plasma glucose level and its control by insulin. To gain insight into the role of insulin in the control of chicken transcriptome, liver and leg muscle transcriptomes were compared in fed controls and "diabetic" chickens, at 5 h after insulin immuno-neutralization, using 20.7K-chicken oligo-microarrays. At a level of false discovery rate <0.01, 1,573 and 1,225 signals were significantly modified by insulin privation in liver and muscle, respectively. Microarray data agreed reasonably well with qRT-PCR and some protein level measurements. Differentially expressed mRNAs with human ID were classified using Biorag analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Multiple metabolic pathways, structural proteins, transporters and proteins of intracellular trafficking, major signaling pathways, and elements of the transcriptional control machinery were largely represented in both tissues. At least 42 mRNAs have already been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, energy expenditure, or identified as sensors of metabolism in mice or humans. The contribution of the pathways presently identified to chicken physiology (particularly those not yet related to insulin) needs to be evaluated in future studies. Other challenges include the characterization of "unknown" mRNAs and the identification of the steps or networks, which disturbed tissue transcriptome so extensively, quickly after the turning off of the insulin signal. In conclusion, pleiotropic effects of insulin in chickens are further evidenced; major pathways controlled by insulin in mammals have been conserved despite the presence of unique features of insulin signaling in chicken muscle.

  19. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  20. Genomic Characterization of Recent Chicken Anemia Virus Isolates in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  1. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240–360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors. PMID:27853250

  2. Effects of Dietary Selenium Against Lead Toxicity Are Related to the Ion Profile in Chicken Muscle.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Liu, Chun Peng; Teng, Xiao Hua; Fu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Complex antagonistic interactions between Selenium (Se) and heavy metals have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known regarding the effects of Se on lead (Pb)-induced toxicity and the ion profile in the muscles of chickens. In this present study, we fed chickens either Se or Pb or both Se and Pb supplement and later analyzed the concentrations of 26 ions in chicken muscle tissues. We determined that a Se- and Pb-containing diets significantly affected microelements in chicken muscle. Treatment with Se increased the content of Se but resulted in a reduced concentration of Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Ba. Treatment with Pb increased concentrations of Ni while reducing those of B, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Mo. Moreover, Se also reduced the concentration of Pb, Zn, Co, Fe, V, and Cr, which in contrast were induced by Pb. Additionally, we also found that synergistic and antagonistic interactions existed between Se and Pb supplementation. Our findings suggested that Se can exert a negative effect on Pb in chicken muscle tissues and may be related to changes in ion profiles.

  3. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur.

  4. Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution, character, and severity of lesions were evaluated in tissues from the central nervous system of chickens inoculated with 10 different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates: CA 1083, Korea 97-147, Australia (all velogenic viscerotropic); Texas GB and Turkey North Dakota (both velogenic...

  5. Expression of interferon gamma by a highly virulent Newcastle disease virus decreases its pathogenicity in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of chickens with highly virulent NDV results in rapid death, which is preceded by increased expression of interferon gamma (IFN-g) in target tissues. IFN-g is a cytokine that has pleiotropic biological effects including intrinsic antiviral activity and immunomodulatory effects. Here we a...

  6. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  7. Functional genomics in chickens: development of integrated-systems microarrays for transcriptional profiling and discovery of regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Cogburn, L A; Wang, X; Carre, W; Rejto, L; Aggrey, S E; Duclos, M J; Simon, J; Porter, T E

    2004-01-01

    The genetic networks that govern the differentiation and growth of major tissues of economic importance in the chicken are largely unknown. Under a functional genomics project, our consortium has generated 30 609 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and developed several chicken DNA microarrays, which represent the Chicken Metabolic/Somatic (10 K) and Neuroendocrine/Reproductive (8 K) Systems (http://udgenome.ags.udel.edu/cogburn/). One of the major challenges facing functional genomics is the development of mathematical models to reconstruct functional gene networks and regulatory pathways from vast volumes of microarray data. In initial studies with liver-specific microarrays (3.1 K), we have examined gene expression profiles in liver during the peri-hatch transition and during a strong metabolic perturbation-fasting and re-feeding-in divergently selected broiler chickens (fast vs. slow-growth lines). The expression of many genes controlling metabolic pathways is dramatically altered by these perturbations. Our analysis has revealed a large number of clusters of functionally related genes (mainly metabolic enzymes and transcription factors) that control major metabolic pathways. Currently, we are conducting transcriptional profiling studies of multiple tissues during development of two sets of divergently selected broiler chickens (fast vs. slow growing and fat vs. lean lines). Transcriptional profiling across multiple tissues should permit construction of a detailed genetic blueprint that illustrates the developmental events and hierarchy of genes that govern growth and development of chickens. This review will briefly describe the recent acquisition of chicken genomic resources (ESTs and microarrays) and our consortium's efforts to help launch the new era of functional genomics in the chicken.

  8. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    PubMed

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known.

  9. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    PubMed

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  10. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. PMID:25891652

  11. A chicken leptin-specific radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Dridi, S; Williams, J; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, M; Raver, N; Decuypere, E; Djiane, J; Gertler, A; Taouis, M

    2000-04-01

    Recombinant chicken leptin was used to produce an antiserum in order to develop a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chicken leptin in plasma and serum. We have used either murine or chicken leptin as tracer and competition curves were performed using recombinant chicken leptin. Variations in leptin plasma levels in different chicken strains and various nutritional states were correlated with the physiological status. Leptin plasma concentrations were regulated by the nutritional state with higher levels in the fed state as compared to the fasted state (3.36 +/- 0. 13 versus 2.78 +/- 0.11 ng/ml) and being dependent upon the age. Higher leptin levels were found in 22 week-old as compared to 15 week-old layer chickens (2.709 +/- 0.172 versus 1.478 +/- 0.102 ng/ml). We have also shown that the multispecies leptin RIA kit (LINCO Inc.) underestimated leptinemia compared to the chicken leptin- specific RIA reported here. In conclusion the RIA developed in the present study is specific to the chicken and thus may be considered as powerful tool for investigating the physiological significance of leptin in chickens.

  12. Biological characterization of Nigerian chicken anaemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Olaleye, O D; Todd, D

    2010-12-01

    Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) DNA was extracted from thymus, liver and bone marrow samples obtained from broiler and pullet chicken flocks in southwestern Nigeria, which presented with clinical signs and lesions suggestive of both infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia. While CAV was successfully isolated in MDCC-MSB1 cells from four of the pooled tissue samples, the remaining two samples failed to grow in cells. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) characterization using four MAbs produced against the reference Cuxhaven-1 (Cux-1) CAV isolate showed that Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other and to the Cux-1 virus. Pathogenicity studies with the Cux-1 virus and one of the Nigerian isolates (NGR-1) revealed that NGR-1 was more pathogenic that the former. We conclude that although Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other, they differ in terms of cell culture growth characteristics and probably pathogenicity. These findings further confirm that CAV exists and can no longer be ignored in poultry disease diagnosis in Nigeria. Cases hitherto diagnosed as IBD may actually be CIA or a co-infection of the two.

  13. Bitter taste receptor T2R1 activities were compatible with behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nozomi; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-05-01

    Clarification of the mechanism of the sense of taste in chickens will provide information useful for creating and improving new feedstuffs for chickens, because the character of the taste receptors in oral tissues affects feeding behavior in animals. In this study, we focused on the sensitivity to bitterness in chickens. We cloned one of the bitter taste receptors, T2R1, from the chicken palate, constructed several biosensor-cells expressing chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), and determined a highly sensitive biosensor of cT2R1 among them. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we identified two agonists of cT2R1, dextromethorphan (Dex) and diphenidol (Dip). Dex was a new agonist of cT2R1 that was more potent than Dip. In a behavioral drinking study, the intake volumes of solutions of these compounds were significantly lower than that of water in chickens. These aversive concentrations were identical to the concentrations that could activate cT2R1 in a cell-based assay. These results suggest that the cT2R1 activities induced by these agonists are linked to behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.

  14. In vitro Effects of Albendazole on Raillietina echinobothrida, the Cestode of Chicken, Gallus domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Lalchhandama, K

    2010-01-01

    Albendazole, a member of benzimidazole group of compounds, has been shown to have a broad spectrum activity against all classes of helminth parasites. Although it has also been experimentally proven to be effective against cestode infection of poultry, the actual effects of the drug are not yet described. The present in vitro study demonstrated that the commercial prescription drug Zentel® was significantly effective against adult Raillietina echinobothrida Mégnin, the major cestode parasite of domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus Linnaeus. It clearly exhibited dose-dependent lethal activity at the different concentrations that were tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the drug caused extensive structural alterations on the body surface of the cestode. Severe contraction and shrinkage were evident throughout the entire length of the body. The suckers on the scolex became invaginated due to shrinkage. The distinct body segments, the proglottides, were completely distorted. The fine hairy microtriches on the tegument were obliterated and in its place were formed abnormal clumps of tissues. The results of this investigation are in favor of the use of albendazole as a drug of choice in the management of poultry helminthiasis. PMID:21264097

  15. Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Cheng, Xiang-Chao; Li, Meng; Sun, Tong-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guo, Wen; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the effect of imidapril on the right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8), including the control group, low temperature group, and imidapril group. Chickens in the control group were raised at normal temperature, whereas chickens in the low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 18°C) from 14 d of age until 45 d of age. At the same time, chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril at 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 d. The thickness of the right ventricular wall was observed with echocardiography. The BW and wet lung weight as well as weight of right and left ventricles and ventricular septum were measured. Both wet lung weight index and right ventricular hypertrophy index were calculated. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was assessed according to echocardiography. The expression of ACE and ACE2 mRNA in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was quantified by real-time PCR. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were detected by immunohistostaining. The concentration of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was measured with ELISA. The results showed that right ventricular hypertrophy index, wet lung weight index, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, expression of ACE mRNA in the right ventricular tissue, Ang II concentration, and the thickness of the right ventricular wall in the low temperature group increased significantly compared with those in the control group and imidapril group. The ACE2 mRNA expression increased 36%, whereas Ang (1-7) concentration decreased significantly in the low temperature group compared with that in the control group and imidapril group. In conclusion, imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

  16. Adherence to consensus-based diagnosis and treatment guidelines in adult soft-tissue sarcoma patients: a French prospective population-based study†

    PubMed Central

    Mathoulin-Pélissier, S.; Chevreau, C.; Bellera, C.; Bauvin, E.; Savès, M.; Grosclaude, P.; Albert, S.; Goddard, J.; Le Guellec, S.; Delannes, M.; Bui, B. N.; Mendiboure, J.; Stoeckle, E.; Coindre, J. M.; Kantor, G.; Kind, M.; Cowppli-Bony, A.; Hoppe, S.; Italiano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare tumors with varied histological presentations. Management and treatment are thus complex, but crucial for patient outcomes. We assess adherence to adult STS management guidelines across two French regions (10% of the French population). We also report standardized incidence. Patients and methods STS patients diagnosed from 1 November 2006 to 31 December 2007 were identified from pathology reports, medical hospital records, and cancer registries. Guideline adherence was assessed by 23 criteria (validated by Delphi consensus method), and age and sex-standardized incidence rates estimated. Associations between patient, treatment, and institutional factors and adherence with three major composite criteria relating to diagnostic imaging and biopsy as well as multidisciplinary team (MDT) case-review are reported. Results Two hundred and seventy-four patients were included (57.7% male, mean age 60.8 years). Practices were relatively compliant overall, with over 70% adherence for 10 criteria. Three criteria with perfect Delphi consensus had low adherence: receiving histological diagnosis before surgery, adequacy of histological diagnosis (adherence around 50% for both), and MDT discussion before surgery (adherence <30%). Treatment outside of specialized centers was associated with lower adherence for all three composite criteria, and specific tumor sites and/or features were associated with lower adherence for diagnostic imaging, methods, and MDT meetings. STS standardized incidence rates were 4.09 (European population) and 3.33 (World) /100 000 inhabitants. Conclusions Initial STS diagnosis and treatment across all stages (imaging, biopsy, and MDT meetings) need improving, particularly outside specialized centers. Educational interventions to increase surgeon's sarcoma awareness and knowledge and to raise patients' awareness of the importance of seeking expert care are necessary. PMID:24285018

  17. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in in vitro and in vivo chondrogenesis: relating tissue engineering using adult mesenchymal stem cells to embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Hellingman, Catharine A; Koevoet, Wendy; Kops, Nicole; Farrell, Eric; Jahr, Holger; Liu, Wei; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Frenz, Dorothy A; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2010-02-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising candidate cells for therapeutic cartilage and bone regeneration. Because tissue regeneration and embryonic development may involve similar pathways, understanding common pathways may lead to advances in regenerative medicine. In embryonic limb development, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play a role in chondrogenic differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare FGFR expression in in vivo embryonic limb development and in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs. Our study showed that in in vitro chondrogenesis of MSCs three sequential stages can be found, as in embryonic limb development. A mesenchymal condensation (indicated by N-cadherin) is followed by chondrogenic differentiation (indicated by collagen II), and hypertrophy (indicated by collagen X). FGFR1-3 are expressed in a stage-dependent pattern during in vitro differentiation and in vivo embryonic limb development. In both models FGFR2 is clearly expressed by cells in the condensation phase. No FGFR expression was observed in differentiating and mature hyaline chondrocytes, whereas hypertrophic chondrocytes stained strongly for all FGFRs. To evaluate whether stage-specific modulation of chondrogenic differentiation in MSCs is possible with different subtypes of FGF, FGF2 and FGF9 were added to the chondrogenic medium during different stages in the culture process (early or late). FGF2 and FGF9 differentially affected the amount of cartilage formed by MSCs depending on the stage in which they were added. These results will help us understand the role of FGF signaling in chondrogenesis and find new tools to monitor and control chondrogenic differentiation.

  18. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    PubMed

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  19. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens.

  20. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  1. Role of Cytochrome P450 Hydroxylase in the Decreased Accumulation of Vitamin E in Muscle from Turkeys Compared to that from Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Dale M.; Richards, Mark P.; Parker, Robert S.; Berres, Mark E.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sifri, Mamduh; Sadler, Natalie C; Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    Turkeys and chickens reared to 5 weeks of age and fed diets with feedstuffs low in endogenous tocopherols were examined. Treatments included feed supplemented with RRR (natural source vitamin E) alpha tocopheryl acetate (AcT, 35 mg/kg feed) and all-racemic (synthetic vitamin E) AcT (10 and 58 mg/kg feed). Alpha tocopherol hydroxylase activity was greater in liver microsomes prepared from turkeys compared to that from chickens (p < 0.01). Alpha and gamma tocopherol metabolites were higher in turkey bile than in chicken when assessing the RRR AcT diet and the all-racemic AcT diet at 58 mg/kg feed (p < 0.01). Turkey cytochrome P450 2C29 was increased relative to its chicken ortholog on the basis of RNA-Seq transcript abundance (p < 0.001) and activity-based protein profiling (p < 0.01) of liver tissue. Alpha tocopherol concentrations in plasma, liver, and muscle from turkey were lower than the respective tissues from chicken (p < 0.05). Lipid oxidation was greater in turkey thigh than in chicken (p < 0.05). These results suggest that elevated tocopherol metabolism by cytochrome P450 hydroxylase(s) in turkeys contributes to the decreased accumulation of alpha tocopherol in turkey tissues compared to that of chickens. PMID:26653675

  2. Expression of variant transcripts of the potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing 15 (KCTD15) gene and their association with fatness traits in chickens.

    PubMed

    Liang, S S; Ouyang, H J; Liu, J; Chen, B; Nie, Q H; Zhang, X Q

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the structure, expression, and biological functions of potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (KCTD15) in chickens. We compared the KCTD15 expression level in samples of hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens that were maintained on different dietary status. An association analysis of KCTD15 gene variant transcripts with fatness traits in a F2 resource population of chickens was performed. Three KCTD15 transcripts were identified in which the complete transcript was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and the hypothalamus. The chicken KCTD15 gene was regulated by both feeding and fasting and consumption of a high-fat diet. The expression level of KCTD15 gene was markedly decreased in hypothalamus and liver of fasted and refed chickens (P < 0.05) and significantly downregulated in adipose tissue by the high-fat diet (P < 0.05). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the KCTD15 gene were significantly associated with a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). These results suggest that KCTD15 have a potential role regulation of obesity and fat metabolism in chickens.

  3. Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus replication in feathers of infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-03-01

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) cause systemic diseases in chickens with high mortality. However, little is known about persistence of NDVs in contaminated tissues from infected birds. In this study, we examined viral replication in the feather pulp of chickens inoculated with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) genotype VII. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate viral persistence in the samples. vvNDV was detected in the oropharynx and cloaca and viral antigens were detected in the feathers, suggesting that feathers act as sources of viral transmission.

  4. Differential modulation of avian β-defensin and Toll-like receptor expression in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Xu, Qianqian; Han, Zongxi; Liang, Shuling; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Deying; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-11-01

    The host innate immune response either clears invading viruses or allows the adaptive immune system to establish an effective antiviral response. In this study, both pathogenic (passage 3, P3) and attenuated (P110) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were used to study the immune responses of chicken to IBV infection. Expression of avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in 16 tissues of chicken were compared at 7 days PI. The results showed that P3 infection upregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12, while P110 infection downregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 in most tissues. Meanwhile, the expression level of several TLRs showed a general trend of upregulation in the tissues of P3-infected chickens, while they were downregulated in the tissues of P110-infected chickens. The result suggested that compared with the P110 strain, the P3 strain induced a more pronounced host innate immune response. Furthermore, we observed that recombinant AvBDs (including 2, 6, and 12) demonstrated obvious anti-viral activity against IBV in vitro. Our findings contribute to the proposal that IBV infection induces an increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of some AvBDs and TLRs, which suggests that AvBDs may play significant roles in the resistance of chickens to IBV replication.

  5. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  6. Chicken parvovirus and its associations with malabsorption syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finkler, F; Lima, D A; Cerva, C; Moraes, L B; Cibulski, S P; Teixeira, T F; Santos, H F; Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M; Franco, A C

    2016-08-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial syndrome which is characterized by enteric disorders and reduced growth rates of broilers. Such condition is responsible for significant economic losses to the poultry industry. A possible association between chicken parvovirus (ChPV) infections and the occurrence of MAS has been proposed. However, such association has not to date been elucidated in view that ChPV has been detected in healthy as well as in MAS-affected chickens. This study aimed to detect and quantify ChPV loads in sera and tissues of MAS-affected, as well as in healthy broilers. Fifty nine, 39-day-old broilers (50 diseased, 9 healthy birds), obtained from the same flocks, were examined. The highest ChPV DNA loads were detected in MAS-affected broilers, particularly in fecal samples and intestinal tissues (~5500 genomic copies/300ng of total DNA). The average viral genome load in serum in MAS-affected birds was 1134copies/mL, whereas no viral DNA was found in sera and thymus tissues from healthy animals. These findings reveal that MAS-affected broilers consistently carry ChPV DNA is serum, whereas healthy animals do not. In addition, viral loads in tissues (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, intestine and liver) of MAS-affected birds were significantly higher in comparison to the same tissues from healthy broilers. Although preliminary, the results obtained here indicate an association between the detection of ChPV DNA in serum, in addition to high ChPV viral loads in tissues, and the occurrence of MAS in broilers. Further experiments should be performed to confirm such results.

  7. [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) developmental rate on artificial diet with animal tissues for forensic purpose].

    PubMed

    Estrada, Dora A; Grella, Maicon D; Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2009-01-01

    Forensic entomology uses biological and ecological aspects of necrophagous insects to help in criminal investigations to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) or to determine the cause of death. Recent papers demonstrated that the presence of toxins in decomposing tissues may alter the insect developmental rate of insects exploiting such tissues as food. Thus, preliminary tests with artificial diets in laboratory are necessary to create a database to investigate and quantify the modifications that can occur with the collected insects from a criminal scene, avoiding any errors on the PMI estimates. The present study aimed to evaluate the developmental rate of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) reared on: a) artificial diets containing animal tissues: bovine liver (D1), raw muscle (D2), stomach (D3), and chicken heart (D4); b) artificial diet without animal tissue (D5); and c) a control group (C), which had only meat. The efficiency of each substrate was assessed by immature weight gain (mg), larval developmental time, larval and pupal survival, emergence interval and adult size. D1 to D4 diets did not restrict C. albiceps development; however, larvae reared on D1 and D2 diets presented a lower adult emergence rate. D3 and control group showed similarities regarding the efficiency parameters (rate and emergence interval). Thus, the use of diet D3, artificial diet with stomach, is the most recommended.

  8. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  9. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  10. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  11. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  12. Germline Gene Editing in Chickens by Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Homologous Recombination in Primordial Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn H.; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J.; Izquierdo, Shelley; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Leighton, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been applied in a large number of animal and plant species for genome editing. In chickens, CRISPR has been used to knockout genes in somatic tissues, but no CRISPR-mediated germline modification has yet been reported. Here we use CRISPR to target the chicken immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in primordial germ cells (PGCs) to produce transgenic progeny. Guide RNAs were co-transfected with a donor vector for homology-directed repair of the double-strand break, and clonal populations were selected. All of the resulting drug-resistant clones contained the correct targeting event. The targeted cells gave rise to healthy progeny containing the CRISPR-targeted locus. The results show that gene-edited chickens can be obtained by modifying PGCs in vitro with the CRISPR/Cas9 system, opening up many potential applications for efficient genetic modification in birds. PMID:27099923

  13. Germline Gene Editing in Chickens by Efficient CRISPR-Mediated Homologous Recombination in Primordial Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Lazar; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn H; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Leighton, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been applied in a large number of animal and plant species for genome editing. In chickens, CRISPR has been used to knockout genes in somatic tissues, but no CRISPR-mediated germline modification has yet been reported. Here we use CRISPR to target the chicken immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in primordial germ cells (PGCs) to produce transgenic progeny. Guide RNAs were co-transfected with a donor vector for homology-directed repair of the double-strand break, and clonal populations were selected. All of the resulting drug-resistant clones contained the correct targeting event. The targeted cells gave rise to healthy progeny containing the CRISPR-targeted locus. The results show that gene-edited chickens can be obtained by modifying PGCs in vitro with the CRISPR/Cas9 system, opening up many potential applications for efficient genetic modification in birds.

  14. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  15. Ascites syndrome in SPF Light Sussex chickens.

    PubMed

    Reece, R L

    1991-11-01

    An ascites syndrome was induced in 17 to 28 per cent of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Light Sussex (LSX) chickens given a low protein (16 per cent crude protein) high calcium (3.5 per cent calcium) layer crumble feed on two separate occasions 6 months apart. Affected chickens had increased right ventricular weight as a proportion of either total heart weight or live-weight at 3 weeks of age, compared with non-affected LSX chickens on the same feed, thus indicating right ventricular hypertrophy. The incidence of ascites was not increased by infection with avian nephritis virus, nor by limited cold-stress during brooding. It was not produced in LSX chickens given other feeds, nor in SPF Rhode Island Red chickens.

  16. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  17. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  18. Characteristics of expression and regulation of sirtuins in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Junxiao; Xu, Naiyi; Ma, Zheng; Li, Yanmin; Li, Cuicui; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yadong; Liu, Xiaojun; Kang, Xiangtao

    2016-11-25

    Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are a family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that are linked to post-translational regulation of many metabolic processes. There are few reports available for chicken sirtuins (designated cSIRT1-cSIRT7), whose expression and regulation in the liver have yet to be explored. In the present study, we characterized the expression and regulation of sirtuin family members in chicken liver. The results showed that the sirtuin family members in chicken share the same conserved functional SIR2 domains. All the sirtuin family members were expressed extensively in all tissues examined, and the expression levels of cSIRT1, cSIRT2, cSIRT4, cSIRT6, and cSIRT7 in the liver increased significantly with sexual maturity. However, all sirtuin family members were downregulated (P < 0.05) in chicken livers and cultured primary hepatocytes treated with 17β-estradiol. We concluded that the expression levels of some chicken sirtuin family members in the liver were upregulated with sexual maturation, but might not be regulated directly by estrogen. Whereas estrogen could be used as an inhibitor of all sirtuins, both in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Short- and Long-acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline After Intramuscular Administration in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A

    2015-12-01

    Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.

  20. Anatomic Tumor Location Influences the Success of Contemporary Limb-Sparing Surgery and Radiation Among Adults With Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Korah, Mariam P.; Deyrup, Andrea T.; Monson, David K.; Oskouei, Shervin V.; Weiss, Sharon W.; Landry, Jerome; Godette, Karen D.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of anatomic location in the upper extremity (UE) vs. lower extremity (LE) on the presentation and outcomes of adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2008, 118 patients underwent limb-sparing surgery (LSS) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent for nonrecurrent extremity STS. RT was delivered preoperatively in 96 and postoperatively in 22 patients. Lesions arose in the UE in 28 and in the LE in 90 patients. Patients with UE lesions had smaller tumors (4.5 vs. 9.0 cm, p < 0.01), were more likely to undergo a prior excision (43 vs. 22%, p = 0.03), to have close or positive margins after resection (71 vs. 49%, p = 0.04), and to undergo postoperative RT (32 vs. 14%, p = 0.04). Results: Five-year actuarial local recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival rates for the entire group were 85 and 74%, with no difference observed between the UE and LE cohorts. Five-year actuarial probability of wound reoperation rates were 4 vs. 29% (p < 0.01) in the UE and LE respectively. Thigh lesions accounted for 84% of the required wound reoperations. The distribution of tumors within the anterior, medial, and posterior thigh compartments was 51%, 26%, and 23%. Subset analysis by compartment showed no difference in the probability of wound reoperation between the anterior and medial/posterior compartments (29 vs. 30%, p = 0.68). Neurolysis was performed during resection in (15%, 5%, and 67%, p < 0.01) of tumors in the anterior, medial, and posterior compartments. Conclusions: Tumors in the UE and LE differ significantly with respect to size and management details. The anatomy of the UE poses technical impediments to an R0 resection. Thigh tumors are associated with higher wound reoperation rates. Tumor resection in the posterior thigh compartment is more likely to result in nerve injury. A better understanding of the inherent differences between tumors in various extremity sites will assist in

  1. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.01), carcass weight (P < 0.05), body weight (P < 0.05), shank diameter (P < 0.05), and shank length (P < 0.05). The c.423T > C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P < 0.05) and shank diameter (P < 0.05). In chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P < 0.05) the TG (triglyceride) content of the cell, whereas overexpression of mutation type ABHD5 did not affect either ATGL expression or TG content of the cell. The expression of ATGL and TG content of the cell were decreased (P < 0.05) after ABHD5 knockdown in preadipocytes. The mRNA level of ABHD5 was regulated by both feeding and fasting, and by consumption of a high fat diet. It was increased greatly by fasting (P < 0.05) and was returned to control levels after re-feeding in the adipose tissues, and down-regulated in abdominal fat (P < 0.05) and the liver (P < 0.01) of chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations

  2. Campylobacters and their bacteriophages from chicken liver: The prospect for phage biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Firlieyanti, Antung S; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2016-11-21

    Consumption of foods containing chicken liver has been associated with Campylobacter enteritis. Campylobacters can contaminate the surface of livers post-mortem but can also arise through systemic infection of colonising bacteria in live birds. The use of bacteriophage to reduce levels of Campylobacter entering the food chain is a promising intervention approach but most phages have been isolated from chicken excreta. This study examined the incidence and contamination levels of Campylobacter and their bacteriophage in UK retail chicken liver. Using enrichment procedures, 87% of 109 chicken livers were surface contaminated with Campylobacter and 83% contaminated within internal tissues. Direct plating on selective agar allowed enumeration of viable bacteria from 43% of liver samples with counts ranging from 1.8->3.8log10CFU/cm(2) for surface samples, and 3.0->3.8log10CFU/g for internal tissue samples. Three C. jejuni isolates recovered from internal liver tissues were assessed for their ability to colonise the intestines and extra-intestinal organs of broiler chickens following oral infection. All isolates efficiently colonised the chicken intestines but were variable in their abilities to colonise extra-intestinal organs. One isolate, CLB104, could be recovered by enrichment from the livers and kidneys of three of seven chickens. Campylobacter isolates remained viable within fresh livers stored at 4°C over 72h and frozen livers stored at -20°C over 7days in atmospheric oxygen, and therefore constitute a risk to human health. Only three Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated, and these exhibited a limited host range against the Camplylobacter chicken liver isolates. All were identified as group III virulent bacteriophage based on their genome size of 140kb. The application of broad host range group II virulent phages (8log10PFU/g) to liver homogenates containing C. jejuni strains of diverse origin at 4°C resulted in modest but significant reductions

  3. Mapping and expression analysis of chicken NDRG1 and NDRG3 genes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Xu, Minlin; Fu, Yan; Yuan, Aiping; Wang, Deqian; Li, Guoqin; Liu, Gentao; Lu, Lizhi

    2008-10-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated genes 1 and 3 (NDRG1 and NDRG3) are members of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis of the family demonstrated that human NDRG1 and 3 belong to a subfamily. The mapping and gene expression patterns of these genes represent one step toward further investigation into their possible roles in the chicken (Gallus gallus). To map these genes in the chicken chromosome, a 6000 rads chicken-hamster radiation hybrid panel (ChickRH6) was used. Primers were designed according to the published human sequences for amplification of those two genes. We compared the corresponding human mRNA sequences with the predicted coding sequences of the chicken NDRG1 and 3 genes and found that the assembled contigs shared a high percentage of similarity with the human genes. PCR of samples from ChickRH6 revealed that the locations of NDRG1 and 3 are linked to the markers MYC (58 cRs away, LOD score 4.52) and SEQ0265 (10 cRs away, LOD score 17.81), respectively. This result adds two new markers to the chicken RH map, and it reinforces that the RH technique is indeed a powerful tool for mapping genes due to its rapidity, precision, convenience, and reproducibility. In addition, we detected the gene expression and distribution of chicken NDRG1 and 3 in seven tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, muscle, brain, and thymus, by RT-PCR, and found that NDRG1 is relatively ubiquitously expressed in all the tested tissues and highly expressed in heart and liver, whereas NDRG3 is high in heart, muscle, and brain.

  4. "Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought": Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class.

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; O'Dwyer, Lisel; Ryan, Terry

    2015-08-21

    A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1) the practical class changed students' attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2) any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  5. Diversity and origin of South African chickens.

    PubMed

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Chimonyo, M; Groeneveld, E; Weigend, S; Dzama, K

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and structure of South African conserved and field chicken populations and to investigate the maternal lineages of these chicken populations. Four South African conserved chicken populations (n = 89), namely, Venda (VD_C), Ovambo, Naked Neck, and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Animal Production Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, and 2 field populations, the Venda and Ovambo (OV_F), from which the Ovambo and the Venda conservation flocks were assumed to have been sampled, were genotyped for 460 bp of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence. Haplotypes of these chickens were aligned to 7 Japanese and 9 Chinese and Eurasian chicken mtDNA D-loop sequences taken from GenBank and reflecting populations from presumed centers of domestication. Sequence analysis revealed 48 polymorphic sites that defined 13 haplotypes in the South African chicken populations. All 6 South African conserved and field chicken populations observed were found to be polymorphic, with the number of haplotypes ranging from 3 for VD_C to 8 for OV_F. The lowest haplotype diversity, 0.54 ± 0.08, was observed in VD_C chickens, whereas the highest value, 0.88 ± 0.05, was observed in OV_F chickens. Genetic diversity between the 4 South African conserved and 2 field chicken populations constituted 12.34% of the total genetic variation, whereas within-population diversity constituted 87.66% of the total variation. The median network analysis of the mtDNA D-loop haplotypes observed in the South African conserved and field populations and the reference set resulted in 5 main clades. All 6 South African chickens were equally represented in the major clade, E, which is presumed to be of Indian subcontinent maternal origin and may have its roots in Southeast Asia. The results showed multiple maternal lineages of South African chickens. Conservation flocks and field chicken populations shared the major haplotypes A, D and E

  6. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Vadekær, Dorte F; Jungersen, Gregers; Juul-Madsen, Helle R

    2015-03-15

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. galli infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases increased mortality. More importantly, the parasitised chickens are more susceptible to secondary infections and their ability to develop vaccine-induced protective immunity against other diseases may be compromised. Detailed information about the immune response to the natural infection may be exploited to enable future vaccine development. In the present study, expression of immune genes in the chicken spleen during an experimental infection with A. galli was investigated using the Fluidigm(®) BioMark™ microfluidic qPCR platform which combines automatic high-throughput with attractive low sample and reagent consumption. Spleenic transcription of immunological genes was compared between infected chickens and non-infected controls at week 2, 6, and 9 p.i. corresponding to different stages of parasite development/maturation. At week 2 p.i. increased expression of IL-13 was observed in infected chickens. Increased expression of MBL, CRP, IFN-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12β and IL-18 followed at week 6 p.i. and at both week 6 and 9 p.i. expression of DEFβ1 was highly increased in infected chickens. In summary, apart from also earlier reported increased expression of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-13 we observed only few differentially expressed genes at week 2 p.i. which corresponds to the larvae histotrophic phase. In contrast, we observed increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in infected chickens, by week 6 p.i. where the larvae re-enter the intestinal lumen. Increased expression of DEFβ1 was observed in infected chickens at week 6 p.i. but also at week 9 p.i. which corresponds to a matured stage where adult worms are present in the

  7. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M.; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Spray, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions. PMID:25150689

  8. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C

    2014-11-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions.

  9. Extrapituitary growth hormone in the chicken reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects.

  10. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  11. Effect of Serum from Chickens Treated with Clenbuterol on Myosin Accumulation, Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population, and Cyclic AM Synthesis in Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600

  12. Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in raw retail chickens and imported chicken portions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter isolates from raw retail chickens (n = 434) sampled between 1998 and 2000 were tested for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Among 208 campylobacters tested, more than 90% of isolates were susceptible to 4 out of 9 antibiotics (nalidixic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin). Most campylobacters were resistant to 3 antibiotics and multiple resistance was found in 4%. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 11%. Campylobacter contamination (28%) in imported chickens (n = 150) was almost half that found in local whole chickens (50%), but the resistance of imported isolates (n = 42) was similar to that of local campylobacters. Resistance in isolates from imported chicken breasts was generally more common, but to only 4 antibiotics. Resistance patterns of chicken isolates were compared to human clinical isolates (n = 494), and a greater similarity was found between the clinical and local isolates than with imported campylobacters. Lower chloramphenicol resistance was found in clinical Campylobacter isolates than in those from chicken sources. PMID:14959786

  13. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  14. Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas (Extremity Sarcoma Closed to Entry as of 5/30/07)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-01

    Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  15. Broiler chickens exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, D; Straková, E; Novák, P; Suchý, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether melamine (MEL) is biotransformed into cyanuric acid (CYA) in male broiler chickens. The effects of the dietary addition of MEL and CYA alone and in combination on the growth performance and mortality of the chickens were also investigated. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups and were fed diets with an addition of 50 or 100 mg/kg MEL or 50 or 100 mg/kg CYA of diet, with the contaminants added separately or in combination. The control group was fed a diet without MEL or CYA. At the end of the experiment (day 40), samples of liver, kidney and breast and thigh muscles were collected from 12 birds per treatment group and were analysed for the presence of MEL and CYA. This study showed that MEL is biotransformed into CYA in broilers. Higher concentrations of MEL or CYA in the diet increased the presence of their residues in tissues, and the CYA residue concentration was several times higher in the respective tissues than the MEL residue concentration. The dietary addition of MEL and CYA did not affect the mortality rate, feed conversion ratio or body weight of the chickens.

  16. mRNA Quantification of NIPBL Isoforms A and B in Adult and Fetal Human Tissues, and a Potentially Pathological Variant Affecting Only Isoform A in Two Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Puisac, Beatriz; Teresa-Rodrigo, María-Esperanza; Hernández-Marcos, María; Baquero-Montoya, Carolina; Gil-Rodríguez, María-Concepción; Visnes, Torkild; Bot, Christopher; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Kaiser, Frank J.; Ramos, Feliciano J.; Ström, Lena; Pié, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphia, growth retardation, limb malformations, and intellectual disability. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS carry a recognizable pathological variant in the NIPBL gene, of which two isoforms, A and B, have been identified, and which only differ in the C-terminal segment. In this work, we describe the distribution pattern of the isoforms A and B mRNAs in tissues of adult and fetal origin, by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Our results show a higher gene expression of the isoform A, even though both seem to have the same tissue distribution. Interestingly, the expression in fetal tissues is higher than that of adults, especially in brain and skeletal muscle. Curiously, the study of fibroblasts of two siblings with a mild CdLS phenotype and a pathological variant specific of the isoform A of NIPBL (c.8387A > G; P.Tyr2796Cys), showed a similar reduction in both isoforms, and a normal sensitivity to DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that the position of the pathological variant at the 3´ end of the NIPBL gene affecting only isoform A, is likely to be the cause of the atypical mild phenotype of the two brothers. PMID:28241484

  17. mRNA Quantification of NIPBL Isoforms A and B in Adult and Fetal Human Tissues, and a Potentially Pathological Variant Affecting Only Isoform A in Two Patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puisac, Beatriz; Teresa-Rodrigo, María-Esperanza; Hernández-Marcos, María; Baquero-Montoya, Carolina; Gil-Rodríguez, María-Concepción; Visnes, Torkild; Bot, Christopher; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Kaiser, Frank J; Ramos, Feliciano J; Ström, Lena; Pié, Juan

    2017-02-23

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a congenital developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphia, growth retardation, limb malformations, and intellectual disability. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS carry a recognizable pathological variant in the NIPBL gene, of which two isoforms, A and B, have been identified, and which only differ in the C-terminal segment. In this work, we describe the distribution pattern of the isoforms A and B mRNAs in tissues of adult and fetal origin, by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Our results show a higher gene expression of the isoform A, even though both seem to have the same tissue distribution. Interestingly, the expression in fetal tissues is higher than that of adults, especially in brain and skeletal muscle. Curiously, the study of fibroblasts of two siblings with a mild CdLS phenotype and a pathological variant specific of the isoform A of NIPBL (c.8387A > G; P.Tyr2796Cys), showed a similar reduction in both isoforms, and a normal sensitivity to DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that the position of the pathological variant at the 3´ end of the NIPBL gene affecting only isoform A, is likely to be the cause of the atypical mild phenotype of the two brothers.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chicken Model: Chagas-Like Heart Disease in the Absence of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Gomes, Clever; Nitz, Nadjar; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Cordeiro, Ciro; Bernal, Francisco M.; Rosa, Ana C.; Hejnar, Jiri; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Hecht, Mariana M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The administration of anti-trypanosome nitroderivatives curtails Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Chagas disease patients, but does not prevent destructive lesions in the heart. This observation suggests that an effective treatment for the disease requires understanding its pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the origin of clinical manifestations of the heart disease we used a chicken model system in which infection can be initiated in the egg, but parasite persistence is precluded. T. cruzi inoculation into the air chamber of embryonated chicken eggs generated chicks that retained only the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA minicircle in their genome after eight days of gestation. Crossbreeding showed that minicircles were transferred vertically via the germ line to chicken progeny. Minicircle integration in coding regions was shown by targeted-primer thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and detected by direct genomic analysis. The kDNA-mutated chickens died with arrhythmias, shortness of breath, cyanosis and heart failure. These chickens with cardiomyopathy had rupture of the dystrophin and other genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Tissue pathology revealed inflammatory dilated cardiomegaly whereby immune system mononuclear cells lyse parasite-free target heart fibers. The heart cell destruction implicated a thymus-dependent, autoimmune; self-tissue rejection carried out by CD45+, CD8γδ+, and CD8α lymphocytes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that genetic alterations resulting from kDNA integration in the host genome lead to autoimmune-mediated destruction of heart tissue in the absence of T. cruzi parasites. PMID:21468314

  19. Metabolism, Distribution, and Elimination of Mequindox in Pigs, Chickens, and Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingli; Yin, Fujun; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Juan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-11-11

    Mequindox (MEQ), a quinoxaline-N,N-dioxide antibacterial agent used to control bacterial enteritis in various food-producing animals, is a potential violative residue in food animal-derived products. The disposition and elimination of MEQ in rats, pigs, and chickens was comprehensively investigated to identify the marker residue and target tissue of MEQ in food animals for residue monitoring. Following a single oral administration, 62-71% of MEQ was rapidly excreted via urine and feces in all species within 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was 84 and 83.5% of the administered dose in rats and pigs, respectively. More than 92% of the administered dose was excreted in all species within 15 days. Radioactivity was found in nearly all tissues at the first 6 h after dosing, with the majority of radioactivity cleared within 4-6 days. The highest radioactivity and longest persisting time were found to be in the liver and kidney. Totals of 11, 12, and 7 metabolites were identified in rats, chickens, and pigs, respectively. No parent drug could be detected in any of the tissues of pigs and chickens. 3-Methyl-2-acetyl quinoxaline (M1), 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4), and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (M6) were the common and major metabolites of MEQ in all three species. Additionally, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline (M5), 3-hydroxymethyl-2-ethanol quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (M7), and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8) were the major metabolites of MEQ in rats, pigs, and chickens, respectively. M1 was designated to be the marker residue of MEQ in pigs and chickens. These results provide scientific data for the determination of marker residues and withdrawal time of MEQ in food animals and improve the understanding of the toxicity and disposition of MEQ in animals.

  20. GADD45β, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Zhuanqiang; Li, Xinjian; Lin, Wencheng; Dai, Zhenkai; Yan, Yiming; Lu, Piaopiao; Chen, Weiguo; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retroviruses that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that promote resistance to ALV-J infection in chickens, we bred ALV-J resistant and susceptible chickens (F3 generation). RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of liver tissue from the ALV-J resistant and susceptible chickens identified 216 differentially expressed genes; 88 of those genes were up-regulated in the ALV-J resistant chickens (compared to the susceptible ones). We screened for significantly up-regulated genes (P < 0.01) of interest in the ALV-J resistant chickens, based on their involvement in biological signaling pathways. Functional analyses showed that overexpression of GADD45β inhibited ALV-J replication. GADD45β could enhance defense against ALV-J infection and may be used as a molecular marker to identify ALV-J infections. PMID:27655697

  1. GADD45β, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Zhuanqiang; Li, Xinjian; Lin, Wencheng; Dai, Zhenkai; Yan, Yiming; Lu, Piaopiao; Chen, Weiguo; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-10-18

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retroviruses that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that promote resistance to ALV-J infection in chickens, we bred ALV-J resistant and susceptible chickens (F3 generation). RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of liver tissue from the ALV-J resistant and susceptible chickens identified 216 differentially expressed genes; 88 of those genes were up-regulated in the ALV-J resistant chickens (compared to the susceptible ones). We screened for significantly up-regulated genes (P < 0.01) of interest in the ALV-J resistant chickens, based on their involvement in biological signaling pathways. Functional analyses showed that overexpression of GADD45β inhibited ALV-J replication. GADD45β could enhance defense against ALV-J infection and may be used as a molecular marker to identify ALV-J infections.

  2. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    P