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Sample records for adult child caregivers

  1. Changes in Adult Child Caregiver Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Caregiving research has typically relied on cross-sectional data that focus on the primary caregiver. This approach neglects the dynamic and systemic character of caregiver networks. Our analyses addressed changes in adult child care networks over a 2-year period. Design and Methods: The study relied on pooled data from Waves 1 through 5…

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

  3. 'Journeys' in the life-writing of adult-child dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2013-09-01

    This article explores how Alzheimer's disease caregivers struggle under the impact of a parent's memory loss on their own personality. In particular, it analyses how caregivers perceive and, thus, present their experiences of the ever intensifying caregiving activity in terms of a 'journey'. In doing so, this work takes into account both the patient's continuing bodily as well as cognitive decline and its intricately linked influence on the caregiver's physical and emotional stability. Equally, this study investigates how caregivers portray memory loss, and how their portrayal fits into our conceptualisation of illness narratives and the culture of autobiographical writing. PMID:23728880

  4. 'Journeys' in the life-writing of adult-child dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2013-09-01

    This article explores how Alzheimer's disease caregivers struggle under the impact of a parent's memory loss on their own personality. In particular, it analyses how caregivers perceive and, thus, present their experiences of the ever intensifying caregiving activity in terms of a 'journey'. In doing so, this work takes into account both the patient's continuing bodily as well as cognitive decline and its intricately linked influence on the caregiver's physical and emotional stability. Equally, this study investigates how caregivers portray memory loss, and how their portrayal fits into our conceptualisation of illness narratives and the culture of autobiographical writing.

  5. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  6. Grief and Personal Growth Experience of Spouses and Adult-Child Caregivers of Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…

  7. Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child.

    PubMed

    Koetting, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    In October 2004, a case of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child was identified in a children's hospital in the Midwest. This case report begins with a discussion and explanation of the various nomenclatures that have been used by the healthcare community such as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, factitious disorder by proxy, medical child abuse, and caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. A discussion of case facts is then presented, which includes key concepts that nurses should know regarding a diagnosis of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child and the interventions that should be taken. PMID:25900681

  8. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare–Involved Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856

  9. Caregiver Commitment to Foster Children: The Role of Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Dozier, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between child behavior problems and caregiver commitment to their child in a group of young foster children. Method: The sample consisted of 102 caregiver-child dyads from the greater Baltimore area. Child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL; Achenbach, T. M. (1991).…

  10. "I Do the Best I Can": Caregivers' Perceptions of Informal Caregiving for Older Adults in Belize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroman, Kerryellen; Morency, Jamme

    2011-01-01

    In this first study of informal caregiving for older adults in Belize, 29 caregivers described their experiences of caregiving, how they perceived and managed the role, and what critical resources they needed. The three main themes identified in the caregiver interviews were "the experiences of caregivers, the rewards of caregiving, and navigating…

  11. Associations of Caregiver Stress with Working Conditions, Caregiving Practices, and Child Behaviour in Home-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…

  12. Cortisol Levels of Caregivers in Child Care Centers as Related to the Quality of their Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…

  13. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  14. Child-caregiver interaction in two remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to

  15. Perceptions of familial caregivers of elder adults.

    PubMed

    Sayles-Cross, S

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of 139 familial caregivers of elder adults to answer the question "Is there a significant relationship between appraisal, social distance and the cost of caring for an elder family member?" The cost of caring was analyzed in five dimensions (personal-social restrictions, physical-emotional health, value, care recipient as provocateur and economic cost). Caregivers reported concern for their well-being, feelings of disgust/anger, high social distance and coping by accepting and holding back. Not only were significant relationships found, but caregivers emerged as an at-risk population.

  16. Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

  17. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  18. Measuring the Interactive Skills of Caregivers in Child Care Centers: Development and Validation of the Caregiver Interaction Profile Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Vermeer, Harriet J.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: High-quality caregiver-child interactions constitute the core of high-quality child care for young children. This article describes the background and development of the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales to rate 6 key skills of caregivers for interacting with 0-to 4-year-old children in child care centers: sensitive…

  19. Effects of Child-Caregiver Ratio on the Interactions between Caregivers and Children in Child-Care Centers: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marrianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of child-caregiver ratio on the quality of caregiver-child interaction in child-care centers, 217 caregivers (ages 18-56 years) from 64 child care centers were observed during two structured play episodes: one with a group of three children and one with a group of 5 children. As predicted, a child-caregiver ratio of 3:1…

  20. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.

  1. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  2. Assistive Devices for Children with Functional Impairments: Impact on Child and Caregiver Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Stacey; Skelton, Heather; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Functional impairments can limit a child's ability to participate in the experiences of childhood. This "deprivation" can, in turn, have a negative effect on such children's development, academic performance, and quality of life, as well as on the lives of their caregivers and families. Many adults use assistive devices to overcome functional…

  3. Family Caregiving. A Manual for Caregivers of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Chandra, Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides caregivers with practical knowledge and suggestions that could be of help to them in this important role. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the volume and tells how to use it. Chapter 2 identifies who caregivers are, what they do, and what changes have taken place in their lives since they became caregivers. Chapter 3 begins with…

  4. Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease Caregiver Depression and Burden: What Noncaregiving Adults Can Learn from Active Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…

  5. Relationships between Caregiver-Child Attachment Attitudes and Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, John E.

    Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, which hypothesized that the caregiver-child relationship may play an important role in the social and academic adjustment of the child, this pilot study assessed the attitudes of student teachers regarding attachment issues. The subjects for this study were 38 graduate students in a teacher preparation program.…

  6. Caring for the Family Caregiver: Lessons Learned in Child Health.

    PubMed

    Keilty, Krista; Cohen, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Policy to support informal caregivers is a critical health policy issue in Canada. Lessons may be learned from the perspectives and experience in the child health field with applicability for all cared-for persons and their informal caregivers. Familycentred care addresses the centrality of the family caregiver in the design and delivery of health services. A life course approach focuses on key periods of transition and downstream effects facing caregivers over their lifetime. The medical home model where care delivery is more coordinated offers potential direct cost savings for both family caregivers and the healthcare system. Models of pediatric home care that focus on promoting caregiver capacity and integration of unregulated providers show the promise of being acceptable and sustainable solutions to increasing demands for caregiver respite. Finally, a number of assumptions that are somewhat unique to the pediatric caregiver experience are explored and/or challenged. These lessons and assumptions may provide insight for policymakers in the development of systems and supports for all cared-for persons and their caregivers in Canada. PMID:26626116

  7. Caring for the Family Caregiver: Lessons Learned in Child Health.

    PubMed

    Keilty, Krista; Cohen, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Policy to support informal caregivers is a critical health policy issue in Canada. Lessons may be learned from the perspectives and experience in the child health field with applicability for all cared-for persons and their informal caregivers. Familycentred care addresses the centrality of the family caregiver in the design and delivery of health services. A life course approach focuses on key periods of transition and downstream effects facing caregivers over their lifetime. The medical home model where care delivery is more coordinated offers potential direct cost savings for both family caregivers and the healthcare system. Models of pediatric home care that focus on promoting caregiver capacity and integration of unregulated providers show the promise of being acceptable and sustainable solutions to increasing demands for caregiver respite. Finally, a number of assumptions that are somewhat unique to the pediatric caregiver experience are explored and/or challenged. These lessons and assumptions may provide insight for policymakers in the development of systems and supports for all cared-for persons and their caregivers in Canada.

  8. Who Provides Care? A Prospective Study of Caregiving Among Adult Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Suitor, J. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We use data from a longitudinal, within-family study to identify factors that predict which adult siblings assumed caregiving responsibilities to older mothers over a 7-year period. Design and Methods: Data for the study were collected from 139 older mothers at 2 points 7 years apart regarding their expectations and experiences of care from 537 adult children. Results: Children whom mothers identified at T1 as their expected future caregivers were much more likely to provide care when a serious illness occurred. Caregiving offspring were also more likely at T1 to have shared their mothers’ values, lived in proximity, and to be daughters. Implications: The findings indicate the degree to which a mother’s expectations for care predict actual caregiving by that child. Practitioners working with older adults should explore parents’ expectations for future care that involves their adult children. PMID:23840019

  9. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  10. Caregivers' Endorsement of Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…

  11. Adult individual differences as moderators of child effects.

    PubMed

    Bates, J E; Pettit, G S

    1981-09-01

    Experimentally varying child behavior stimuli and then assessing the extent to which adult individual differences (especially in cognitions) moderate the effect of the child on the adult is a variation on the usual methods in child effects research. This method allows description of the role of child effects in more complex adult-child systems. Existing literature incorporating this approach is reviewed, with emphasis on the moderating effects of sex, personality, and perceptions. A previously unreported study is described as an example of a multivariate approach to exploring the relationships between adult individual differences and the effects of infant stimuli. The study suggests that experienced caregivers who do not have much liking for infants see themselves as likely to provide appropriate, but minimally social care for an infant. Conversely, the study suggests that inexperienced adults who like infants very much see themselves as providing more extensive and social caregiving, although it would not always be appropriate to the infant's state. PMID:7320350

  12. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  13. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category "mother" were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system.

  14. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060

  15. Caregiving and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Affected by Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…

  16. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  17. A Comprehensive Guide for Caregivers in Day-Care Settings: Training Child Care Workers and Parents To Reduce the At-Risk Factor in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nettie

    Noting that millions of young American children are at-risk because they have been denied bonding and communication with a caring adult, this book serves as a call for national attention and provides a guide for developing the parenting skills needed by today's parents and child caregivers. The book contends that caregivers' qualifications must…

  18. Violence Exposure and Adjustment in Inner-City Youth: Child and Caregiver Emotion Regulation Skill, Caregiver?Child Relationship Quality, and Neighborhood Cohesion as Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Diehl, Robyn; Parrish, Katie Adams; Walker, Jean M.; Atiyeh, Cynthia; Neace, Brooke; Duncan, Larissa; Taylor, Kelli; Mejia, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This short-term, longitudinal interview study used an ecological framework to explore protective factors within the child, the caregiver, the caregiver?child relationship, and the community that might moderate relations between community violence exposure and subsequent internalizing and externalizing adjustment problems and the different patterns…

  19. Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child: a manifestation of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Macmillan, Harriet L

    2013-09-01

    Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child is a form of child maltreatment caused by a caregiver who falsifies and/or induces a child's illness, leading to unnecessary and potentially harmful medical investigations and/or treatment. This condition can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Although caregiver-fabricated illness in a child has been widely known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, there is ongoing discussion about alternative names, including pediatric condition falsification, factitious disorder (illness) by proxy, child abuse in the medical setting, and medical child abuse. Because it is a relatively uncommon form of maltreatment, pediatricians need to have a high index of suspicion when faced with a persistent or recurrent illness that cannot be explained and that results in multiple medical procedures or when there are discrepancies between the history, physical examination, and health of a child. This report updates the previous clinical report "Beyond Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: Identification and Treatment of Child Abuse in the Medical Setting" The authors discuss the need to agree on appropriate terminology, provide an update on published reports of new manifestations of fabricated medical conditions, and discuss approaches to assessment, diagnosis, and management, including how best to protect the child from further harm. PMID:23979088

  20. Assessing Psychosocial Impairment in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Child/Caregiver Concordance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montano, Zorash; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Nager, Alan L.; Claudius, Ilene; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of agreement between child- and caregiver-reports of the child's psychosocial problems presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) using a validated screening tool. This was an anonymous, prospective, cross-sectional, multi-informant (child and caregiver) study assessing cognitive,…

  1. Interpersonal Effects of Suffering in Older Adult Caregiving Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924

  2. Community relations and child-led microfinance: a case study of caregiving children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.

  3. Death of an Adult Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  4. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  5. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  6. Upping the ante: relative caregivers' perceptions of changes in child welfare policies.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P; Massat, C R; Gleeson, J P

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five caregivers of related children who were in the custody of the child welfare system were interviewed individually or in focus groups as the state child welfare system implemented new federal and state policies encouraging these caregivers to adopt or assume guardianship of the children in their care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. Issues of concern included emergency entrance into caregiving; the simultaneous satisfaction and burden of caregiving; obstacles to caregiving, adoption, or guardianship; complex changes in family dynamics following placement of children; sources of support; and caution regarding adoption or guardianship. The caregivers also offered recommendations for the child welfare system. Policy, practice, and research implications are discussed.

  7. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  8. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.

  9. Development and testing of a measure of perceived caregiver rewards in adults.

    PubMed

    Picot, S J; Youngblut, J; Zeller, R

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of the rewards of caregiving is pertinent to a holistic view of the caregiving experience and design of health promotion interventions for caregivers. Few measures of caregiver positive appraisals exist. This paper describes the development and pilot testing of the Picot Caregiver Rewards Scale (PCRS) for adult caregivers. Derived from the choice and social exchange theory, caregiver interviews, and literature, 25 items compose the scale. Psychometric testings of the PCRS were conducted in a nonrandom sample of 83 Black female caregivers and a random sample of 256 Black and White female and male caregivers. Alphas of .83 and .88 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency of the revised 16-item PCRS. Construct validity was demonstrated by support of hypothesized relationships with caregiving demands, palliative coping, depression, and caregiver burden, as well as confirmatory factor analysis. Further psychometric study of the PCRS is recommended.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Caregivers of Children Reported for Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported to child protective services. Method: Data were derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and…

  11. Enhancing Building, Conversation, and Learning through Caregiver-Child Interactions in a Children's Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A.; Wilkerson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any,…

  12. Characteristics of Out-of-Home Caregiving Environments Provided under Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.; Green, Rebecca; Webb, Mary Bruce; Wall, Ariana; Gibbons, Claire; Craig, Carlton

    2008-01-01

    A national probability sample of children who have been in child welfare supervised placements for about one year identifies the characteristics (e.g., age, training, education, health, and home) of the foster parents, kinship foster parents, and group home caregivers. Caregiving respondents provided information about their backgrounds.…

  13. Early Head Start: Factors Associated with Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development, Parenting Behavior, and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…

  14. An Analysis of Child Caregivers' Language during Book Sharing with Toddler-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyner, Paula M.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing enrollment in childcare centers has led to questions about the extent to which those environments foster child development in areas such as language. This study examined the language of childcare center caregivers during book sharing with children to describe caregivers' use of linguistic structures (declarative, imperative, and …

  15. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  16. Facilitating Mental Health Service Use for Caregivers: Referral Strategies among Child Welfare Caseworkers.

    PubMed

    Bunger, Alicia C; Chuang, Emmeline; McBeath, Bowen

    2012-04-01

    Unmet needs for mental health care are common among caregivers involved in the child welfare system. Although child welfare caseworkers are well positioned to identify service needs and refer caregivers to treatment, little is known about the types of referral strategies used in practice, or their effectiveness for promoting mental health service use. The current study examined child welfare caseworkers' use of different referral strategies and the extent to which these strategies are associated with caregivers' receipt of mental health services within a national sample of child welfare cases. Analyses of the second cohort of families from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being suggest that child welfare workers more often use informational strategies for referring caregivers, including suggesting treatment or providing information about treatment options. However, social referral strategies such as providing caregivers with direct assistance in completing applications and making and attending appointments were associated with a greater likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health services. Findings support evidence from other service contexts that service use is facilitated by caseworkers' direct support for arranging services. Implications for research and for child welfare managers and administrators are discussed.

  17. Older and Younger Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Factors Associated with Future Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Lin, Li-Chan; Kroger, Teppo; Chang, Ai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    A structured interview survey was conducted in a major city in Taiwan to explore and compare older and younger family primary caregivers' well being and their future caregiving plans for these adults with intellectual disability. The sample size was 315 caregivers who were 55 years or older and who cared for adults with intellectual disability and…

  18. Assistive devices for children with functional impairments: impact on child and caregiver function.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Stacey; Skelton, Heather; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Functional impairments can limit a child's ability to participate in the experiences of childhood. This'deprivation'can, in turn, have a negative effect on such children's development, academic performance, and quality of life, as well as on the lives of their caregivers and families. Many adults use assistive devices to overcome functional impairments and enable them to participate in daily activities; however, such devices may be underutilized by children. Each of the 54 studies reviewed in this report identified one or more functional impairments towards which an assistive device was targeted: accessing a computer (n=3 [studies]), activity assistance (n=2), behaviour changes (n=3), communication (n=30), independent feeding (n=1), living skills (n=1), mobility (n=9), modifying the environment (n=1), nutrition (n=4), and postural stability (n=2). The aim of this review was to determine the impact of assistive devices on the components of functioning defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The impact of these devices was found to be overwhelmingly positive. Study outcomes reported were mainly child-focused and could be classified as influencing activity, participation, and personal contextual factors, with relatively little attention paid to caregiver-focused outcomes. Few studies provided either qualitative evidence or experimentally-based quantitative research evidence using controls.

  19. Early Intervention Provider Use of Child Caregiver-Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…

  20. Acculturation and depressive symptoms in latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Oanh L.; Geller, Sue; He, Emily; González, Hector M.; Hinton, Ladson

    2014-01-01

    Background Caregiving for older adults is a growing public health concern because of the negative psychological effects it has on caregivers. Despite the growing Latino caregiver population, little is known regarding how the effects of acculturation on caregiver depressive symptoms might vary by caregiver age. This study aimed to examine the relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms in Latino caregivers, and to test whether this relationship was moderated by age. Methods Ninety-four Latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults with and without dementia were identified through an ongoing epidemiological cohort study. Caregivers were interviewed in their homes, in either Spanish or English. A Poisson regression was used to analyze the caregiver characteristics associated with caregiver depressive symptoms. Results Language acculturation was positively associated with caregiver depressive symptoms, as was age, female gender, and being married or living with someone. Those with excellent or good health and who had spent more than one year caregiving had lower depressive symptoms. Finally, the positive relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms was increased in older caregivers. Conclusions Language acculturation appears to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms in Latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults. The relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms is complex such that caregiver age and health status further nuance this relationship. Future research should explore the independent and interactive effects of these variables on depressive symptoms. PMID:24717691

  1. Child-feeding Practices among Chinese-American and Non-Hispanic White Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shirley H.; Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Grier, Sonya A.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A.; Stettler, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared child-feeding and related practices with child weight status between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers who attended three community health centers. Study participants were caregivers of 50 Chinese-American and 108 non-Hispanic white children ages 2 to 12 years who completed a short version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in English or Chinese. The feeding behaviors assessed were concern, pressure, restriction, and monitoring. Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from child weight and height measured in clinic by clinicians trained in anthropometrics. The sample was stratified into 2 to 5 and 6 to 12 years age groups to account for developmental differences. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was moderate to high and similar by ethnicity for all four behaviors for Chinese Americans and non-Hispanic whites. In models adjusted for confounding variables, Chinese-American caregivers had higher mean scores than non-Hispanic white caregivers for concern and restriction in all age groups and monitoring in 2 to 5 year-olds. No feeding practices were associated with child BMI in Chinese Americans; concern and restriction were associated with child BMI in non-Hispanic whites in 2 to 5 year-olds. These results suggest that differences in child-feeding practices exist between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers. PMID:22343192

  2. Child Welfare Caseworker Education and Caregiver Behavioral Service Use and Satisfaction with the Caseworker

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Marlys; Jolles, Mónica Pérez; Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Social work has long been identified with child welfare, and research has generally found that child welfare caseworkers with a social work degree are better prepared than aseworkers with other degrees. Little knowledge exists though about the relationship between caseworker professional background and caregiver behavioral health service use or their satisfaction with the caseworker. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, we found no significant relationships between having a social work degree and caregiver use of services or satisfaction with the caseworker. More research is needed to clarify how caseworker characteristics, including professional preparation, influence child welfare outcomes. PMID:27746704

  3. Evaluating the Impact of the Life of a Caregiver Simulation on Student Attitudes, Understanding, and Knowledge of Frail Older Adults and Their Family Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Mast, Merle E; Sessoms, John C; Fulcher, Keston H

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults age at home, cared for by family caregivers. Nurse educators need effective educational strategies to teach students family caregiving issues. This article examines how the Life of a Caregiver (LOC) simulation influences students' understanding and knowledge of aging, family caregiving issues, and related community services. A descriptive mixed-methods study was used with a student sample (n = 46). Participants reported significantly higher knowledge of caregiving terminology and significantly greater understanding of caregiving challenges and community services. The LOC simulation was found to be an effective strategy to teach students to care for older adults and their caregivers. PMID:27164776

  4. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sub-sample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this paper reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of secure base script knowledge, as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved. Secure base script knowledge was (a) modestly to moderately correlated with more well established assessments of adult attachment, (b) associated with mother-child attachment in the first three years of life and with observations of maternal and paternal sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, and (c) partially accounted for associations previously documented in the SECCYD cohort between early caregiving experiences and Adult Attachment Interview states of mind (Booth-LaForce & Roisman, 2014) as well as self-reported attachment styles (Fraley, Roisman, Booth-LaForce, Owen, & Holland, 2013). PMID:25264703

  5. Gender differences in caregiver-child relationship mediation of the association between violence exposure severity and adolescent behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R

    2015-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.

  6. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  7. Children's Attachment Relationships with Day Care Caregivers: Associations with Positive Caregiving and the Child's Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, children's attachment relationships with their professional caregivers in center day care were observed for 48 children. We explored whether more positive caregiving was associated with a more secure attachment relationship and whether this association was stronger for more temperamentally irritable children compared to less…

  8. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.

  9. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  10. Evaluation of the Brief Problem Checklist: Child and Caregiver Interviews to Measure Clinical Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Reise, Steven; Weisz, John R.; Grubbs, Kathleen; Becker, Kimberly D.; Krull, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To support ongoing monitoring of child response during treatment, we sought to develop a brief, easily administered, clinically relevant, and psychometrically sound measure. Method: We first developed child and caregiver forms of a 12-item Brief Problem Checklist (BPC) interview by applying item response theory and factor analysis to…

  11. Effects of Social Support and Coping of Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Musil, Carol M.; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Wykle, May L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of demographic characteristics, contextual factors, social support, and coping on health outcomes of family caregivers of older adults with dementia in Taiwan. This study also examined caregiving stress and whether support moderated the effects of caregiver stress on health. Lazarus and…

  12. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    PubMed

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  13. Training in Mindful Caregiving Transfers to Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; Wahler, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier study, we provided mindfulness training to three caregivers of individuals with profound multiple disabilities. We measured levels of happiness displayed by the individuals during the 8 weeks of mindfulness training of the caregivers, as well as during the 16 weeks following the termination of training. We found that happiness…

  14. Identifying the Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Caregivers Involved with Child Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers’ identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. PMID:23453481

  15. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed.

  16. Ethical and practical challenges raised by an adult day program's caregiver satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Anica; Feld, Sheila; Spencer, Beth

    2008-01-01

    A consumer satisfaction survey was completed by 21 caregivers to persons with dementia, who participated in Silver Club, a person-centered Adult Day Service program. Two themes emerged: caregivers expressed high program satisfaction based on joint benefits to members and caregivers, and they desired more information about the nature of the members' daily participation. These findings raised two important issues for program staff. First, Adult Day Service programs are often referred to and marketed as providing caregiver respite. This approach does not acknowledge caregivers' interest in programs that meet the needs of their loved ones, and may lead to reluctance to use programs that only stress the value of respite. Second, caregivers' desires for detailed feedback about members' program participation raise ethical and practical challenges within person-centered models of care. Collecting feedback from both participants and their caregivers can help monitor and improve services provided by person-centered Adult Day Service programs.

  17. Effects of Clown Doctors on Child and Caregiver Anxiety at the Entrance to the Surgery Care Unit and Separation from Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Patrícia; Pacheco, Catarina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care).…

  18. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed.

  19. Understanding child directed caregiver aggression: An examination of characteristics and predictors associated with perpetration.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J

    2016-06-01

    Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed. PMID:27131453

  20. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress Over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed concurrently and longitudinally to caregiver stress in a large sample of preschoolers with ASD using parallel process multilevel growth models. Results indicated that initial rates of and change in RRBs predicted fluctuations in caregiver stress over time. When caregivers reported increased child RRBs, this was mirrored by increases in caregiver stress. Our data support the importance of targeted treatments for RRBs as change in this domain may lead to improvements in caregiver wellbeing.

  1. [Discussion between informal and formal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M T; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H

    2014-04-01

    Current Dutch policy on long-term care is aimed at a stronger connection between formal home care and informal care. We examined if formal and informal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults discuss the care and whether this is related to characteristics of the older adult, the care network and the individual caregivers. Data are derived from 63 community-dwelling older adults, including their health, their perceived control of the care and their care network. In addition, 79 informal and 90 formal caregivers are interviewed on their motives and vision on caregiving. The 112 dyads between those formal and informal caregivers are the units of analysis in the current study. Bivariate analyses reveal that informal caregivers are more likely to discuss the care with formal caregivers when they are residing with the older adult, when they provide a lot of care and/or when they are strongly motivated to keep the older adult at home. This is particularly the case when the care demands are high. Characteristics of the formal caregivers were not important. In conclusion, discussion of care between non-resident informal caregivers and formal caregivers is not self-evident and requires more effort to be established.

  2. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  3. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  4. The experiences and perspectives of Japanese substitute caregivers and maltreated children: a cultural-developmental approach to child welfare practice.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of maltreated children has been for them to create their Ibasho--that is, a place where they feel peace, security, acceptance, and belonging. Adults support children's Ibasho creation, in part, through the socialization practice of mimamori--that is, watching over others as a protective figure. Through mimamori, adults may create an accepting and positive social-emotional context that provides children with opportunities for exploration, self-expression, and peer relationships, which are important for Ibasho creation. Understanding of how maltreated children secure their Ibasho and what facilitates their Ibasho creation can provide insights into possible protective factors that may be incorporated into caregivers' daily practice with maltreated children, therapeutic interventions, and innovation in child welfare services as a whole. Understanding of culturally embedded beliefs and practices that may support the resilience and well-being of maltreated children allows social workers to reflect and step outside of that which they take for granted to consider how differently they may serve maltreated children in their own society. PMID:20408354

  5. Caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and child protective services outcomes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence M; Slack, Kristen S; Waldfogel, Jane; Bruch, Sarah K

    2010-08-01

    The authors used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine associations of child protective services (CPS) caseworkers' perceptions of caregiver substance abuse with their perceptions of the severity of risk and harm a child experienced as a result of alleged maltreatment, as well as with whether a family experienced a range of CPS outcomes.The outcomes included whether the family received services from CPS, was substantiated for maltreatment, experienced child removal, and was subject to a termination of parental rights (TPR) petition. The authors also compared the magnitude of the association between caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and each outcome to that of the association between other maltreatment-related risk factors and each outcome. Findings suggest that, all else equal, caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse is associated with increased caseworker perceptions that children have experienced severe risk and harm and also with an increased probability of each of the CPS outcomes except TPR. Moreover, these associations are equal in magnitude or larger than those between the other risk factors and the outcomes. These findings imply that CPS decisions are heavily influenced by caseworker perceptions of caregiver substance abuse, regardless of the presence of other risk factors for child maltreatment.

  6. Caregiving Styles: A Cognitive and Behavioral Typology Associated with Dementia Family Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing number of elderly individuals are diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD), many of whom receive daily caregiving from spouse or adult child. Caregiving is a "cultural activity," and as such it is strongly influenced by sociocultural beliefs about caregiving and how it should be enacted. Understanding…

  7. Characteristics of out-of-home caregiving environments provided under child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Barth, Richard P; Green, Rebecca; Webb, Mary Bruce; Wall, Ariana; Gibbons, Claire; Craig, Carlton

    2008-01-01

    A national probability sample of children who have been in child welfare supervised placements for about one year identifies the characteristics (e.g., age, training, education, health, and home) of the foster parents, kinship foster parents, and group home caregivers. Caregiving respondents provided information about their backgrounds. Interviewers also used the HOME-SF to assess the caregiving environments of foster care and kinship care. Comparisons are made to other nationally representative samples, including the U.S. Census and the National Survey of America's Families. Kinship care, foster care, and group care providers are significantly different from each other--and the general population--in age and education. Findings on the numbers of children cared for, understimulating environments, use of punitive punishment, and low educational levels of caregivers generate suggestions for practice with foster families.

  8. Nonoffending Caregiver and Youth Experiences with Child Sexual Abuse Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa M.; Atoro, Kathryn E.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Shadoin, Amy L.; Magnuson, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative responses by caregivers (n = 203) and youth (aged 8 and older; n = 65) about their experiences with sexual abuse investigations were analyzed in conjunction with quantitative ratings of satisfaction. Respondents described mostly high levels of satisfaction, although dissatisfaction was reported with some key aspects of investigations.…

  9. How Partnering with Your Child's Caregiver Supports Healthy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Jerlean E.

    2012-01-01

    Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…

  10. Associations between child disabilities and caregiver discipline and violence in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Charlene; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H

    2014-01-01

    Using nationally representative samples of 45,964 two- to nine-year-old children and their primary caregivers in 17 developing countries, this study examined the relations between children's cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities and caregivers' use of discipline and violence. Primary caregivers reported on their child's disabilities and whether they or anyone in their household had used nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence toward the target child and believed that using corporal punishment is necessary. Logistic regression analyses supported the hypothesis that children with disabilities are treated more harshly than children without disabilities. The findings suggest that policies and interventions are needed to work toward the United Nations' goals of ensuring that children with disabilities are protected from abuse and violence.

  11. Friends, family, and caregiving among midlife and older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Catherine F; Moone, Rajean P; Olson, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the frequency and nature of the informal caregiving experience for midlife and older lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) adults. Responses from a Twin Cities Metropolitan Area LGBT aging needs assessment survey were analyzed for social supports, current caregiving activity and availability of a caregiver. The majority of respondents identified a primary caregiver who was not a legal relation; and compared to the general population were (a) less likely to have traditional sources of caregiver support and (b) more likely to be serving as a caregiver and caring for someone to whom they were not legally related. Implications of the findings for enhancing resources to more fully support the 10% of caregivers that are caring for non-kin are discussed.

  12. The characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna

    2015-11-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area. PMID:26619236

  13. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  14. Low Quality of Basic Caregiving Environments in Child Care: Actual Reality or Artifact of Scoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Deborah J.; Guss, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Quality Rating Improvement Systems (QRIS) frequently include the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R) as part of rating and improving child care quality. However, studies utilizing the ITERS-R consistently report low quality, especially for basic caregiving items. This research examined whether the low scores reflected the…

  15. Continuity of Care, Caregiver-Child Interactions, and Toddler Social Competence and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…

  16. Caregivers' Readiness for Change: Predictive Validity in a Child Welfare Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, J.H.; Girvin, H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To assess the predictive validity of continuous measures of problem recognition (PR), intentions to change (ITC), and overall readiness for change (RFC) among primary caregivers who received in-home services following substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. Method:: A modified version of the University of Rhode Island Change…

  17. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  18. Overlooked Victims: Working with Non-Offending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Deborah Dillon

    2006-01-01

    The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…

  19. Supporting Secure Parent-Child Attachments: The Role of the Non-Parental Caregiver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Ana H.; Readdick, Christine A.; Walters, Connor M.

    2005-01-01

    Parent-child attachment has been extensively confirmed as a central contributing factor to children's positive developmental outcomes. Theory and research imply that the non-parental caregiver is an important figure that may assist parents in the development of a secure attachment relationship with their infants. Specific practices that increase…

  20. Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

  1. Effects of Support on the Attitude of the Primary Caregiver of a Child with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, Jeannette G.; And Others

    Parents of children with mental or physical handicaps often experience overwhelming feelings of stress and anxiety. Research indicates that support for the primary caregiver can help alleviate some stressors involved in raising a child with a handicap. This study examined how level of support affects feelings of satisfaction the primary caregiver…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  3. Older Caregivers of Adults with Mental Retardation: Service Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Jean L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between service utilization and characteristics of older parents and other caregivers, their dependents with mental retardation, and their ability to provide care. Caregivers' assessment of current ability to provide care was significantly related to amount of service use, but caregiver and dependent…

  4. Young HIV-Infected Children and Their Adult Caregivers Prefer Tablets to Syrup Antiretroviral Medications in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Cook, Adrian; Vhembo, Tichaona; Opilo, Wilfred; Namuddu, Rachel; Katuramu, Richard; Tezikyabbiri, Jessica; Naidoo-James, Bethany; Gibb, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background Provision of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected children is complicated using syrup formulations, which are costlier than tablets, harder to transport and store and difficult for health-workers to prescribe and caregivers to administer. Dispersible/crushable tablets may be more appropriate. We studied the acceptability of syrups and scored tablets among young children who used both in the AntiRetroviral Research fOr Watoto (ARROW) trial. Methods ARROW is an ongoing randomized trial of paediatric ART monitoring and treatment strategies in 1206 children in Uganda and Zimbabwe. 405 children initially received syrups of combination ART including Nevirapine, Zidovudine, Abacavir and Lamivudine before changing, when reaching the 12-<15 kg weightband, to scored adult-dose tablets prescribed according to WHO weightband tables. Caregiver expectations and experiences were collected in questionnaires at their last visit on syrups and after 8 and 24 weeks on tablets. Results Questionnaires were completed by caregivers of 267 children (median age 2.9 years (IQR 2.5, 3.4)). At last visit on syrups, 79% caregivers reported problems with syrups, mostly related to number, weight, transportation and conspicuousness of bottles. Difficulties taking tablets were expected by 127(48%) caregivers; however, after 8 and 24 weeks, only 26% and 18% reported their children had problems with tablets and no problems were reported with transportation/conspicuousness. Taste, swallowing or vomiting were reported as problems ‘sometimes/often’ for 14%, 9%, 22% children on syrups and 16%, 9%, 8% on tablets. At last visit on syrups, 74% caregivers expected to prefer tablets but only 27% thought their child would. After 8/24 weeks, 94%/97% caregivers preferred tablets and 57%/59% reported their child did. Conclusions Most children at about 3 years can take tablets; caregivers and children themselves generally prefer tablets to liquid formulations of HIV medications above this

  5. Family caregiving for adults with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    El-Mallakh, Peggy; Yates, Brittany Evans; Adkins, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common among those with schizophrenia, but little is known about family members' roles in the care of relatives who have both schizophrenia and DM. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine DM knowledge and caregiver burden among 27 family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and DM. Findings indicate that DM knowledge was low. Objective caregiver burden was highest for providing assistance with daily living activities. Subjective burden was highest for preventing the care recipient from keeping people awake at night and dealing with the care recipient's non-adherence to DM care. Family caregivers are in need of education and support in the caregiving role.

  6. Child and Caregiver Concordance of Potentially Traumatic Events Experienced by Orphaned and Abandoned Children

    PubMed Central

    Guru Rajan, Divya; Shirey, Kristen; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; O’Donnell, Karen; Whetten, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to trauma is associated with significant emotional and behavioral difficulties among children (Perepletchikova & Kaufman, 2010). Overall, reports of trauma and violence experienced by children are discrepant from those of their caregivers (Lewis et al., 2012). Even less is known about the extent of concordance between orphans and their caregivers. This study examines the correlates of concordance in reported traumatic experiences between 1,269 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) and their caregivers. The OAC lived in family-settings in 5 low and middle income countries and were part of a longitudinal study, “Positive Outcomes for Orphans” (POFO) that enrolled children aged 6 to 12 at baseline. By examining concordance with respect to specific types of trauma reported, this study expands the understanding of who reports which types of traumas experienced by orphaned and abandoned children, thereby improving the potential to provide targeted interventions for children who have experienced such events. In this study, children and caregivers were asked separately if the child had experienced different types of potentially traumatic events. Children were significantly more likely to report physical abuse, sexual abuse and family violence than were caregivers. Caregivers were significantly more likely than children to report natural disasters and accidents. High levels of concordance were found in the reporting of wars, riots, killings, and deaths in the family. The impacts of trauma on behavior and mental health are profound, and highly effective interventions targeting sequelae of childhood trauma are currently being developed for use in low resource areas. Findings from this study demonstrate that it is feasible to conduct screening for potentially traumatic events utilizing child self-report in resource limited settings and that child self-report is crucial in evaluating trauma, particularly family violence and physical or sexual assault. PMID:25379051

  7. Nutrition, Health, and Safety for Child Caregivers: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guide for postsecondary child development instructors is intended for use in courses on nutrition, health, and safety in a child care setting. The materials are most effective when coordinated with carefully selected textbooks. Access to a quality care center for laboratory work is essential. An introduction describes the instructor's guide…

  8. Understanding Patterns of Service Utilization among Informal Caregivers of Community Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The article seeks to identify patterns of service utilization among informal caregivers of frail older adults. In particular, the study examined determinants that explain heterogeneous variations in caregivers' service use patterns. Methods: Using a latent class analysis (LCA) on the 2004 National Long-Term Care Survey and Informal…

  9. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

  10. Hiring and Screening Practices of Agencies Supplying Paid Caregivers to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Lee A.; Cameron, Kenzie A.; Messerges-Bernstein, Joanne; Friesema, Elisha; Zickuhr, Lisa; Baker, David W.; Wolf, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess what screening practices agencies use in hiring caregivers and how caregiver competency is measured prior to assigning older adult responsibilities. Design One-to-one phone interviewers where interviewers posed as prospective clients seeking a caregiver for an older adult relative. Setting Cross-sectional cohort of agencies supplying paid caregivers to older adults in Illinois, California, Florida, Colorado, Arizona, Wisconsin, and Indiana. Participants 462 home care agencies were contacted, of which 84 were no longer in service, 165 offered only nursing care, and 33 were excluded. 180 agencies completed interviews. Measurements Agencies were surveyed about their hiring methods, screening measures, training practices, skill competencies assessments, and supervision. Open ended responses were qualitatively analyzed by two coders. Results To recruit caregivers, agencies primarily used print and internet (e.g. Craigslist.com) advertising (n=69, 39.2%) and word-of-mouth referrals (n=49, 27.8%). In hiring, agencies required prior “life experiences” (n=121, 68.8%) of which less (n=33, 27.2%) were specific to care giving. Screening measures included federal criminal background checks (n=96, 55.8%) and drug testing (n= 56, 31.8%). Agencies stated that the paid caregiver could perform medication reminding (n=169, 96.0%).Skill competency was assessed by caregiver self-report (n=103, 58.5%), testing (n=62, 35.2%), and client feedback (n=62, 35.2%). General caregiver training length ranged from 0–7 days. Supervision ranged from none to weekly and included home visits, phone calls, and caregivers visiting the central office. Conclusion Using an agency to hire paid caregivers may give older adults and their families a false sense of security regarding the background and skill set of the caregiver. PMID:22724430

  11. "How Long Are We Able to Go on?" Issues Faced by Older Family Caregivers of Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenburger, Karola; McKerr, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Research-informed policy and practice is needed for older caregivers of adult sons/daughters with disabilities. These caregivers are often under tremendous stress because of failing health, financial pressures, bereavement and worry about the future of their sons/daughters. Twenty-nine older parents/caregivers of 27 adults with intellectual and/or…

  12. Caregiving families within the long-term services and support system for older adults.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Sara Honn

    2016-01-01

    Long-term care services and supports are primarily a family industry that warrants psychologists' involvement through practice, research, and policy advocacy. Families are poorly integrated into service systems despite the dominance of family caregiving work within health care and long-term care. This article positions family caregiving work within the context of family life across the life span, noting overlaps and distinctions between normal family life and caregiving work for older adults whose physical or cognitive challenges require assistance. The prevalence, work, and consequences of family caregiving for older adults are described. Families are identified as key partners in long-term care, despite substantial policy and practice barriers to integrating them into care structures and systems. Policy options for reducing or eliminating barriers are suggested, as are professional practice opportunities for psychologists to support caregiving families. Approaches to assessment and interventions for caregivers across a variety of settings are described. Gaps in research are highlighted, with a focus on how to understand caregiving as embedded within context of family, long-term care services and supports, and health care. Caregiving work presents an imperative for expanding psychologists' engagement in integrating and supporting the families whose caregiving is so critical to a rapidly aging society. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159435

  13. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044

  14. Child, Caregiver, and Family Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Use by Children Who Remain at Home after a Child Protective Services Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…

  15. The role and influence of grandmothers on child nutrition: culturally designated advisors and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Aubel, Judi

    2012-01-01

    Improving the nutritional status of infants and young children in developing countries depends to a significant extent on adoption of optimal nutrition-related practices within the context of the household. Most policies, research and programmes on child nutrition in non-Western societies focus narrowly on the mother-child dyad and fail to consider the wider household and community environments in which other actors, hierarchical patterns of authority and informal communication networks operate and influence such practices. In particular, the role and influence of senior women, or grandmothers, has received limited attention. Research dealing with child nutrition from numerous socio-cultural settings in Africa, Asia and Latin America reveals three common patterns related to the social dynamics and decision-making within households and communities. First, grandmothers play a central role as advisers to younger women and as caregivers of both women and children on nutrition and health issues. Second, grandmother social networks exercise collective influence on maternal and child nutrition-related practices, specifically regarding pregnancy, feeding and care of infants, young children and sick children. Third, men play a relatively limited role in day-to-day child nutrition within family systems. The research reviewed supports the need to re-conceptualize the parameters considered in nutritional policies and programmes by expanding the focus beyond the mother-child dyad to include grandmothers given their role as culturally designated advisers and caregivers.

  16. Pediatric glaucoma medical therapy: who more accurately reports medication adherence, the caregiver or the child?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Daniel B; Neustein, Rebecca F; Jones, Sarah K; Robin, Alan L; Muir, Kelly W

    2015-01-01

    As they grow older, most children with glaucoma must eventually face the transition to self-administering medications. We previously reported factors associated with better or worse medication adherence in children with glaucoma, using an objective, electronic monitor. Utilizing the same data set, the purpose of the current study was to determine whose report (the caregiver’s or the child’s) corresponded better with electronically monitored adherence. Of the 46 participants (22 girls), the mean age of children primarily responsible, and caregiver primarily responsible for medication administration was 15±2 and 10±2 years, respectively. For the children whose caregiver regularly administered the eyedrops, the caregiver’s assessment of drop adherence was associated with measured adherence (P=0.012), but the child’s was not (P=0.476). For the children who self-administered eyedrops, neither the child’s (P=0.218) nor the caregiver’s (P=0.395) assessment was associated with measured percent adherence. This study highlights potential errors when relying on self-reporting of compliance in patients and caregivers with pediatric glaucoma, particularly when the child is responsible for administering their own eyedrops. Frank discussions about the importance of medication adherence and how to improve compliance may help both the child and caregiver better communicate with the treating provider. PMID:26648687

  17. Enhancing building, conversation, and learning through caregiver-child interactions in a children's museum.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A; Wilkerson, Erin

    2010-03-01

    The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any, preexhibit instruction the dyads received: (a) building and conversation instruction, (b) building instruction only, (c) conversation instruction only, (d) presentation of models of buildings and conversations without instruction, or (e) no instruction or control. Building instruction included information about triangular cross-bracing. Conversation instruction emphasized the use of elaborative wh-questions and associations. When observed in the exhibit, dyads in the groups that received building instruction included more triangles in their structures than those in the other groups. Caregivers provided with conversation instruction asked more wh-questions, made more associations, and engaged in more caregiver-child joint talk compared with those who received building instruction alone. Type of instruction was further linked to differences across conditions in the engineering content of talk, performance during immediate assessments of learning, and children's memory following 1-day and 2-week delays. PMID:20210509

  18. Those Who Care: A Report on Child Caregivers in Alberta Daycare Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm

    This study examines the characteristics and work environments of child care personnel employed by 80 day care centers throughout Alberta. Findings indicated that, on average, child care staff had higher levels of education than the general adult population in the province. Considerable mobility within the child care field was found. Staff with…

  19. The impact of informal caregivers on depressive symptoms among older adults receiving formal home health care.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunhee; Lee, Nam-Ju; Kim, Eun-Young; Strumpf, Neville E

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between presence and types of informal caregivers and the presence of depressive symptoms among older adults receiving formal home health care (HHC). A secondary analysis of data was conducted using a computerized patient care database, the Outcome and Assessment Information Set. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the data of 8448 patients aged 65 years or older who had been admitted to an HHC agency from acute care hospitals between January 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. The outcome variable was the presence of depressive symptoms. The primary predictor variable was the presence and types of informal caregivers. Covariates included demographic variables, health status, length of time enrolled in formal HHC, patient living arrangements, and the frequency and types of care received from informal caregivers. A lower percentage of older adults receiving care from both informal caregivers and a formal HHC agency (13.3%) had depressive symptoms than older adults receiving only formal HHC (14.9%) at the end of a 60-day episode in formal HHC. Older adults without an informal caregiver were more likely to experience depressive symptoms than those with an informal caregiver after a 60-day episode in HHC (odds ratio = 1.229, 95% confidence interval = 1.027-1.471). There was no significant association between the types of informal caregivers and the presence of depressive symptoms.

  20. Nutrition, Health, and Safety for Child Caregivers: Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This manual is designed as a laboratory experience guide and workbook for postsecondary students in courses on nutrition, health, and safety in a child care setting. It is divided into five units: (1) Principles of Nutrition, (2) Meals and Snacks, (3) Safety, (4) Health and Hygiene, and (5) Illness. Each unit includes performance objectives, an…

  1. The Role of Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Educating Older Adults about Foodborne Illness Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…

  2. Care taker blogs in caregiver fabricated illness in a child: a window on the caretaker's thinking?

    PubMed

    Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children. PMID:24393290

  3. Care taker blogs in caregiver fabricated illness in a child: a window on the caretaker's thinking?

    PubMed

    Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children.

  4. Informal caregivers' participation when older adults in Norway are discharged from the hospital.

    PubMed

    Bragstad, Line Kildal; Kirkevold, Marit; Hofoss, Dag; Foss, Christina

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the participation of informal caregivers in the discharge process when patients aged 80 and over who were admitted from home to different hospitals in Norway were discharged to long-term community care. Data for this cross-sectional survey were collected through telephone interviews with a consecutive sample of 262 caregivers recruited between October 2007 and May 2009. The Discharge of Elderly Questionnaire was developed by the research team and was designed to elicit data concerning informal caregivers' self-reported perceptions on participation in the discharge process. A descriptive and comparative analysis of Thompson's levels of participation reported by the older generation (spouses and siblings) and the younger generation (adult children and children-in-law, nieces and grandchildren) was undertaken using bivariate cross-tabulations and chi-square tests for association and trend. Analyses showed that the younger generation of caregivers received and provided information to hospital staff to a greater degree than the older generation. Overall, 52% of the informal caregivers reported co-operating with the staff to a high or to some degree. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse factors predicting the likelihood of informal caregivers reporting co-operation with hospital staff. The odds of younger generation caregivers reporting co-operation were more than twice as high (OR = 2.121, P = 0.045) as the odds of the older generation. Caregivers of patients with a hearing impairment had higher odds of reporting co-operation (OR = 1.722, P = 0.049) than caregivers of patients with no such impairment. The length of hospital stay, the caregiver's and patient's gender and education level were not significantly associated with caregiver's co-operation. The informal caregivers' experiences with information practices and user participation in hospitals highlight important challenges that must be taken seriously to ensure co

  5. Caregiver Stigma and Burden in Memory Disorders: An Evaluation of the Effects of Caregiver Type and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Phoebe V.; Wishart, Heather A.; Randolph, Jennifer S.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable gains in public awareness of dementia, dementia patients and their caregivers continue to be stigmatized. Previous work has explored stigma and burden among adult children of persons with dementia in Israel, but no similar data exist for spousal caregivers or caregivers in general in the United States. This study examines the differences in stigma and burden experienced by spousal and adult child caregivers and male and female caregivers of persons with dementia. Eighty-two caregivers were given the Zarit Burden Inventory Short Form (ZBI) and the Caregiver Section of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FS-ADS-C). Scores on the FS-ADS-C and ZBI were positively correlated (rs = .51, p < .001). Female caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(80) = −4.37, p < .001) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.68, p = .009) compared to male caregivers, and adult child caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(30.8) = −2.22, p = .034) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.65, p = .010) than spousal caregivers. These results reinforce the importance of support for caregivers, particularly adult child and female caregivers who may experience higher levels of stigma and burden. PMID:26941795

  6. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  7. First-time primary caregivers' experience of caring for young adults with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Clark, Eileen

    2011-03-01

    Becoming a career is associated with physical, emotional, and financial hardship, with caregivers often experiencing a maelstrom of emotions as they struggle to understand what has happened to their loved one. While the burden of caring for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been well documented, much less is known about how carers develop the strength and resilience to continue caring. This qualitative study aimed to understand the experience of 20 first-time primary caregivers of young adults with FEP. Most caregivers were female (85%, n = 17) and parents (85%, n = 17). The average length of involvement as a caregiver at an FEP service was 14.5 months. Six main themes were identified in the data, highlighting the carers' experience in supporting young adults with FEP. Caregiving is a burdensome responsibility and is characterized as a roller coaster and unpredictable experience. Caregivers often feel responsible for the young person's illness; however, eventually most come to terms with the changes that have occurred in the young person with FEP. As a consequence of the illness, the relationship between caregiver and care recipient frequently becomes closer and deeper, although it is important that they both maintain hope for the future. These findings provide important insights into the experiences of first-time caregivers of young people with FEP, with direct implications for improving the information and support given to caregivers by FEP services, as well as the development of interventions that effectively address the unique challenges caregivers face following the onset of FEP. PMID:19679716

  8. Educational needs of employed family caregivers of older adults: Evaluation of a workplace project.

    PubMed

    Curry, Linda Cox; Walker, Charles; Hogstel, Mildred O

    2006-01-01

    Family members provide 80% of care for older adults in the United States. Many family caregivers are employed either full or part time. For employed caregivers, personal health, job performance, and the ability to advance their career are affected by the weight of their caregiving responsibilities. Some find it necessary to quit their jobs. Employed caregivers report a need for caregiving information; however, they seldom think of their workplace as a valuable resource. Results of the second of a 3-phase research and service project are discussed. Based on a needs assessment completed by employees of a large institution, educational sessions were offered during 3 consecutive months. Thirty-five employees attended 1 or more sessions. The sessions were evaluated highly on a 5-point Likert-type scale for usefulness of information, quality of presentation, and value of session. Sharing project results with the employing institution's human resources department yielded commitment to integrate caregiver education and referral into a newly organized work-life program. When properly managed, such workplace programs can provide needed assistance to employed caregivers. A nurse working with older adults is an ideal provider to initiate and manage this kind of program. PMID:16757388

  9. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child 9 years and older; Rescue breathing ...

  10. Rural and Urban Caregivers for Older Adults in Poland: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Impact of Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bien, Barbara; Wojszel, Beata; Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    This study examines rural-urban differences in informal caregivers' perceptions of caregiving. The study's theoretical framework is based on the two-factor model of caregiving, which views caregiving as having both positive and negative impact. Data were collected in personal interviews with 126 rural and 127 urban caregivers in the Bialystok…

  11. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  12. Adult Responses to Child Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyber, Edward C.; And Others

    Oral responses of 180 male and female undergraduates to scenarios containing positive-loving, neutral-informational, and/or negative-rejecting (male) child communications were obtained and scored along 25 specific categories, as well as a global rating of acceptance/rejection of child. A factor analysis generated six factors, which, along with the…

  13. Young Children's Knowledge of Parental Caregiving Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Rebecca A.

    Preschool children's knowledge of adult caregiving behaviors was examined with a sample of 14 middle-class, Caucasian boys and girls between the ages of 24 and 27 months. Each child's caregiving behavior in a laboratory environment containing dolls, toy animals, and toy objects, while accompanied by his or her mother, was recorded independently by…

  14. Evidence for Reciprocal Interaction Effects among Adults with Self-Injury and Their Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Jason J.; Clary, Jamie; Harper, Vickie N.; Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of caregiver responses to client adaptive behavior were compared between adults with intellectual disabilities with and without self-injurious behavior. Participants with moderate to profound intellectual disability and self-injury (n = 89) and age/IQ matched control participants (n = 20) were selected from a large sample of adults living…

  15. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  16. Associations between Child Disabilities and Caregiver Discipline and Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Charlene; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    Using nationally representative samples of 45,964 2- to 9-year-old children and their primary caregivers in 17 developing countries, we sought to understand relations between children’s cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities and caregivers’ use of discipline and violence. Primary caregivers reported on their child’s disabilities and whether they or anyone in their household had used nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence toward the target child and whether they believed that using corporal punishment is necessary. Logistic regression analyses supported the hypothesis that children with disabilities are treated more harshly than children without disabilities. The findings suggest that policies and interventions are needed to work toward the United Nations’ goals of ensuring that children with disabilities are protected from abuse and violence. PMID:23895329

  17. Perspectives on child diarrhoea management and health service use among ethnic minority caregivers in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, primary government health services are now accessible for the whole population including ethnic minority groups (EMGs) living in rural and mountainous areas. However, little is known about EMGs' own perspectives on illness treatment and use of health services. This study investigates treatment seeking strategies for child diarrhoea among ethnic minority caregivers in Northern Vietnam in order to suggest improvements to health services for EMGs and other vulnerable groups. Methods The study obtained qualitative data from eight months of field work among four EMGs in lowland and highland villages in the Northern Lao Cai province. Triangulation of methods included in-depth interviews with 43 caregivers of pre-school children (six years and below) who had a case of diarrhoea during the past month, three focus group discussions (FGDs) with men, and two weeks of observations at two Communal Health Stations (CHGs). Data was content-analyzed by ordering data into empirically and theoretically inspired themes and sub-categories assisted by the software NVivo8. Results This study identified several obstacles for EMG caregivers seeking health services, including: gender roles, long travelling distances for highland villagers, concerns about the indirect costs of treatment and a reluctance to use government health facilities due to feelings of being treated disrespectfully by health staff. However, ethnic minority caregivers all recognized the danger signs of child diarrhoea and actively sought simultaneous treatment in different health care systems and home-based care. Treatments were selected by matching the perceived cause and severity of the disease with the 'compatibility' of different treatments to the child. Conclusions In order to improve EMGs' use of government health services it is necessary to improve the communication skills of health staff and to acknowledge both EMGs' explanatory disease models and the significant socio-economic constraints

  18. Profiles of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization, Substance Misuse, and Depression Among Female Caregivers Involved with Child Protective Services

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Connell, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, substance misuse, and depression are highly prevalent among female caregivers involved with child protective services (CPS). Understanding heterogeneity in the occurrence of these problems is essential to improving pathways to intervention for women in this population. Latent class analysis was employed to determine whether there exist homogeneous subgroups of female caregivers who experience different patterns of IPV victimization, substance misuse, and depression. A restricted three-class solution best fit the data, suggesting high risk, moderate risk, and no risk subgroups. A substantial number of female caregivers comprise the high-risk subgroup (33%) in which caregivers reported very high rates of IPV victimization, substance misuse, and depression. Only a very small proportion comprised the no-risk subgroup (9%). Findings emphasize the heterogeneity among subgroups of female caregivers based on these risk factors, which may have implications for practitioners, such as CPS caseworkers, and researchers alike. PMID:26617433

  19. Caregiver Emotional Expressiveness, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Behavior Problems among Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…

  20. Caregiver Experiences of Supporting Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Laura; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Baum, Sandra; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caregivers have an intimate knowledge of the individuals they care for and are therefore an important source of information on pain experiences. They are often relied upon to recognize pain-related behaviours and report them, but little is known as to how they experience their role. Methods: Information was collected from 11 caregivers…

  1. Patterns of Coping Among Family Caregivers of Frail Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have extensively examined factors associated with coping strategies that caregivers use to ameliorate distress or solve problems. While these studies have found that stressors and individual resources influence choices of coping strategies, they have tended to overlook caregivers’ social resources and have rarely considered the possibility that distinct groups of caregivers may use different sets of coping strategies. We conducted latent-class analyses to identify distinct groups of caregivers: those using no particular patterns of coping (unpatterned-coping), those centering on ameliorating distress (emotional-coping), and those focusing on both ameliorating distress and solving problems (hybrid-coping). Stressors distinguished all three coping groups, individual resources differentiated the hybrid-coping group from the emotional-coping group and the unpatterned-coping group, and social resources separated the emotional-coping group and the hybrid-coping group from the unpatterned-coping group. These findings indicate different factors contributing to caregivers’ use of different coping styles and suggest ways to better help caregivers. PMID:25651512

  2. [Caring friends and neighbors as informal caregivers of older adults: A comparison with offspring].

    PubMed

    Egging, S; de Boer, A H; Stevens, N L

    2011-12-01

    This study compared informal care to older, non-coresiding adults provided by friends and neighbours and informal care by children or their partners. Using data from a Dutch representative survey among informal caregivers conducted by CBS and SCP, caregivers of friends (n=133), neighbours (n=108) and parents (n=1,008) were compared with one another to investigate care that friends and neighbours provide to the elderly non-coresiding adults (age 55 and over). Nine percent of those providing care to someone outside the household were friends and nine percent were neighbours. Friends, like children, usually provide long-lasting care, up to four or five years. Friends are similar to neighbours in the number of hours that they provide care. Friends and neighbours experience a lower caregiver burden than children. However, when fulfilling multiple caring tasks, both friends and children, have a greater chance of experiencing higher levels of burden. When there were other caregivers to help, friends experienced a small reduction in burden. Friends and neighbours deserve to be recognized as informal caregivers by policy makers and they deserve attention and support along with family caregivers.

  3. Caregiver Behavior Change for Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A.; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H.; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3–4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25315597

  4. Caregiver behavior change for child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Elder, John P; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3-4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25207447

  5. [An experience in applying Watson's theory in caring for an enterovirus-infected child and his primary caregiver].

    PubMed

    Wen, Shu-Hui; Wu, Li-Min

    2004-06-01

    Enterovirus is commonly seen in children. Its morbidity and mortality rate is about 18% (Department of Health, the Executive Yuan, 2003). This paper documents the use of Watson's theory in the care of a child aged two years and seven months and his primary caregiver. During the nursing process, the application of care and concern for the child and primary caregiver provided confidence, comfort, and relief of fear and anxiety caused by hospitalization, enabling the patient, during his time in hospital, to make physical and psychological progress. The caregiver was also able to gain an understanding of how to care for a child with enterovirus, which diminished some of the pressure caused by his admission to hospital and placed him and his family at the center of the nursing care.

  6. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing. PMID:27276798

  7. Elderly Mothers of Adult Children with Intellectual Disability: An Exploration of a Stress Process Model for Caregiving Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…

  8. Child Caregivers' Contingent Responsiveness Behaviors during Interactions with Toddlers within Three Day Care Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyner, Paula M.; Guenther, Katie L.; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Cashin, Susan E.; Chavie, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, children spend much of their day in the care of adults other than their parents, such as child care providers. Consequently, it is important to analyze nonparental adults' use of strategies suggested to foster language development, such as contingent responsiveness, during interactions with young children. This study examined…

  9. The Attachment Doll Play Assessment: Predictive Validity with Concurrent Mother-Child Interaction and Maternal Caregiving Representations

    PubMed Central

    George, Carol; Solomon, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990–2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5–7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:27803683

  10. EFFICACY OF THE 20-WEEK CIRCLE OF SECURITY INTERVENTION: CHANGES IN CAREGIVER REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING, REPRESENTATIONS, AND CHILD ATTACHMENT IN AN AUSTRALIAN CLINICAL SAMPLE.

    PubMed

    Huber, Anna; McMahon, Catherine A; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Circle of Security is an attachment theory based intervention that aims to promote secure parent-child attachment relationships. Despite extensive uptake of the approach, there is limited empirical evidence regarding efficacy. The current study examined whether participation in the 20-week Circle of Security intervention resulted in positive caregiver-child relationship change in four domains: caregiver reflective functioning; caregiver representations of the child and the relationship with the child; child attachment security, and attachment disorganization. Archived pre- and postintervention data were analyzed from 83 clinically referred caregiver-child dyads (child age: 13-88 months) who completed the Circle of Security intervention in sequential cohorts and gave permission for their data to be included in the study. Caregivers completed the Circle of Security Interview, and dyads were filmed in the Strange Situation Procedure before and after the intervention. Results supported all four hypotheses: Caregiver reflective functioning, caregiving representations, and level of child attachment security increased after the intervention, and level of attachment disorganization decreased for those with high baseline levels. Those whose scores were least optimal prior to intervention showed the greatest change in all domains. This study adds to the evidence suggesting that the 20-week Circle of Security intervention results in significant relationship improvements for caregivers and their children.

  11. Pathways of Adult Children Providing Care to Older Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by life course and stress process theory, this study investigated pathways of adult child caregivers' family (caregiving, marital, parenting) and nonfamily (employment) roles. Eight waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed for 1,300 adult child caregivers. Latent class analysis provided strong evidence for a 4-class…

  12. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  13. Health Profile of Aging Family Caregivers Supporting Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The health status of 206 female caregivers supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities at home was investigated using objective (i.e., presence of chronic health conditions and activity limitations) and subjective (i.e., self-perceived health status) health measures compared with those of women in the general population in 2…

  14. Caregivers of Older Adults: Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet-Based Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…

  15. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: a scale for assessing the burden of caregivers to adults with unipolar or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Martire, Lynn M; Hinrichsen, Gregory A; Morse, Jennifer Q; Reynolds, Charles F; Gildengers, Ariel G; Mulsant, Benoit H; Schulz, Richard; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J

    2009-06-30

    We present a brief measure of caregiver burden, the Mood Disorder Burden Index (MDBI), for use with family members and close friends of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The MDBI assesses burden in three core domains (patients' mood symptoms, caregivers' worry about the future, and caregivers' interpersonal difficulties with the patient) and includes an optional module that assesses caregiver burden associated with patients' pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The MDBI was administered to caregivers of older individuals (i.e., 58 years and older) with MDD (n=123) or BD (n=38) who were receiving treatment through a research study. Analyses indicated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure well as internal consistency within both caregiver groups. It will be important for future research to administer the MDBI to caregivers of middle-aged and older patients as well as those receiving treatment through inpatient settings or community outpatient clinics.

  16. Influence of Child Abuse on Adult Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Rebekah G.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Epstein, Michael P.; Tang, Yilang; Nair, Hemu P.; Liu, Wei; Gillespie, Charles F.; Berg, Tiina; Evces, Mark; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N.; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Schwartz, Ann; Cubells, Joseph F.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene × environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. Objective To examine whether the effects of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms are moderated by genetic polymorphisms within the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1) gene. Design Association study examining gene × environment interactions between genetic polymorphisms at the CRHR1 locus and measures of child abuse on adult depressive symptoms. Setting General medical clinics of a large, public, urban hospital and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Participants The primary participant population was 97.4% African American, of low socioeconomic status, and with high rates of lifetime trauma (n=422). A supportive independent sample (n=199) was distinct both ethnically (87.7% Caucasian) and socioeconomically (less impoverished). Main Outcome Measures Beck Depression Inventory scores and history of major depressive disorder by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Results Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms spanning 57 kilobases of the CRHR1 gene were examined. We found significant gene × environment interactions with multiple individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eg, rs110402, P=.008) as well as with a common haplotype spanning intron 1 (P <.001). Specific CRHR1 polymorphisms appeared to moderate the effect of child abuse on the risk for adult depressive symptoms. These protective effects were supported with similar findings in a second independent sample (n=199). Conclusions These data support the corticotropin-releasing hormone hypothesis of depression and suggest that a gene × environment interaction is important for the expression of depressive symptoms in adults

  17. The Child and the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalletti, Sofia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses young children's relationship with God and the place of religion in their lives, focusing on the role of adults in proclaiming the essential elements of Christianity to children. Argues that even very young children can understand the essence of religion. (MDM)

  18. Caregiver Coaching Strategies for Early Intervention Providers: Moving toward Operational Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…

  19. Do Intervention Programs in Child Care Promote the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Werner, Claudia D; Linting, Mariëlle; Vermeer, Harriet J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis reports on the effectiveness of targeted interventions focusing on child care professionals to improve child care quality, caregiver interaction skills, and child social-emotional development. Within randomized controlled trials, interventions are moderately effective in improving overall caregiver-child interactions (k = 19, Hedges' g = 0.35) and in improving child care quality on the classroom level (k = 11; Hedges' g = 0.39), the caregiver level (k = 10; Hedges' g = 0.44), and the child level (k = 6; Hedges' g = 0.26). Based on these findings, the implementation of evidence-based targeted interventions on a larger scale than currently exists may lead to better social-emotional development for children under the age of 5 years. There remains, however, an urgent need for more and larger randomized controlled trials with a solid design and high quality measures in order to shed more light on which child care components for which children are most critical in supporting children's socio-emotional development.

  20. Do Intervention Programs in Child Care Promote the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interactions? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Werner, Claudia D; Linting, Mariëlle; Vermeer, Harriet J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis reports on the effectiveness of targeted interventions focusing on child care professionals to improve child care quality, caregiver interaction skills, and child social-emotional development. Within randomized controlled trials, interventions are moderately effective in improving overall caregiver-child interactions (k = 19, Hedges' g = 0.35) and in improving child care quality on the classroom level (k = 11; Hedges' g = 0.39), the caregiver level (k = 10; Hedges' g = 0.44), and the child level (k = 6; Hedges' g = 0.26). Based on these findings, the implementation of evidence-based targeted interventions on a larger scale than currently exists may lead to better social-emotional development for children under the age of 5 years. There remains, however, an urgent need for more and larger randomized controlled trials with a solid design and high quality measures in order to shed more light on which child care components for which children are most critical in supporting children's socio-emotional development. PMID:26411312

  1. Who feeds children? A child's-eye-view of caregiver feeding patterns among the Aka foragers in Congo.

    PubMed

    Fouts, Hillary N; Brookshire, Robyn A

    2009-07-01

    This study describes the contributions of various types of caregivers to the direct provisioning and feeding of Aka children in households reliant on foraging in Congo. Ecological and family factors that predict allomaternal caregiving (i.e., caregiving by individuals other than mothers) are identified and discussed in light of current anthropological and public health perspectives on child feeding and cooperative caregiving. The study is based on 8 months of ethnographic fieldwork in the Republic of Congo in 2004 and 2005, and utilizes naturalistic observations of 22 focal children between two and four years of age. Observations spanned 12 daylight hours spread out over three different days. The results of this study demonstrate that even though mothers were the single highest contributor to child feeding, combined allomaternal contributions (i.e., contributions by fathers, grandmothers, aunts, siblings, and cousins) to child feeding was higher than that of mothers. Furthermore, birth order and the transition in families to having a new infant predicted allomaternal contributions. These results reinforce the need to extend public health and nutrition education programs to target more than just parents, as other individuals may have substantial influence over child feeding patterns. Furthermore, these results exemplify a cooperative child rearing pattern that is consistent with behavioral ecology perspectives that have suggested that humans evolved as cooperative childrearers rather than as maternal-centric or parent-only childrearers. Lastly, individual child and family characteristics predicted allomaternal contributions to child feeding and therefore research and public health initiatives need to consider variation in child and family characteristics in order to accurately describe and serve populations throughout the world.

  2. Associations of Parent–Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9–15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptoms. Linear Mixed Models analyses controlling for the alternate parent and child symptoms indicated that both parent and child depressive symptoms and parent and child anxious symptoms were positively associated. Parental depressive symptoms were not positively associated with child anxious symptoms, and parental anxious symptoms were not positively associated with child depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence for positive specific links between parent and child development of same-syndrome, but not cross-syndrome, symptoms when a caregiver has a history of depression. PMID:25844031

  3. Examining the Lives and Needs of Child-Only Recipient Kinship Caregivers: Heroes Stepping up to Help Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Kevin D.; Taylor, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Only in the last few years have researchers begun to pay close attention to the child-only cases that fall under the provision of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. Few attempts have been made to talk directly to kinship caregivers to understand their day-to-day lives. This triangulated study utilizes multiple strategies to…

  4. Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent-Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers' Relational Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Moore, Kevin J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding a video feedback intervention component to the assessment feedback session of the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We hypothesized that the addition of video feedback procedures during the FCU feedback at child age 2 would have a positive effect on caregivers' negative…

  5. Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, Agneta; Kristensson, Jimmie; Willman, Ania; Holst, Göran

    2016-08-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity" found on pages 24-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe how older adults with multimorbidity experience care provided from informal

  6. Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, Agneta; Kristensson, Jimmie; Willman, Ania; Holst, Göran

    2016-08-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Informal Care Provided by Family Caregivers: Experiences of Older Adults With Multimorbidity" found on pages 24-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe how older adults with multimorbidity experience care provided from informal

  7. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736

  8. Evidence for a Caregiving Instinct: Rapid Differentiation of Infant from Adult Vocalizations Using Magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Young, Katherine S; Parsons, Christine E; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W; van Hartevelt, Tim J; Stevner, Angus B A; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2016-03-01

    Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100-200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based "caregiving instinct."

  9. Evidence for a Caregiving Instinct: Rapid Differentiation of Infant from Adult Vocalizations Using Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Young, Katherine S.; Parsons, Christine E.; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W.; van Hartevelt, Tim J.; Stevner, Angus B. A.; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2016-01-01

    Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100–200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based “caregiving instinct.” PMID:26656998

  10. Caregivers of Demented Elders: The Impact of Adult Day Care Service on Reducing Perceived Degree of Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddowes, Jeannette Rickner

    The New Jersey State Department of Health, Gerontology Program, awarded grants to 32 adult day care centers statewide for the provision of specialized service for victims of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and their caregivers. The primary goals of the programs were to reduce caregiver burden through providing social supports and to…

  11. Caring for Others: Internet Video-Conferencing Group Intervention for Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Neurodegenerative Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marziali, Elsa; Donahue, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative, Internet-based psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of older adults with neurodegenerative disease. Design and Methods: After receiving signed informed consent from each participant, we randomly assigned 66 caregivers to an Internet-based…

  12. Spouses, Adult Children, and Children-in-Law as Caregivers of Older Adults: A Meta-Analytic Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Pinquart, Martin; Sörensen, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates the results from 168 empirical studies on differences between caregiving spouses, adult children, and children-in-law. Spouses differ from children and children-in-law significantly with regard to sociodemographic variables; also, they provide more support but report fewer care recipient behavior problems. Spouse caregivers report more depression symptoms, greater financial and physical burden, and lower levels of psychological well-being. Higher levels of psychological distress among spouses are explained mostly—but not completely—by higher levels of care provision. Few differences emerge between children and children-in-law, but children-in-law perceive the relationship with the care recipient as less positive and they report fewer uplifts of caregiving. PMID:21417538

  13. Caregiver Training in Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Supports (MBPBS): Effects on Caregivers and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Karazsia, Bryan T.; Myers, Rachel E.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals’ behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the MBPBS training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof-of-concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation. PMID:26903906

  14. Caregiver Abuse of Chicago Chinese Older Adults in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse. PMID:27606358

  15. Nature of Interactions among Young Children and Adult Caregivers in a Children's Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Welch, Meghan M.

    2014-01-01

    This naturalistic, qualitative study examines the nature of child- and adult-led interactions in a children's museum. Using dialogic learning as a theoretical framework, the study examines how children and adults engage in interactions while learning at a museum. Findings suggest that children and adults are almost equally likely to lead…

  16. The impact of elder health, caregiver involvement, and global stress on two dimensions of caregiver burden.

    PubMed

    Miller, B; McFall, S; Montgomery, A

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the simultaneous effects of an elder's health, caregiver involvement, and stress on caregiver burden, addressing the questions: (a) What are the direct and indirect effects of level of elder's impairment, caregiver involvement, and stress on personal and interpersonal burden? (b) How do these relationships differ between spouse and adult-child caregivers? Data were from the 1982 National Long Term Care Survey. Results using linear structural relations analysis showed the effect of a frail elder's health and functioning on personal and interpersonal burden is mediated by task involvement and perceived global stress. Contrary to expectation, there were few differences in the direct effect of each dimension of health, functional limitations, cognitive status, and global health rating on each dimension of burden. Although the results suggested mean differences between spouse and adult child caregivers on key variables, there were no differences by family relationship in the system of relationships that comprise the process linking health and burden.

  17. The Effects of Teaching Primary Caregivers to Conduct Formative Assessment on Caregiver-Child Social Interaction and Children's Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teaching primary caregivers to conduct formative assessment procedures on the development of social interactions between themselves and their infants who were born prematurely and had low birth weight, and who were from economically disadvantaged families. Children's overall development…

  18. Impact of type of child growth intervention program on caregivers' child feeding knowledge and practices: a comparative study in Ga West Municipality, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma

    2016-07-01

    Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Mean IYCF knowledge scores were similar (CBGP: 10.84 ± 1.69 vs. GMP: 10.23 ± 1.38, P = 0.062). However, more CBGP caregivers (17%) were highly knowledgeable than their GMP counterparts (5%) (P = 0.011). Early breastfeeding initiation (CBGP: 54% vs. GMP: 28%, P < 0.0001), exclusive breastfeeding (CBGP: 73% vs. GMP: 56%, P = 0.001), and timely complementary feeding (CBGP: 72% vs. GMP: 49%, P = 0.014) were reportedly higher among CBGP caregivers. Underweight was 11% (CBGP: 8% vs. GMP: 14%, P = 0.154). Mean dietary diversity scores (10 food groups) were similar (CBGP: 4.49 ± 1.89 vs. GMP: 3.87 ± 1.89, P = 0.057) but more CBGP caregivers (77%) achieved minimum dietary diversity than their GMP counterparts (61%) (P = 0.035). Few caregivers achieved minimum meal frequency (CBGP: 31% vs. GMP: 29%, P = 0.486) and minimum acceptable diet (CBGP: 23% vs. GMP: 21%, P = 0.464) indicators. Number of children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding

  19. The Intergenerational Caregiving Program: A Replication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marlene Cresci; And Others

    The Intergenerational Caregiving Program (ICP), a year long educational experience in human development and child care for older adults, is described in this replication manual. In its first year of operation, the ICP recruited older, usually retired adults from agencies and organizations in San Francisco that serve older people. The 22 older…

  20. Family caregivers' use of humor in conveying information about caring for dependent older adults.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L S; Travis, S S; Pecchioni, L

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three family caregivers were interviewed using a semistructured interview format to explore their experiences managing medication administration and providing long-term care to frail elderly family members. Content analysis of the transcripts utilized the arousal-relief theory of humor (Berlyne, 1969) to understand the frequent use of humorous anecdotes found throughout the interviews. For example, caregivers of individuals experiencing dementia often included smiles, jokes, and "punch lines" in their stories of behavioral problems that complicated medication administration schedules. Adult children frequently used humor to describe their role reversal with aged parents and the parents' forgetfulness, incontinence, or inability to dress without assistance. These accounts were placed in a taxonomy of humor response patterns that included categories for cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses. Second-level analysis created subcategories to reflect the function (relief or coping) that the humor served in the interview situation. It appears that humor is a useful communication tool for family caregivers that releases nervous energy about the interview process and the recall of difficult caregiving events. It is the responsibility of the interviewer to recognize the problems and issues embedded in the interview data and follow up humorous anecdotes with appropriate probes for additional information. Based on the results, a meta-humorous interaction theory is offered as an extension of the arousal-relief theory of humor.

  1. Associations between Child Disabilities and Caregiver Discipline and Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Charlene; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    Using nationally representative samples of 45,964 two- to nine-year-old children and their primary caregivers in 17 developing countries, this study examined the relations between children's cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities and caregivers' use of discipline and violence. Primary caregivers reported on their…

  2. Childhood social inequalities influences neural processes in young adult caregiving.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E

    2015-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty.

  3. Utility of the Life Course Perspective in Research With Mexican American Caregivers of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Crogan, Neva; FNGNA; Belyea, Michael; Coon, David

    2013-01-01

    Research on caregiving of elders in Mexican American families is urgently needed. We know little about family caregivers, family transitions in relation to the caregiving role, reciprocal impact of caregivers and care recipients on one another, adaptive strategies, positive benefits of caregiving (caregiver gain), specific caregiving burdens, or supportive interventions for family caregiving. Theory derivation using the concepts and structure of life course perspective provides a way to fill the knowledge gaps concerning Mexican American caregiving families, taking into account their ethnic status as an important Hispanic subgroup and the unique cultural and contextual factors that mark their caregiving experiences. PMID:18845694

  4. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Home Environment, and Primary Caregiver Risk Factors Predict Child Behavioral Problems at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environments that provided less developmental stimulation and emotional responsiveness to the child, and (c) the presence of PC psychological symptoms and other risk factors. Prenatal MA exposure was associated with child externalizing behavioral problems at 5 years. Home environments that were more conducive to meeting children’s developmental and emotional needs were associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Independent of prenatal MA exposure, PC parenting stress and psychological symptoms were associated with increased child behavioral problems. Findings suggest prenatal MA exposure may contribute to externalizing behavioral problems in early childhood and the importance of considering possible vulnerabilities related to prenatal MA exposure in the context of the child’s caregiving environment. PMID:23330624

  5. Mobile and Wearable Technology Needs for Aging in Place: Perspectives from Older Adults and Their Caregivers and Providers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Carroll, Deidra; Peck, Michelle; Myneni, Sahiti; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place.

  6. Life Course Changes and Parent-Adult Child Contact

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Russell; Deane, Glenn; Spitze, Glenna

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased interest in parent-adult child relations, there has been little attention to how these are influenced by changes in their lives, reflecting transitions and linked lives within a life course perspective. Hybrid multi-level models are used to analyze change in parent-adult child contact over two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Changes in parent-child proximity, parent and child marital status, and child parental status are associated with change in contact; continued coresidence with another adult child is related to contact with noncoresidential children; but change in parent health does not affect contact. Some patterns are stronger for daughters and biological children, who tend to have stronger relationships with parents. These analyses demonstrate how life course transitions of parents and adult children can be examined in family context to understand how changes in the life of one family member may influence relations with another. PMID:25651511

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Pausing in Child and Adult Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the current study were (a) to assess differences in child and adult pausing and (b) to determine whether characteristics of child and adult pausing can be explained by the same language variables. Spontaneous speech samples were obtained from 10 5-year-olds and their accompanying parent using a storytelling/retelling task. Analyses of…

  8. Caregiver Involvement in the Intensive Mental Health Program: Influence on Changes in Child Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Margaret M.; Bowers, Mark J.; Lazicki, Tammy; Krall, Dan; Jacobs, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined behavioral markers of caregiver involvement and the ways in which family participation was related to treatment outcomes in 47 elementary school children with SED enrolled in a school-based intensive mental health program. Measures of caregiver involvement included therapeutic home visits, attendance at therapeutic meetings, completion…

  9. Assessment of Functional Caregiving in Homes with a Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Chen, Shu-Pi C.; Gulley, S. Beverly; Maher, Joan M.; Lawton, Cathrine S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the nature of assessing functional caregiving (FC) via three studies, conducted by a university-public preschool collaboration that was designed to measure mothers' confidence to care for children with intellectual disabilities in their homes. Caregiving of children with intellectual disabilities was conceptualized in terms…

  10. The role of attitudes and culture in family caregiving for older adults.

    PubMed

    Anngela-Cole, Linda; Hilton, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated cultural differences in attitudes toward caregiving and the stress levels of family caregivers. Participants included 98 Japanese American and 86 Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail elders. Analyses using MANOVA and multiple regression analyses revealed that the Caucasian caregivers had more positive attitudes and provided more hours of care than the Japanese caregivers but that both groups had elevated levels of caregiver stress. The stress that family caregivers currently experience could lead to a future generation of care recipients who enter old age in worse condition than their predecessors. Professionals need to work together to develop culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions to address this issue.

  11. Recruiting hospitalized Mexican American elder adults and caregivers: challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Crist, Janice D; Ruiz, Maricruz R; Torres-Urquidy, Oscar H; Pasvogel, Alice; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Minority group members' participation in clinical research is essential for eliminating health disparities. Early recruitment procedures for a randomized control trial involving minority elder adults at local hospitals were unsuccessful, with challenges at the hospital and individual levels. These challenges included referrals for home health care being written late during hospitalization, hospital staff being reluctant to assist recruiters, ill minority elder adults, and protective or unavailable caregivers. We met these challenges with evidence-based strategies, including changing inclusion criteria, increasing study staff, branding our study, using a consistently respectful manner, and pacing our process. After revising our approaches in various ways, we recruited close to our goal, with relatively good retention. Participants reported that benefiting the community, rather than monetary reward, was a strong motivator to join the study. Unexpected recruitment expenditures exceeded the recruitment budget. Our experiences include strategies that can be more cost effective in future studies at both hospital and individual levels. PMID:23244443

  12. Intended Sensitive and Harsh Caregiving Responses to Infant Crying: The Role of Cry Pitch and Perceived Urgency in an Adult Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…

  13. Responsive Infant Caregiving: Eight Proven Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifield, Lisa; Sanders, Tisha Bennett

    2007-01-01

    Brain research has confirmed what many early care and education professionals have known all along--warm, nurturing relationships among babies, toddlers, and their caregivers support children's development. The nurturing adult-child interaction that supports children's development is called "responsive care". Responsive care is supported by small…

  14. Living longer with adult high-grade glioma: setting a research agenda for patients and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Russell, Bethany; Collins, Anna; Dally, Michael; Dowling, Anthony; Gold, Michelle; Murphy, Michael; Philip, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    The long-term survival of patients with adult high-grade glioma (HGG) remains poor, but for those who do live longer functional status and neurocognitive ability may be influenced by residual or recurrent tumour, or treatment-related complications. The aim of this review was to examine the current literature regarding the quality of life and experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers, with a view to understanding the burden of treatment on patient abilities and deficits over time. Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL databases were searched for the core concept of HGG in combination with an aspect of quality of long-term survival. Key findings of the 12 included studies were identified and synthesised thematically. There is a paucity of dedicated studies which have investigated the experiences of this cohort. The strength of existing literature is limited by the systematic exclusion of the poorest functioning patients and the under-representation of caregiver perspectives. Discrepancies in how patients view their quality of life were highlighted, despite consistent findings of significant physical and functional impairment. This review confirmed the presence of important differences between patient and caregiver views regarding patient abilities following treatment. Caregiver burden was found to be high, due to multiple dynamic and relentless stressors. The true experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers remains unclear, particularly for patients with poorer neurocognitive and functional outcomes. Further research is required to clarify and replicate findings, explore discrepancies between patient and caregiver views, and to specifically investigate how caregiver needs and experiences may evolve over time. PMID:24980038

  15. When Do Caregivers Talk? The Influences of Activity and Time of Day on Caregiver Speech and Child Vocalizations in Two Childcare Environments

    PubMed Central

    Soderstrom, Melanie; Wittebolle, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the language environment in influencing language outcomes is well known, but few studies have addressed the contextual factors that influence the amount of speech heard and vocalizations produced by a young child under naturalistic conditions. We analyze effects of type of activity engaged in by the child and time of day on quantitative measures of the language environment. We found effects of both activity and time of day. Structured activities generated the highest levels of adult language, but not necessarily the most child vocalizations. Home and daycare environments looked overall very similar on these measures, however there were important differences across the two environments with respect to the specific effects of activity and time of day. PMID:24260443

  16. The Related Factors With Resilience in Caregivers Whose Child With Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-26

    Condition 1. Children With ALL Are Still Alive and the Age of 18 Years of Age.; Condition 2. Has Been Completed to Guide the Treatment Regimen Were in Remission.; Condition 3. Caregiver Can or Taiwanese Language Communicator.

  17. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... MS, to adult children caring for parents with Alzheimer’s disease. CAN (the National Family Caregivers Association) is a non-profit organization providing education, peer support, and resources to family caregivers across ...

  18. Do infants influence their quality of care? Infants' communicative gestures predict caregivers' responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Vallotton, Claire D

    2009-12-01

    Infants' effects on adults are a little studied but important aspect of development. What do infants do that increases caregiver responsiveness in childcare environments? Infants' communicative behaviors (i.e. smiling, crying) affect mothers' responsiveness; and preschool children's language abilities affect teachers' responses in the classroom setting. However, the effects of infants' intentional communications on either parents' or non-parental caregivers' responsiveness have not been examined. Using longitudinal video data from an infant classroom where infant signing was used along with conventional gestures (i.e. pointing), this study examines whether infants' use of gestures and signs elicited greater responsiveness from caregivers during daily interactions. Controlling child age and individual child effects, infants' gestures and signs used specifically to respond to caregivers elicited more responsiveness from caregivers during routine interactions. Understanding the effects of infants' behaviors on caregivers is critical for helping caregivers understand and improve their own behavior towards children in their care. PMID:19560826

  19. Predictors of child molestation: adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-02-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low victim empathy significantly increased the odds of child molester status. Findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  20. The relationship between religiosity and health behaviors in female caregivers of older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Yaron G; Mausbach, Brent T; Atkinson, Philip J; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three dimensions of religiosity: (a) organizational religiosity (e.g. attendance at religious events), (b) non-organizational religiosity (e.g. prayer), and (c) subjective religiosity (e.g. importance of religion) and caregiver health behavior patterns in a sample of Latina and Caucasian female caregivers of older adult relatives with dementia. It was hypothesized that religiosity would have a significant association with reduced cumulative health risk as determined by an index of health behaviors. It was also hypothesized that, when examining the individual health behaviors subsumed in the overarching index, religiosity would be positively associated with adaptive health behaviors like exercise and negatively associated with health risk behaviors like smoking. Amongst Caucasians, increased subjective religiosity was related to increased cumulative health risk. Conversely, in Latinas, non-organizational religiosity was positively correlated with improved dietary practices (reduced dietary restriction). Increased levels of subjective religiosity were significantly associated with decreased maintenance of a routine exercise regimen across ethnic groups. Recommendations for clinicians and religious leaders, and avenues of future research are discussed.

  1. Adult-Child Incest: A Sample of Substantiated Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes adult-child incest involving 16 victims. Cases were analyzed and discussed in relationship to previous studies. Emphasis is placed on replicated and newly identified risk factors including alcohol dependency, spouse abuse, other (nonsexual) child abuse or neglect, inadequate housing, social isolation, birth order, and other family…

  2. Adult-Child Incest: A Review of Research and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the literature which addressses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Highlights incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics of the incest family; effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of the Child Care Class for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Sandra

    In 1986, the Ability Based on Older Dependable Experience (ABODE) Program was developed at De Anza College to train older adults to serve as a temporary source of child care on an emergency basis. The program was sponsored by Tandem Computers, Incorporated, out of a desire to provide better employee benefits with respect to child care. The program…

  4. Economic burden to primary informal caregivers of hospitalized older adults in Mexico: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of out of pocket spending for the Mexican population is high compared to other countries. Even patients insured by social security institutions have to face the cost of health goods, services or nonmedical expenses related to their illness. Primary caregivers, in addition, experience losses in productivity by taking up responsibilities in care giving activities. This situation represents a mayor economic burden in an acute care setting for elderly population. There is evidence that specialized geriatric services could represent lower overall costs in these circumstances and could help reduce these burdens. The aim of this study was to investigate economic burden differences in caregivers of elderly patients comparing two acute care services (Geriatric and Internal Medicine). Specifically, economic costs associated with hospitalization of older adults in these two settings by evaluating health care related out of pocket expenditures (OOPE), non-medical OOPE and indirect costs. Methods A comparative analysis of direct and indirect costs in hospitalised elderly patients (60-year or older) and their primary informal caregivers in two health care settings, using a prospective cohort was performed. Economic burden was measured by out of pocket expenses and indirect costs (productivity lost) due to care giving activities. The analysis included a two-part model, the first one allowing the estimation of the probability of observing any health care related and non-medical OOPE; and the second one, the positive observations or expenditures. Results A total of 210 subjects were followed during their hospital stay. Of the total number of subjects 95% reported at least one non-medical OOPE, being daily transportation the most common expense. Regarding medical OOPE, medicines were the most common expense, and the mean numbers of days without income were 4.12 days. Both OOPE and indirect costs were significantly different between type of services, with less

  5. A Dimensional Analysis of Caregiver Burden among Spouses and Adult Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Montgomery, Rhonda J. V.; Kosloski, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Caregiver burden is a multidimensional construct, addressing tension and anxiety (stress burden), changes in dyadic relationships (relationship burden), and time infringements (objective burden) resulting from caregiving. The study aims were to assess (a) whether the dimensions of burden were the same for caregiving spouses…

  6. Caregiving Styles: A Cognitive and Behavioral Typology Associated With Dementia Family Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing number of elderly individuals are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD), many of whom receive daily caregiving from spouse or adult child. Caregiving is a “cultural activity,” and as such it is strongly influenced by sociocultural beliefs about caregiving and how it should be enacted. Understanding this thinking–action process has important implications for future research and service. Reasoned action theory provides empirical evidence that attitudes and beliefs, as they are influenced by the social environment, predict intentions to act. In turn, behavioral intentions can reliably predict behaviors. This grounded theory study describes a typology of caregiving styles relevant to family members of an individual with ADRD, where caregiving style is defined as a culturally based pattern in thinking and action. The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between caregiver intentions and care strategies. Methods: Study participants included 97 individuals residing in the Washington, DC, area, who provide daily care for a family member with ADRD. Narrative data were collected from each caregiver during three 1-hr interview sessions. A subset of 30 caregiver–care recipient (CR) dyads was videotaped during typical interactions. Results: Four caregiving styles were identified (facilitating, balancing, advocating, and directing), which differ primarily in the intended focus of care and preferred interactions with the CR. Implications: The results provide a foundation for future studies of the relationships between sociocultural context, caregiving styles and strategies, and ensuing outcomes for caregiver–CR dyads. PMID:21335422

  7. The experience of caring for an adult child with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuck, I; du Mont, P; Evans, G; Shupe, J

    1997-06-01

    The experience of caring for an adult child with schizophrenia was explored using phenomenological methodology. Nine parents who were the primary caretakers of an adult child with schizophrenia participated in qualitative interviews. The resulting transcripts were analyzed to discover the structure of the lived experience. The study revealed that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in a child is experienced by the parent as a destructive force that interrupts and radically transforms the normative family life trajectory. This grief-filled experience involves both the loss of an imagined, idealized child and a transformation of the physically present child into a needy stranger. Implications are discussed and applied to community-based, family-centered mental health care. Importantly, the revealed dissatisfaction with initial mental health evaluations suggests that modification of current practices could produce significant benefits.

  8. Impact of a multicomponent support services program on informal caregivers of adults aging with disabilities.

    PubMed

    LaVela, Sherri L; Johnson, Brenda W; Miskevics, Scott; Weaver, Frances M

    2012-01-01

    A multicomponent support services program was implemented for veterans aging with disabilities and their informal caregivers (n = 42 dyads). Caregiver outcomes (satisfaction, physical and mental health status, burden, and benefits) were evaluated before and after program use. Caregivers reported significant improvements in mental health post-program. Caregivers who provided care to individuals with impaired physical health experienced meaningful improvements in burden after the support services were rendered. Supporting caregiver health status through such programs is vital to preserve noninstitutional long-term care for persons aging with disabilities, particularly when care is provided over many years to an individual with physical impairments.

  9. The More the Merrier? Multiple Parent-Adult Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.; Spitze, Glenna; Deane, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Although parent-adult child ties are generally positive, most parents have multiple children whose relations may yield collective ambivalence combining higher and lower quality. Little research has investigated these multiple relations. NSFH respondents aged 50+ with adult children (N = 2,270) are used to assess patterns of quality and contact…

  10. Significance of Individuation in Adult Child--Parent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Heike M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of adult children's individuation for the adult child--parent relationship. Following Youniss, individuation was assessed via its dimensions of both connectedness and individuality. A sample of 349 participants between 20 and 47 years of age were given questionnaires containing scales from the Network of…

  11. Parentally Bereaved Children's Grief: Self-System Beliefs as Mediators of the Relations between Grief and Stressors and Caregiver-Child Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether 3 self-system beliefs--fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem--mediated the relations between stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality and parentally bereaved youths' general grief and intrusive grief thoughts. Cross-sectional (n = 340 youth) and longitudinal (n = 100 youth) models were tested. In…

  12. Characteristics of Elderly and Other Vulnerable Adult Victims of Homicide by a Caregiver: National Violent Death Reporting System--17 U.S. States, 2003-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole

    2011-01-01

    Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and…

  13. Child-Centered Behaviors of Caregivers with 12-Month-Old Infants: Associations with Passive Joint Engagement and Later Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Carol Hamer; Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates three aspects of social communication in 12-month-old infants and their caregivers: (a) caregiver conversational style, (b) caregiver gesture, and (c) infant engagement. Differences in caregiver behavior during passive joint engagement were associated with language outcomes. Although total mean duration of infant time in…

  14. Psychological morbidity and autonomic reactivity to emotional stimulus in parental cancer: a study with adult children caregivers.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, R J; Pereira, M G

    2014-01-01

    Literature suggests that parental cancer can provoke aversive emotional arousal in adult children, who may perceive caregiving as a traumatic experience. Limited research has been conducted on emotional and physiological impact of family caregiving for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to examine psychological and physiological responses in parental cancer's caregivers. Two matched groups of adult children, with 78 participants each (parental cancer vs. control), completed psychological measures of distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and burden. Additionally, each participant visualised standardised pictures with different emotional valences, while cardiovascular (heart rate) and electrodermal responses (skin conductance) were recorded. Between-group analysis showed significant differences on all psychological variables, and on skin conductance for all types of pictures. However, for the heart rate responses, differences were found only for pictures with unpleasant emotional arousal. In the parental cancer group, the heart rate peak response stood out as a predictor of PTSD symptoms, after controlling for distress and burden. This study highlights the important role of psychophysiological measures of family caregiving in oncology. Physiological responses may explain a higher prevalence of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, biofeedback combined with targeted psychosocial interventions for relaxation could be of great clinical value for this population.

  15. “It just consumes your life”: Quality of Life for Informal Caregivers of Diverse Older Adults with Late-Life Disability

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Julie N.; Barnhart, Caroline E.; Cagle, John; Smith, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective for the study Our objective was to generate hypotheses about factors affecting QoL assessments for informal caregivers of diverse older adults 65+ with late-life disability. Results Overall, 52% of caregivers experienced a decline in QoL. Factors affecting caregivers’ QoL were grouped into 4 domains: social, emotional, physical and financial. Factors associated with decreased QoL were less time for self, competing financial demands, and the physical and emotional impact of the patient’s illness. Factors associated with no change in QoL were minimal caregiving responsibilities, a sense of filial duty, and QoL being consistently poor over time. Factors associated with improved QoL were perceived rewards in caregiving, receiving institutional help, and increased experience. Chinese caregivers were more likely to cite filial duty as their motivator for continued caregiving than were Caucasian caregivers. Conclusion Informal caregivers take on a huge burden in enabling older adults to age in the community. These caregivers need more support in maintaining their QoL. PMID:25948041

  16. Cultural and child-related predictors of distress among Latina caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin A; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Lobato, Debra

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this article is to examine associations among socioeconomic, cultural, and child factors and maternal distress among families of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Latino and nonLatino White (NLW) mothers of children with and without ID (N  =  192) reported on familism, language acculturation, maternal distress, child adaptive functioning, and child behavior problems. Among mothers of children with ID, higher levels of child behavior problems mediated the association between Latina ethnicity and elevated maternal distress. Associations between child behavior problems and maternal distress in Latina mothers of children with ID were moderated by single-parent marital status, higher familism, and lower English usage. Thus, child and cultural factors contribute to elevated distress among Latina mothers of children with ID.

  17. Cultural and child-related predictors of distress among Latina caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin A; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Lobato, Debra

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this article is to examine associations among socioeconomic, cultural, and child factors and maternal distress among families of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Latino and nonLatino White (NLW) mothers of children with and without ID (N  =  192) reported on familism, language acculturation, maternal distress, child adaptive functioning, and child behavior problems. Among mothers of children with ID, higher levels of child behavior problems mediated the association between Latina ethnicity and elevated maternal distress. Associations between child behavior problems and maternal distress in Latina mothers of children with ID were moderated by single-parent marital status, higher familism, and lower English usage. Thus, child and cultural factors contribute to elevated distress among Latina mothers of children with ID. PMID:25715183

  18. Family Caregiving or Caregiving Alone: Who Helps the Helper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Martin-Matthews, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study advances the understanding of family caregiving by examining the relationship between adult children caregivers and their helpers. Specifically, it focuses on examining "who helps whom" and extends analyses beyond the dyadic focus of caregiving in later life. The focus on helping and caregiving addresses the variety of contributions and…

  19. Family Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on family caregiving. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

  20. The economic consequences for parents of losing an adult child to AIDS: evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Knodel, John; Im-Em, Wassana

    2004-09-01

    An examination of the economic consequences for older-age parents of losing an adult child to AIDS in Thailand based on quantitative data derived from a key informant study and a direct interview survey with parents yielded the following main findings: (1) parents frequently paid for their children's care and treatment, but government health insurance and to a lesser extent welfare measures helped alleviate these expenses; (2) parental caregiving often disrupted economic activity, although the resulting opportunity costs were limited by the typically short duration of caregiving; (3) parents commonly paid for funeral costs but benefited from funeral society memberships and customary contributions from those attending; (4) only a minority of parents supported AIDS orphans although orphaned grandchildren often ended up with their grandparents; (5) most deceased children had contributed financially to the parental household but only a minority were main providers. Poorer parents, however, were most likely to lose a main provider and experience severe financial hardship; and (6) although poorer parents spent much less on expenses related to the illness and death of their children, they were much more likely than better-off parents to be seriously burdened by these expenses. Programs are needed to address the plight of AIDS parents but should target those who are most susceptible to resulting economic hardship. PMID:15186899

  1. What it means to be an adult child of a person with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kjällman-Alm, Annika; Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf; Hellzen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia as a disease has increased worldwide with advancing age and growing population numbers, affecting whole families. However, most previous research does not separate the spouses or cohabitants from the adult children, but instead regards all next of kin involved in the everyday care of the person suffering from dementia as caregivers. This has made it difficult to find previous research regarding what it means to be an adult child of a person with dementia, and as such, the aim of this study is to explore that topic. The method used was narrative interviews analysed using phenomenological hermeneutics. Our comprehensive understanding showed that to be an adult child of a person with dementia means being burdened with the responsibility to act on behalf of the diseased parent despite a deep sense of grief and loss, which leads to frustration and despondence. The adult children's existence and reality are threatened not only by the loss of the parent but also by the possibility that one day they too may inherit the disease. This could be compared to a psychic crisis, which is defined as a situation that leads to radical changes in the afflicted person's relationship to life and reality, or, simply, “an upset in a steady state”. The findings suggest that adult children of people with dementia are in need of support for a substantial period of time in order to adapt to the fact that they have lost a parent who is still alive. They also need information about the disease and the process of diagnosis and treatment to feel more a part of the process, as well as understand the behavior and needs of their parent. PMID:24152431

  2. Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve the Provision of Information for Adults with Primary Brain Tumors and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Langbecker, Danette; Janda, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adults with primary brain tumors and their caregivers have significant information needs. This review assessed the effect of interventions to improve information provision for adult primary brain tumor patients and/or their caregivers. Methods: We included randomized or non-randomized trials testing educational interventions that had outcomes of information provision, knowledge, understanding, recall, or satisfaction with the intervention, for adults diagnosed with primary brain tumors and/or their family or caregivers. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched for studies published between 1980 and June 2014. Results: Two randomized controlled, 1 non-randomized controlled, and 10 single group pre–post trials enrolled more than 411 participants. Five group, four practice/process change, and four individual interventions assessed satisfaction (12 studies), knowledge (4 studies), and information provision (2 studies). Nine studies reported high rates of satisfaction. Three studies showed statistically significant improvements over time in knowledge and two showed greater information was provided to intervention than control group participants, although statistical testing was not performed. Discussion: The trials assessed intermediate outcomes such as satisfaction, and only 4/13 reported on knowledge improvements. Few trials had a randomized controlled design and risk of bias was either evident or could not be assessed in most domains. PMID:25667919

  3. A Telephone Support Program for Adult Day Center Caregivers: Early Indications of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendron, Tracey; Pelco, Lynn E.; Pryor, Jennifer; Barsness, Sonya; Seward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The Virginia Commonwealth University/A Grace Place Caregiver Telephone Support Pilot Program was developed as a service-learning experience for graduate students to address the need for family caregiver support services. The Telephone Support Program was developed by the Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Gerontology, in collaboration…

  4. Child and adolescent labor, socioeconomic status, and reduced adult height.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Rosa Amélia; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study of 3262 individuals aged 18 to 65 years from Aracaju, Brazil investigates the effects of child/adolescent labor (CAL) experience on adult height, considering gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and skin color. We hypothesized that the younger children are at their first job, the greater the negative effects will be on their later growth as adults. Child/adolescent laborers reported having paid jobs before 14 years of age. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, CAL experience was negatively associated with adult height independent of skin color; among females, this inverse association was observed for those in the low and high SES strata. Among males in the low and medium SES strata, there was a linear inverse relation between age at first job and adult height. CAL could reduce height in adulthood, suggesting a need for programs that reduce the impact of CAL on future physical development.

  5. Recalled attributes of parents with Alzheimer's disease: relevance for caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Chiriboga, David A.; Jang, Yuri; Molinari, Victor; Kim, Giyeon; Ko, Jung Eun

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology has long been involved in studies of factors that lead to more effective caregiving. Drawing on the theory of distributive justice, the underlying hypothesis of this paper was that perceptions of what a demented parent was like, prior to becoming ill, influence an adult child caregiver's provision of care, as well as the caregiver's own well-being. A secondary question dealt with the nature of retrospective ratings by caregiver informants. The sample consisted of triads of two adult children (N = 385) and a parent (N = 201) diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, although in a few instances only one adult child was interviewed. Both retrospective and current ratings of the parent were made by caregivers, who were administered a semantic differential instrument twice over a 10-month period. Comparison of ratings from first and second interview waves suggested that perceptions of what a parent was like, prior to the onset of dementia, were more stable over time than perceptions of what the parent was currently like, at each interview. Ratings of premorbid attributes were more strongly related to ratings of the present for those parents who displayed the least evidence of cognitive decline. Regression analyses supported the hypothesized relationship between adult children's perceptions and both provision of care and well-being variables. Results have implications for projections of caregiver burden and for placement into long-term care. PMID:25750833

  6. Strength and stress: Positive and negative impacts on caregivers for older adults in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura; Thapsuwan, Sasinee; Thongcharoenchupong, Natjera

    2016-01-01

    Aim To understand the experiences of caregivers with older people living in Thailand, particularly as related to quality of life and stress management. Method In‐depth interviews with 17 family caregivers were conducted and then data were thematically analysed. Results Carers experience not only negative impacts but also positive impacts from caregiving. Negative impacts include emotional stress, financial struggles and worry due to lack of knowledge. Positive impacts include affection from care recipients, good relationships with caregivers before needing care themselves and encouragement from the wider community. Opportunities to show gratitude, build karma (from good deeds) and ideas shaped largely by Buddhist teachings result in positive experiences. Negotiating between the extremes of bliss and suffering and understanding suffering as a part of life may help carers manage their stress. Conclusions Temples and centres for older people could be engaged to develop caregiving programs. PMID:26969906

  7. [Influence of child nutrition on health status during adult years].

    PubMed

    Ksiazyk, J

    2000-01-01

    The problem of safety of child's nutrition should be considered from the moment of his conception because intrauterine growth may be related to the diseases in adult life: atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Strict vegetarian diets are not appropriate for children. The task of proper nutrition in childhood is to prevent adult life diseases and to promote potentially highest quality of life and development of cognitive and intellectual functions, and proper growth. The role of microelements - iron and zinc - is also discussed.

  8. International adaptation: psychosocial and parenting experiences of caregivers who travel to the United States to obtain acute medical care for their seriously ill child.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Rachel; Ludi, Erica; Pao, Maryland; Wiener, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing trend of travel for medical purposes, little is known about the experience of parents and other caregivers who come to the United States specifically to obtain medical treatment for their seriously ill child. In this exploratory, descriptive qualitative study, we used a semi-structured narrative guide to conduct in-depth interviews with 22 Spanish- or English-speaking caregivers about the challenges encountered and adaptation required when entering a new medical and cultural environment. Caregivers identified the language barrier and transnational parenting as challenges while reporting hospital staff and their own families as major sources of support. Using the results of the study as a guide, clinical and program implications are provided and recommendations for social work practice discussed. PMID:23947542

  9. Victim Therapy with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…

  10. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  11. Children's Planning of Classroom Plays with Adult or Child Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Sennett, Jacquelyn; Matusov, Eugene; Rogoff, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the planning that occurred when children participated in classroom playcrafting with either adult or child leadership. In a first-/second-grade classroom in an innovative public school, we videotaped 11 sessions in which children volunteered to develop a play with small groups of classmates and seven sessions in which adult…

  12. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  13. Age, gender, kinship and caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Leotta, Rebecca; Puppi, Irene; Rossi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurons and causes progressive physical impairment. Also, other functions, such as breathing, swallowing and speech are compromised, and the loss of independence makes caregiver burden extremely high. The present study aimed at evaluating the differences in the caregiver burden due to age, gender and kinship. Women reported a higher physical and social burden than men, and partners scored higher in several dimensions of the caregiver burden when compared to sons and daughters. With respect to adult child caregivers, daughters reported higher levels of developmental burden than sons. Age has a significant impact on the caregiver burden, especially for the time dedicated to assistance and physical burden; disease severity is significantly related to the physical burden as well, and also with the developmental burden. PMID:24588639

  14. Talker intelligibility: Child and adult listener performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Duncan; Hazan, Valerie

    2002-05-01

    In a study of talker intelligibility, 45 voices (adults, 11-12 year old children) were presented to 135 listeners (adults, 11-12, and 7-8 year olds). Word materials were presented in a ``single-word'' condition, and in a ``triplet'' condition, where a ``normalizing'' precursor sentence preceded three keywords. In both conditions, voices were randomized, with no consecutive presentations from the same speaker. The specially designed word-set consisted of 124 words chosen to maximize consonant confusions. Adult female speakers were significantly more intelligible than other groups, as predicted by previous research, but the difference was small. The error rates for 7-8 year olds were slightly but significantly higher than those for the older children and adults. The effect of presentation condition, however, was not significant for any listener group. Across all listener groups, rankings of speakers by error rates were strikingly consistent, with a distinct cluster of eight low-intelligibility speakers common to all listener groups. This suggests that speaker intelligibility is little influenced by listener-related factors. In terms of their perception of speaker characteristics, children aged seven and above are showing similar patterns of behavior to adults, even though the younger children showed marginally higher error rates. [Work funded by the Wellcome Trust.

  15. Symptoms of mental impairment among elderly adults and their effects on family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Deimling, G T; Bass, D M

    1986-11-01

    Research that has examined the relationship between caregiving stress and elders' symptoms of mental impairment has focused primarily on cognitive incapacity. This research expands the symptoms of mental impairment to include caregivers' reports of problems in elders' social functioning and the presence of disruptive behavior, in addition to the traditional measure of cognitive incapacity. Results from a study of 614 families living with and caring for an impaired elder show cognitive incapacity to have a less important direct effect on caregiving stress than disruptive behavior and impaired social functioning. Cognitive incapacity does have an important indirect effect through its influence on disruptive behavior and social functioning.

  16. Compressive behaviour of child and adult cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Öhman, Caroline; Baleani, Massimiliano; Pani, Carla; Taddei, Fulvia; Alberghini, Marco; Viceconti, Marco; Manfrini, Marco

    2011-10-01

    In this study, cortical bone tissue from children was investigated. It is extremely difficult to obtain human child tissue. Therefore, the only possibility was to use bone tissue, free from any lesion, collected from young bone cancer patients. The compressive mechanical behaviour of child bone tissue was compared to the behaviour of adult tissue. Moreover, two hypotheses were tested: 1) that the mechanical behaviour of both groups is correlated to ash density; 2) that yield strain is an invariant. Small parts of the diaphysis of femora or tibiae from 12 children (4-15 years) and 12 adults (22-61 years) were collected. Cylindrical specimens were extracted from the cortical wall along the longitudinal axis of the diaphysis. A total of 107 specimens underwent compressive testing (strain rate: 0.1 s(-1)). Only the specimens showing a regular load-displacement curve (94) were considered valid and thereafter reduced to ash. It was found that the child bone tissue had significant lower compressive Young's modulus (-34%), yield stress (-38%), ultimate stress (-33%) and ash density (-17%) than the adult tissue. Conversely, higher compressive ultimate strain was found in the child group (+24%). Despite specimens extracted from both children and adults, ash density largely described the variation in tissue strength and stiffness (R(2)=in the range of 0.86-0.91). Furthermore, yield strain seemed to be roughly an invariant to subject age and tissue density. These results confirm that the mechanical properties of child cortical bone tissue are different from that of adult tissue. However, such differences are correlated to differences in tissue ash density. In fact, ash density was found to be a good predictor of strength and stiffness, also for cortical bone collected from children. Finally, the present findings support the hypothesis that compressive yield strain is an invariant.

  17. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  18. Selected Theories of Child Development and the Effect of the Caregiver on Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Jennifer Schroer

    Theories and quantitative studies were reviewed to address the issue of what promotes adaptive behavior development in very young children. Attention is given to the interactionist theories of Robert R. Sears, Eric H. Erikson, David Elkind, and Burton White. Commonalities among theorists are delineated in terms of stages, child rearing practices,…

  19. Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

  20. Child's play: the creativity of older adults.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2012-09-01

    In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping.

  1. Division of Labor in Child Care: A Cross Cultural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onibokun, Yemi

    Using data extracted from an international study, the 1988 IEA Preprimary Study Phase I, this study examined the number of hours a Nigerian child and an American child each spends with different caregiving adults on a typical day. The focus of the study was on the parents' commitment of time to child care. Results show that out of the 16 hours an…

  2. Group caregiver language checklist.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M E; Shelton, D; Pearson, A A; Miller, M

    1992-01-01

    Because young children with language disabilities frequently are placed in group-care settings, there is a need to make judgments concerning the language environment of those settings. The GCLC is offered as one procedure for assessment of the language environment provided by the caregiver(s) in a group setting. The assessment provides information that may assist in matching the environment to a particular child's needs and may provide a basis for assisting caregivers in improving the language environment and addressing a child's needs. The authors welcome comments from the readers.

  3. Child Maltreatment and Perceived Family Environment as Risk Factors for Adult Rape: Is Child Sexual Abuse the Most Salient Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, T.L.; Brown, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Child maltreatment and family functioning were examined as predictors of adult rape in a sample of 925 college women. Method:: Information was obtained from retrospective self-report questionnaires. Child sexual abuse (CSA) was assessed with the Life Experiences Questionnaire, child emotional abuse (CEA) and physical abuse (CPA) were…

  4. Children with Communication Impairments: Caregivers' and Teachers' Shared Book-Reading Quality and Children's Level of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed two aims: First, to examine the quality of adult shared book-reading behaviors for teachers and caregivers of children with communication impairments (CI) and, second, to compare the level of child literacy engagement during the teacher-led (group) and caregiver-led (one-on-one) shared book-reading sessions. Sixteen children…

  5. Cybersupport: empowering asthma caregivers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Claire E

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated 6.5 million children have asthma (Akinbami, 2005). Due to the chronic and unpredictable nature of asthma, the condition places excessive demands on the primary caregiver. The complexity of asthma management has required parents to take increased responsibility for the assessment and treatment of their child's asthma (Dickinson & Dignam, 2002). Many families are turning to the Internet for information and support. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the "lived" experiences of an online asthma caregivers support group. Archived messages posted to an online discussion list were analyzed using phenomenological thematic analysis. Five themes emerged providing insight into the meaning of caregiving and the provision of social support. Online support narratives provide a unique way to gain insight and understanding of the experiences of mother's enacting the caregiver role. Understanding the everyday lives of asthma caregivers can help nurses and other health care providers better meet caregiver needs.

  6. Child versus adult psychoanalysis: two processes or one?

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Child analysis continues to be seen as a different technique from adult analysis because children are still involved in a developmental process and because the primary objects continue to play active roles in their lives. This paper argues that this is a false dichotomy. An extended vignette of the analysis of a latency-aged girl is used to demonstrate that the psychoanalytic process that develops in child analysis is structurally the same as that in adult analysis. Both revolve around the analysis of resistance and transference and use both to promote knowledge of the patient's mind at work. And both techniques formulate interventions based on the analyst's appraisal of the patient's mental organization. It is hoped that stressing the essential commonality of both techniques will promote the development of an overarching theory of psychoanalytic technique.

  7. Youth engaging in online harassment: associations with caregiver-child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2004-06-01

    To date, research focused on "traditional" (i.e. in-person) youth bullying behaviour has documented serious psychosocial challenges for those involved. How this literature translates to youth engaging in aggressive behaviours online has yet to be examined. Using the largest US sample of youth Internet users to date, psychosocial characteristics of youth engaging in Internet harassment were examined. Results from the nationally representative survey suggested that Internet harassment is a significant public health issue, with aggressors facing multiple psychosocial challenges including poor parent-child relationships, substance use, and delinquency. Comparisons to traditional bullies were made, with similarities and differences noted.

  8. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    PubMed

    Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; Keenleyside, Mairi; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan Daly; Hayes, Jennifer; Cahill, Paul; Noonan, Hester; O'Shea, Helen; McCullagh, Avril; McGuinness, Shaun; Rodgers, Catherine; Whelan, Neal; Sheppard, Noel; Browne, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered. PMID:26026360

  9. The interrelationships among parenting stress and quality of life of the caregiver and preschool child with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Fang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Chen, Chwen-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of quality of life (QOL) of primary caregivers and their preschool children with very low birth weight (VLBW) and parenting stress. Primary caregivers of 118 VLBW and 170 non-VLBW children completed questionnaires. Structural equation modeling suggested that the QOL of the primary caregivers was directly related to parenting stress, and that parenting stress was directly related to the children's QOL. The aforementioned relationship did not differ between VLBW and non-VLBW groups. Targeting the QOL and parenting skills of the primary caregiver could also improve the QOL of the preschooler.

  10. Real-Time Coaching with Bug-in-Ear Technology: A Practical Approach to Support Families in Their Child's Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie

    2015-01-01

    Variability in the quality of adult-child interactions among caregivers of young children can be problematic for children's development. However, professional development has been successful in improving caregivers' positive interactions with children. Blending principles of adult learning theory with technology-based coaching can provide a…

  11. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in Caring for an Adult Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…

  12. Supporting Nutrition in Early Care and Education Settings: The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…

  13. Contrasting experiences with child health care services by mothers and professional caregivers in transitional housing.

    PubMed

    Amen, Maisha M; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-07-01

    The study examined experiences of mothers and health care providers with preventive child health care services using qualitative methods at a primary care clinic located in transitional housing for homeless families in an urban community with predominantly Black American residents. Participants were 20 mothers and 4 health care professionals. Three major domains emerged: (a). the infrastructure of the clinic and health care delivery poses barriers to mothers' access and use of services for their children; (b). specialized, biomedical-driven care produces fragmented care delivery not responsive to the comprehensive nature of problems of mothers and their children; and (c). organizational strategies for improving access and use of health care services are directed by health care providers' value orientations. Findings support existence of infrastructural characteristics of the health care system that maintains differential value orientations and power structure, and care delivery processes that are non responsive to racially diverse and poor mothers.

  14. Stakeholder Perspectives on Policies to Support Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…

  15. Barriers to Caregiver Compliance with Eating and Drinking Recommendations for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, Jane; Goldbart, Juliet; Burton, Mark H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is scant research on the subject of dysphagia and people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the barriers which caregivers believe make following Speech and Language Therapists' (SLTs) dysphagia management strategies more difficult. Method: Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted with 46 caregivers…

  16. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home palliative care services for adults with advanced illness and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Barbara; Calanzani, Natalia; Curiale, Vito; McCrone, Paul; Higginson, Irene J

    2013-01-01

    Background Extensive evidence shows that well over 50% of people prefer to be cared for and to die at home provided circumstances allow choice. Despite best efforts and policies, one-third or less of all deaths take place at home in many countries of the world. Objectives 1. To quantify the effect of home palliative care services for adult patients with advanced illness and their family caregivers on patients' odds of dying at home; 2. to examine the clinical effectiveness of home palliative care services on other outcomes for patients and their caregivers such as symptom control, quality of life, caregiver distress and satisfaction with care; 3. to compare the resource use and costs associated with these services; 4. to critically appraise and summarise the current evidence on cost-effectiveness. Search methods We searched 12 electronic databases up to November 2012. We checked the reference lists of all included studies, 49 relevant systematic reviews, four key textbooks and recent conference abstracts. We contacted 17 experts and researchers for unpublished data. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITSs) evaluating the impact of home palliative care services on outcomes for adults with advanced illness or their family caregivers, or both. Data collection and analysis One review author assessed the identified titles and abstracts. Two independent reviewers performed assessment of all potentially relevant studies, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. We carried out meta-analysis where appropriate and calculated numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTBs) for the primary outcome (death at home). Main results We identified 23 studies (16 RCTs, 6 of high quality), including 37,561 participants and 4042 family caregivers, largely with advanced cancer but also congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive

  17. Care-related decision-making satisfaction and caregiver well-being in families caring for older members.

    PubMed

    Smerglia, V L; Deimling, G T

    1997-10-01

    Families provide care and make decisions regarding care within the context of specific structural characteristics and the broader family environment. This research analyzes data from 244 adult child and spouse caregiver interviews. It examines the impact of structural variables (e.g., caregiver type, elder impairment) and family environment (adaptability, conflict, cohesion) on satisfaction with care-related decision making and caregiver well-being. Regression analysis results indicate that aspects of family environment such as adaptability and conflict are the best predictors of decision-making satisfaction are the best predictors of caregiver depression.

  18. The Caregiver Strain Questionnaire: Measuring the Impact on the Family of Living with a Child with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Ana Maria; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Bickman, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    A study of 984 families of children with emotional and behavioral disturbance used the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire to assess the effects of the shift of primary caregiving to the family due to deinstitutionalization. Results indicate the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, which also identified three related but unique dimensions of…

  19. Youth, Caregiver, and Staff Perspectives on an Initiative to Promote Success of Emerging Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stein, Kathleen F; Connors, Elizabeth H; Chambers, Kerri L; Thomas, Charmaine L; Stephan, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is more challenging for youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) as compared to youth with other disability types and typically-developing peers. Outcomes for emerging adults with EBD as a group are particularly concerning in the domains of unemployment, educational dropout rates, and interactions with the judicial system including incarceration, early parenting, homelessness, substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide. The current study presents qualitative program evaluation data for one of seven grantee states awarded 5-year cooperative agreements by the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to build developmentally-appropriate and effective youth-guided local systems of care for transition age youth, ages 16-25 years, to promote positive transition outcomes. Findings, obtained from focus groups of 25 participating transition age youth, caregivers, staff, and supervisors, include strategies for maintaining and expanding on the strengths of program, as well as for improving specific program areas. Also, consistent with the goals of the program, this process provided an opportunity for the youth and caregivers to voice their opinions and perspectives regarding their services. Implications for research and practice on effectively serving the unique needs of young adults experiencing EBD and their families in areas such as navigating special education, providing emotional and behavioral supports, and leveraging interagency collaboration are discussed. PMID:25005428

  20. Adult-child incest: a review of research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vander Mey, B J; Neff, R L

    1982-01-01

    Although of long-standing theoretical interest in the social sciences, it is only in recent years that researchers and the helping professions have begun to address the reality of incest as a social problem. This paper reviews the literature which addresses adult-child incest as a form of child abuse. Twenty-six independent empirical studies are examined. Related treatment and theoretical literature is also discussed. The following are highlighted: problems of definition; current reporting statistics; obstacles to reporting; incest as a class phenomenon; characteristics of perpetrators, victims, and the other parent; dynamics and circumstances of the incest family; short- and long-term effects of incest on the victim; treating and preventing incest; and legal requirements regarding incest reporting. Finally, attention is directed to methodological problems--small samples, convenience samples, measurement issues, proper evaluation designs for treatment programs, etc.--which very few of the published studies adequately address. Suggestions are made.

  1. Aging family caregivers: policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tamar; Caldwell, Joe; Factor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This review examines later life family support for adults with developmental disabilities from a life course perspective that takes into account social trends and changes in service patterns and in attitudes of families. Key issues addressed include: (1) trends affecting family caregiving, (2) health and social outcomes of life-long caregiving, (3) support needs of families, (4) family support policies and practices, and (5) recommendations for a research and policy agenda. Research examining outcomes of life-long caregiving has shown that most families adapt well to having a family member with disabilities. However, some families are at risk for poorer physical and mental health outcomes. These include cultural minorities and families of adults with behavioral challenges. Caregiving does seem to have a negative impact on maternal employment and family income as mothers often give up or cut back on employment to care for a child with developmental disabilities, who is more likely to continue living in the family home throughout adulthood than other adult children. Federal and state initiatives are addressing issues of family support through both the developmental disabilities and aging service systems.

  2. Behavioural observations of adult-child pairs at pedestrian crossings.

    PubMed

    Zeedyk, M Suzanne; Kelly, Laura

    2003-09-01

    Pedestrian accidents are a serious health risk to children in the UK and other Western countries. There remains a considerable amount to be learned about children's behaviour in real-traffic environments. The present study was intended to help fill this gap, by observing unobtrusively the behaviours of 123 adult-child pairs as they crossed the road at pedestrian light-controlled crossings. Eight behaviours were coded, including whether or not the pair stopped at the kerb, waited for the light to change, and checked to ensure traffic flow had stopped. Results showed that the adults observed provided reasonably good models of pedestrian behaviour, but that they rarely treated the crossing event as an opportunity to teach children explicitly about road safety. The only gender difference to emerge revealed that adults were more likely to hold girls' hands than boys' hands. No differences were observed in relation to (estimated) age of child. The implications of these findings for parental training programmes are explored.

  3. Vulnerability within families headed by teen and young adult mothers investigated by child welfare services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hovdestad, W.; Shields, M.; Williams, G.; Tonmyr, L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Young mothers’ families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Methods: Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS–2003; CIS–2008) were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger) and 800 young mothers (19–21 years) and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Results: Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother) received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10%) and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18%) and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%). Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%). All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Conclusion: Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers’ families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers’ youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions. PMID:26605563

  4. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  5. Understanding Cortisol Reactivity across the Day at Child Care: The Potential Buffering Role of Secure Attachments to Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2012-01-01

    Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…

  6. Predictors of diagnosis of child psychiatric disorder in adult-infant social-communicative interaction at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Marwick, H; Doolin, O; Allely, C S; McConnachie, A; Johnson, P; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-01-01

    To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder at seven years, and 120 were a randomly selected sex-matched control group. Interactive behaviours for both the caregiver and the one year old infant were coded from the videos according to eight holistic categories of interpersonal engagement: Well-being, Contingent Responsiveness, Cooperativeness, Involvement, Activity, Playfulness, Fussiness, and Speech. Lower levels of adult activity and speech in interaction at one year significantly predicted overall diagnosis of child psychiatric disorder. PMID:23123869

  7. Caregiver and adult patient perspectives on the importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help justify widespread use of new and expensive genetic technologies. Methods We conducted a survey of caregivers on the value of a genetic/aetiologic diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common microdeletion syndrome in ID. We also surveyed the opinion of a high-functioning subset of adults with 22q11.2DS themselves. We used standard quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the responses. Results In total, 73 of 118 surveys were returned (61.9%). There was convergence of quantitative and qualitative results, and consistency between adult patient and caregiver responses. A definitive molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was a critical event with diverse positive repercussions, even if occurring later in life. Frequently cited benefits included greater understanding and certainty, newfound sense of purpose and a platform for advocacy, and increased opportunities to optimise medical, social and educational needs. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise the impact of a diagnosis of this representative microdeletion syndrome on adult patients and their families. The results both validate and expand on the theoretical benefits proposed by clinicians and researchers. The use of genome-wide microarray technologies will provide an increasing number of molecular diagnoses. The importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2DS demonstrated here therefore has implications for changing attitudes about molecular genetic diagnosis that could benefit individuals with ID of currently unknown cause and their families. PMID:22142442

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home palliative care services for adults with advanced illness and their caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Barbara; Calanzani, Natalia; Curiale, Vito; McCrone, Paul; Higginson, Irene J

    2013-01-01

    Background Extensive evidence shows that well over 50% of people prefer to be cared for and to die at home provided circumstances allow choice. Despite best efforts and policies, one-third or less of all deaths take place at home in many countries of the world. Objectives 1. To quantify the effect of home palliative care services for adult patients with advanced illness and their family caregivers on patients' odds of dying at home; 2. to examine the clinical effectiveness of home palliative care services on other outcomes for patients and their caregivers such as symptom control, quality of life, caregiver distress and satisfaction with care; 3. to compare the resource use and costs associated with these services; 4. to critically appraise and summarise the current evidence on cost-effectiveness. Search methods We searched 12 electronic databases up to November 2012. We checked the reference lists of all included studies, 49 relevant systematic reviews, four key textbooks and recent conference abstracts. We contacted 17 experts and researchers for unpublished data. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITSs) evaluating the impact of home palliative care services on outcomes for adults with advanced illness or their family caregivers, or both. Data collection and analysis One review author assessed the identified titles and abstracts. Two independent reviewers performed assessment of all potentially relevant studies, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. We carried out meta-analysis where appropriate and calculated numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTBs) for the primary outcome (death at home). Main results We identified 23 studies (16 RCTs, 6 of high quality), including 37,561 participants and 4042 family caregivers, largely with advanced cancer but also congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive

  9. "My child and I are a package deal": balancing adult and child concerns in repartnering after divorce.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Edward R; Greene, Shannon M

    2011-10-01

    Parents who repartner after divorce must decide how to balance the potentially competing demands of their own desire for adult companionship and romance with the needs of their children for parental attention and affection. In this study, the authors assessed individual differences in divorced custodial mothers' orientation toward repartnering, characterizing it as a continuum, ranging from more child focused to more adult focused. Mothers who are more adult focused tend to be older, more educated, more likely to be employed outside the home, and exiting marriages of longer duration. In addition, using longitudinal data from in-home interviews, mothers who are more adult focused reported having lower rapport with their children, spending less time in joint activities with their children, and their children in turn reported lower rapport with their mothers. Levels of adult-focused orientation are relatively stable over time but increase when mothers become involved or interested in new partners. Using longitudinal diary data over a 2-year period, the authors demonstrated that mothers who are more child focused engage in more active management of emergent relationships in repartnered families and that adult-focused and child-focused mothers respond to different concerns. Whereas all mothers become more active in managing emergent relationships when both partner and child are resisting one another, mothers with greater child focus respond more to concerns of the child, and mothers with greater adult focus respond more to the concerns of the partner. Implications for intervention with divorced families are discussed. PMID:21744961

  10. Preschoolers' Search for Explanatory Information Within Adult-Child Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    This research examined children's questions and the reactions to the answers they receive, in conversations with adults. If children actively seek explanatory knowledge, they should react differently depending on whether they receive a causal explanation. Study 1 examined conversations following 6 preschoolers' (ages 2-4 years) causal questions in naturalistic situations (using the CHILDES database). Children more often agreed and asked follow-up questions following adult explanations and, conversely, more often re-asked their original question and provided their own explanation following non-explanations. Study 2 replicated these patterns within an experimental task in 42 children ages 3-5 years. Children's reactions following explanatory versus non-explanatory information confirm that young children are motivated to seek causal information actively and use specific conversational strategies to obtain it. PMID:19930340

  11. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  12. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  13. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.

  14. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child sexual…

  15. Breadwinner and caregiver: a cross-sectional analysis of children's and emerging adults' visions of their future family roles.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Megan; Coyle, Emily F

    2011-06-01

    Participants were 150 school-age boys and girls, 58 high school students, and 145 university students drawn from communities in the Southeastern United States. In this cross-sectional study, family role attitudes and expectations were examined across development. Parental work traditionality (occupational prestige and traditionality, and employed hours) predicted daughters' social role attitudes and plans for future family roles, such that daughters' envisioned families resembled that of their parents. Sons' and daughters' own attitudes about adult family roles predicted their plans to work or stay home with their future children; however, mothers' work traditionality predicted daughters' future plans over and above daughters' own attitudes. The only exception to this was in the case of university daughters, where university women's attitudes about social roles fully mediated this relationship. It may be that, as young women approach adulthood and the formation of families, they adjust their vision of their future self to match more closely their own attitudes about the caregiving role.

  16. Demographic and Socioenvironmental Characteristics of Black and White Community-Dwelling Caregivers and Care Recipients' Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cothran, Fawn A; Farran, Carol J; Barnes, Lisa L; Whall, Ann L; Redman, Richard W; Struble, Laura M; Dunkle, Ruth E; Fogg, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the association between caregiver background characteristics and care recipients' behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Black and White community-dwelling family caregivers. Using logistic regression models, caregiver/care recipient dyad data from the Aging Demographics and Memory Study were used to describe associations between caregiver background characteristics (i.e., demographic and socioenvironmental variables) and care recipients' BPSD (i.e., hallucinations, delusions, agitation, depression) (N = 755). Results showed that Black caregivers were more likely to be female, younger, an adult child, have less education, and live in the South (p ≤ 0.05); they were less likely to be married. Several caregiver background characteristics were associated with care recipients' depression and agitation, but not with other BPSD. Caregiver background characteristics may play a role in the recognition and reporting of BPSD and should be considered when working with families of individuals with dementia.

  17. Depression and caregiver burden among rural elder caregivers.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sandra S; Turner, Winston; Kaye, Lenard W; Ruffin, Leah; Downey, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    Family caregivers of older adults frequently experience feelings of burden and depression though they may not come to the attention to health and service providers until they are at a point of crisis. Through a simple screening tool, the Maine Primary Partners in Caring (MPPC) project identified individuals providing care to older adults through rural primary care practices, in order to provide upstream interventions before caregivers were in crisis. This paper describes a sample (n=62) of rural family caregivers identified through their physicians' offices. High levels of caregiver burden and depression were reported. Family support and knowledge of caregiver tasks predicted decreased caregiver burden and depression, while isolation predicted increased caregiver burden. Implications of these results for gerontological social workers are outlined.

  18. Effects of Video-Feedback Interaction Training for Professional Caregivers of Children and Adults with Visual and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damen, S.; Kef, S.; Worm, M.; Janssen, M. J.; Schuengel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals in group homes may experience poor quality of social interaction with their professional caregivers, limiting their quality of life. The video-based Contact programme may help caregivers to improve their interaction with clients. Method: Seventy-two caregivers of 12 individuals with visual and intellectual disabilities…

  19. Caregiver Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Assessment is a critical step in determining appropriate support services. This article discusses "caregiver assessment," a systematic process of gathering information to describe a caregiving situation. Caregiver assessment identifies the particular problems, needs, resources, and strengths of the family caregiver and approaches issues from the…

  20. HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness beliefs among pediatric caregivers in Ghana who have not disclosed their child's HIV status

    PubMed Central

    Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child’s ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana (“Sankofa”). “Sankofa” – is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7–18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver’s characteristics predicted caregiver’s illness perception. Intensification of

  1. Social relationships of Latino grandparent caregivers: a role theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnette, D

    1999-02-01

    This article uses a role theory perspective to examine the social relationships of 74 Latinos, mostly middle-aged and older Puerto Rican and Dominican women, rearing their grandchildren in New York City. Fully 81% of households were below poverty level. Most grandparents had large families and were socially connected, but two thirds of households were skipped-generational and many grandparents lacked reliable help with child rearing. Most relied on a focal secondary caregiver, usually an adult daughter, and extrafamilial supports. These and other sources of strain and support for the grandparent caregiver role in Latino families are discussed, as is the impact of this role on their social relationships. PMID:10028770

  2. Preliminary Data from the Caring for Older Adults and Caregivers at Home (COACH) Program: A Care Coordination Program for Home-Based Dementia Care and Caregiver Support in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Maria F; Davagnino, Judith; Hastings, S Nicole; Sloane, Richard; Kamholz, Barbara; Twersky, Jack

    2015-06-01

    Caring for Older Adults and Caregivers at Home (COACH) is an innovative care coordination program of the Durham Veteran's Affairs Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, that provides home-based dementia care and caregiver support for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers, including attention to behavioral symptoms, functional impairment, and home safety, on a consultation basis. The objectives of this study were to describe the COACH program in its first 2 years of operation, assess alignment of program components with quality measures, report characteristics of program participants, and compare rates of placement outside the home with those of a nontreatment comparison group using a retrospective cohort design. Participants were community-dwelling individuals with dementia aged 65 and older who received primary care in the medical center's outpatient clinics and their family caregivers, who were enrolled as dyads (n = 133), and a control group of dyads who were referred to the program and met clinical eligibility criteria but did not enroll (n = 29). Measures included alignment with Dementia Management Quality Measures and time to placement outside the home during 12 months of follow-up after referral to COACH. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that COACH aligns with nine of 10 clinical process measures identified using quality measures and that COACH delivers several other valuable services to enhance care. Mean time to placement outside the home was 29.6 ± 14.3 weeks for both groups (P = .99). The present study demonstrates the successful implementation of a home-based care coordination intervention for persons with dementia and their family caregivers that is strongly aligned with quality measures. PMID:26032224

  3. Preliminary Data from the Caring for Older Adults and Caregivers at Home (COACH) Program: A Care Coordination Program for Home-Based Dementia Care and Caregiver Support in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Maria F; Davagnino, Judith; Hastings, S Nicole; Sloane, Richard; Kamholz, Barbara; Twersky, Jack

    2015-06-01

    Caring for Older Adults and Caregivers at Home (COACH) is an innovative care coordination program of the Durham Veteran's Affairs Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, that provides home-based dementia care and caregiver support for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers, including attention to behavioral symptoms, functional impairment, and home safety, on a consultation basis. The objectives of this study were to describe the COACH program in its first 2 years of operation, assess alignment of program components with quality measures, report characteristics of program participants, and compare rates of placement outside the home with those of a nontreatment comparison group using a retrospective cohort design. Participants were community-dwelling individuals with dementia aged 65 and older who received primary care in the medical center's outpatient clinics and their family caregivers, who were enrolled as dyads (n = 133), and a control group of dyads who were referred to the program and met clinical eligibility criteria but did not enroll (n = 29). Measures included alignment with Dementia Management Quality Measures and time to placement outside the home during 12 months of follow-up after referral to COACH. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that COACH aligns with nine of 10 clinical process measures identified using quality measures and that COACH delivers several other valuable services to enhance care. Mean time to placement outside the home was 29.6 ± 14.3 weeks for both groups (P = .99). The present study demonstrates the successful implementation of a home-based care coordination intervention for persons with dementia and their family caregivers that is strongly aligned with quality measures.

  4. Evaluating Child-Based Reading Constructs and Assessments with Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice Owens

    2009-01-01

    Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…

  5. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  6. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  7. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  8. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agencies and child care and adult care institutions must also adhere to Federal regulations in 7 CFR part... foods in NSLP, also apply to CACFP. However, in accordance with 7 CFR part 226, a child care or adult... lunches and suppers are those meeting the nutritional standards established in 7 CFR part 226. The...

  9. Family Caregivers' Experiences of Caring for a Relative With Younger Onset Dementia: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat

    2015-08-01

    Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia.

  10. Family Caregivers' Experiences of Caring for a Relative With Younger Onset Dementia: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat

    2015-08-01

    Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia. PMID:25724671

  11. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  12. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. PMID:25395225

  13. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences.

  14. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  15. Caregiver burden in chronic mental illness: the role of patient and caregiver characteristics.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Wiesheu, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the relative contribution of patient and caregiver characteristics in a sample of primary carers of patients with chronic mental disorders living in the community. As carers were recruited from caregiver organizations, mainly mothers of an adult child suffering from schizophrenia participated in the study (n = 102). Within a comprehensive transactional stress model, burden was assessed with respect to objective and subjective burden, cognitive-emotional well-being, psychological distress and subjective quality of life. Primary stressors include illness-related characteristics of the patient, and a number of personal dispositions and resources of the caregivers were included as potential moderating variables. Multiple regression analyses were separately calculated for each dimension of burden. Interaction of carers' expressed emotion and external locus of control with the patient's problem with family communication as well as perceived social support was most predictive for objective and subjective burden, whereas carers' neuroticism appeared as the most relevant predictor of their well-being, psychological distress and subjective quality of life. Among the patients' variables, regular employment contributed significantly to reduce carers' distress and enhance their well-being. As the sample was recruited from caregiver organizations, a selection bias has to be taken into account. To reduce caregiver burden, especially mothers' burden, the patients' occupational abilities should be strongly enhanced at an early stage. Family interventions should improve dysfunctional interactions, enhance the carers' social activities and focus more intensely on the carers' own dispositions. PMID:21538092

  16. The Psychophysiological and Health Corollaries of Child Problem Behaviours in Caregivers of Children with Autism and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, B.; Moss, M.; Wetherell, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The positive relationship between problem behaviours of children with additional complex needs and psychological distress in their caregivers has been widely evidenced. Fewer studies, however, have assessed the relationship between care recipients' problem behaviours and key physiological processes, relevant for the physical…

  17. Caregiver Stress and Noncaregiver Stress: Exploring the Pathways of Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirkhanyan, Anna A.; Wolf, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines depressive symptoms among adult children of elderly parents; it views the parents' care needs and child's care activities as two separate stressors, different combinations of which may affect both caregiving and noncaregiving family members. Design and Methods: A sample of 4,380 women and 3,965 men from the first wave…

  18. "It Should Have Been Happening to Me": The Psychosocial Issues Older Caregiving Mothers Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Pretter, Sheindy; Carrero, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer is an event of significant importance to family functioning. The present analysis reports on an understudied group profoundly affected by this health event: older mothers caring for an adult child with cancer. As part of a study of breast cancer survivors and their family caregivers, a subsample (N = 13) of older…

  19. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianghong; Cheng, Halina; Leung, Patrick W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically…

  20. Family caregiving or caregiving alone: who helps the helper?

    PubMed

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Martin-Matthews, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study advances the understanding of family caregiving by examining the relationship between adult children caregivers and their helpers. Specifically, it focuses on examining "who helps whom" and extends analyses beyond the dyadic focus of caregiving in later life. The focus on helping and caregiving addresses the variety of contributions and responsibilities involving not only the caregiver who was the target respondent in this research, but also others identified as helpers in the provision of care. The data for this study are derived from the Work and Eldercare Research group of CARNET: The Canadian Aging Research Network. Secondary analysis of CARNET data focuses on data collected from 250 individuals with significant caregiving responsibilities for at least one older person. Findings extend Kahn & Antonucci's convoys of social support model (1981) and Cantor's model of social care (1991) by disentangling some of the dimensions of helping and caregiving, such as the distinction between direct and assistive help.

  1. Health Update: Health Concerns for Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses job-related health problems, such as infectious diseases and job stress, that are of concern to child caregivers in child care settings. Ways that these problems can be alleviated and/or medically treated are also discussed. (BB)

  2. Caregiver Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Pew Research ... 2005). Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline . Psychology and Aging, 20 (3), 402–411. Return to ...

  3. Caregiving Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely than non-caregivers to live in poverty and five times more likely to receive Supplemental ... caregiving families. In every state and DC the poverty rate is higher among families with members with ...

  4. Japanese and Canadian Children's Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed

    Fitneva, Stanka A; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387

  5. Pedagogical Beliefs, Activity Choice and Structure, and Adult-Child Interaction in Nursery Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blay, Josepha A.; Ireson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative analysis of four cooking activities undertaken in two nursery classes reveals relationships between the adults' pedagogical beliefs, the choice and structuring of activities, and the nature of adult-child participation. Four adults each planned and carried out separately, one cooking activity of their choice with a small group of…

  6. Who Knows Best? Preschoolers Sometimes Prefer Child Informants over Adult Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderBorght, Mieke; Jaswal, Vikram K.

    2009-01-01

    Do preschoolers think adults know more about everything than children? Or do they recognize that there are some things that children might know more about than adults? Three-, four-, and five-year olds (N = 65) were asked to decide whether an adult or child informant would better be able to answer a variety of questions about the nutritional value…

  7. Ethical Dimensions and Filial Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Ellen F.; Hendricks, Constance S.; Hendricks, Denisha L.; McCarty, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    The elderly are growing rapidly today as life expectancy increases. As this longevity has increased, so has the need for filial caregivers. While much has been written about caregiving stress, little has been written regarding the ethical dimensions of filial responsibility and daughter and son caregivers’ perceptions of responsibility and moral demands. This paper will address the concept of family caregiving and contextual family characteristics. Family characteristics will expand awareness of the interrelationship value between the nature of the prior filial relationship, image of caregiving, and ethical views that underscore acceptance of the filial obligation. An explanation of both the interview process and selected measurements that speak to ethical perspective, sense of caregiving image, and expectations of filial caregiving will also be addressed. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate how adult children may be helped in an anticipatory and proactive manner as more and more adult children take on parent care for longer durations of time. PMID:23459516

  8. Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  9. Cumulative effects of HIV illness and caring for children orphaned by AIDS on anxiety symptoms among adults caring for children in HIV-endemic South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie; Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler

    2014-06-01

    Adults caring for children in HIV-endemic communities are at risk for poor psychological outcomes. However, we still have a limited understanding of how various HIV impacts--including caregiver's own HIV illness, responsibilities of caring for a child orphaned by AIDS, or both--affect psychological outcomes among caregivers. Furthermore, few studies have explored the relationship between stigma, HIV, and psychological outcomes among caregivers of children in HIV-endemic communities. A cross-sectional survey conducted from 2009 to 2010 assessed anxiety among 2477 caregivers of children in HIV-endemic South Africa. Chi-square tested differences in anxiety among caregivers living with HIV, caregivers of a child orphaned by AIDS, and caregivers affected with both conditions. Multivariate logistic regressions identified whether the relationship between HIV impacts and anxiety remained after controlling for socio-demographic co-factors. Mediation analysis tested the relationship between stigma, HIV, and anxiety. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were two and a half times greater among caregivers living with HIV compared to nonaffected caregivers. The odds of meeting threshold criteria for clinically relevant anxiety symptoms were greatest among caregivers living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS. Exposure to AIDS-related stigma partially mediated the relationship between HIV and anxiety. Interventions are needed to address caregiver psychological health, particularly among caregivers affected with both conditions of living with HIV and caring for a child orphaned by AIDS.

  10. How Case Managers Perceive Older Parents as Caregivers of Developmentally Disabled Adult Offsprings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tobin, Sheldon S.

    Developmentally disabled adults who are cared for at home by their older parents present a challenge because community-based social and health services are required to meet the needs of both the aging parents and the offspring. In this study, 11 local case managers were interviewed in depth, for 2 hours, about their work with parents of…

  11. Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Outcomes Associated with U.S. Services and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Heather J.; Perkins, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the U.S. predominantly live with their family caregivers. As care delivery and support systems vary widely globally, consideration of caregiver outcomes specifically in the U.S. context is needed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify U.S. family caregiver…

  12. Race and Gender Differences in Perceived Caregiver Availability for Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Howard, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Informal family caregivers are increasingly recognized as critical for meeting the needs of individuals with chronic diseases associated with aging. This study examined race and gender differences in perceived informal caregiver availability for participants aged 45 and older in a large national epidemiological study. Design and Methods:…

  13. Collecting saliva and measuring salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in frail community residing older adults via family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-12-18

    Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations.

  14. Collecting Saliva and Measuring Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-amylase in Frail Community Residing Older Adults via Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy A.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations. PMID:24378361

  15. Caregiver Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Dujela, Carren; Smith, André

    2015-01-01

    We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. PMID:25651586

  16. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  17. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  18. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  19. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...

  20. Intra-couple Caregiving of Older Adults Living Apart Together: Commitment and Independence.

    PubMed

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny

    2015-09-01

    Recently, rising numbers of mid-life and older adults are starting a "living apart together" (LAT) relationship following divorce or widowhood. LAT describes an intimate relationship wherein partners maintain separate households. This study investigated the characteristics of care arrangements in older long-term LAT couples and elicited personal comments about intra-couple care. We interviewed 25 LAT partners and a comparison group of 17 remarried older adults in the Netherlands in a side study of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Results showed that about half of the LAT partners intended to exchange care if needed (partnership commitment); the other half had ambiguous feelings or intentions to refuse care (independence orientation). However, for those LAT partners already confronted with illness in their current relationship, all provided care to the partner in need. The minority of LAT partners who would not exchange care reciprocally are more likely to give as opposed to receive care. PMID:26300191

  1. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  2. Adult headform impact tests of three Japanese child bicycle helmets into a vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Ito, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ryoichi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mitsunori; Fujii, Chikayo

    2014-12-01

    The head is the body region that most frequently incurs fatal and serious injuries of cyclists in collisions against vehicles. Many research studies investigated helmet effectiveness in preventing head injuries using accident data. In this study, the impact attenuation characteristics of three Japanese child bicycle helmets were examined experimentally in impact tests into a concrete surface and a vehicle. A pedestrian adult headform with and without a Japanese child bicycle helmet was dropped onto a concrete surface and then propelled into a vehicle at 35 km/h in various locations such as the bonnet, roof header, windshield and A-pillar. Accelerations were measured and head injury criterion (HIC) calculated. In the drop tests using the adult headform onto a concrete surface from the height of 1.5m, the HIC for a headform without a child helmet was 6325, and was reduced by around 80% when a child helmet was fitted to the headform. In the impact tests, where the headform was fired into the vehicle at 35 km/h at various locations on a car, the computed acceleration based HIC varied depending on the vehicle impact locations. The HIC was reduced by 10-38% for impacts headforms with a child helmet when the impact was onto a bonnet-top and roof header although the HIC was already less than 1000 in impacts with the headform without a child helmet. Similarly, for impacts into the windshield (where a cyclist's head is most frequently impacted), the HIC using the adult headform without a child helmet was 122; whereas when the adult headform was used with a child helmet, a higher HIC value of more than 850 was recorded. But again, the HIC values are below 1000. In impacts into the A-pillar, the HIC was 4816 for a headform without a child helmet and was reduced by 18-38% for a headform with a child helmet depending on the type of Japanese child helmet used. The tests demonstrated that Japanese child helmets are effective in reducing accelerations and HIC in a drop test using

  3. Impact of caregiver and parenting status on time trade-off and standard gamble utility scores for health state descriptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caregiver status on time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) health state utility scores. Respondents were categorized as caregivers if they reported that either children or adults depended on them for care. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of data from three studies in which general population samples rated health state descriptions. Study 1: UK; four osteoarthritis health states. Study 2: UK; three adult ADHD health states. Study 3: US; 16 schizophrenia health states. All three studies included time trade-off assessment. Study 1 also included standard gamble. Descriptive statistics were calculated to examine willingness to trade in TTO or gamble in SG. Utilities for caregivers and non-caregivers were compared using t-tests and ANCOVA models. Results There were 364 respondents including 106 caregivers (n = 30, 47, and 29 in Studies 1, 2, and 3) and 258 non-caregivers. Most caregivers were parents of dependent children (78.3%). Compared to non-caregivers, caregivers had more responses at the ceiling (i.e., utility = 0.95), indicating less willingness to trade time or gamble. All utilities were higher for caregivers than non-caregivers (mean utility difference between groups: 0.07 to 0.16 in Study 1 TTO; 0.03 to 0.17 in Study 1 SG; 0.06 to 0.10 in Study 2 TTO; 0.11 to 0.22 in Study 3 TTO). These differences were statistically significant for at least two health states in each study (p < 0.05). Results of sensitivity analyses with two caregiver subgroups (parents of dependent children and parents of any child regardless of whether the child was still dependent) followed the same pattern as results of the primary analysis. The parent subgroups were generally less willing to trade time or gamble (i.e., resulting in higher utility scores) than comparison groups of non-parents. Conclusions Results indicate that caregiver status, including being a parent, influences responses in

  4. Working with families of hospitalized older adults with dementia: caregivers are useful resources and should be part of the care team.

    PubMed

    Bradway, Christine; Hirschman, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Families provide a considerable amount of informal care and support for older adults living with dementia. And when an older adult with dementia is hospitalized, family caregivers should be seen as important sources of information and included as valuable members of the health care team. This article describes a best-practice approach to working with families and includes recommendations for using the Information for the Hospital Team About a Patient with Memory Problems form. For a free online video demonstrating the use of this form, go to http://links.lww.com/A301.

  5. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  6. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  7. Older Parents Providing Child Care for Adult Children: Does It Pay Off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Teun; Poortman, Anne-Rigt; van Tilburg, Theo G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether past grandparental child care is related to present support from adult children. On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors expected that grandparental child care creates a debt that is repaid in the form of receiving support later in life. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 349…

  8. The Child and Adult Care Food Program and the Nutrition of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…

  9. 7 CFR 250.61 - Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... donated foods. In accordance with the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, and with 7 CFR part... Section 250.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND...

  10. Changes in Adult, Child, and Family Functioning among Participants in a Family Treatment Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Cosden, Merith; Koch, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral changes for 76 adults and 115 children from 62 families participating in a Family Treatment Drug Court (FTDC), in either residential or outpatient settings, were studied. Improvements in psychosocial functioning were calculated using a reliable change index (RCI) for family, adult, and child measures. Among outcomes, significant improvements in family functioning were noted and associated with improvements in child development and the likelihood of reunification. Support for FTDCs and implications for future practice and research are discussed. PMID:26827466

  11. Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

  12. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  13. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L.; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2016-01-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate “single” on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child’s treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child’s diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child’s diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child’s siblings had gotten worse since their child’s diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. PMID:26668211

  14. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  15. Towards a Predictive Model of Quality in Canadian Child Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goelman, Hillel; Forer, Barry; Kershaw, Paul; Doherty, Gillian; Lero, Donna; LaGrange, Annette

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the design, methodology, and results of a study of quality in 326 classrooms in 239 Canadian child care centers. This study, the largest and most extensive ever undertaken in Canada, used the Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS) to rate the adult-child interactions in the classrooms and the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating…

  16. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters. PMID:19567918

  17. Adult attachment, cognitive distortions, and views of self, others, and the future among child molesters.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    A conceptual framework derived from attachment theory was tested examining adult romantic attachment; views of self, world/others, and the future; and cognitive distortions in a sample of 96 child molesters receiving sex offender treatment and 92 nonoffending males. Results showed a significant main effect for child molester status, with nonoffending controls reporting fewer negative perceptions of self, others, and the future; and fewer cognitive distortions regarding adult-child sex. With the exception of views of others, significant interactions were also found between child molester status and attachment categories. However, the patterns of interactions were theoretically counterintuitive and illustrated areas for future research. Overall, the findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.

  18. Balancing parent care with other roles: interrole conflict of adult daughter caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L; Martire, L M; Druley, J A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined interrole conflict experienced by 278 women who simultaneously occupied 4 roles: parent care provider, mother to children at home, wife, and employee. Compared with women who experienced no conflict between parent care and their other roles, women reporting parent care conflict tended to have fewer socio-economic resources, to have older children, and to be caring for parents with greater impairment. Women who reported conflicts between parent care and employment were older; had more education; had marriages of longer duration; and had older, more self-sufficient children than women who reported conflict between the parent care role and the mother role. Some evidence was found for the hypothesis that interrole conflict between parent care and other roles mediates the relationship between parent care stress and psychosocial well-being. Results suggest that one way parent care stress exerts its deleterious effects on the well-being of adult daughters is through the incompatible pressures of parent care and other roles.

  19. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  20. The Adults of Tomorrow: 1979 - Year of the Child. Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kischke, Martina I.

    This document presents a collection of brief articles about children which were written in West Germany and compiled for the International Year of the Child. Topics covered include: (1) the importance of children's early years, (2) child abuse, (3) family planning, (4) the need for playgrounds, (5) the German Children's Protection Federation, (6)…

  1. Adult and Child Development in the Zone of Proximal Development: Socratic Dialogue in a Playworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for…

  2. Child Safety: A Healthy Start. Teacher's Guide. Health Promotion for Adult Literacy Students: An Empowering Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This guide is intended to help adult literacy teachers in New York present a learning module in which an empowering approach is used to provide adult students with information about child-rearing and prevention techniques to keep their children safe. The first half of the guide consists of reading materials concerning the following: home and road…

  3. Jamaican and American Adult Perspectives on Child Psychopathology: Further Exploration of the Threshold Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adult attitudes concerning child psychopathology. Jamaican and U.S. parents, teachers, and clinicians (total n=382) judged vignettes of two children, one with overcontrolled and one with undercontrolled problems. Although years of education affected some adult ratings, culture had most profound effect. Jamaican parents and teachers rated…

  4. Acquisition of Article Semantics by Child and Adult L2-English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania; Zubizarreta, Maria Luisa; Philippov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines article use in the L2-English of adult and child speakers of Russian, an article-less language. In earlier work on articles in adult L2-English, Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2004) proposed that speakers of article-less L1s fluctuate between dividing English articles on the basis of definiteness vs. specificity, as a result of direct…

  5. Let's Read Together: Improving Literacy Outcomes with the Adult-Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Everyone knows how important it is to read to young children--but it is the "quality" of shared reading that really affects emergent literacy. How well are adults engaging and teaching children as they read together? How well are children listening and responding? The first and only tool to measure the quality of adult and child interactions…

  6. “The sky is the limit”: adhering to antiretroviral therapy and HIV self-management from the perspectives of adolescents living with HIV and their adult caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Julie A; Banda, Harry; Dennis, Alexis C; Packer, Catherine; Nyambe, Namakau; Stalter, Randy M; Mwansa, Jonathan K; Katayamoyo, Patrick; McCarraher, Donna R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, HIV-related mortality among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) increased by 50% from 2005 to 2012 and is attributed in part to a lack of support for adolescent retention to care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This vulnerability reinforces the need to better understand incomplete ART adherence among ALHIV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the world's 2.1 million ALHIV reside. Methods From December 2011 to February 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 32 ALHIV (aged 15 to 18) and 23 of their adult caregivers in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. Interviews were transcribed and translated. An iterative qualitative process was used to code and analyze the data and main themes were summarized regarding the barriers to and facilitators of ART adherence. Results More than a quarter of ALHIV reported missing a day or more of ART (ranging from one day to six months). Barriers to ART adherence included fear of disclosure and anticipated stigma. Few youth were willing to take their drugs outside of the home, which led to missed doses of ART. Similarly, families tended to manage HIV within the home only. As a result, although caregivers and families were often the greatest source of emotional and instrumental support, they coped with HIV in isolation of other potential support from their communities, schools or churches. Factors that supported ART adherence included attending clinic-sponsored youth groups, wanting to maintain one's health and using phone and clock alarms. Involvement of adult caregivers in HIV management varied greatly and was often based on the age and health status of the youth. Some caregivers struggled with letting the adolescents assume responsibility for their medication, and ALHIV had few self-management skills and tools to help them regularly take ART. Conclusions These data highlight the importance of families and home environments in supporting adherence to ART among ALHIV

  7. Associations of Parent-Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms when a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…

  8. Using Relationships as a Tool: Early Childhood Educators' Perspectives of the Child-Caregiver Relationship in a Childcare Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Chris; Hammond, Lauren; Schaumloffel, Nicole; Lind, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Children's early years are critical for development and many children access out-of-home care during this time. Services offering high-quality childcare afford an opportunity to impact positively on children's development, including acquisition of communication skills. A strong, responsive relationship between child and carer is important in…

  9. Acceptability of an intelligent wireless sensor system for the rapid detection of health issues: findings among home-dwelling older adults and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Christine; Kampel, Thomas; Verloo, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home. Study aim To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS) among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues. Methods Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG) using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study. Results Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology. Conclusion The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We recommend improving and clarifying several components in the IWSS for the development of a design that is user-centered. PMID:27660417

  10. Acceptability of an intelligent wireless sensor system for the rapid detection of health issues: findings among home-dwelling older adults and their informal caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Christine; Kampel, Thomas; Verloo, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home. Study aim To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS) among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues. Methods Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG) using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study. Results Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology. Conclusion The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We recommend improving and clarifying several components in the IWSS for the development of a design that is user-centered.

  11. Measuring absorbed dose for i-CAT CBCT examinations in child, adolescent and adult phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Design and construct child and adolescent head phantoms to measure the absorbed doses imparted during dental CBCT and compare with the absorbed dose measured in an adult phantom. Methods: A child phantom was developed to represent the smallest patients receiving CBCT, usually for craniofacial developmental concerns, and an adolescent phantom was developed to represent healthy orthodontic patients. Absorbed doses were measured using a thimble ionization chamber for the custom-built child and adolescent phantoms and compared with measurements using a commercially available adult phantom. Imaging was performed with an i-CAT Next Generation (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT using two different fields of view covering the craniofacial complex (130 mm high) or maxilla/mandible (60 mm high). Results: Measured absorbed doses varied depending on the location of the ionization chamber within the phantoms. For CBCT images obtained using the same protocol for all phantoms, the highest absorbed dose was measured in all locations of the small child phantom. The lowest absorbed dose was measured in the adult phantom. Conclusions: Images were obtained with the same protocol for the adult, adolescent and child phantoms. A consistent trend was observed with the highest absorbed dose being measured in the smallest phantom (child), while the lowest absorbed dose was measured in the largest phantom (adult). This study demonstrates the importance of child-sizing the dose by using dedicated paediatric protocols optimized for the imaging task, which is critical as children are more sensitive to harmful effects of radiation and have a longer life-span post-irradiation for radiation-induced symptoms to develop than do adults. PMID:25785822

  12. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  13. Foster Care for Children and Adults with Handicaps: Child Welfare and Adult Social Services. Project Report Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bradley K.; And Others

    This report summarizes state-by-state data on the number of children and adults in foster homes administered by child welfare or social service agencies. As of December 1985, there were approximately 261,000 children in out-of-home foster care, including 54,000 handicapped children, of whom 14,000 were mentally retarded. Telephone interviews and…

  14. Attitudes de l'adulte, climats educatifs et developpement de l'enfant (Adult Attitudes, Educational Climates, and Child Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artaud, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates how different educational climates (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and democratic) are rooted in the attitudes of the adult toward the growth process. Analyzes the impact of these climates on a child's development. Concludes that an educational model should reintroduce the authoritarian support essential for children's growth. (DMM)

  15. Child sexual abuse and adult religious life: challenges of theory and method.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Ketan; Piotrowski, Caroline; Woodgate, Roberta L; Letourneau, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The religious consequences of child sexual abuse in adulthood remain relatively unexamined in the research literature, especially where abusers are not clergy. Some studies suggest child sexual abuse survivors may rely on religion as a source of support, though the majority document a decrease in religiosity. Given the propensity for psychological challenges among adult survivors with diminished spiritual coping, we are calling for increased research attention to religion in the context of child sexual abuse. The objectives of this article were to review the literature on intersections between child sexual abuse (perpetrated by nonclergy) and religiosity in adults and set forth relevant research approaches for future investigation. Findings revealed a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and theoretically informed approach to research may be needed. PMID:25255927

  16. Older Adults: What Every Paediatric Nurse Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Beth Ellen; Tesh, Anita Starr; Cowen, Kay; Hancock, Debbie; Moore, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Older adults have always been important parts of children's lives, playing a variety of roles including grandparent, caregiver, friend, and neighbour. Grandparents also play a variety of roles in families. Often a child's first encounter with serious illness or death involves a grandparent or other older adult. Grandparents are also increasingly…

  17. Assessment of the Relationship between Diagnoses of ASD and Caregiver Symptom Endorsement in Adults Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Neal, Daniene

    2013-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with an intellectual disability (ID) share overlapping traits with those diagnosed with both ID and an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if caregivers' reports of symptoms of ASD are of value (i.e., when comparing them to clinical diagnoses of ASD) and to determine which…

  18. The Impact of a Substance Abuse Disorder on the Well-Being of Family Caregivers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The impact that substance use has on an individual with mental illness has been documented; however, little is known about the impact that this may have for a family caregiver. Data was collected in a cross sectional study using mailed questionnaires to a convenience sample of family members of persons with mental illness (n = 110). Hierarchical…

  19. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  20. Child Maltreatment and Adult Socioeconomic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinski, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…

  1. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  2. Relationships between Young Children in Full-Time Day Care and Their Caregivers: A Qualitative Study of Parental and Caregiver Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Mari Undheim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We studied the quality of caregiver-child relationships from the perspectives of parents and caregivers of young children in full-time day care. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged two years or younger (22 boys and 19 girls) in day care, and 35 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed. Parents and caregivers…

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Blastocystis Infection Among Children and Caregivers in a Child Care Center, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram

    2015-08-01

    In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10-19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Blastocystis Infection among Children and Caregivers in a Child Care Center, Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram

    2015-01-01

    In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10–19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group. PMID:26033017

  5. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  6. Caring for the caregiver: evaluation of support groups for guardians of orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Tonya R; Jarabi, Ben; Rice, Janet

    2012-01-01

    HIV and AIDS have altered the context in which millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa are raised. Many are under the care of a widowed or ill parent, and others are residing with their extended family. Caregivers of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) face a variety of stressors that may adversely affect children. This study explores potential benefits of caregivers' membership in support groups on their own psychosocial wellbeing, and on the treatment and psychosocial well-being of OVC aged 8-14 under their care. A post-test study design comparing members and non-members was applied, drawing upon random samples of current and prospective beneficiaries from a rural community in Kenya. With up to two children per caregiver eligible for study inclusion, the sample comprised 766 caregivers and 1028 children. Three-quarters of children had lost at least one parent. Nearly 90% were cared for by a female, often their natural mother or grandmother. Half of the caregivers were widowed and one-fifth had a chronic illness. Over one-third of caregivers were members of support groups, more commonly female caregivers. Regression analyses assessed the effect of support group membership after controlling for household, caregiver and child characteristics. Members reported less social marginalization, better family functioning and more positive feelings towards the children in their care than nonmembers. Children with caregivers in support groups exhibited fewer behavioral problems, higher rates of prosocial behavior and reported lower incidence of abuse from adults in their household. The psychological state of caregivers, however, was not associated with support group membership. Results underscore that quality care of vulnerable children hinges on interventions that address the psychosocial challenges facing their caregivers.

  7. Identifying Preschool Caregivers' Beliefs about Children's Social Development. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droege, Kristin L.

    This study examined the assumption that all caregivers have a set of beliefs which represent their own underlying theory of child development and tested one strategy for identifying the beliefs that preschool caregivers hold. In order to classify caregivers' beliefs about children's social development, an adaptation of McGillicudy-DeLisi's (1992)…

  8. 7 CFR 240.4 - Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...

  9. Self-Regulation, Metacognition and Child- and Adult-Initiated Activity: Does It Matter Who Initiates the Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Debate about the balance between child- and adult-initiated activities in early childhood settings is long standing. This article reports a study of 29 children aged 4-5 years in a London state school, on the influences of child- and adult-initiated activities on children's self-regulation and metacognition. Whilst both contexts were supportive,…

  10. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Mariano J.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women’s overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Methods Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) data (2006–2007) from 20–49 year old women in Namibia (n=6,305), Swaziland (n=2,786), and Zambia (n=4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. Results OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women’s caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). Conclusions OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers’ overweight status in Namibia. PMID:25630405

  11. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Aster, Amanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent’s sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents’ coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed. PMID:25477556

  12. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Megan C; Foley, Pamela F; Aster, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent's sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents' coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed.

  13. Child Labor Is Not Cheap: A Unit for Grades 8-12 and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Amy; Sommers, Meredith, Ed.

    This 3-lesson unit of study for grades 8-12 and adults considers the 250 million children who spend most of their day on the job, despite efforts to regulate or eliminate the practice of child labor. The unit focuses primarily on export-oriented businesses in the Americas. This focus serves as a starting point to understanding other forms of…

  14. 76 FR 34541 - Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program Integrity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... these two interim rules by family day care home sponsors and providers. This rule clarifies or modifies... improve Program management and integrity in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), at 67 FR 43447... designed to evaluate implementation of the new regulatory requirements by family day care home sponsors...

  15. 76 FR 13339 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Child and Adult...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... accuracy of meal claims submitted for reimbursement by family day care home providers for meals served to children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... family day care homes (FDCHs) during FY 2011. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received...

  16. Gender Differences in Adult Sibling Relations in Two-Child Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna; Trent, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    We examine affective closeness, contact, and helping among adult siblings using data for over 1,500 respondents in 2-child families from the National Survey of Families and Households. Using this subsample allows us to investigate differences by gender of respondent and of individual siblings using a nationally representative sample. We find that…

  17. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  18. Economic Transition and New Patterns of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest Zhang, Qian

    2004-01-01

    This study uses national data from the 1996 Life History and Social Change in Contemporary China survey (N= 3,087) to gauge the effect of the economic transition on parent-adult child coresidence in urban China. Previous studies find that, thanks to state actions, traditional patterns in co-residence persisted in post-Mao urban China. This study…

  19. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  20. Finding Common Ground in the Study of Child Maltreatment, Youth Violence, and Adult Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Pinderhughes, Howard

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, we have witnessed a surge in public policies aimed at ending child maltreatment, youth violence, and adult domestic violence. Commensurate with this increased interest has been a growing body of research on each issues etiology, affected population, and the public policy and prevention impacts. Even a cursory review of the…

  1. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  2. Proximity as a Mediating Influence on the Perceived Aging Parent-Adult Child Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined proximity and relationship between aging parents (N=224) and adult children. Found no difference in quality of relationships between parents whose children lived near and those whose children lived over 60 miles away. Significant predictors for proximate group were personal sense of control and education; for distant group, child gender…

  3. The company that words keep: comparing the statistical structure of child- versus adult-directed language.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at children aged 1.0 to 5.0, and two adult-directed corpora representing spoken and written language. Statistics were adjusted relative to shuffled corpora. Child-directed language was found to be more associative, repetitive and consistent than adult-directed language. Moreover, these statistical properties of child-directed language better predicted word acquisition than the same statistics in adult-directed language. Word frequency and repetitions were the best predictors within word classes (nouns, verbs, adjectives and function words). For all word classes combined, associative structure, contextual diversity and word repetitions best predicted language acquisition. These results support the hypothesis that child-directed language is structured in ways that facilitate language acquisition.

  4. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  5. Selected Child Behaviors Most and Least Valued by Young Adult Mexicans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medinnus, Gene R.; Ford, Martin Z.

    A study to obtain data concerning values for child behavior from a sample of Mexican adults from Guadalajara (Jalisco, Mexico), and to compare and contrast these data with those obtained in previous research with subjects from the United States, used a sample consisting of 40 males (mean age 31.1 years) and 40 females (mean age 20.1). The subjects…

  6. Child-Adult Differences in Implicit and Explicit Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…

  7. Common ground on object use associates with caregivers' gesturese.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Moro, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Caregivers modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been related to children's language development. However, the factors influencing caregivers' modification of gestures are understudied. This study examined whether infants' object knowledge, considered as common ground shared with the caregiver, relates to caregivers' gesturese. Six caregiver-infant dyads were videotaped every two months for 15 min in their homes, from child age 8-to-16 months, while they played with two separate objects (i.e. toys). Results indicated that the changes in infants' object knowledge were paralleled by associated changes in caregivers' gestures: parents increased both the amount and the complexity of their gestures.

  8. Child Care Recipes: Food for Health and Fun. From USDA's Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Intended to help child care providers show young children how to make healthy food choices, this collection contains standardized recipes and kitchen tips to help providers put together great tasting, nutritious meals that will appeal to young children. The recipe instructions are geared for groups of 25 and 50, and have been tested for product…

  9. Pediatric Disability and Caregiver Separation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoyd, Judith L. M.; Akincigil, Ayse; Paek, Eun Kwang

    2010-01-01

    The evidence that the birth of a child with a disability leads to divorce or separation is equivocal, with the majority of recent research suggesting that such a birth and childrearing may be stressful, but not necessarily toxic, to the caregiver relationship. Such research has been limited by small sample sizes and nonrepresentative samples and…

  10. More Bridges: Investigating the Relevance of Self-Report and Interview Measures of Adult Attachment for Marital and Caregiving Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate the associations between attachment state of mind, romantic attachment style, and indices of maternal functioning in two relational spheres: the mother-child relationship (i.e., maternal sensitivity and child attachment security) and the marital relationship (i.e., mothers' and their partners' marital…

  11. A mobile/web app for long distance caregivers of older adults: functional requirements and design implications from a user centered design process.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Steven S; Gorman, Paul N; Jimison, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults.

  12. A Mobile/Web App for Long Distance Caregivers of Older Adults: Functional Requirements and Design Implications from a User Centered Design Process

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Steven S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Jimison, Holly B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469

  13. A mobile/web app for long distance caregivers of older adults: functional requirements and design implications from a user centered design process.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Steven S; Gorman, Paul N; Jimison, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469

  14. Neuroticism, coping strategies, and negative well-being among caregivers.

    PubMed

    Patrick, J H; Hayden, J M

    1999-06-01

    Neuroticism was incorporated into a model for predicting the well-being of family caregivers. Using data from 596 women with an adult child with a chronic disability, the model hypothesizes direct effects of neuroticism on a caregiver's perceptions of the stressor, on her wishful-escapism and problem-focused coping, and on psychological well-being. Results indicate that neuroticism exerts direct and indirect effects on negative well-being. Results also indicate that stressors have direct effects on both wishful-escapism coping and problem-focused coping. Burden had direct effects on negative psychological well-being. Diagnosis influences the model by having direct effects on stressors and wishful-escapism coping but not on problem-focused coping or burden. Inclusion of individual level variables, such as neuroticism, results in a substantial amount of explained variance in negative well-being.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: the child, adolescent, and adult.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Pratt, Helen D; Patel, Dilip R

    2007-02-01

    Management of a child, adolescent, college student, or adult with ADD/ADHD (ADHD) is reviewed with emphasis on pharmacologic approaches in the adult. Psychological treatment includes psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, support groups, parent training, biofeedback, meditation, and social skills training. Medications are reviewed that research has revealed can improve the core symptomatology of a child or adolescent with ADHD. These medications include stimulants (psychostimulants), antidepressants, alpha-2 agonists, and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Psychopharmacology approved and/or used in pediatric patients are also used in adults with ADHD, though most are not officially FDA-approved. It is emphasized that ADHD management should include a multi-modal approach, involving appropriate educational interventions, appropriate psychological management of the patient of any age, and judicious use of medications. Such an approach is recommended to benefit those with ADHD achieve their maximum potential across the human life span.

  16. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  17. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide to Routines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  18. Grammatical Class Effects Across Impaired Child and Adult Populations.

    PubMed

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun-verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the

  19. Grammatical Class Effects Across Impaired Child and Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun–verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the

  20. Outcomes of Clinicians, Caregivers, Family Members and Adults with Spina Bifida Regarding Receptivity to use of the iMHere mHealth Solution to Promote Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Andrea D.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Datt, Nicole; Garver, Amanda; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding the receptivity of clinicians, caregivers and family members, and adults with spina bifida (SB) to the use of a mHealth application, iMobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere) system. Surveys were administered to end user groups in conjunction with a conference presentation at the Spina Bifida Association’s 38th Annual Conference. The survey results were obtained from a total of 107 respondents. Likert scale and qualitative results are provided in consideration of future application of the iMHere system in clinical practice. The results of this survey indicate respondents were receptive and supportive with regard to adopting such a system for personal and professional use. Challenges likely to be encountered in the introduction of the iMHere system are also revealed and discussed. PMID:25945209

  1. Child abuse predicts adult PTSD symptoms among individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Claudia; Sossalla, Iris M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic or negative events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in intellectually disabled individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of ID who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression model revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in intellectually disabled individuals. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs

  2. Child abuse predicts adult PTSD symptoms among individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Catani, Claudia; Sossalla, Iris M

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic or negative events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in intellectually disabled individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of ID who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression model revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in intellectually disabled individuals. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs

  3. A Developmental Analysis of Caregiving Modalities across Infancy in 38 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving is requisite to wholesome child development from the beginning of life. A cross-sectional microgenetic analysis of six caregiving practices across the child's 1st year (0-12 months) in 42,539 families from nationally representative samples in 38 low- and middle-income countries is reported. Rates of caregiving varied tremendously within…

  4. Caregiver Mental Health, Neighborhood, and Social Network Influences on Mental Health Needs among African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…

  5. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  6. Japanese and Canadian Children’s Beliefs about Child and Adult Knowledge: A Case for Developmental Equifinality?

    PubMed Central

    Fitneva, Stanka A.; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako

    2016-01-01

    Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387

  7. The quality of the caregiving relationship in informal care for older adults with dementia and chronic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Spruytte, Nele; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Lammertyn, Frans; Storms, Gerrit

    2002-09-01

    The present study focuses on the dyadic relationship between a family carer and a patient. Besides clarifying the quality of the caregiving relationship in two populations of chronically ill patients, this investigation examines whether patient characteristics, carer characteristics and network characteristics are predictive of relationship quality in dementia caregiving. Partners, children or children-in-law caring for a relative suffering from dementia (N = 144) and partners or parents of persons suffering from chronic mental illness (N = 77) were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The measurement of relationship quality is based on the literature of Expressed Emotion and covers two dimensions: the level of criticism and the level of warmth. In general, the relationship between a carer and his or her chronically ill relative was marked by a low level of conflict or criticism and a high degree of warmth. The main predictors of a poorer relationship quality were disturbances in the patient's behaviour and the carer's perception of these disturbances. Our results suggest that, rather than limiting investigations to the burden experienced by the family carer, future research and interventions on chronically ill patients should focus on the quality of the carer-patient relationship and its determinants.

  8. Adult-Child Co-Viewing of Educational Television: Enhancing Preschoolers' Understanding of Mathematics Shown on "Sesame Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenlander, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…

  9. Child Maltreatment and Adult Cigarette Smoking: A Long-term Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmatory mediation strategies for objective c. Results Maltreatment was significantly associated with daily cigarette smoking. Although not moderated by gender, this relation was fully mediated by adolescent indicators of family support/stability, social adjustment, and cognitive/school performance along with young adult indicators of educational attainment, life satisfaction, substance abuse, and criminality. Conclusions Maltreatment places low-income, minority children at risk for daily cigarette smoking and other deleterious young adult health outcomes. Recommended treatment targets include family support/stability, emotion regulation, social skills, and cognitive/academic functioning. PMID:19995869

  10. Helping Dementia Caregivers Through Technology.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christianne Nesbitt; Haney, Tina; Lemaster, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    It is estimated there are between 43.5 and 65.7 million caregivers in the United States who provide unpaid care for older adults. Although the number of informal caregivers is expected to continue to increase, few programs have been established in home healthcare agencies to support these caregivers. This article describes a project that used a unique Web site to connect caregivers of people with dementia in a geographic region with an interprofessional group of healthcare providers and caregiver peers. Virtual Healthcare Neighborhood (VHN) was developed and maintained by an interprofessional group of healthcare providers from nursing, physical therapy, clinical counseling, and dental hygiene. The VHN provided weekly information on topics relevant to caring for a loved one with dementia at home as well as Question and Answer and Social Support Blogging sections for use by participants. This project was viewed as a positive and helpful method to provide support for caregivers of homebound older adults that could be easily replicated by home healthcare agencies.

  11. Helping Dementia Caregivers Through Technology.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christianne Nesbitt; Haney, Tina; Lemaster, Margaret

    2016-04-01

    It is estimated there are between 43.5 and 65.7 million caregivers in the United States who provide unpaid care for older adults. Although the number of informal caregivers is expected to continue to increase, few programs have been established in home healthcare agencies to support these caregivers. This article describes a project that used a unique Web site to connect caregivers of people with dementia in a geographic region with an interprofessional group of healthcare providers and caregiver peers. Virtual Healthcare Neighborhood (VHN) was developed and maintained by an interprofessional group of healthcare providers from nursing, physical therapy, clinical counseling, and dental hygiene. The VHN provided weekly information on topics relevant to caring for a loved one with dementia at home as well as Question and Answer and Social Support Blogging sections for use by participants. This project was viewed as a positive and helpful method to provide support for caregivers of homebound older adults that could be easily replicated by home healthcare agencies. PMID:27023296

  12. German translation of the caregiver priorities and child health index of life with disabilities questionnaire: test-retest reliability and correlation with gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nikolai H; Brix, Olga; Bernius, Peter; Schroeder, A Sebastian; Kluger, Gerhard J; Beyerlein, Andreas; Weir, Shannon; von Kries, Rudiger; Narayanan, Unni G; Mall, Volker; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to translate the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD) questionnaire into German and to evaluate its reliability and validity by studying the association between CPCHILD scores and gross motor function as measured by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The original CPCHILD questionnaire and manual were translated and back translated. It was administered to primary caregivers of persons with CP (GMFCS levels III-V) and was completed a second time 2 weeks after the first to measure test-retest reliability (n = 17). Primary caregivers of 68 children with CP; GMFCS level III (n = 14), level IV (n = 28), and level V (n = 26) completed the questionnaire. Mean total CPCHILD scores across GMFCS levels were 67.1 ± 14.9 for GMFCS level III, 56.6 ± 11.8 for level IV, and 44.3 ± 12.9 for level V. Good correlation (r =  - 0.56) was observed between GMFCS and total scores test-retest reliability showed intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.4 and 0.9. The German CPCHILD yielded similar test-retest reliability and score distributions across the GMFCS level as the original version. The best correlations were observed for domains that are close to the functional deficits.

  13. Adults' perceptions of children's independence and other sex-role characteristics as a function of child's gender label.

    PubMed

    Bell, N J; Hibbs, K; Milholland, T

    1978-12-01

    Male and female college students were presented with a photograph labeled as a 5-yr.-old boy or girl and heard statements attributed to the child. They then rated the child on sex-role traits and responded to open-ended questions about the child. The primary findings involved sex of child by sex of adult interactions on ratings of independence and leadership: in both cases, same-sex children were rated higher than opposite-sex children. There was also some evidence that women having high contact with children rated the child more extremely on opposite-sex traits than did those with little contact. PMID:740494

  14. Comparing child victims and adult survivors: clues to the pathogenesis of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Green, A H

    1995-01-01

    Sexual abuse consists of two discrete traumatic elements; the repeated infliction of sexual assault that is superimposed on a chronic background of pathological family interaction, including betrayal, stigmatization, role reversal, and violation of personal boundaries. The acute episodes of sexual assault may be overwhelming to the child and result in anxiety-related symptoms, including PTSD. The long-standing family dysfunction leads to a pathological defensive organization that becomes woven into the victim's personality structure, resulting in long-term characterological changes. As the sexually abused child progresses through adolescence into adulthood, and the immediacy of his or her victimization recedes to the background, the acute posttraumatic anxiety symptoms are gradually replaced by more enduring symptoms and characterological defenses. Traumatic memories of the abuse become repressed or dissociated from consciousness. Identifications, attitudes, and affects derived from the abusive environment are usually organized around victimization experiences, leading to identifications with the aggressor or victim, which contribute to sadomasochistic object relationships and problems with the regulation of sexual behavior. The repressed or dissociated traumatic memories of sexual abuse carry the potential for producing future psychopathology through displacement in the form of conversion symptoms or somatization, and by generating delayed PTSD when these memories are elicited by current experiences. Anxiety and depression triggered by the emergence of these traumatic memories often lead to alcohol and drug abuse. These substances may be used for their anxiolytic and antidepressant effects.

  15. Children's adjustment following Hurricane Katrina: the role of primary caregivers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina severely disrupted the lives of many children and families in the central Gulf Coast of the United States. Face-to-face interviews with child-caregiver dyads were conducted at approximately 1 year posthurricane (T1) and 6-10 months later (T2). The contribution of several factors-caregiver's self-reported symptomatology and coping advice and child perceptions of caregiver distress, unavailability, warmth, and caregiver-child conflict-to child-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms was examined. Findings provide partial support for the importance of the caregiving context to children's adjustment. Specifically, higher levels of caregiver-child conflict at T1 were associated with more PTSS at T2, controlling for baseline symptoms. In contrast, higher levels of caregiver education were negatively related to child PTSS at T2. After adjusting for objective hurricane exposure and symptoms at T1, none of the caregiving variables was related to child-reported depressive symptoms at T2. The implications of these findings for efforts to promote children's adjustment after disaster are discussed.

  16. Children's adjustment following Hurricane Katrina: the role of primary caregivers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina severely disrupted the lives of many children and families in the central Gulf Coast of the United States. Face-to-face interviews with child-caregiver dyads were conducted at approximately 1 year posthurricane (T1) and 6-10 months later (T2). The contribution of several factors-caregiver's self-reported symptomatology and coping advice and child perceptions of caregiver distress, unavailability, warmth, and caregiver-child conflict-to child-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms was examined. Findings provide partial support for the importance of the caregiving context to children's adjustment. Specifically, higher levels of caregiver-child conflict at T1 were associated with more PTSS at T2, controlling for baseline symptoms. In contrast, higher levels of caregiver education were negatively related to child PTSS at T2. After adjusting for objective hurricane exposure and symptoms at T1, none of the caregiving variables was related to child-reported depressive symptoms at T2. The implications of these findings for efforts to promote children's adjustment after disaster are discussed. PMID:23889031

  17. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731

  18. The Nature of Posttraumatic Growth in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sarah; Johnco, Carly; Hofmeyr, Marthinus; Berry, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Potential negative sequelae for survivors of child sexual abuse is well documented. However, growing evidence suggests that some individuals who actively cope with traumatic events can progress from a negative trajectory toward positive psychological change, often termed posttraumatic growth. Current posttraumatic growth theories may be of limited applicability to developmental considerations involved in child sexual abuse. This explorative study examines posttraumatic growth among adult female survivors of child sexual abuse. In-depth interviews were conducted with six participants who believed they had grown through coping with their abuse. Data was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate and nine subordinate themes were identified and explored. Some participants reported experiencing growth and distress simultaneously. Theoretical and clinical implications are examined in relation to the study's findings. PMID:26934545

  19. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  20. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries

    PubMed Central

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  1. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region.

  2. Adopting the Caregiver Role: A Family Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Chapman, Jeffery G.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to investigate how adult children become caregivers to older parents with functional impairments and what roles their own children adopt in their family's care arrangement. Interviews revealed five influences on children and grandchildren's adoption of caregiver roles: expectations; family rules; religious training;…

  3. Longitudinal examination of peer and partner influences on gender-specific pathways from child abuse to adult crime.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L; Klika, J Bart

    2015-09-01

    Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called "a delayed-onset pathway" for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes. PMID:26271556

  4. Longitudinal Examination of Peer and Partner Influences on Gender-specific Pathways From Child Abuse to Adult Crime

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L.; Klika, J. Bart

    2015-01-01

    Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called “a delayed-onset pathway” for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes. PMID:26271556

  5. Longitudinal examination of peer and partner influences on gender-specific pathways from child abuse to adult crime.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L; Klika, J Bart

    2015-09-01

    Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called "a delayed-onset pathway" for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes.

  6. Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Miller, Laura M.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2009-01-01

    Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are associated with overall relationship quality. Adult sons and daughters, aged 22 to 49, and their mothers and fathers (N = 158 families, 474 individuals) reported the intensity of different tension topics and relationship quality (solidarity and ambivalence) with one another. Tensions varied between and within families by generation, gender and age of offspring. In comparison to tensions regarding individual issues, tensions regarding the relationship were associated with lower affective solidarity and greater ambivalence. Findings are consistent with the developmental schism hypothesis, which indicates that parent-child tensions are common and are the result of discrepancies in developmental needs which vary by generation, gender, and age. PMID:19485648

  7. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  8. Assessment of Preschooler's Scientific Reasoning in Adult-Child Interactions: What Is the Optimal Context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meindertsma, Heidi B.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2014-04-01

    In educational settings, continuous assessment of the child's level of understanding is necessary to effectively utilize the principles of scaffolding and to create contexts that can advance the scientific reasoning of the child. In this article, we argue that a child's performance is a dynamic notion that is created by all elements in an interaction, including the task. Therefore, we studied preschoolers' levels of scientific reasoning varying different properties of the assessment context. Young children were interviewed about four scientific tasks using one out of four different protocols (varying in the degree of flexibility and adaptiveness) by an adult. In the first study, different task contents resulted in different performance levels. The second study indicated that the most structured protocol elicited the highest maximum level of reasoning in children and the highest percentage of correct predictions. The third study showed differences between the protocols in the adult's verbal behavior. Adaptation in verbal behavior to different children by the adult did not result in higher scientific understanding by the children, whereas a higher degree of task structure did. Combined, the studies emphasize the importance of context, which has implications for assessment and teaching situations.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adult and child patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F.; Al-Shinaiber, Rafif M.; Al-Baijan, Refal S.; Al-Balawi, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dentists’ knowledge regarding the prevention of infective endocarditis in Saudi Arabia and their implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in March 2014, 801 dentists who practice in different regions of Saudi Arabia completed a questionnaire regarding the need for antibiotic prophylaxis for specific cardiac conditions and specific dental procedures, prophylaxis regimens in adults and children, and recommendations for patients on chronic antibiotics, and in dental emergencies. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests, and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total knowledge level regarding antibiotic prophylaxis among all participants was 52.2%, with a significant difference between dentists who graduated before and after 2007. Comparing the level of knowledge among different dental specialists, surgeons and periodontists had the highest level of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the drug of choice by 63.9% of the participants. Conclusion: This study emphasized the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the guidelines in the students’ curriculum, as well as for strategic placement of the guidelines in locations throughout dental clinics. PMID:25935175

  10. Metabolic syndrome: a child is not a small adult.

    PubMed

    Pietrobelli, Angelo; Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Fuiano, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased all-cause mortality rate and even small weight losses can be associated with short-term reduction in risk factors for disease. There is strong evidence that weight loss in obese subjects improves risk factors for diabetes and cardiaovascular diseases. Metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults is defined as a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and hypertension. Application of the MS concept in children and adolescents is controversial; in fact no consensus exists on a specific definition for pediatric MS. Lack of consensus is in part due to body evolution associated with childhood and puberty that is related to changes in metabolic and clinical characteristics. The aim of this article is to try to clarify the differences between the MS as a concept and the MS as a diagnostic category, as well as to develop a theory related to its pathophysiology. We comment on the relationship between obesity, regional fat distribution and the MS, and finally we offer some insights into MS methodological approaches for estimating metabolic risk-factor clustering in children and adolescents. PMID:18278635

  11. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  12. Children's Reasoning about Disclosing Adult Transgressions: Effects of Maltreatment, Child Age, and Adult Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the…

  13. Reactions to children's transgressions in at-risk caregivers: does mitigating information, type of transgression, or caregiver directive matter?

    PubMed

    Irwin, Lauren M; Skowronski, John J; Crouch, Julie L; Milner, Joel S; Zengel, Bettina

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether caregivers who exhibit high risk for child physical abuse differ from low-risk caregivers in reactions to transgressing children. Caregivers read vignettes describing child transgressions. These vignettes varied in: (a) the type of transgression described (moral, conventional, personal), (b) presentation of transgression-mitigating information (present, absent), and (c) whether a directive to avoid the transgression was in the vignette (yes, no). After reading each vignette, caregivers provided ratings reflecting their: (a) perceptions of transgression wrongness, (b) internal attributions about the transgressing child, (c) perceptions of the transgressing child's hostile intent, (d) own expected negative post-transgression affect, and (e) perceived likelihood of responding to the transgression with discipline that displayed power assertion and/or induction. For moral transgressions (cruelty, dishonesty, hostility, or greed), mitigating information reduced caregiver expectations that they would feel negative affect and, subsequent to the transgression, use disciplinary strategies that display power assertion. These mitigating effects were smaller among at-risk caregivers than among low-risk caregivers. Moreover, when transgressions disobeyed a directive, among low-risk caregivers, mitigating information reduced the expectation that responses to transgressions would include inductive disciplinary strategies, but it did not do so among at-risk caregivers. In certain circumstances, compared to low-risk caregivers, at-risk caregivers expect to be relatively unaffected by transgression-mitigating information. These results suggest that interventions that increase an at-risk caregiver's ability to properly assess and integrate mitigating information may play a role in reducing the caregiver's risk of child physical abuse.

  14. Association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and body weight status of caregiver-child dyads: The HEALTH study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few Americans meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) yet, a large percentage are overweight. The goal of this research was to examine the association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the DGA and weight in a multi-site study. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 836 caregiver-c...

  15. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  16. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  17. A Study of the Infant Nasal Microbiome Development over the First Year of Life and in Relation to Their Primary Adult Caregivers Using cpn60 Universal Target (UT) as a Phylogenetic Marker.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Shelley W; Knox, Natalie C; Golding, George R; Tyler, Shaun D; Tyler, Andrea D; Mabon, Philip; Embree, Joanne E; Fleming, Fiona; Fanella, Sergio; Van Domselaar, Gary; Mulvey, Michael R; Graham, Morag R

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the infant gut microbiome is the subject of intense study, relatively little is known regarding the nares microbiome in newborns and during early life. This study aimed to survey the typical composition and diversity of human anterior nare microflora for developing infants over time, and to explore how these correlate to their primary caregivers. Single nare swabs were collected at five time points over a one-year period for each subject from infant-caregiver pairs. Our study comprised of 50 infants (recruited at 2 weeks, post delivery) and their 50 primary caregivers. Applying the chaperonin-60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) amplicon as our molecular barcoding marker to census survey the microbial communities, we longitudinally surveyed infant nares microbiota at 5 time points over the course of the first year of life. The inter- and intra-subject diversity was catalogued and compared, both longitudinally and relative to their adult primary caregivers. Although within-subject variability over time and inter-subject variability were both observed, the assessment detected only one or two predominant genera for individual infant samples, belonging mainly to phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Consistent with previously observed microbial population dynamics in other body sites, the diversity of nares microflora increased over the first year of life and infants showed differential operational taxonomic units (OTUs) relative to their matched primary caregiver. The collected evidence also support that both temporal and seasonal changes occur with respect to carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPBs), which may influence host predisposition to infection. This pilot study surveying paired infant/caregiver nare microbiomes provides novel longitudinal diversity information that is pertinent to better understanding nare microbiome development in infants.

  18. A Study of the Infant Nasal Microbiome Development over the First Year of Life and in Relation to Their Primary Adult Caregivers Using cpn60 Universal Target (UT) as a Phylogenetic Marker

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Shelley W.; Knox, Natalie C.; Golding, George R.; Tyler, Shaun D.; Tyler, Andrea D.; Mabon, Philip; Embree, Joanne E.; Fleming, Fiona; Fanella, Sergio; Van Domselaar, Gary; Mulvey, Michael R.; Graham, Morag R.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the infant gut microbiome is the subject of intense study, relatively little is known regarding the nares microbiome in newborns and during early life. This study aimed to survey the typical composition and diversity of human anterior nare microflora for developing infants over time, and to explore how these correlate to their primary caregivers. Single nare swabs were collected at five time points over a one-year period for each subject from infant-caregiver pairs. Our study comprised of 50 infants (recruited at 2 weeks, post delivery) and their 50 primary caregivers. Applying the chaperonin-60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) amplicon as our molecular barcoding marker to census survey the microbial communities, we longitudinally surveyed infant nares microbiota at 5 time points over the course of the first year of life. The inter- and intra-subject diversity was catalogued and compared, both longitudinally and relative to their adult primary caregivers. Although within-subject variability over time and inter-subject variability were both observed, the assessment detected only one or two predominant genera for individual infant samples, belonging mainly to phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Consistent with previously observed microbial population dynamics in other body sites, the diversity of nares microflora increased over the first year of life and infants showed differential operational taxonomic units (OTUs) relative to their matched primary caregiver. The collected evidence also support that both temporal and seasonal changes occur with respect to carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPBs), which may influence host predisposition to infection. This pilot study surveying paired infant/caregiver nare microbiomes provides novel longitudinal diversity information that is pertinent to better understanding nare microbiome development in infants. PMID:27019455

  19. For-Profit/Nonprofit Differences in Center-Based Child Care Quality: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…

  20. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  1. Child-rearing and adult leukemia: Epidemiologic evidence in support of competing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Steven, R.G. ); Severson, R.K. . Japan-Hawaii Cancer Study); Heuser, L. )

    1988-05-01

    The hypothesis that lack of child-rearing increases the risk of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults was examined in a case-control study in western Washington State. Among 159 study subjects over age 50 in 1985, there were 76 cases of ANLL and 83 controls. The crude odds ratio associated with lack of child-rearing was 1.8, with a 95% confidence range of 0.7 to 5.0. The average total number of children ever living with cases was 2.6 and with controls was 3.1 (p = 0.06). The mean total number of years living with a child, or children, under age 18 was 17.6 in cases and 20.2 in controls (p = 0.05). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for age, smoking, race, income, and sex. The data provide evidence that cases of ANLL were less likely to ever have had children and that fewer years were spent rearing children than were spent by controls. The hypothesis was based on the competing stem cell'' theory of hematopoietic ontogeny. If valid, then exposure to children would increase exposure to infection, leading to increased lymphocytic stem cell turnover, and decreased non-lymphocytic stem cell turnover. This, in turn, may reduce risk of ANLL in adults. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.

  3. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions. PMID:26560016

  4. Similarity of the oral microbiota of pre-school children with that of their caregivers in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tanner, A C R; Milgrom, P M; Kent, R; Mokeem, S A; Page, R C; Liao, S I A; Riedy, C A; Bruss, J B

    2002-12-01

    This study evaluated the similarity between the oral microbiota of young children and that of their adult caregivers. Oral samples from children (174 dentate and 18 pre-dentate) aged 6-36 months and their caregivers in Saipan were assayed using a DNA probe assay. Many species including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces species, Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were detected in dentate and pre-dentate children, whereas Bacteroides forsythus was detected only in dentate children. A higher percentage of children were positive for the detection of an individual species if the caregiver was also positive. There were significant relative risks of species detection between dentate children and their caregivers. By logistic regression, there were significant positive associations between species detection in caregiver and in child, but not between species detection and child age or maternal education level. In conclusion, dental pathogens were detected in young, including pre-dentate, children. The microbial profiles of children were strongly associated with the microbiota of their caregivers.

  5. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  6. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  7. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  8. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…

  9. Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…

  10. From one room to the other: a story of contamination. The relationship between child and adult analysis.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Does the analyst who works with both children and adults using ostensibly the same theoretical model perform similar mental operations in these two fields? The author suggests that child analysis is rooted in a different creative process from that of adults. Comparing the analysis of children to painting and that of adults to writing, and making use of the debate between Virginia Woolf and her sister Vanessa Bell on the relative merits of words and images, the author explores the psychoanalytic debate on the role of child analysis in the development of psychoanalytic theory and practice. Child analysis, initially regarded as an application of psychoanalysis, ended up acting as a catalyst for a true epistemological revolution in the 20th century through the work of Klein and Bion. Playing is not only an alternative medium to words for representing the unconscious but a different method for giving shape to representations through a specific creative process. The reverie which is born in the child analyst's consulting room reproduces itself through the body's actions during play, whereas in the adults' consulting room the analyst's capacity to dream presupposes the suspension of action. Child analysis, deploying a distinctive creative process that makes use of the body and serves itself of action in its development, may be said to rest on a similar creative process to that of figurative art. For this reason, the child analyst's mind relates to objects in a different way, being in a more prolonged state of fusion with these as a result of 'concentration of the body'. The significance of the unspeakable things that take place can often only be conceptualized in après-coup. Although this difference in the development of the process suggests a significant distinction between the two 'arts' of child and adult analysis, the aesthetic sensitivity acquired through child analysis can be profitably used with adults, as will be demonstrated with the help of several clinical

  11. USAFE Child Care Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaklos, Linda R.

    Composed of 19 chapters, this training guide for child caregivers in the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) offers information about various activity centers, the caregiver role and relationships, characteristics of children, caregiver responsibilities, and games. Each chapter consists of an outline of basic information concerning each…

  12. Cancer patients caregivers comfort.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Lamino, Daniela; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Cross-sectional study, carried out at the outpatient clinic of an oncology hospital. Data were collected from 88 caregivers of cancer patients using the Caregiver General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ) to assess the caregivers' comfort. The caregivers' GCQ score mean was 203.9; better comfort scores was associated with age, care time and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients' physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers' spirituality. 203.9; better comfort scores were associated with age of the caregiver and current occupation; positive aspects of comfort were related to the fact that caregivers felt loved, to patients' physical and environmental comfort and to caregivers' spirituality. Caregivers, who didn't have a paid job or leisure's activities showed a worse GCQ. The GCQ scale can help to identify factors that interfere in caregivers' comfort, as well as needs that can be modified through health professionals' interventions.

  13. Child-Care Structure?Process?Outcome: Direct and Indirect Effects of Child-Care Quality on Young Children's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychological Science, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Used NICHD Study of Early Child Care data to test paths from child care quality through process indicators to child outcomes. Found that maternal caregiving quality was strongest predictor of cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality related to cognitive and social competence. Nonmaternal caregiving quality mediated…

  14. Perceptions of Equity, Balance of Support Exchange, and Mother-Adult Child Relations.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J Jill; Howard, Abigail R; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Equity theory suggests that relationships are more harmonious when both members of a dyad believe that their exchanges are fair. However, the level and frequency of exchange, rather than perceptions of equity, have been the focus of most research on support and the quality of intergenerational relations. Using data from 1,426 mother-child dyads nested within 413 families collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, the authors explored whether mothers' perceptions of equity are better predictors of closeness and tension than are mothers' reports of balanced exchanges of support. Mixed-model analyses revealed that mothers' perceptions of equity were more consistent predictors of relationship quality than were the balanced exchanges of support, though the results varied somewhat by gender of adult child. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating that the psychological processes that shape intergenerational relationships mirror those of other ties. PMID:24683270

  15. Fathers' everyday experiences of having an adult child who suffers from long-term mental illness.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anita; Anderzen-Carlsson, Agneta; Ahlin, Arne; Andershed, Birgitta

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the everyday life experiences of fathers of adult children who have various forms of long-term mental illness. Ten fathers were interviewed. Content analysis revealed one main theme: Maintaining a strong façade while balancing on a thin line, and two sub-themes: (1) A constant struggle and (2) A feeling of powerlessness. The fathers demonstrated great engagement and good will to participate in their child's life. A sense of powerlessness and frustration at not having or being allowed freedom of action emerged. Cooperation between children, parents, the care service providers, and the authorities could increase the parents' abilities to provide adequate support to the child as well as helping them to understand and make the incomprehensible manageable. PMID:22273345

  16. Perceptions of Equity, Balance of Support Exchange, and Mother-Adult Child Relations.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J Jill; Howard, Abigail R; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Equity theory suggests that relationships are more harmonious when both members of a dyad believe that their exchanges are fair. However, the level and frequency of exchange, rather than perceptions of equity, have been the focus of most research on support and the quality of intergenerational relations. Using data from 1,426 mother-child dyads nested within 413 families collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, the authors explored whether mothers' perceptions of equity are better predictors of closeness and tension than are mothers' reports of balanced exchanges of support. Mixed-model analyses revealed that mothers' perceptions of equity were more consistent predictors of relationship quality than were the balanced exchanges of support, though the results varied somewhat by gender of adult child. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating that the psychological processes that shape intergenerational relationships mirror those of other ties.

  17. Perceptions of Equity, Balance of Support Exchange, and Mother–Adult Child Relations

    PubMed Central

    Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Howard, Abigail R.; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Equity theory suggests that relationships are more harmonious when both members of a dyad believe that their exchanges are fair. However, the level and frequency of exchange, rather than perceptions of equity, have been the focus of most research on support and the quality of intergenerational relations. Using data from 1,426 mother–child dyads nested within 413 families collected as part of the Within-Family Differences Study, the authors explored whether mothers’ perceptions of equity are better predictors of closeness and tension than are mothers’ reports of balanced exchanges of support. Mixed-model analyses revealed that mothers’ perceptions of equity were more consistent predictors of relationship quality than were the balanced exchanges of support, though the results varied somewhat by gender of adult child. These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating that the psychological processes that shape intergenerational relationships mirror those of other ties. PMID:24683270

  18. The prevalence of child sexual abuse victimization in an adult sample of Texas residents.

    PubMed

    Kercher, G A; McShane, M

    1984-01-01

    Attempts to identify characteristics of children who have been sexually abused have generally been based on cases reported to clinics, hospitals, law enforcement and social service agencies. In this study a questionnaire was mailed to a representative sample of the adult population in Texas. Child sexual abuse was defined as sexual interaction between a child and an adult or between two minors when the perpetrator is significantly older than the victim or is in a position of power over the victim. A return rate of 53% was obtained. The surveys returned varied from previous studies of the same population in that the respondents were slightly older, more often married and from a slightly higher socioeconomic level. They were, however, closely matched on the variables of sex, race and educational level. Childhood sexual victimization was reported by 7.4% of the respondents. Female victims comprised 82% of this group. The racial/ethnic distribution of victims paralleled that of the Texas census with 77% white, 5% black, and 16% Hispanic. Victimization rates were highest for Hispanic females followed by black and white females in that order. Hispanic and black males reported the lowest victimization rates. Based on these findings, it was estimated that 821,359 adult Texas residents were sexually abused as children. These results were compared with those of other studies along with their implications for policy-making. PMID:6335060

  19. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  20. Enhanced Plasticity in Spoken Language Acquisition for Child Learners: Evidence from Phonetic Training Studies in Child and Adult Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari

    2013-01-01

    Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…

  1. Health-Related Internet Use by Informal Caregivers of Children and Adolescents: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Andreanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower

  2. Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A 9-Month Follow-Up from the Perspectives of Both Child and Caregiver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, I-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) with functional occupational therapy (OT) at 9-month follow-up in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with bilateral upper limb impairments from the perspectives of both child and caregiver. Methods Twelve children with CP and their caregivers were assessed across 5 time points over 9 months based on the ICF after BoNT-A injection and functional OT in this open-label study. Results Significant differences were found across the 5 time points (p < .05) for both grasp and visual-motor integration with small effects (effect sizes = 0.12–0.24) and the self-care capability and performance of social function (p < .05). However, based on the effect sizes (0.02–0.14), no significant effects were found at the 4 post-test time points. Small effects were found on the psychological domain (effect sizes = 0.25–0.37) and environmental domains (effect size = 0.27) at follow-ups. Conclusion Combining a BoNT-A injection with OT not only reduced the muscle tone and increased ROM but also improved the upper limb function and self-care capability in children with CP. More importantly, these effects persisted for up to 9 months. Functional OT extends the effectiveness of a BoNT-A injection. PMID:26599003

  3. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  4. Adult-child sex and the limits of liberal sexual morality.

    PubMed

    Malón, Agustin

    2015-05-01

    This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult-child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed.

  5. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults.

    PubMed

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  6. Adult-child sex and the limits of liberal sexual morality.

    PubMed

    Malón, Agustin

    2015-05-01

    This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult-child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed. PMID:25677335

  7. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants. PMID:25610415

  8. The influence of child sexual abuse on the self from adult narrative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn. PMID:25747417

  9. The influence of child sexual abuse on the self from adult narrative perspectives.

    PubMed

    Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn.

  10. The Effect of Intra- and Intergenerational Caregiving on Subjective Well-Being – Evidence of a Population Based Longitudinal Study among Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers longitudinally. Methods Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations). SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB), positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner’s mother or partner’s father. Results Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women) and mental health (total sample and men), whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men) and cognitive well-being (women). Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed. PMID:26859511

  11. [The dementia patient caregiver].

    PubMed

    Bagnati, Pablo M

    2010-01-01

    Dementia results in an important economic, social and personal burden. To care for a patient with dementia can be a trascendent learning experience. At the same time, the caregiver's role can become strenuous physical and mental work. This article reviews the importance of assessing the caregiver from the moment of diagnostic work up, the stages the caregiver goes through in the disease evolution, and the "Caregiver syndrome" where the caregiver can become the "second victim" of dementia.

  12. Mothers' Time Choices: Caregiving, Leisure, Home Production, and Paid Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Jean; Connelly, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Survey, we study the role that socioeconomic factors play in mothers' time choices. We estimate a four-equation system in which the dependent variables are the minutes used in home production, active leisure, market work, and child caregiving. Our results show that mothers' caregiving time…

  13. Grammatical processing of spoken language in child and adult language learners.

    PubMed

    Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated auditory language processing in children and late second-language (L2) learners using online methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs), eye-movement monitoring, or the cross-modal priming paradigm. Two grammatical phenomena are examined in detail, children's and adults' processing of German plural inflections (Lück et al. Brain Res 1077:144-152, 2006; Hahne et al. J Cognitive Neurosci 18:121-134, 2006; Clahsen et al. J Child Language 34:601-622, 2007) and language learners' processing of filler-gap dependencies in English (Felser C, Roberts L Second Language Res 23:9-36, 2007; Roberts et al. J Psycholinguist Res 36:175-188, 2007). The results from these studies reveal clear differences between native and nonnative processing in both domains of grammar, suggesting that nonnative listeners rely less on grammatical parsing routines during processing than either child or adult native listeners. We also argue that factors such as slower processing speed or cognitive resource limitations only provide a partial account of our findings.

  14. Communication approaches to parent-child conflict: young adolescence to young adult.

    PubMed

    Riesch, Susan K; Jackson, Norma M; Chanchong, Weena

    2003-08-01

    As trusted and accessible health care providers, pediatric nurses are asked frequently for advice on the rearing of children and adolescents, particularly during developmental transitions. The parent-adolescent relationship has been characterized as a continuing renegotiation of relational qualities. Aspects of communication, such as conflicts and approaches to them, expose the re-negotiation process. The purpose of this study was to examine how communication approaches and topics of conflict in a parent child relationship evolved over 10 years. Thirty-three families with young adults as children between the ages of 22 and 26 years old responded to a survey about conflict and conflict resolution. Parents and young adults, as respondents, were asked to describe two incidents of conflict. The first incident was a conflict from the past, when the young adult was 11 to 14, and the second incident was a conflict they recently experienced. Inductive analyses were used to substantiate themes from the data. Regarding past topics of conflict, parents and young adults had no difficulty recalling incidents. The approaches to solving the past conflicts were seldom effective. Both parent and teenager were reactive, negative, confrontational, or avoidant. Occasionally, incidents that reflected thinking, planning ahead, and caring were reported. Descriptions of more recent experiences indicated less conflict and more direct and healthy communication approaches; although manipulative, negative, and intimidating tactics were present. PMID:12923735

  15. The prevalence of informal caregiving to persons with AIDS in the United States: caregiver characteristics and their implications.

    PubMed

    Turner, H A; Catania, J A; Gagnon, J

    1994-06-01

    Based on U.S. national (N = 2673) and central cities (N = 8263) probability samples, this paper: (1) presents estimates of the proportion of the United States population that has provided informal care to persons with AIDS; (2) identifies socio-demographic characteristics of 'typical' AIDS caregivers in the U.S.; and (3) discusses social, economic and health-related implications of informal caregiving to persons with AIDS. Results indicate that 5.0% of all adults age 18-75 living within central cities and 3.2% of the entire adult U.S. population have provided care to a friend, relative or lover with AIDS. Although caregivers are distributed throughout different age and ethnic groups, the majority of caregivers are younger (< 40 years) and white. Males, gay and bisexual men in particular are over-represented among central cities caregivers. Data on the types of caregiving tasks performed show that 64.4% of all caregivers within central cities perform domestic types of caregiving tasks, while 27.7% are involved in personal care of AIDS patients. Caregivers are more likely than non-caregivers to have been tested for HIV, and among the tested, caregivers are more likely to have tested positive. While informal caregiving reduces costs to the formal medical sector, costs to the caregivers themselves should be considered. Physical and emotional stress, as well as reduced opportunity for social and economic development, represent potential outcomes of caregiving. Socio-demographic characteristics of AIDS caregivers, such as their typically young age, suggest that these caregivers may be at particular risk for detrimental consequences.

  16. Risk and Protective Factors for Adult and Child Hunger Among Low-Income Housed and Homeless Female-Headed Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehler, Cheryl; Weinreb, Linda F.; Huntington, Nicholas; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Fletcher, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert; Gundersen, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Methods. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Results. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or “hassles.” Risk factors for child hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. Conclusions. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers’ poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs. PMID:14713707

  17. "Difficult" children as elicitors and targets of adult communication patterns: an attributional-behavioral transactional analysis.

    PubMed

    Bugental, D B; Shennum, W A

    1984-01-01

    A transactional model of adult-child interaction was proposed and tested. In determining the effects that caregivers and children have on each other, it was maintained that adult attributions act as important moderators in the interaction process. Specifically, it was predicted that adult beliefs about the causes of caregiving outcomes act as selective filters or sensitizers to child behavior--determining the nature and amount of adult reaction to different child behaviors. It was further predicted that adult attributions act in a self-fulfilling fashion, that is, the communication patterns that follow from caregiver beliefs act to elicit child behavior patterns that maintain those beliefs. In a synthetic family strategy, elementary-school-aged boys were paired with unrelated mothers (N = 96) for videotaped interactions. Children were either trained or preselected on two orthogonal dimensions: responsiveness and assertiveness. Mothers were premeasured on their self-perceived power as caregivers (S+) and the social power they attributed to children (C+). Videotapes were analyzed separately for adult facial expression and posture, voice intonation, and verbal communication. Each of these behavioral dimensions was measured on the dimensions of affect, assertion, and "maternal quality" (e.g., baby-talk). We expected low self-perceived power to sensitize the adult to variations in child responsiveness and high child-attributed power to sensitize the adult to variations in child assertiveness. Two transactional sequences were obtained (the same patterns were obtained for acted and dispositional enactments of child behavior): 1. Low S+ mothers (in comparison with high S+ mothers) were selectively reactive to child unresponsiveness. These adults reacted to unresponsive children with a communication pattern characterized by a "maternal" quality, negative affect, and positive affect that was unassertively inflected. Unresponsive children, in turn, reacted to low S+ mothers

  18. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages.

  19. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages. PMID:26598568

  20. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Adair, Linda; Fall, Caroline; Hallal, Pedro C; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh

    2008-01-26

    In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and--for women--lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain--especially after infancy--is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and

  1. The Relationships among Caregiver and Adolescent Identity Status, Identity Distress and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…

  2. Caregiving process and caregiver burden: Conceptual models to guide research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Parminder; O'Donnell, Maureen; Schwellnus, Heidi; Rosenbaum, Peter; King, Gillian; Brehaut, Jamie; Russell, Dianne; Swinton, Marilyn; King, Susanne; Wong, Micheline; Walter, Stephen D; Wood, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Background Parental care for a child with a developmental disability is an enormous responsibility, one that can far exceed that of typical parental care. While most parents adapt well to the situation of caring for a child with a disability, some do not. To understand parents' adaptations to their children's disabilities, the complex nature of stress processes must be accounted for and the constructs and factors that play a role in the caregiving must be considered. Discussion Evidence suggests that there is considerable variation in how caregivers adapt to their caregiving demands. Many studies have sought to qualify the association between caregiving and health outcomes of the caregivers. Contextual factors such as SES, child factors such as child behaviour problems and severity of disability, intra-psychic factors such as mastery and self-esteem, coping strategies and social supports have all been associated with psychological and/or physical outcome or parents or primary caregivers. In reviewing these issues, the literature appears to be limited by the use of traditional analytic approaches which examine the relationship between a factor and an outcome. It is clear, however, that changes to single factors, as represented in these studies, occur very rarely even in the experimental context. The literature has also been limited by lack of reliance on specific theoretical frameworks. Summary This conceptual paper documents the state of current knowledge and explores the current theoretical frameworks that have been used to describe the caregiving process from two diverse fields, pediatrics and geriatrics. Integration of these models into one comprehensive model suitable for this population of children with disabilities and their caregivers is proposed. This model may guide future research in this area. PMID:14723791

  3. Child-to-Adult Liver Transplantation With Donation After Cardiac Death Donors: Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangshuo; Liu, Xuemin; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Liang; Sha, Huanchen; Zhou, Ying; Tian, Min; Shi, Jianhua; Wang, Wanli; Liu, Chang; Guo, Kun; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Development of organ transplantation is restricted by the discrepancy between the lack of donors and increasing number of patients. The outcome of pediatric donors transplanted into adult recipients especially with donation after circulatory death (DCD) pattern has not been well studied. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience of 3 successful DCD donor child-to-adult liver transplantations lately. Three DCD donors were separately 7, 5, and 8 years old. The ratio between donor graft weight and recipient body weight was 1.42%, 1.00%, and 1.33%, respectively. Ratio between the volume of donor liver and the expected liver volume was 0.65, 0.46, and 0.60. Splenectomy was undertaken for the second recipient according to the portal vein pressure (PVP) which was observed during the operation. Two out of 3 of the recipients suffered with acute kidney injury and got recovered after renal replacement therapy. The first recipient also went through early allograft dysfunction and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The hospital course of the third recipient was uneventful. After 1 year of follow-up visit, the first and second recipients maintain good quality of life and liver function. The third patient was followed up for 5 months until now and recovered well. DCD child-to-adult liver transplantation should only be used for comparatively matched donor and recipient. PVP should be monitored during the operation. The short-term efficacy is good, but long-term follow-up and clinical study with large sample evaluation are still needed.

  4. Child-to-Adult Liver Transplantation With Donation After Cardiac Death Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liangshuo; Liu, Xuemin; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Liang; Sha, Huanchen; Zhou, Ying; Tian, Min; Shi, Jianhua; Wang, Wanli; Liu, Chang; Guo, Kun; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Development of organ transplantation is restricted by the discrepancy between the lack of donors and increasing number of patients. The outcome of pediatric donors transplanted into adult recipients especially with donation after circulatory death (DCD) pattern has not been well studied. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience of 3 successful DCD donor child-to-adult liver transplantations lately. Three DCD donors were separately 7, 5, and 8 years old. The ratio between donor graft weight and recipient body weight was 1.42%, 1.00%, and 1.33%, respectively. Ratio between the volume of donor liver and the expected liver volume was 0.65, 0.46, and 0.60. Splenectomy was undertaken for the second recipient according to the portal vein pressure (PVP) which was observed during the operation. Two out of 3 of the recipients suffered with acute kidney injury and got recovered after renal replacement therapy. The first recipient also went through early allograft dysfunction and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The hospital course of the third recipient was uneventful. After 1 year of follow-up visit, the first and second recipients maintain good quality of life and liver function. The third patient was followed up for 5 months until now and recovered well. DCD child-to-adult liver transplantation should only be used for comparatively matched donor and recipient. PVP should be monitored during the operation. The short-term efficacy is good, but long-term follow-up and clinical study with large sample evaluation are still needed. PMID:26886643

  5. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  6. Improving Post-Hospitalization Transition Outcomes through Accessible Health Information Technology and Caregiver Support: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D; Striplin, Dana; Marinec, Nicolle; Chen, Jenny; Gregory, Lynn A; Sumerlin, Denise L; DeSantis, Angela M; Gibson, Carolyn; Crause, Ingrid; Rouse, Marylena; Aikens, James E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this trial is to evaluate a novel intervention designed to improve post-hospitalization support for older adults with chronic conditions via: (a) direct tailored communication to patients using regular automated calls post discharge, (b) support for informal caregivers outside of the patient’s household via structured automated feedback about the patient’s status plus advice about how caregivers can help, and (c) support for care management including a web-based disease management tool and alerts about potential problems. Methods 846 older adults with common chronic conditions are being identified upon hospital admission. Patients are asked to identify a “CarePartner” (CP) living outside their household, i.e., an adult child or other social network member willing to play an active role in their post-discharge transition support. Patient-CP pairs are randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients receive automated assessment and behavior change calls, and their CPs receives structured feedback and advice via email and automated calls following each assessment. Clinical teams have access to assessment results via the web and receive automated reports about urgent health problems. Patients complete surveys at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days post discharge; utilization data is obtained from hospital records. CPs, other caregivers, and clinicians are interviewed to evaluate intervention effects on processes of self-care support, caregiver stress and communication, and the intervention’s potential for broader implementation. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates; other outcomes measured at 30 days and 90 days include functional status, self-care behaviors, and mortality risk. Conclusion This trial uses accessible health technologies and coordinated communication among informal caregivers and clinicians to fill the growing gap between what discharged patients need and available resources. A unique feature of

  7. Child psychopharmacology: Is it more similar than different from adult psychopharmacology?

    PubMed

    Sareen, Himanshu; Trivedi, Jitendra Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Despite having a large chunk of human population, Asian countries face shortage of mental health professionals. There is further shortage of doctors dealing with special groups of population like the children, the elderly, and the medically ill. However, in this era of super-specializations, are the basic principles of general psychopharmacology being forgotten? Dealing with child population is different and often more difficult than adult population but are management guidelines for the two populations vastly divergent? A close look at this paints a different picture. Psychotherapies applied in adults and those in children and adolescents are disparate owing to cognitive, social, emotional, and physical immaturation in children and adolescents. But the drugs for the treatment of pediatric psychiatric disorders are mostly similar to those prescribed for adults (case in point -bipolar disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia). Rather than focusing energy on propagating the differences in assorted subgroups of population, honing of skills regarding intricacies of psychopharmacology is required to be emphasized. Detailed history taking, careful evaluation of the patient, sound diagnostic formulation, and prescribing medications which are tailor made to the patient will all go a long way in ensuring a functional recovery of the patients irrespective of the group they belong to.

  8. Choosing Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... the opportunity to learn and grow in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  9. Intentions of College Students to Serve as Informal Caregivers for Their Older Relatives: Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gungeet; Gezan, Salvador; Delisle, Tony; Stopka, Christine; Pigg, Morgan; Tillman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As the older adult population increases, the healthcare system is experiencing a shortage of professional health care providers and caregivers. Consequently, the role of family to serve as caregivers will expand to care for older relatives at home. Thus, a larger proportion of adult children will become caregivers, including young adults enrolled…

  10. Culture and Caregiving: Goals, Expectations, & Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care services.…

  11. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology. PMID:26391339

  12. Comparison of specific absorption rate induced in brain tissues of a child and an adult using mobile phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2012-04-01

    The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.

  13. Impacts of Informal Caregiver Availability on Long-term Care Expenditures in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Bhattacharya, Jay; McDonald, Kathryn M; Garber, Alan M

    2004-01-01

    Objective To quantify the effects of informal caregiver availability and public funding on formal long-term care (LTC) expenditures in developed countries. Data Source/Study Setting Secondary data were acquired for 15 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 1970 to 2000. Study Design Secondary data analysis, applying fixed- and random-effects models to time-series cross-sectional data. Outcome variables are inpatient or home heath LTC expenditures. Key explanatory variables are measures of the availability of informal caregivers, generosity in public funding for formal LTC, and the proportion of the elderly population in the total population. Data Collection/Extraction Method Aggregated macro data were obtained from OECD Health Data, United Nations Demographic Yearbooks, and U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base. Principal Findings Most of the 15 OECD countries experienced growth in LTC expenditures over the study period. The availability of a spouse caregiver, measured by male-to-female ratio among the elderly, is associated with a $28,840 (1995 U.S. dollars) annual reduction in formal LTC expenditure per additional elderly male. Availability of an adult child caregiver, measured by female labor force participation and full-time/part-time status shift, is associated with a reduction of $310 to $3,830 in LTC expenditures. These impacts on LTC expenditure vary across countries and across time within a country. Conclusions The availability of an informal caregiver, particularly a spouse caregiver, is among the most important factors explaining variation in LTC expenditure growth. Long-term care policies should take into account behavioral responses: decreased public funding in LTC may lead working women to leave the labor force to provide more informal care. PMID:15544640

  14. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed. PMID:26241375

  15. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed.

  16. Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, P.; Howe, C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    Environmental education is frequently undertaken as a conservation intervention designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of recipients. Much conservation education is aimed at children, with the rationale that children influence the attitudes of their parents, who will consequently change their behaviour. Empirical evidence to substantiate this suggestion is very limited, however. For the first time, we use a controlled trial to assess the influence of wetland-related environmental education on the knowledge of children and their parents and household behaviour. We demonstrate adults exhibiting greater knowledge of wetlands and improved reported household water management behaviour when their child has received wetland-based education at Seychelles wildlife clubs. We distinguish between ‘folk’ knowledge of wetland environments and knowledge obtained from formal education, with intergenerational transmission of each depending on different factors. Our study provides the first strong support for the suggestion that environmental education can be transferred between generations and indirectly induce targeted behavioural changes.

  17. Family Caregiver Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Complex Web: Family Caregiving and Healthcare [Editor's note: This blog was originally posted on the the Atlas of Caregiving website on June ... 2016 Taking Care of SoMEone Else November 14, 2016 Grupo ...

  18. Caregivers program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943

  19. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.

  20. Photovoice and Clubfoot: Using a Participatory Research Method to Study Caregiver Adherence to the Ponseti Method in Perú

    PubMed Central

    Pletch, Alison; Morcuende, Jose; Barriga, Hersey; Segura, Jose; Salas, Alexandro

    2015-01-01

    The Ponseti Method of casting and bracing is the gold-standard treatment for congenital clubfoot in young children. Despite its many advantages, outcomes depend heavily on caregiver adherence to the treatment protocol. Our study explored the experience caregivers had with the Ponseti method using a photography-based participatory research method known as Photovoice. Five adult caregivers were recruited from families pursuing clubfoot treatment at the Children's Hospital in Lima, Perú, during June, 2013. Each was provided a digital camera and training and agreed to photograph their experiences caring for a child undergoing Ponseti Method clubfoot treatment. Participants held four to five weekly one-on-one meetings with the researcher to discuss their photos. They also attended a group meeting at the end of the study to view and discuss photos of other participants. Using photos collected at this meeting, participants identified themes that summarized their experiences with treatment and discussed ways to improve delivery of care in order to support caregiver adherence to treatment. These results were presented to clinicians in Lima who use the Ponseti Method. The Photovoice method allowed researchers and participants to study the experience caregivers have with the Ponseti Method, and results can be used to inform the design of patient-based care models. PMID:26361460