Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam
Purpose: Caregiving research has typically relied on cross-sectional data that focus on the primary caregiver. This approach neglects the dynamic and systemic character of caregiver networks. Our analyses addressed changes in adult child care networks over a 2-year period. Design and Methods: The study relied on pooled data from Waves 1 through 5…
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam
Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) represent 1,068 parent-level care occasions and 3,616 child-level occasions. There is considerable 2-year stability in primary adult-child caregivers. Parents are more prone to experience a change in adult-child primary caregivers if they live by themselves and if they have more sons and daughters. As far as the adult children are concerned, daughters and children living closer to parents are more likely to remain primary caregivers. Results suggest that change in primary caregivers is more strongly associated with available alternatives and gender norms than burden and competing obligations.
Webb, Nancy Carnahan; Lowther, Malcolm
This study examined the relationship between child caregiver commitment and the caregiver's personal characteristics and work experience, the characteristics of the job, and the quality of the child care center. Questionnaires that included several measurement instruments were sent to 381 full-time child caregivers in 94 centers. Caregiver…
McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin
The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…
Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…
Intended for those already providing home child care or those considering becoming a caregiver in Canada, this book provides practical ideas and advice covering the many areas involved in home child care, from organization of the home to resources available to the provider. Chapter 1 describes how home child care can be provided, how to adapt to…
Parchment, Tyrone M.; Small, Latoya; Osuji, Hadiza; McKay, Mary; Bhana, Arvin
Background The mental health of children is too frequently overlooked in resource scarce low and middle-income countries. South Africa represents one of many country contexts struggling to meet the mental health needs of large numbers of young people. Family caregivers have been identified as potential protective influences on child mental health, even for those children being reared with high exposure to poverty. Methods This paper explores contextual influences on South African caregiver’s social-emotional health living in communities impacted by poverty and food insecurity as they attempt to support their children’s prosocial skills and behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the relationship between neighborhood social cohesion and caregiver report of child’s prosocial behavior as mediated by the caregiver’s mental health (n=478). Results Results indicated that the more caregivers experience their communities as socially cohesive, the better their social-emotional well-being, thus positively related to their reports of children’s prosocial behavior. Furthermore, when there is a male head of household, caregivers reported better social-emotional well-being in comparison to female headed of household. The more food secure caregivers also were likely to report better general health. Conclusion South African community characteristics and caregivers, in particular male caregivers, are integral to child and caregiver mental health. Future research should examine the impact of interventions that mobilize community and caregiver supports for children’s prosocial behavior and mental health.
Howes, Carolee; And Others
Two studies examined the influences of concordant and nonconcordant attachment relationships to mothers and to child caregivers on children's behavior in child care. In both studies, the child's level of competence in play with the caregiver and engagement with peers was a function of attachment security with both mother and caregiver. (NH)
Vroman, Kerryellen; Morency, Jamme
In this first study of informal caregiving for older adults in Belize, 29 caregivers described their experiences of caregiving, how they perceived and managed the role, and what critical resources they needed. The three main themes identified in the caregiver interviews were "the experiences of caregivers, the rewards of caregiving, and…
Innes, Robert B; Innes, Sharon M.
Interviews of 31 caregivers and directors of day care centers assessed role identity constructs and attitudes toward parents and the child care profession. Results concluded that conflict over attachment issues contributed to problems between parents and caregivers. (Author/CI)
Rusby, Julie C.; Jones, Laura Backen; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith
Home-based child caregivers face unique stressors related to the nature of their work. One hundred and fifty-five home-based child care providers in Oregon, USA, participated in this cross-sectional correlational study. We investigated associations between indicators of caregiver stress and child care working conditions, the quality of caregiver…
Vroman, Kerryellen; Morency, Jamme
In this first study of informal caregiving for older adults in Belize, 29 caregivers described their experiences of caregiving, how they perceived and managed the role, and what critical resources they needed. The three main themes identified in the caregiver interviews were the experiences of caregivers, the rewards of caregiving, and navigating the caregiver role. Caregivers identified positively with the role of care provider and they did not describe it as burdensome nor did they describe role strain. However, caregivers' complaints of poor physical health might be construed as somatic expressions of strain. The caregivers' religiosity was salient to how they viewed and coped with their caregiver role. In conclusion, culture appears to influence positively caregivers' beliefs and perceptions of caregiving in Belize. However, the expected increase in the older population and current circumstances of many caregivers and care recipients means there is a critical need for resources to support caregivers and promote aging in place.
de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina
The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…
Vaughan, Jill; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Loakes, Deborah; Disbray, Samantha; Moses, Karin
This paper reports on a study in two remote multilingual Indigenous Australian communities: Yakanarra in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and Tennant Creek in the Barkly region of the Northern Territory. In both communities, processes of language shift are underway from a traditional language (Walmajarri and Warumungu, respectively) to a local creole variety (Fitzroy Valley Kriol and Wumpurrarni English, respectively). The study focuses on language input from primary caregivers to a group of preschool children, and on the children's productive language. The study further highlights child-caregiver interactions as a site of importance in understanding the broader processes of language shift. We use longitudinal data from two time-points, approximately 2 years apart, to explore changes in adult input over time and developmental patterns in the children's speech. At both time points, the local creole varieties are the preferred codes of communication for the dyads in this study, although there is some use of the traditional language in both communities. Results show that for measures of turn length (MLT), there are notable differences between the two communities for both the focus children and their caregivers. In Tennant Creek, children and caregivers use longer turns at Time 2, while in Yakanarra the picture is more variable. The two communities also show differing trends in terms of conversational load (MLT ratio). For measures of morphosyntactic complexity (MLU), children and caregivers in Tennant Creek use more complex utterances at Time 2, while caregivers in Yakanarra show less complexity in their language at that time point. The study's findings contribute to providing a more detailed picture of the multilingual practices at Yakanarra and Tennant Creek, with implications for understanding broader processes of language shift. They also elucidate how children's language and linguistic input varies diachronically across time. As such, we contribute to
Greenberg, J S; Seltzer, M M; Greenley, J R
Using a stress process model, we investigated the impact of later-life caregiving on 105 mothers of adult children with mental illness and 208 mothers of adult children with mental retardation. As hypothesized, mothers of persons with mental illness reported higher levels of frustrations and lower levels of gratifications. Whereas the adult child's behavior problems were the strongest predictor of maternal gratifications, the adult child's diagnosis was the strongest predictor of maternal frustrations once all other factors were controlled. In addition, the size of the mother's social network, the family social climate, and the child's participation in an out-of-home program were associated with the effect of caregiver stress.
Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico
Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…
Helmerhorst, Katrien O. W.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Vermeer, Harriet J.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.
Research Findings: High-quality caregiver-child interactions constitute the core of high-quality child care for young children. This article describes the background and development of the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales to rate 6 key skills of caregivers for interacting with 0-to 4-year-old children in child care centers: sensitive…
Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments, we know considerably less about why children engage in RRBs and if and how to intervene with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention targeting social-communication behaviors and if caregiver training changed how they responded to their child's RRBs. Eighty-six toddlers with ASD and their caregivers received one of two interventions: caregivers were either actively coached while playing with their child (JASPER) or attended information sessions about ASD. On three different occasions (when they entered the study, following 10 weeks of intervention and 6-months after) caregivers were filmed playing with their child. From these recordings, we coded child RRBs and caregiver responses to these behaviors. Child RRBs remained relatively stable following intervention in both groups, but increased when the children returned at 6-months. Caregivers who received one-on-one coaching (JASPER) responded to a greater number of their child's RRBs and their responses were rated as more successful. Our study showed that a short-term social-communication intervention delivered through caregivers had "spillover effects" on how they also responded to their child's RRBs. Interventions targeting social-communication behaviors should also examine how these treatments affect child RRBs and how caregiver responses to these behaviors may change following training. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brannan, Ana María; Heflinger, Craig Anne
Children's mental health researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of caregiver strain (i.e., the impact on families of caring for children with emotional and behavioral disorders). This study examined the caregiver, child, family, and service variables associated with caregiver strain with special attention to the role of barriers to care. These relationships were compared across enrollees in a managed care Medicaid and a traditional fee-for-service system. Findings indicated that severity of child problems was the most consistent predictor of caregiver strain. Although there was considerable similarity in the variables associated with caregiver strain across the two systems, important differences were also evident. Caregivers in the managed care setting were significantly more likely to report provider/payer-related barriers to care. Provider/payer barriers predicted strain in the managed care sample. In the fee-for-service system, barriers related to family perceptions and inconvenient location and appointment times were significant predictors.
Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N
The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.
Zajac, Kristyn; Kobak, Roger
This study examines the intergenerational effects of caregivers' unresolved loss and abuse on children's behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence in an economically disadvantaged sample. One hundred twenty-four caregivers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a lifetime trauma interview during the age 13 wave of the study. Child behavior problems were assessed at four time points (ages 6, 8, 10, and 13) with teacher-reported Child Behavior Checklist total problem scales. The children of insecure caregivers with unresolved loss showed a consistent pattern of increased behavior problems from middle childhood to early adolescence. Caregivers' AAI status accounted for more variance in child behavior problems than did an alternative model of caregiver psychopathology (depression and dissociation). The results extend the literature on the effects of caregiver unresolved states of mind beyond infancy to older children and adolescents.
de Schipper, Elles J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A E
To investigate the effects of child-caregiver ratio on the quality of caregiver-child interaction in child-care centers, 217 caregivers (ages 18-56 years) from 64 child care centers were observed during two structured play episodes: one with a group of three children and one with a group of 5 children. As predicted, a child-caregiver ratio of 3:1 produced a significantly higher quality of caregiver-child interaction than a ratio of 5:1 and particularly for younger children. Significant and meaningful effects were found for both the interactive behaviors of the caregivers and the children's well-being and cooperation. Significant correlations with caregiver-child interaction during lunchtime and throughout the remainder of the morning confirmed the ecological validity of the caregiver-child interactions observed during structured play episodes.
Henderson, Stacey; Skelton, Heather; Rosenbaum, Peter
Functional impairments can limit a child's ability to participate in the experiences of childhood. This "deprivation" can, in turn, have a negative effect on such children's development, academic performance, and quality of life, as well as on the lives of their caregivers and families. Many adults use assistive devices to overcome functional…
Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.
Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…
Mehrotra, Chandra, Ed.; And Others
This manual provides caregivers with practical knowledge and suggestions that could be of help to them in this important role. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the volume and tells how to use it. Chapter 2 identifies who caregivers are, what they do, and what changes have taken place in their lives since they became caregivers. Chapter 3 begins with…
Keilty, Krista; Cohen, Eyal
Policy to support informal caregivers is a critical health policy issue in Canada. Lessons may be learned from the perspectives and experience in the child health field with applicability for all cared-for persons and their informal caregivers. Familycentred care addresses the centrality of the family caregiver in the design and delivery of health services. A life course approach focuses on key periods of transition and downstream effects facing caregivers over their lifetime. The medical home model where care delivery is more coordinated offers potential direct cost savings for both family caregivers and the healthcare system. Models of pediatric home care that focus on promoting caregiver capacity and integration of unregulated providers show the promise of being acceptable and sustainable solutions to increasing demands for caregiver respite. Finally, a number of assumptions that are somewhat unique to the pediatric caregiver experience are explored and/or challenged. These lessons and assumptions may provide insight for policymakers in the development of systems and supports for all cared-for persons and their caregivers in Canada.
Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.
This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…
Stoller, Eleanor Palo
Explored the impact of employment and familial responsibilities on the assistance provided to elderly parents (N=153) by adult children (N=502). Results showed hours of assistance varied with the level of parental impairment, the presence of the older parents' spouse, and competing demands on the helpers' time. (JAC)
Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.
Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582
Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…
Accurso, Erin C; Garland, Ann F
This study examined the temporal stability and cross-informant agreement on multiple perspectives of child and caregiver alliance with therapists in usual care psychotherapy. Baseline predictors of alliance were also examined. Children with disruptive behavior problems (n = 209) and their caregivers were followed for up to 16 months after initiating psychotherapy at a community-based clinic. Alliance was rated by children, caregivers, and therapists every 4 months for as long as families participated in treatment. Repeated-measures analyses using linear mixed models with random intercepts were conducted to determine whether child and caregiver alliance differed across time, as well to examine factors associated with each perspective on alliance. Intraclass correlations between child, caregiver, and therapist reports of alliance were also examined. Alliance was rated relatively high overall across perspectives. Clients (children and caregivers) tended to report the strongest and most stable alliance, while therapists reported the weakest alliance and perceived deteriorations in child alliance over time. Inter-informant agreement was variable for child and caregiver alliance; agreement was moderate between clients and therapists. Several predictors of alliance emerged, including child gender, anxiety diagnosis, caregiver race/ethnicity, and therapist experience. This study provides methodological information about reports of therapeutic alliance across time and informants that can inform current efforts to understand the alliance-outcome association.
Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P
Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families.
Garlo, Katherine; O’Leary, John R.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Fried, Terri R.
OBJECTIVES To examine caregiver burden over time among caregivers of patients with advanced chronic disease. DESIGN Observational cohort with interviews over 12 months. PARTICIPANTS Caregivers of 179 community-living persons age ≥ 60 years with advanced cancer, heart failure (HF), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MEASUREMENTS Caregiver burden assessed using a short-form of the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) to measure psychosocial distress. RESULTS At baseline, the median caregiver burden was 5 (interquartile range [IQR 1,11]), which indicates that the caregiver endorsed having at least 2 of 10 distressing concerns at least some of the time. Only 10% reported no burden. Although scores increased modestly over time, the association between time and burden was not significant in longitudinal multivariable analysis. High burden was associated with caregivers’ need for more help with daily tasks (odds ratio [OR] = 23.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.94, 90.06) and desire for greater communication with the patient (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.16, 5.53). The longitudinal multivariable analysis did not yield evidence of associations of burden with patient sociodemographic or health characteristics. CONCLUSION Caregiver burden was common among caregivers of patients with cancer, HF, and COPD. High burden was associated with the caregiver’s report of need for greater help with daily tasks but not with objective measures of the patient’s need for assistance, such as symptoms or functional status, suggesting that burden may be a measure of the caregiver’s ability to adapt to the caregiving role. PMID:21087225
One of the most consistently recurring themes in great literature is the love triangle--Arthur and Guinevere and Lancelot, Tristan and Isolde and King Mark, and countless others. No one has produced an immortal story about it; but a love triangle plays itself out day after day in the lives of parents, young children, and caregivers. In this…
Recchia, Susan L.
This paper focuses on one aspect of continuity--the caregiver-child relationship--within a larger global study of continuity in child care based at a university-affiliated child care center. Case studies are presented of two toddler boys, followed as they transitioned from their infant classroom to the preschool classroom at the age of…
Miltiades, Helen B.; Pruchno, Rachel
Purpose: This article explores the association between race and religious coping on caregiving appraisals for mothers who coreside with an adult child with mental retardation. Design and Methods: 71 Black and 71 White women (aged 50 or older) were matched on demographic characteristics to control for the association between race and socioeconomic…
Miyawaki, Christina E
This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.
Enright, Robert B., Jr.
Surveyed 233 family caregivers for brain-impaired adults. Spousal caregivers (both husbands and wives) devoted much time to caregiving. Most caregivers received little assistance from other family members and friends, but husbands received more than others. Employed spouses received more paid help than unemployed spouses; employment did not affect…
De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura
Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060
Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.
Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…
Kliewer, Wendy; Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Diehl, Robyn; Parrish, Katie Adams; Walker, Jean M.; Atiyeh, Cynthia; Neace, Brooke; Duncan, Larissa; Taylor, Kelli; Mejia, Roberto
This short-term, longitudinal interview study used an ecological framework to explore protective factors within the child, the caregiver, the caregiver?child relationship, and the community that might moderate relations between community violence exposure and subsequent internalizing and externalizing adjustment problems and the different patterns…
Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre
Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…
Montano, Zorash; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Nager, Alan L.; Claudius, Ilene; Gold, Jeffrey I.
The objective of this study was to examine the level of agreement between child- and caregiver-reports of the child's psychosocial problems presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) using a validated screening tool. This was an anonymous, prospective, cross-sectional, multi-informant (child and caregiver) study assessing cognitive,…
Sales, Esther; Greeno, Catherine; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol
This study examined whether the general stress--caregiver strain--mental health outcome model may be as appropriate for caregivers of minor-age children as it has been for caregivers of adults with chronic illness. The authors examined whether children's behavioral problems are related to mothers' caregiving strains, which then is related to…
Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard
Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924
Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.
Designed to enhance student knowledge of and skills in child guidance in group care settings, this manual provides 50 laboratory experiences for five units. Units cover foundations and assumptions (2 laboratory experiences), developmental factors (8), indirect guidance (14), direct guidance (14), and strategies (12). Each unit includes performance…
Liu, Meirong; Anderson, Steven G
Family, friend, and neighbor (FFN) caregivers play important roles in delivering subsidized noncustodial child care. Yet, little is known about these noncustodial caregivers. This article profiles the caregiving experiences, motivations, and resource needs of these providers, based on a survey of 301 randomly selected FFN providers in one state. Kecommendations are offered for strengthening public supports to enhance the quality of this form of caregiving.
Smith, Matthew J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
Sibling expectations to provide future instrumental or emotional support for a brother or sister with schizophrenia when parents became disabled or died were examined. Data came from a sample of 137 siblings participating in a longitudinal study of aging families of adults with schizophrenia. Early socialization experiences, the quality of the sibling relationship, and personal caregiver gains propel siblings toward a future caregiving role, whereas geographic distance and beliefs about the controllability of psychiatric symptoms reduce expectations of future involvement. PMID:17352582
Libert, Anne Blanford
This digest presents a contemporary description of the American elderly and adult children's caregiving to their parents. It includes a profile of the American elderly; a description of caregiving tasks performed by their adult children; and the impact of longer life expectancy, divorce rates, and employed daughters on caregiving. Caregiver strain…
Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma
OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163
Kerns, Caroline E.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Carpenter, Aubrey L.; Chou, Tommy; Green, Jennifer Greif; Comer, Jonathan S.
Background Disasters are associated with myriad negative outcomes in youth, including posttraumatic stress disorder and related psychopathology. Prior work suggests links between caregiver distress and child mental health outcomes following community traumas, but the extent to which caregiver distress is directly linked to post-disaster child functioning, or whether such associations may simply be due to shared traumatic exposure, remains unclear. Methods The current study examined relationships among caregiver distress, caregiver-child shared traumatic exposure, and child outcomes in Boston-area families (N=460) during the six months following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. Parents completed surveys about their and their child’s potentially traumatic experiences during the bombing and subsequent manhunt. Post-attack caregiver distress and child psychological functioning were also assessed. Results After accounting for caregiver-child shared traumatic exposure, significant associations were retained between caregiver distress and child functioning across several domains. Furthermore, after accounting for caregiver traumatic exposure, caregiver distress moderated relationships between child traumatic exposure and child posttraumatic stress and conduct problems, such that associations between child traumatic exposure and child posttraumatic stress and conduct problems were particularly strong among children of highly distressed caregivers. Limitations The cross-sectional design did not permit evaluations across time, and population-based methods were not applied. Conclusions Findings clarify links between caregiver distress and child psychopathology in the aftermath of disaster and can inform optimal allocation of clinical resources targeting disaster-affected youth and their families. PMID:25082114
Rote, Sunshine; Angel, Jacqueline L.; Markides, Kyriakos
Using newly available data on family caregivers from a large epidemiological study of elderly Mexican-origin adults (Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly [HEPESE], 2010/2011), we identify which types of impairment (functional, psychological, and cognitive) in the elderly individual are associated with family caregiver depressive symptoms. Results from ordinary least squares regressions using 626 caregiver–care recipient dyads demonstrate that more severe mobility limitations (Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment), social disability (instrumental activities of daily living), neuropsychiatric disturbances related to cognitive decline (Neuropsychiatric Inventory), and depressive symptoms in the elderly subject are positively associated with caregiver psychological distress. Perceived social stress partially accounts for these associations. We also identify certain segments of this caregiver population that are especially vulnerable to burden when caring for a family member with high levels of impairment, namely female and low-income caregivers. These vulnerabilities should be the focus of intervention efforts to reduce stress and improve the emotional and psychological well-being of Mexican-origin caregivers. PMID:25651573
The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.
Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children’s language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566
Vu, Jennifer A.; Hustedt, Jason T.; Pinder, Wendy M.; Han, Myae
Children's early relationships with their caregivers are important for later developmental outcomes, both proximally and distally, and enhanced caregiver-child relationships may promote positive outcomes at both the individual and family levels. In this article, we review six evidence-based caregiver-child interaction interventions that can…
Barth, Richard P.; Green, Rebecca; Webb, Mary Bruce; Wall, Ariana; Gibbons, Claire; Craig, Carlton
A national probability sample of children who have been in child welfare supervised placements for about one year identifies the characteristics (e.g., age, training, education, health, and home) of the foster parents, kinship foster parents, and group home caregivers. Caregiving respondents provided information about their backgrounds.…
Sheeshka, Judy; Burden, Trina; Crocker, Shannon; Lero, Donna S.
Two studies determined nutrition practices of informal child caregivers and assessed the feasibility of providing a public-health nutrition-education program for these caregivers. Responses quantified interest in nutrition and feeding topics and preferred formats and times for such a program. (DLH)
Vaughan, Ellen L.; Feinn, Richard; Bernard, Stanley; Brereton, Maria; Kaufman, Joy S.
Children with emotional and behavioral disturbance often have difficulties in multiple symptom domains. This study investigates the relationships between child symptoms and caregiver strain and parenting stress among 177 youth and their caregivers participating in a school-based system of care. Youth were grouped by symptom domain and included…
Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald
Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.
Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E.; Valeriani, Julia
This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed. PMID:25278741
Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…
Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L
Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively.
Huang, Shirley H; Parks, Elizabeth P; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Grier, Sonya A; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas
This study compared child-feeding and related practices with child weight status between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers who attended three community health centers. Study participants were caregivers of 50 Chinese-American and 108 non-Hispanic white children aged 2-12 years who completed a short version of the child feeding questionnaire in English or Chinese. The feeding behaviors assessed were concern, pressure, restriction, and monitoring. Child body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from child weight and height measured in clinic by clinicians trained in anthropometrics. The sample was stratified into 2-5 and 6-12 years age groups to account for developmental differences. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was moderate to high and similar by ethnicity for all four behaviors for Chinese-Americans and non-Hispanic whites. In models adjusted for confounding variables, Chinese-American caregivers had higher mean scores than non-Hispanic white caregivers for concern and restriction in all age groups and monitoring in 2-5 year-olds. No feeding practices were associated with child BMI in Chinese-Americans; concern and restriction were associated with child BMI in non-Hispanic whites in 2-5 year-olds. These results suggest that differences in child-feeding practices exist between Chinese-American and non-Hispanic white caregivers.
Bégin, F; Frongillo, E A; Delisle, H
The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic
Brixey, Suzanne N; Guse, Clare E
The object of this research was to ascertain caregivers' and physicians' knowledge, behaviors, and comfort levels regarding child passenger safety restraint transitions with belt positioning booster seats (BPB). A targeted survey of physicians caring for 4-8 year olds plus convenience sampling surveys of caregivers across an urban community was conducted. Data revealed 42% of physicians and 47% of caregivers did not know that motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in children in this age group. Only 34% of caregivers consistently placed children in booster seats; 48% reported receiving physician information about proper restraint; 67% reported wanting to learn about proper restraint; and 36% wanted such information from physicians. Caregivers who recalled physician questions about restraints were three times more likely than others to use booster seats correctly. 70% of physicians reported asking about child restraint in vehicles in this age group. However, only 48% were very comfortable with knowing when to recommend booster seats, 43% reported having received no training in child passenger safety, and only 37% knew where to refer caregivers for more information. Physicians need more information about appropriate child passenger safety restraints as children grow and ways to deliver and reinforce the message so that it is retained to improve community health. Caregivers indicate willingness to learn, but providers miss many opportunities to teach.
Casanueva, Cecilia; Dozier, Mary; Tueller, Stephen; Dolan, Melissa; Smith, Keith; Webb, Mary Bruce; Westbrook, T'pring; Harden, Brenda Jones
This study describes the extent of caregiver instability (defined as a new placement for 1 week or longer in a different household and/or with a new caregiver) in a nationally representative sample of infants, followed for 5-7 years. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), a longitudinal study of 5,501 children investigated for child maltreatment. The analysis sample was restricted to 1,196 infants. Overall, 85.6% of children who were infants at the time of the index maltreatment experienced at least one caregiver instability event during their first 2 years of life. Caregiver instability was associated with the child having a chronic health condition and the caregiver being older than 40 years of age at baseline. The levels of instability reported in this study from infancy to school entry are extremely high. Children with more risk factors were significantly more likely to experience caregiver instability than children with fewer risk factors. The repeated loss of a young child's primary caregiver or unavailable, neglectful care can be experienced as traumatic. Some evidence-based programs that are designed to work with young maltreated children can make a substantial positive difference in the lives of vulnerable infants.
Peterson, Amy M; Harper, Felicity W K; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Orom, Heather; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A
This study examined how parents' sense of self-efficacy specific to caregiving for their child during cancer treatment procedures affected children's distress and cooperation during procedures. Potential correlates of caregiver self-efficacy (ie, demographics, child clinical characteristics, parent dispositional attributes, and social support) were also examined. Participants were 119 children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and their parents. Parents' self-efficacy about 6 procedure-specific caregiver tasks was measured. Parents, children, nurses, and observers rated child distress and parents, nurses and observers rated child cooperation during procedures. Higher parent self-efficacy about keeping children calm during procedures predicted lower child distress and higher child cooperation during procedures. Parent dispositional attributes (eg, enduring positive mood, empathy) and social support predicted self-efficacy. Parent caregiver self-efficacy influences child distress and cooperation during procedures and is associated with certain parent attributes. Findings suggest the utility of identifying parents who would benefit from targeted interventions to increase self-efficacy about caregiving during treatment procedures.
Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M; Voith, Laura A; Steigerwald, Stacey; Holmes, Megan R
The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between mild, moderate, and severe violence exposure in the home and behavior problems in adolescents; (2) the caregiver-child relationship as a potential mediator in this relationship; and (3) gender differences. A series of path analyses were conducted using a sample drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NCSAW-I) of 848 adolescents (ages 11-15) who had been reported to Child Protective Services for maltreatment and who remained in their homes. Exposure to violence and the caregiver-child relationship were reported by adolescents. Both caregiver ratings and adolescent self-reports were used to assess adolescents' behavior problems. Path analysis indicated that exposure to mild and severe violence was directly associated with higher levels of child-reported behavior problems. However, exposure to violence was not directly associated with caregiver ratings of adolescent behavior problems. The caregiver-child relationship mediated the relationship between mild and moderate violence on both caregiver and child-reported adolescent behavior problems. Gender differences also emerged; for girls, the caregiver-child relationship mediated the effects of mild and moderate violence, whereas for boys, it mediated the effects of severe violence on behavior problems. Study findings suggest caregiver-child relationships as a critical underlying mechanism in the association between violence exposure and adolescent behavior problems, highlighting the importance of adding the caregiver-child relationship factor to intervention efforts.
De Schipper, J. Clasien; Tavecchio, Louis W. C.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
In this study, children's attachment relationships with their professional caregivers in center day care were observed for 48 children. We explored whether more positive caregiving was associated with a more secure attachment relationship and whether this association was stronger for more temperamentally irritable children compared to less…
Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.
Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P
Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed.
Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of family caregivers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display aggressive behavior in terms of associations with caregiver burden and uplift. The family caregivers of 44 people with ID and aggressive behavior were interviewed using a suite of questionnaires and…
This article examines results from a consumer and caregiver-directed care pilot program for families with adults with developmental disabilities. Surveys were administered to 50 caregivers and three project coordinators, and focus groups were conducted with 44 individuals, including caregivers, consumers, and support coordinators. Significant pre-…
Sierau, Susan; Brand, Tilman; Manly, Jody Todd; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Klein, Annette M; Andreas, Anna; Garzón, Leonhard Quintero; Keil, Jan; Binser, Martin J; von Klitzing, Kai; White, Lars O
Practitioners and researchers alike face the challenge that different sources report inconsistent information regarding child maltreatment. The present study capitalizes on concordance and discordance between different sources and probes applicability of a multisource approach to data from three perspectives on maltreatment-Child Protection Services (CPS) records, caregivers, and children. The sample comprised 686 participants in early childhood (3- to 8-year-olds; n = 275) or late childhood/adolescence (9- to 16-year-olds; n = 411), 161 from two CPS sites and 525 from the community oversampled for psychosocial risk. We established three components within a factor-analytic approach: the shared variance between sources on presence of maltreatment (convergence), nonshared variance resulting from the child's own perspective, and the caregiver versus CPS perspective. The shared variance between sources was the strongest predictor of caregiver- and self-reported child symptoms. Child perspective and caregiver versus CPS perspective mainly added predictive strength of symptoms in late childhood/adolescence over and above convergence in the case of emotional maltreatment, lack of supervision, and physical abuse. By contrast, convergence almost fully accounted for child symptoms for failure to provide. Our results suggest consistent information from different sources reporting on maltreatment is, on average, the best indicator of child risk.
Schor, Nina F
As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.
Arriaga, Patrícia; Pacheco, Catarina
This study investigated the effects of hospital Clown Doctors intervention on child and caregiver preoperative anxiety at the entrance to the surgery care unit and separation from caregivers. A total of 88 children (aged 4-12 years) were assigned to one of the following two groups: Clown Doctors intervention or control group (standard care).…
Berkout, Olga V; Kolko, David J
Child physical abuse presents a substantial public health concern with lasting negative consequences for victims. Understanding the variables associated with perpetration can help inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study examined background and clinical variables in a sample of 195 help-seeking caregivers who were at risk for or had been identified as having engaged in child directed aggression or abuse. We found that caregivers who did (vs. did not) report severe child directed aggression had poorer parenting and reported more drug use. Having a recent allegation of child physical abuse (vs. no allegation) based on official child welfare records was unrelated to parenting, drug and alcohol use, negative affect, parenting stress, or neglect. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the influence of parenting stress on child directed aggression and its effects through negative affect and positive parenting. We found that parenting stress predicted higher negative affect, which was related to greater child directed aggression. Additionally, parenting stress predicted lower positive parenting, which in turn predicted lower child directed aggression. A model including drug and alcohol use did not add to the prediction of child directed aggression. Prediction of neglect using similar variables found that only positive parenting was of import and that parenting stress and negative affect did not contribute to neglect. Implications for future prevention and treatment development efforts with abusive/aggressive caregivers are discussed.
Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Davis, Linda L.
Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population. PMID:25259643
Day, Jennifer R; Anderson, Ruth A; Davis, Linda L
Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population.
Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A
The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed concurrently and longitudinally to caregiver stress in a large sample of preschoolers with ASD using parallel process multilevel growth models. Results indicated that initial rates of and change in RRBs predicted fluctuations in caregiver stress over time. When caregivers reported increased child RRBs, this was mirrored by increases in caregiver stress. Our data support the importance of targeted treatments for RRBs as change in this domain may lead to improvements in caregiver wellbeing.
Smith, Bert Kruger
This document addresses the dilemma faced by families with an aging or disabled member and the stress associated with the role of family caregiver. Emotions experienced by family caregivers, especially when the caregiver is an adult child caring for an elderly or frail parent, are discussed and feelings of desertion, dependence, and sibling…
Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.
The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…
Anderson, Steven G; Liu, Meirong; Liao, Minli
Grandparents have become an important source of subsidized noncustodial child care provision as states have developed child care subsidy programs for working families. Based on a sample of 140 grandparents providing care in one state subsidy program, this article examines grandparent characteristics, caregiving patterns, experiences with care provision, and training and resource needs in this emerging public service context. Our findings indicate that grandparents provide care largely for altruistic reasons. They offer vital care during nontraditional work hours and are more receptive to training provision than often is understood. Based on study findings, several strategies are presented for supporting subsidized grandparent caregivers.
Jacobs, M T; Broese van Groenou, M I; Deeg, D J H
Current Dutch policy on long-term care is aimed at a stronger connection between formal home care and informal care. We examined if formal and informal caregivers of community-dwelling older adults discuss the care and whether this is related to characteristics of the older adult, the care network and the individual caregivers. Data are derived from 63 community-dwelling older adults, including their health, their perceived control of the care and their care network. In addition, 79 informal and 90 formal caregivers are interviewed on their motives and vision on caregiving. The 112 dyads between those formal and informal caregivers are the units of analysis in the current study. Bivariate analyses reveal that informal caregivers are more likely to discuss the care with formal caregivers when they are residing with the older adult, when they provide a lot of care and/or when they are strongly motivated to keep the older adult at home. This is particularly the case when the care demands are high. Characteristics of the formal caregivers were not important. In conclusion, discussion of care between non-resident informal caregivers and formal caregivers is not self-evident and requires more effort to be established.
Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.; Waldfogel, Jane; Bruch, Sarah K.
We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine associations of child protective services (CPS) caseworkers’ perceptions of caregiver substance abuse with their perceptions of the severity of risk and harm a child experienced as a result of alleged maltreatment, as well as with whether a family experienced a range of CPS outcomes. The outcomes included whether the family received services from CPS, was substantiated for maltreatment, experienced child removal, and was subject to a termination of parental rights (TPR) petition. We also compared the magnitude of the association between caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and each outcome to that of the association between other maltreatment-related risk factors and each outcome. Findings suggest that, all else equal, caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse is associated with increased caseworker perceptions that children have experienced severe risk and harm, and also with an increased probability of each of the CPS outcomes except TPR. Moreover, these associations are equal in magnitude or larger than those between the other risk factors and the outcomes. Thus, our findings imply that CPS decisions are heavily influenced by caseworker perceptions of caregiver substance abuse, regardless of the presence of other risk factors for child maltreatment. PMID:20460304
Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry; Shattuck, Anne
This paper reports on national estimates for past year child maltreatment from a national household survey conducted in 2011. It also discusses the validity of such estimates in light of other available epidemiology. The Second National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence obtained rates based on 4,503 children and youth from interviews with caregivers about the children ages 0-9 and with the youth themselves for ages 10-17. The past year rates for physical abuse by caregivers were 4.0% for all sample children, emotional abuse by caregivers 5.6%, sexual abuse by caregivers 0.1%, sexual abuse by caregivers and non-caregivers 2.2%, neglect 4.7% and custodial interference 1.2%. Overall, 12.1% of the sample experienced at least one of these forms of maltreatment. Twenty-three percent of the maltreated children or 2.8% of the full sample experienced 2 or more forms of maltreatment. Some authority (teacher, police, medical personnel or counselor) was aware of considerable portions of most maltreatment, which suggests the potential for intervention. Many of the study's estimates were reasonable in light of other child maltreatment epidemiological studies, but comparisons about emotional abuse and neglect were problematic because of ambiguity about definitions.
Jones, Lisa M.; Atoro, Kathryn E.; Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Shadoin, Amy L.; Magnuson, Suzanne
Qualitative responses by caregivers (n = 203) and youth (aged 8 and older; n = 65) about their experiences with sexual abuse investigations were analyzed in conjunction with quantitative ratings of satisfaction. Respondents described mostly high levels of satisfaction, although dissatisfaction was reported with some key aspects of investigations.…
Daniel, Jerlean E.
Jerlean Daniel, PhD, executive director of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, describes what quality child care looks like and how parents and child care providers can work together to nurture young children's healthy development. Dr. Daniel shares information about what to look for in a child care provider, how to…
Barkan, Susan E.; Salazar, Amy M.; Estep, Kara; Mattos, Leah M.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Haggerty, Kevin P.
The scarcity of caregivers and the unique vulnerability of teens involved with the child welfare system necessitate effective strategies for ensuring that caregivers are prepared and supported in the important role they play with children and youth within the child welfare system. They are in a position, through the establishment of a strong, positive, supportive connection with the youth, to potentially minimize the impacts of recent trauma and interrupt a negative trajectory by preventing the youth’s initiation of high-risk behavior. In this paper we describe the process used to systematically adapt Staying Connected with Your Teen™, an evidence-based, prevention-focused parenting program found in other studies to reduce the initiation of teens‘ risky behaviors, for use with foster teens and their relative or foster caregivers. This work has been guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework developed by Wingood and DiClemente (2008) for adapting evidence-based interventions. Qualitative work conducted in Phase 1 of this study identified the need for the development of a trusted connection between foster youth and their caregivers, as well as tools for helping them access community resources, social services, and educational supports. This paper describes the process used to develop new and adapted program activities in response to the needs identified in Phase 1. We conducted a theater test with dyads of foster youth and their caregivers to get feedback on the new activities. Findings from the theater test are provided and next steps in the research are discussed which include examining program usability, fidelity, feasibility, and testing this new prevention program that has been tailored for child welfare involved youth and their caregivers. This intervention program has the potential to fill an important gap in the availability of preventive programming for caregivers of teens in foster care. PMID:26052172
Hendricks, Charlene; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H
Using nationally representative samples of 45,964 two- to nine-year-old children and their primary caregivers in 17 developing countries, this study examined the relations between children's cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities and caregivers' use of discipline and violence. Primary caregivers reported on their child's disabilities and whether they or anyone in their household had used nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence toward the target child and believed that using corporal punishment is necessary. Logistic regression analyses supported the hypothesis that children with disabilities are treated more harshly than children without disabilities. The findings suggest that policies and interventions are needed to work toward the United Nations' goals of ensuring that children with disabilities are protected from abuse and violence.
Corcoran, Mary A.
Purpose: An increasing number of elderly individuals are diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD), many of whom receive daily caregiving from spouse or adult child. Caregiving is a "cultural activity," and as such it is strongly influenced by sociocultural beliefs about caregiving and how it should be enacted.…
Grant, Deborah Dillon
The national statistics for child sexual abuse are staggering. In 2004, there were 209,880 victims of rape, attempted rape or sexual assaults according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. While effective treatment alternatives for victims are being provided, non-offending caregivers can be easily overlooked. Mason and Erooga (1990) have…
Littell, J.H.; Girvin, H.
Objective:: To assess the predictive validity of continuous measures of problem recognition (PR), intentions to change (ITC), and overall readiness for change (RFC) among primary caregivers who received in-home services following substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. Method:: A modified version of the University of Rhode Island Change…
Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen
Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…
Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.
This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…
Norris, Deborah J.; Guss, Shannon
Quality Rating Improvement Systems (QRIS) frequently include the Infant-Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R) as part of rating and improving child care quality. However, studies utilizing the ITERS-R consistently report low quality, especially for basic caregiving items. This research examined whether the low scores reflected the…
Ruprecht, Karen; Elicker, James; Choi, Ji Young
Research Findings: Continuity of care is a recommended practice in child care intended to promote secure and supportive relationships between infants and toddlers and their caregivers. Toddlers (N = 115) between 12 and 24 months were observed in 30 continuity and 29 noncontinuity classrooms. The average duration of care for toddlers with…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009
Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…
Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna
This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area.
Isaranurug, S; Nitirat, P; Chauytong, P; Wongarsa, C
This study aimed to testify the relationship between specific characteristics of family or the caregiver and the aggressive behavior of the caregiver toward a child. The survey was conducted from 2nd to 30th of December 1996 among grade-six students in schools under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). During the survey, self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from the target group of 413 students. Among these, 81.8 per cent reported experiencing at least one form of aggressive behavior from their caregivers or parents. The findings revealed that the family relationship, economic status and caregiver's educational level reversibly correlated with the number of types of aggressive behavior with statistical significance at p-value < 0.05 and r = -0.7697, -0.2467 and -0.1641, respectively. The family crisis positively correlated with the number of types of aggressive behaviors with r = 0.1249 and p-value < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that students from nuclear families, living in congested surroundings, having a caregiver with experience of unskilled-work, unemployment or gambling had a higher mean score of the number of types of aggressive behaviors than their counterparts which were statistically significant by t and F tests (p-value < 0.05). Hence, the quality of the parent-and-child relationship should be strengthened and a proactive approach should be conducted for families potentially at risk.
Kasper, Judith D; Freedman, Vicki A; Spillman, Brenda C; Wolff, Jennifer L
The number of US adults ages sixty-five and older who are living with dementia is substantial and expected to grow, raising concerns about the demands that will be placed on family members and other unpaid caregivers. We used data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and its companion study, the National Study of Caregiving, to investigate the role of dementia in caregiving. We found that among family and unpaid caregivers to older noninstitutionalized adults, one-third of caregivers, and 41 percent of the hours of help they provide, help people with dementia, who account for about 10 percent of older noninstitutionalized adults. Among older adults who receive help, the vast majority in both community and residential care settings other than nursing homes rely on family or unpaid caregivers (more than 90 percent and more than 80 percent, respectively), regardless of their dementia status. Caregiving is most intense, however, to older adults with dementia in community settings and from caregivers who are spouses or daughters or who live with the care recipient.
Two thirds of Americans are considered overweight, while 25% are obese. Obesity is the most common health problem facing U.S. children today, regardless of ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status. Lack of preplanning for the hospitalized obese child threatens both patient and caregiver safety, and is becoming a serious consideration in pediatric nursing. Some of the challenges in mobilizing larger children with an eye to preventing caregiver injury and promoting patient safety are explored. Equipment, policy formation, education, and legal considerations are outlined within this context. A case study is presented herein.
Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa
Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty.
Purpose: The article seeks to identify patterns of service utilization among informal caregivers of frail older adults. In particular, the study examined determinants that explain heterogeneous variations in caregivers' service use patterns. Methods: Using a latent class analysis (LCA) on the 2004 National Long-Term Care Survey and Informal…
... Facts Financial Resources: Healthcare Family Life and Relationships Exercise and Nutrition Mental Health and Wellbeing Personal Stories Finding the Right Doctor Talking to Others About Lupus Financial Resources: Non-Healthcare My Child Has Lupus ...
Dillenburger, Karola; McKerr, Lyn
Research-informed policy and practice is needed for older caregivers of adult sons/daughters with disabilities. These caregivers are often under tremendous stress because of failing health, financial pressures, bereavement and worry about the future of their sons/daughters. Twenty-nine older parents/caregivers of 27 adults with intellectual and/or…
Lawang, Wannarat; Horey, Dell; Blackford, Jeanine; Sunsern, Rachanee; Riewpaiboon, Wachara
In developing countries family caregivers are an important community-based resource who provide care for physically disabled adults. Substantial caregiving commitment is known to adversely affect caregiver health and thereby their capacity to provide ongoing care. This systematic review focused on support interventions for caregivers using Thailand as an example. From 1964 to 2011 international and Thai electronic databases and relevant grey literature were searched. Six English papers and 34 Thai papers published between 1990 and 2010 were found. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was modified to appraise methodological quality. All nurse-led interventions mainly focused on improving caregiving capacity; nearly half considered caregiver health. Only 15 interventions were community-based. Despite variable research quality all studies showed benefits for caregivers, care recipients, and healthcare services. In developing countries without healthy caregivers physically disabled adults would not receive care. There is an urgent need for further investment in community-based research to develop effective interventions designed to promote caregiver health and help them maintain their role.
Miyawaki, Christina E.
Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnicspecific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation. PMID:25883044
Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…
Roditti, Martha G.
This article focuses on family social networks and the community of caregivers of neglected children. If neglect is part of family functioning, who watches over the children? Using a case study approach, this study researched 12 children and their parents. Several concepts, such as multiple caregiving and kin keepers, revealed that study children…
Boaventura, Luiz Carlos; Borges, Heloise Cazangi; Ozaki, Armando Hitoshi
The scope of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the burden of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations on informal caregivers. Sixteen informal caregivers of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations were evaluated, using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale to evaluate the burden on caregivers, as well as gather data on the care and socio-demographic profile of the caregivers, on the socio-economic data and the degree of functional independence of adult wheelchair-bound patients with neurological alterations. Student's t-test, the one-way ANOVA with Tukey method and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. The results associated lower education level of the caregiver (p = 0.01) and lower level of information of the affected pathology (p-value = 0.01) to a heavier burden on the caregiver. The therapeutic and social support provided by the support institutions, such as the Physiotherapy Clinic/School of CEUNSP, was revealed as being important to help caregivers to handle situations in an easier manner. Understanding the factors that influence the burden on the caregiver is important for planning and intervention for this specific population group.
LaGrange, Annette; Read, Malcolm
This study examines the characteristics and work environments of child care personnel employed by 80 day care centers throughout Alberta. Findings indicated that, on average, child care staff had higher levels of education than the general adult population in the province. Considerable mobility within the child care field was found. Staff with…
Esins, Svenja; Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Wagner, Katharina; Achtergarde, Sandra
Clinical Validation of the Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) for Child Behavior in a Preschool-Age Sample The description of child behavior in mother-child-interaction is important in early detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders in preschool children. The Caregiver-Child Socioemotional and Relationship Rating Scale (SIRS) may serve this diagnostic purpose. We aim to examine interrater-reliability of SIRS and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity to maternal behavior by Play-PAB, and a measure of mother-child-relationsship by Parent-Infant-Global-Assessment-Scale (PIRGAS). Five raters assessed 47 ten-minute video sequences of parent-child-interaction recorded at the Family Day Hospital for Preschool Children with SIRS, Play-PAB, and PIRGAS. We report psychometric properties of SIRS, and present the association with Play-PAB and PIRGAS. SIRS shows a satisfying interrater-reliability for all items. Positive child behavior e. g. the SIRS' "child responsiveness" shows negative correlation to Play-PAB-scales' parental "hostility" and "intrusiveness", but independence of parental "involvement", "positive emotionality", and "discipline". Child and parental behavior show expected associations with the global relationship measure PIRGAS. The assessment of child behavior in parent-child-interaction with SIRS can be quickly learned and reliably applied without extensive training. SIRS shows meaningful relations to parental behavior and a clinical global measure of the caregiver-child-relationship. We recommend SIRS for clinical diagnostics to describe child behavior in mother-child-interaction.
Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W
Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children.
Kim, Youngmee; Carver, Charles S
How caregivers relate to care recipients can affect how well care is provided and how much burden is experienced in providing it. We conceptualized the relationship of spousal caregivers via adult attachment theory and examined how attachment qualities of caregivers related to level of caregiving involvement and difficulties in caregiving. Gender differences in the associations were also explored. From participants in the ACS Quality of Life Survey for Caregivers, 400 spousal caregivers provided valid data for the study variables. Findings indicated that frequency of various types of care was a joint function of attachment orientation and gender. In contrast, the difficulty that caregivers experienced in providing care related directly to attachment, without moderation by gender. Our findings suggest that ineffective caregivers of cancer patients, who can be identified by their attachment orientation and/or gender, may benefit from educational programs to improve their caregiving skills and to encourage them to utilize resources from other family members or community.
Kahn, Phoebe V.; Wishart, Heather A.; Randolph, Jennifer S.; Santulli, Robert B.
Despite considerable gains in public awareness of dementia, dementia patients and their caregivers continue to be stigmatized. Previous work has explored stigma and burden among adult children of persons with dementia in Israel, but no similar data exist for spousal caregivers or caregivers in general in the United States. This study examines the differences in stigma and burden experienced by spousal and adult child caregivers and male and female caregivers of persons with dementia. Eighty-two caregivers were given the Zarit Burden Inventory Short Form (ZBI) and the Caregiver Section of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FS-ADS-C). Scores on the FS-ADS-C and ZBI were positively correlated (rs = .51, p < .001). Female caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(80) = −4.37, p < .001) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.68, p = .009) compared to male caregivers, and adult child caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(30.8) = −2.22, p = .034) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.65, p = .010) than spousal caregivers. These results reinforce the importance of support for caregivers, particularly adult child and female caregivers who may experience higher levels of stigma and burden. PMID:26941795
Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…
Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.
In the last decades, treatment of patients with beta-thalassemia has changed considerably, with advances in red cell transfusion and the introduction of iron chelation therapy. This progress has greatly increased the probability for a thalassemic child to reach adult age with a good quality of life. At present, the prognosis for thalassemia major patients is "open-ended". Compliance with the conventional treatment and psychological support are critical to obtain good results. The expectancy of a long survival of good quality encourages the patients to plan their future life, having a job, a family and often children. Optimal treatment of thalassemia major is expensive and for this reason, unfortunately, available only for a minority of patients in the world. Despite the significant advances, other progresses are expected to further improve survival and quality of life. The major aim is the cure of the disease, increasing the possibility of bone marrow transplantation using HLA-matched unrelated donors, and hopefully, in the future, gene therapy. However, even the conventional treatment and in particular iron chelation is expected to improve. Efforts should be made by the Western countries, and by the international health and economic organizations to provide continuous and concrete support for achieving a high standard of management for thalassemia in all places of the world.
Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Vazquez, Arcel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
This study examined the relationship between the complexity of thinking about children by child care teachers and observed teachers' caregiving for infants and toddlers. It was hypothesized that the perceived supportiveness of the work environment would affect this relationship. Fifty-six child care teachers completed a survey assessing complexity…
Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.
This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…
Erickson, Steven R.; LeRoy, Barbara
Objectives To measure health literacy (HL) of caregivers of adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDDs); to determine the association between HL and a medication administration task (MAT) assessment; and to identify caregiver characteristics associated with higher HL and MAT scores. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Southeastern Michigan. Participants Caregivers, aged 18 years or older, who provided supportive care of adults with IDDs. Interventions Survey and demonstration. Main Outcome Measures Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); a MAT assessment consisting of interpretation of five sets of medication instructions followed by demonstration of understanding using a pill box; and a survey of caregivers' demographics, medication-related experiences, education, characteristics of persons for whom they provide care, and care-related activities performed. Results A total of 47 caregivers provided data. Caregivers had a mean age of 45.7 ± 14.6 years; 41 (87.2%) were women and 38 (80.9%) had education beyond high school. Caregivers were involved in obtaining medication from pharmacies, reminded the person with IDD to take medications and/or administered them to the person, documented medication and health information, and accompanied persons with IDD to physician offices. Most did not conduct monitoring procedures. The STOFHLA mean score was 34.5 ± 2.5 (median, 35; range, 22–36), while the MAT mean score was 12.0 ± 2.2 (median, 12; range, 6–15). Compared with family caregivers, direct support staff more frequently had undergone some medication training and had other people with whom they could discuss medication questions, but they had worked with the person with IDD a significantly shorter amount of time. No significant differences in STOFHLA and MAT scores between the family caregivers and direct support staff were observed. Caregiver education was significantly correlated with the STOFHLA score. MAT scores were not
Bien, Barbara; Wojszel, Beata; Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta
This study examines rural-urban differences in informal caregivers' perceptions of caregiving. The study's theoretical framework is based on the two-factor model of caregiving, which views caregiving as having both positive and negative impact. Data were collected in personal interviews with 126 rural and 127 urban caregivers in the Bialystok…
Background In Vietnam, primary government health services are now accessible for the whole population including ethnic minority groups (EMGs) living in rural and mountainous areas. However, little is known about EMGs' own perspectives on illness treatment and use of health services. This study investigates treatment seeking strategies for child diarrhoea among ethnic minority caregivers in Northern Vietnam in order to suggest improvements to health services for EMGs and other vulnerable groups. Methods The study obtained qualitative data from eight months of field work among four EMGs in lowland and highland villages in the Northern Lao Cai province. Triangulation of methods included in-depth interviews with 43 caregivers of pre-school children (six years and below) who had a case of diarrhoea during the past month, three focus group discussions (FGDs) with men, and two weeks of observations at two Communal Health Stations (CHGs). Data was content-analyzed by ordering data into empirically and theoretically inspired themes and sub-categories assisted by the software NVivo8. Results This study identified several obstacles for EMG caregivers seeking health services, including: gender roles, long travelling distances for highland villagers, concerns about the indirect costs of treatment and a reluctance to use government health facilities due to feelings of being treated disrespectfully by health staff. However, ethnic minority caregivers all recognized the danger signs of child diarrhoea and actively sought simultaneous treatment in different health care systems and home-based care. Treatments were selected by matching the perceived cause and severity of the disease with the 'compatibility' of different treatments to the child. Conclusions In order to improve EMGs' use of government health services it is necessary to improve the communication skills of health staff and to acknowledge both EMGs' explanatory disease models and the significant socio-economic constraints
Eder, Rebecca A.
Preschool children's knowledge of adult caregiving behaviors was examined with a sample of 14 middle-class, Caucasian boys and girls between the ages of 24 and 27 months. Each child's caregiving behavior in a laboratory environment containing dolls, toy animals, and toy objects, while accompanied by his or her mother, was recorded independently by…
Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene
Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…
Wolff, Jason J.; Clary, Jamie; Harper, Vickie N.; Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.
Patterns of caregiver responses to client adaptive behavior were compared between adults with intellectual disabilities with and without self-injurious behavior. Participants with moderate to profound intellectual disability and self-injury (n = 89) and age/IQ matched control participants (n = 20) were selected from a large sample of adults living…
Foster, Rebecca H; Kozachek, Stephanie; Stern, Marilyn; Elsea, Sarah H
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder characterized by numerous challenges, including intellectual disability, speech delay, decreased pain sensitivity, sleep disturbances, hyperactivity, mood instability, and self-injury. Caregivers must readily adapt to the ever-changing needs of the child. Due to these demands, caregivers may encounter difficulties maintaining their own level of well-being. Thus, a total of 112 primary caregivers (i.e., parents) of individuals diagnosed with SMS responded to online questionnaires to assess demographic and psychosocial factors, such as perceptions of child health vulnerability, benefit finding, sleep behaviors, anxiety and depression symptomatology, and caregiver satisfaction and self-efficacy, which may be related to caregiver well-being. Results show that, among mothers, caregiver well-being was directly related to perceived child health vulnerability, caregiver satisfaction, and benefit finding, and a significant moderating effect was observed for depression/anxiety counseling after beginning the caregiver role on the relationship between anxiety symptomatology and caregiver well-being. Results further suggest that maternal caregivers who report high levels of anxiety but do not seek counseling fair the worst in terms of well-being. Among fathers, lower depression symptoms and greater benefit finding were related to higher levels of caregiver well-being. These data show that many factors play roles in influencing coping and well-being among SMS caregivers. Investigating these variables and relationships may reveal additional resources and interventions to assist primary caregivers.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele
The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…
Schuster, Lisa; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms. This suggests marketers should nurture caregivers' perception that important others approve of walking to school.
Elder, John P.; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A.; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H.; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael
In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3–4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25315597
Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra
Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.
Findlay, Laura; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Baum, Sandra; Scior, Katrina
Background: Caregivers have an intimate knowledge of the individuals they care for and are therefore an important source of information on pain experiences. They are often relied upon to recognize pain-related behaviours and report them, but little is known as to how they experience their role. Methods: Information was collected from 11 caregivers…
Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R
The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child's ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana ("Sankofa"). "Sankofa" - is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7-18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver's characteristics predicted caregiver's illness perception. Intensification of HIV education in
George, Carol; Solomon, Judith
Attachment is central to the development of children's regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990-2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5-7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed.
George, Carol; Solomon, Judith
Attachment is central to the development of children’s regulatory processes. It has been associated with developmental and psychiatric health across the life span, especially emotional and behavioral regulation of negative affect when stressed (Schore, 2001; Schore and Schore, 2008). Assessment of attachment patterns provides a critical frame for understanding emerging developmental competencies and formulating treatment and intervention. Play-based attachment assessments provide access to representational models of attachment, which are regarded in attachment theory as the central organizing mechanisms associated with stability or change (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Bretherton and Munholland, 2008). The Attachment Doll Play Assessment (ADPA, George and Solomon, 1990–2016; Solomon et al., 1995) is a prominent established representational attachment measure for children aged early latency through childhood. This study examines the predictive validity of the ADPA to caregiving accessibility and responsiveness assessed from mother-child interaction and maternal representation. Sixty nine mothers and their 5–7-year-old children participated in this study. Mother-child interaction was observed during a pre-separation dyadic interaction task. Caregiving representations were rated from the Caregiving Interview (George and Solomon, 1988/1993/2005/2007). Child security with mother was associated with positive dyadic interaction and flexibly integrated maternal caregiving representations. Child controlling/disorganized attachments were significantly associated with problematic dyadic interaction and dysregulated-helpless maternal caregiving representations. The clinical implications and the use of the ADPA in clinical and educational settings are discussed. PMID:27803683
Rhyner, Paula M.; Guenther, Katie L.; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Cashin, Susan E.; Chavie, Amy L.
Increasingly, children spend much of their day in the care of adults other than their parents, such as child care providers. Consequently, it is important to analyze nonparental adults' use of strategies suggested to foster language development, such as contingent responsiveness, during interactions with young children. This study examined child…
Huber, Anna; McMahon, Catherine A; Sweller, Naomi
Circle of Security is an attachment theory based intervention that aims to promote secure parent-child attachment relationships. Despite extensive uptake of the approach, there is limited empirical evidence regarding efficacy. The current study examined whether participation in the 20-week Circle of Security intervention resulted in positive caregiver-child relationship change in four domains: caregiver reflective functioning; caregiver representations of the child and the relationship with the child; child attachment security, and attachment disorganization. Archived pre- and postintervention data were analyzed from 83 clinically referred caregiver-child dyads (child age: 13-88 months) who completed the Circle of Security intervention in sequential cohorts and gave permission for their data to be included in the study. Caregivers completed the Circle of Security Interview, and dyads were filmed in the Strange Situation Procedure before and after the intervention. Results supported all four hypotheses: Caregiver reflective functioning, caregiving representations, and level of child attachment security increased after the intervention, and level of attachment disorganization decreased for those with high baseline levels. Those whose scores were least optimal prior to intervention showed the greatest change in all domains. This study adds to the evidence suggesting that the 20-week Circle of Security intervention results in significant relationship improvements for caregivers and their children.
Kim, Go-en; Chung, Soondool
Background: This study examines the utility of Pearlin's caregiving stress model for understanding the caregiving satisfaction of elderly mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Methods: Mothers living in Seoul, Kyonggi, and Incheon who were 55 years of age or older and providing care for adult children with intellectual disability…
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices by primary caregivers living in a rural Ugandan district. A community-based qualitative design and focus group discussions were used for collecting data from primary caregivers of children aged 0 to 24 month(s). On an average, each of the four focus group discussions had 11 participants. The focus group discussions were conducted using a structured interview guide and were tape-recorded. The recorded data were later transcribed and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis techniques. All the participants were females, and the majority had low levels of education and at least one child in the age-group of 0-24 month(s) in their household. The findings show that the main barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices fall under four themes: caregiver's knowledge about breastfeeding, caregiver's knowledge about complimentary feeding, influence of culture custodians on the caregivers, and patterns and burden of other responsibilities the caregivers have in the household. The four categories of barriers imply that there are various missed opportunities to implement hospital and community-based interventions to improve infant and young child-feeding practices, which is one way of preventing malnutrition. Therefore, in rural areas of Uganda, the major factors responsible for the high prevalence of malnutrition among infants and children are still those related to knowledge, culture, and social status of the primary caregivers. PMID:25995727
Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The aim of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect effects, via parents' behavioral disengagement coping, of caregiving burden on the quality of life (QL) of parents and their children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Self-completion questionnaires on the target variables were administered to a sample of 156 parents who had a child with a neurodevelopmental condition, namely epilepsy (n = 65) and cerebral palsy (n = 91). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model and ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Significant direct effects of caregiving burden on parents' and their children's QL were found. Additionally, caregiving burden had a significant indirect effect on parents' QL, via behavioral disengagement, but not on their children's QL. Finally, this model was found to be invariant across conditions and patients' age groups. Caregiving burden may be elected as a strategic intervention target to improve parent-child QL outcomes in neuropediatric settings. Parents should be encouraged to avoid or reduce behavioral disengagement coping in relation to their caregiving stress, and alternatively adopt active coping strategies that may positively affect their children's QL and impede or attenuate the deleterious effects of caregiving burden on their own QL.
Kageyama, M; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, S; Yokoyama, K
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Empowerment of family caregivers of adults with mental health issues has received increasing attention among mental health nurses in Japan and has been recognized as a new goal of family interventions. The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was originally developed to measure the empowerment status of parents of children with emotional disorders. However, it was later applied to broader health issues. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a Japanese version of the FES for family caregivers of adults with mental health issues (FES-AMJ) and examined the validity and reliability among parents. Results showed that the FES-AMJ had acceptable concurrent validity and reliability; however, insufficient construct validity was found, especially for the subscale regarding the service system. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Further studies need to modify the scale. Clarification of ideal family empowerment status in the service system through discussion with mental health nurses and family caregivers may be important.
Barnett, Amanda E.
Guided by life course and stress process theory, this study investigated pathways of adult child caregivers' family (caregiving, marital, parenting) and nonfamily (employment) roles. Eight waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study were analyzed for 1,300 adult child caregivers. Latent class analysis provided strong evidence for a 4-class…
Rakow, Aaron; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Coffelt, Nicole; Champion, Jennifer; Fear, Jessica; Compas, Bruce
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental guilt induction and child internalizing problems in families where a caregiver had experienced depression. A total of 107 families, including 146 children (age 9-15), participated. Child-reported parental guilt induction, as well as three more traditionally studied parenting behaviors (warmth/involvement, monitoring, and discipline), were assessed, as was parent-report of child internalizing problem behavior. Linear Mixed Models Analysis indicated parental guilt induction was positively related to child internalizing problems in the context of the remaining three parenting behaviors. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention parenting programs are considered.
Rakow, Aaron; McKee, Laura; Coffelt, Nicole; Champion, Jennifer; Fear, Jessica; Compas, Bruce
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental guilt induction and child internalizing problems in families where a caregiver had experienced depression. A total of 107 families, including 146 children (age 9–15), participated. Child-reported parental guilt induction, as well as three more traditionally studied parenting behaviors (warmth/involvement, monitoring, and discipline), were assessed, as was parent-report of child internalizing problem behavior. Linear Mixed Models Analysis indicated parental guilt induction was positively related to child internalizing problems in the context of the remaining three parenting behaviors. Implications of the findings for prevention and intervention parenting programs are considered. PMID:20090863
Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar
The health status of 206 female caregivers supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities at home was investigated using objective (i.e., presence of chronic health conditions and activity limitations) and subjective (i.e., self-perceived health status) health measures compared with those of women in the general population in 2…
Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James
This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Young children in industrialized societies are increasingly separated from the everyday lives of adults in their community. This article explores the historical and cultural dynamics (and contradictions) of a growing boundary between children, particularly those in child care, and adults without primary care-giving roles. The article proposes that…
Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Moore, Kevin J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.
We examined the effect of adding a video feedback intervention component to the assessment feedback session of the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We hypothesized that the addition of video feedback procedures during the FCU feedback at child age 2 would have a positive effect on caregivers' negative relational…
Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine
Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…
Feldman, Ruth; Klein, Pnina S.
Examined toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, fathers, and caregivers. Found child emotion regulation and adult warm control in discipline situation related to self-regulated compliance to mother, caregiver, and father. Compliance to parents correlated with parental sensitivity and philosophies. Compliance to caregivers correlated with…
Miyawaki, Christina E.
This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736
Magaña, Sandy M.; Ramírez García, Jorge I.; Hernández, María G.; Cortez, Raymond
Objective Little research has focused on the mental health of Latino caregivers with a relative with schizophrenia, despite data showing that up to three-quarters of Latino persons with schizophrenia live with their families. This study examined the relation between caregivers’ mental health and perceived burden and stigma and characteristics of the patient and caregiver. Methods Interviews were conducted in the language of preference (Spanish or English) in Wisconsin, California, and Texas with 85 Latinos caring for an adult with schizophrenia. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale, the Zarit Burden Scale, and the Greenley Stigma Scale. Results General population studies of Mexican Americans have found that between 12% and 18% meet the cutoff for being at risk of depression; however, 40% of the sample met this criterion. Younger caregiver age, lower levels of caregivers’ education, and higher levels of the patients’ mental illness symptoms were predictive of higher levels of caregivers’ depressive symptoms. Caregivers’ perceived burden mediated the relation between patients’ psychiatric symptoms and caregivers’ depression. Caregivers’ perceived stigma was significantly related to caregivers’ depressive symptoms, even when the analyses statistically adjusted for psychiatric symptoms and demographic variables. Conclusions The high rates of depressive symptoms among Latino families caring for a relative with schizophrenia suggest that interventions should include attention to the mental health and recovery of family caregivers in addition to the patient’s recovery. Younger Latino caregivers and those with lower levels of education are particularly at risk of depression. PMID:17325112
Young, Katherine S.; Parsons, Christine E.; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W.; van Hartevelt, Tim J.; Stevner, Angus B. A.; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.
Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100–200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based “caregiving instinct.” PMID:26656998
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Karazsia, Bryan T.; Myers, Rachel E.
Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals’ behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the MBPBS training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof-of-concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation. PMID:26903906
Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Karazsia, Bryan T; Myers, Rachel E
Caregivers often manage the aggressive behavior of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities that reside in community group homes. Sometimes this results in adverse outcomes for both the caregivers and the care recipients. We provided a 7-day intensive Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) training to caregivers from community group homes and assessed the outcomes in terms of caregiver variables, individuals' behaviors, and an administrative outcome. When compared to pre-MBPBS training, the MBPBS training resulted in the caregivers using significantly less physical restraints, and staff stress and staff turnover were considerably reduced. The frequency of injury to caregivers and peers caused by the individuals was significantly reduced. A benefit-cost analysis showed substantial financial savings due to staff participation in the MBPBS program. This study provides further proof-of-concept for the effectiveness of MBPBS training for caregivers, and strengthens the call for training staff in mindfulness meditation.
Marziali, Elsa; Donahue, Peter
Purpose: The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative, Internet-based psychosocial intervention for family caregivers of older adults with neurodegenerative disease. Design and Methods: After receiving signed informed consent from each participant, we randomly assigned 66 caregivers to an Internet-based…
The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of teaching primary caregivers to conduct formative assessment procedures on the development of social interactions between themselves and their infants who were born prematurely and had low birth weight, and who were from economically disadvantaged families. Children's overall development…
Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma; Kohl, Patricia L
Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant decline in the rate of domestic violence (DV) experienced among caregivers involved with the child protective services (CPS) system. It is unclear whether this shift is related to changes in caregiver characteristics. Furthermore, despite evidence that suggests CPS caseworkers poorly identify DV and fail to link families to DV services, limited research exists on whether the current CPS interventions that are known to improve caseworkers' DV identification will also improve chances for DV service receipt. The present study uses data from the first and second cohorts of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to compare differences in demographic characteristics and DV experiences between caregivers in NSCAW I (1999-2000; n = 2,758) and NSCAW II (2008-2009; n = 2,207). We also examine the effects of CPS interventions on NSCAW II caregivers' receipt of DV services external to the CPS agency (i.e., external DV services). Caregivers with caseworker reports of active DV in NSCAW I and II were similar in their demographic characteristics and external DV service experiences. However, caregivers in NSCAW II generally reported lower rates of victimization for specific types of violence than NSCAW I caregivers. Finally, caregivers with active DV involved with an agency that used DV assessment tools were 7.03 times more likely to receive external DV services than those in agencies without DV tools (95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.33, 21.22]). Whereas caregivers in agencies that sometimes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% CI = [0.03, 0.99]) or always (OR = 0.15, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.98]) had a DV specialist available were less likely to receive external DV services than those in an agency that never/rarely had a DV specialist available. We recommend CPS agencies use specialized assessment tools to identify DV-affected families and link them to services. Additional research is needed to understand what types
Ennis, Naomi; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Canzian, Sonya; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane
A systematic review of studies which evaluated depression and anxiety in parent versus spouse caregivers of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was conducted. Demographic variables of the TBI patients and caregivers, study design, measurement tools used, and outcomes reported were collected. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated for methodological quality. While the majority of studies revealed no significant differences between caregiver types on measures of depression and/or anxiety, there was a great deal of variation in methodology and quality between the studies. Overall, high levels of caregiver distress were exposed, regardless of caregiver type (parent versus spouse). There is a need for qualitative and quantitative research designs in order to elucidate the factors that put caregivers at risk for depression and anxiety.
Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge
Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse. PMID:27606358
Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Welch, Meghan M.
This naturalistic, qualitative study examines the nature of child- and adult-led interactions in a children's museum. Using dialogic learning as a theoretical framework, the study examines how children and adults engage in interactions while learning at a museum. Findings suggest that children and adults are almost equally likely to lead…
Wells, Diane Keegan; James, Kelly; Stewart, Janet L; Moore, Ida M; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Moore, Barbara; Bond, Dana; Diamond, Joy; Hall, Brenda; Mahan, Rosemary; Roll, Lona; Speckhart, Beth
The growing societal trend toward delivering more and more illness-related care in the home, driven both by family preferences and by mandates from third-party reimbursers, places additional responsibilities for increasingly complex caregiving on parents of children with serious illness. This article reports on the development and initial field test of The Care of My Child with Cancer, a caregiving demand instrument specific to the childhood cancer population. The instrument demonstrated strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and exploratory factor analysis provided initial evidence for the instrument's construct validity. The instrument will now be applied in a collaborative program of nursing research to further investigate caregiving demand and ultimately to develop nursing interventions to maximize medical and quality of life outcomes for children with cancer and their families.
Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma
Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Mean IYCF knowledge scores were similar (CBGP: 10.84 ± 1.69 vs. GMP: 10.23 ± 1.38, P = 0.062). However, more CBGP caregivers (17%) were highly knowledgeable than their GMP counterparts (5%) (P = 0.011). Early breastfeeding initiation (CBGP: 54% vs. GMP: 28%, P < 0.0001), exclusive breastfeeding (CBGP: 73% vs. GMP: 56%, P = 0.001), and timely complementary feeding (CBGP: 72% vs. GMP: 49%, P = 0.014) were reportedly higher among CBGP caregivers. Underweight was 11% (CBGP: 8% vs. GMP: 14%, P = 0.154). Mean dietary diversity scores (10 food groups) were similar (CBGP: 4.49 ± 1.89 vs. GMP: 3.87 ± 1.89, P = 0.057) but more CBGP caregivers (77%) achieved minimum dietary diversity than their GMP counterparts (61%) (P = 0.035). Few caregivers achieved minimum meal frequency (CBGP: 31% vs. GMP: 29%, P = 0.486) and minimum acceptable diet (CBGP: 23% vs. GMP: 21%, P = 0.464) indicators. Number of children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding
Kramer, Maeona K
Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden.
Hendricks, Charlene; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bornstein, Marc H.
Using nationally representative samples of 45,964 two- to nine-year-old children and their primary caregivers in 17 developing countries, this study examined the relations between children's cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities and caregivers' use of discipline and violence. Primary caregivers reported on their…
Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin
Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.
Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry
This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environments that provided less developmental stimulation and emotional responsiveness to the child, and (c) the presence of PC psychological symptoms and other risk factors. Prenatal MA exposure was associated with child externalizing behavioral problems at 5 years. Home environments that were more conducive to meeting children's developmental and emotional needs were associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Independent of prenatal MA exposure, PC parenting stress and psychological symptoms were associated with increased child behavioral problems. Findings suggest prenatal MA exposure may contribute to externalizing behavioral problems in early childhood and the importance of considering possible vulnerabilities related to prenatal MA exposure in the context of the child's caregiving environment.
Cohen, Marlene Cresci; And Others
The Intergenerational Caregiving Program (ICP), a year long educational experience in human development and child care for older adults, is described in this replication manual. In its first year of operation, the ICP recruited older, usually retired adults from agencies and organizations in San Francisco that serve older people. The 22 older…
... may take your loved one to an adult day care center or day hospital) The National Eldercare Locator , a service of the U.S. Administration on Aging, can help you find caregiving services in your area. You also can ... care and other caregiving services? Medicare, Medicaid, and private ...
Evans, Bronwynne C.; Crogan, Neva; FNGNA; Belyea, Michael; Coon, David
Research on caregiving of elders in Mexican American families is urgently needed. We know little about family caregivers, family transitions in relation to the caregiving role, reciprocal impact of caregivers and care recipients on one another, adaptive strategies, positive benefits of caregiving (caregiver gain), specific caregiving burdens, or supportive interventions for family caregiving. Theory derivation using the concepts and structure of life course perspective provides a way to fill the knowledge gaps concerning Mexican American caregiving families, taking into account their ethnic status as an important Hispanic subgroup and the unique cultural and contextual factors that mark their caregiving experiences. PMID:18845694
Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette
Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.
Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, S. Shaun; Evans, Gary W.; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E.
Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults’ neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry vs. acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty. PMID:25981334
Raju, T N
This study assesses the relationship between literacy and labour rates among the adults and children in 17 Indian states. Among children aged 5-14 years, 53.9% were literate and 3.74% were working for wages; these figures, however varied markedly among the states. Kerala, a state with the best overall adult literacy, also recorded the highest child literacy rate, and the lowest child employment rate. The states with high adult literacy also tended to have high child literacy (Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, Rho 1 = 0.95, P less than 0.001), and low child labour (Rho = 0.56, P less than 0.02). Child labour rates did not correlate with adult labour rates. However, change in adult literacy and labour rates over a 7-year period correlated significantly both with the change in child literacy and labour rates: The states with a greater increase in adult literacy also observed a greater rise in child literacy, and a greater fall in child labour rates. But the states with a greater increase in adult labour had a greater rise in child labour rates; for each ten additional adults working, two more children also worked for wages, suggesting that increasing job opportunities drew both adults and children into the labour force. The findings, and their implications for pediatric care are discussed.
Maneta, E K; White, M; Mezzacappa, E
Parent-child physical aggression (PCPA) and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) are common forms of family violence that often co-occur. Their deleterious effects on children and adolescents have been well documented. However, important questions remain regarding whether the type of violence exposure, the experience of one or both forms, the chronicity of violent experiences, and the age, gender, and SES of the child, differentially influence developmental outcomes. Data on 2810 children from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods were analyzed. Children aged 3-9 at the outset were assessed three times, at 3-year intervals. Primary caregivers reported on IPV, PCPA, and children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms were examined as a function of time, age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and the time-varying effects of cumulative IPV and PCPA exposure. Cumulative experiences of IPV and PCPA each adversely affected the developmental trajectories of both externalizing and internalizing symptoms, but in different ways; and they did so independently of participants' age, gender, or SES, which all functioned as significant, independent predictors of child outcomes. PCPA was by far the more potent of the two forms of violence; and when both forms occurred, they worked additively to affect outcomes. Important questions remain regarding the reasons for the differential potency of these two forms of family violence on childhood symptoms, and related implications for interventions, as well as for later adult behavior.
Wang, Jing; Carroll, Deidra; Peck, Michelle; Myneni, Sahiti; Gong, Yang
There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place.
Richards, Margaret M.; Bowers, Mark J.; Lazicki, Tammy; Krall, Dan; Jacobs, Anne K.
We examined behavioral markers of caregiver involvement and the ways in which family participation was related to treatment outcomes in 47 elementary school children with SED enrolled in a school-based intensive mental health program. Measures of caregiver involvement included therapeutic home visits, attendance at therapeutic meetings, completion…
Bezruczko, Nikolaus; Chen, Shu-Pi C.; Gulley, S. Beverly; Maher, Joan M.; Lawton, Cathrine S.
The authors report on the nature of assessing functional caregiving (FC) via three studies, conducted by a university-public preschool collaboration that was designed to measure mothers' confidence to care for children with intellectual disabilities in their homes. Caregiving of children with intellectual disabilities was conceptualized in terms…
Klein, Pnina S.; Feldman, Ruth
Interactive behavior of 90 Israeli toddlers was observed with mothers and caregivers in one-on-one free play interactions. Children were examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and adults completed self-report measures. Observations were coded for both the quality of adult-child interactive behavior and for the quality of adults'…
Anngela-Cole, Linda; Hilton, Jeanne M
This study evaluated cultural differences in attitudes toward caregiving and the stress levels of family caregivers. Participants included 98 Japanese American and 86 Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail elders. Analyses using MANOVA and multiple regression analyses revealed that the Caucasian caregivers had more positive attitudes and provided more hours of care than the Japanese caregivers but that both groups had elevated levels of caregiver stress. The stress that family caregivers currently experience could lead to a future generation of care recipients who enter old age in worse condition than their predecessors. Professionals need to work together to develop culturally appropriate, evidence-based interventions to address this issue.
Condition 1. Children With ALL Are Still Alive and the Age of 18 Years of Age.; Condition 2. Has Been Completed to Guide the Treatment Regimen Were in Remission.; Condition 3. Caregiver Can or Taiwanese Language Communicator.
Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…
Chouinard, Michelle M.; Clark, Eve V.
Examined whether there was negative evidence in adult reformulations of erroneous child utterances, and if so, whether children made use of that evidence. Findings show that adults reformulate erroneous utterances often enough for learning to occur. Children can detect differences between their own utterance and the adult reformulation and make…
Muraco, Anna; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen
This study examines the relationships between friends; a caregiver who provides care to a care recipient, who is a lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adult over age 50 in need of assistance due to chronic physical or mental health conditions. Using a sample of 18 care pairs (n = 36), this work examines qualitative interview data. Findings from the study include: (a) both the care recipient and the caregiver receive benefits from the friendship; (b) caregiving alters and challenges the friendship; and (c) friends assume differential levels of commitment and responsibility in providing care. Studying this population of LGB adults expands our knowledge about the diversity of care arrangements and needs within a relational context.
Background The burden of out of pocket spending for the Mexican population is high compared to other countries. Even patients insured by social security institutions have to face the cost of health goods, services or nonmedical expenses related to their illness. Primary caregivers, in addition, experience losses in productivity by taking up responsibilities in care giving activities. This situation represents a mayor economic burden in an acute care setting for elderly population. There is evidence that specialized geriatric services could represent lower overall costs in these circumstances and could help reduce these burdens. The aim of this study was to investigate economic burden differences in caregivers of elderly patients comparing two acute care services (Geriatric and Internal Medicine). Specifically, economic costs associated with hospitalization of older adults in these two settings by evaluating health care related out of pocket expenditures (OOPE), non-medical OOPE and indirect costs. Methods A comparative analysis of direct and indirect costs in hospitalised elderly patients (60-year or older) and their primary informal caregivers in two health care settings, using a prospective cohort was performed. Economic burden was measured by out of pocket expenses and indirect costs (productivity lost) due to care giving activities. The analysis included a two-part model, the first one allowing the estimation of the probability of observing any health care related and non-medical OOPE; and the second one, the positive observations or expenditures. Results A total of 210 subjects were followed during their hospital stay. Of the total number of subjects 95% reported at least one non-medical OOPE, being daily transportation the most common expense. Regarding medical OOPE, medicines were the most common expense, and the mean numbers of days without income were 4.12 days. Both OOPE and indirect costs were significantly different between type of services, with less
Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley
A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low victim empathy significantly increased the odds of child molester status. Findings supported theoretically based hypotheses, suggesting that attachment theory may be useful in the conceptualization and treatment of child molesters.
Vellone, Ercole; Chung, Misook L; Cocchieri, Antonello; Rocco, Gennaro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Riegel, Barbara
Emotions are contagious in couples. The purpose of this study was to analyze the manner in which adults with chronic heart failure (HF) and their informal caregivers influence each other's self-care behavior and quality of life (QOL). A sample of 138 HF patients and spouses was enrolled from ambulatory centers across Italy. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to analyze dyadic data obtained with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), the Caregivers Contribution to the SCHFI, and the Short Form 12. Both actor and partner effects were found. Higher self-care was related to lower physical QOL in patients and caregivers. Higher self-care maintenance in patients was associated with better mental QOL in caregivers. In caregivers, confidence in the ability to support patients in self-care was associated with improved caregivers' mental QOL, but worsened physical QOL in patients. Interventions that build the caregivers' confidence are needed.
... 163392.html Most U.S. Adults Support Routine Child Vaccine Survey finds 80 percent have positive view of ... Americans believe that the benefits of the MMR vaccine outweigh any risks. Nearly three-quarters of the ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100222.htm Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - series—Part ... occur in as little as 4 minutes. Rapid first aid for choking can save a life. The universal ...
Vander Mey, Brenda J.; Neff, Ronald L.
Describes adult-child incest involving 16 victims. Cases were analyzed and discussed in relationship to previous studies. Emphasis is placed on replicated and newly identified risk factors including alcohol dependency, spouse abuse, other (nonsexual) child abuse or neglect, inadequate housing, social isolation, birth order, and other family…
Corcoran, Mary A.
Purpose: An increasing number of elderly individuals are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD), many of whom receive daily caregiving from spouse or adult child. Caregiving is a “cultural activity,” and as such it is strongly influenced by sociocultural beliefs about caregiving and how it should be enacted. Understanding this thinking–action process has important implications for future research and service. Reasoned action theory provides empirical evidence that attitudes and beliefs, as they are influenced by the social environment, predict intentions to act. In turn, behavioral intentions can reliably predict behaviors. This grounded theory study describes a typology of caregiving styles relevant to family members of an individual with ADRD, where caregiving style is defined as a culturally based pattern in thinking and action. The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between caregiver intentions and care strategies. Methods: Study participants included 97 individuals residing in the Washington, DC, area, who provide daily care for a family member with ADRD. Narrative data were collected from each caregiver during three 1-hr interview sessions. A subset of 30 caregiver–care recipient (CR) dyads was videotaped during typical interactions. Results: Four caregiving styles were identified (facilitating, balancing, advocating, and directing), which differ primarily in the intended focus of care and preferred interactions with the CR. Implications: The results provide a foundation for future studies of the relationships between sociocultural context, caregiving styles and strategies, and ensuing outcomes for caregiver–CR dyads. PMID:21335422
Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny
This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…
Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Montgomery, Rhonda J. V.; Kosloski, Karl
Purpose of the study: Caregiver burden is a multidimensional construct, addressing tension and anxiety (stress burden), changes in dyadic relationships (relationship burden), and time infringements (objective burden) resulting from caregiving. The study aims were to assess (a) whether the dimensions of burden were the same for caregiving spouses…
Flood, William A.; Wilder, David A.
The use of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and fading of time away from year old boy with Separation Anxiety is illustrated. During baseline, the participant exhibited emotional behavior (i.e., crying, whining, asking to contact parents) as soon as his caregiver left the therapy room. During intervention, the participant was…
Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.
Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…
Gonzalez, Michelle A; Jones, Deborah J
Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is the standard of care for early onset (3 to 8years old) disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Preliminary evidence suggests that BPT may also produce cascading treatment effects for comorbid and interrelated symptomatology in children, primarily internalizing problems, as well as symptomatology in multiple systems of the family, including caregiver depressive symptomatology. What is less well understood, however, is why and how BPT functions to impact these multiple symptom clusters within and between family members. Accordingly, this manuscript aims to serve as a conceptual and theoretical consideration of the mechanisms through which BPT may produce generalized treatment effects among children with early onset DBDs and internalizing problems, as well as the psychosocial difficulties among their caregivers. It is our intention that the hypothesized mechanisms highlighted in this review may guide advances in clinical research, as well as assessment and practice.
Long, Kristin A; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Lobato, Debra
The objective of this article is to examine associations among socioeconomic, cultural, and child factors and maternal distress among families of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Latino and nonLatino White (NLW) mothers of children with and without ID (N = 192) reported on familism, language acculturation, maternal distress, child adaptive functioning, and child behavior problems. Among mothers of children with ID, higher levels of child behavior problems mediated the association between Latina ethnicity and elevated maternal distress. Associations between child behavior problems and maternal distress in Latina mothers of children with ID were moderated by single-parent marital status, higher familism, and lower English usage. Thus, child and cultural factors contribute to elevated distress among Latina mothers of children with ID.
Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole
Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and…
Blaizot, Alessandra; Hamel, Olivier; Folliguet, Marysette; Herve, Christian; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Trentesaux, Thomas
Background: Cognitively impaired patients often present poor oral health status that may be explained by ethical tensions in oral healthcare management. This participatory study explored such tensions among adults with intellectual disabilities and with caregivers. The second objective was to specify, with caregivers, the points that should be…
Sims-Gould, Joanie; Martin-Matthews, Anne
This study advances the understanding of family caregiving by examining the relationship between adult children caregivers and their helpers. Specifically, it focuses on examining "who helps whom" and extends analyses beyond the dyadic focus of caregiving in later life. The focus on helping and caregiving addresses the variety of…
Boise, Linda; Congleton, Leslie; Shannon, Kathy
"Powerful Tools for Caregiving" is an education program for family caregivers of older adults. Based on a self-efficacy model, the program empowers family caregivers to reduce negative effects of caregiving and to practice self-care. Through a train-the-trainer approach, professional and community volunteers were trained as class leaders and…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). 250.61... National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and Other Child Nutrition Programs § 250.61 Child and Adult Care Food... CACFP to distributing agencies, which provide them to child care and adult care...
Some experts contend that the increasing prevalence of obesity among patients and caregivers leads to more frequent and serious musculoskeletal injuries among caregivers. Others believe that failure to ensure safe, appropriate equipment and supporting policies leads to the increasing prevalence of caregiver injuries. Health facilities best serve residents, caregivers, and institutions when there is preplanning for extra care and resources; size-appropriate equipment; larger, heavier furniture; and adequate space to accomplish tasks. The challenge to stakeholders is to find ways to prevent injuries that pose direct and indirect cost liabilities to caregivers, institutions, policy makers, and others. Several strategies are available to reduce or prevent caregiver injury and to promote patient safety. Physical environment, equipment, lift team, and necessary policy changes are discussed as possible strategies.
Zarit, Steven H.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino
Objectives This study examines effects of daily use of adult day services (ADS) programs by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on a salivary biomarker of stress reactivity, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and whether these effects on DHEA-S are associated with daily variability in positive mood and depressive symptoms. Design We used a daily diary design of 8 consecutive days with alternation of intervention (ADS) and non-intervention days to evaluate within- and between-person effects of the intervention. Setting Caregivers were interviewed daily by telephone at home. Participants 151 family caregivers of IWD who were using ADS. Measurements Saliva samples were collected from caregivers 5 times a day for 8 consecutive days and were assayed for DHEA-S. Daily telephone interviews assessed daily stressors and mood. Results DHEA-S levels were significantly higher on days following ADS use. Daily DHEA-S levels covaried significantly with daily positive mood, but not depressive symptoms. Conclusions These results demonstrate an association of ADS use by family caregivers and higher DHEA-S levels on the next day. Prior research has found that higher DHEA-S levels are protective against the physiological damaging effects of stressor exposure and may reduce risks of illness. Regular use of ADS may help reduce depletion of DHEA-S and allow the body to mount a protective and restorative response to the physiological demands of caregiving. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine DHEA-S levels across the day in connection with an intervention that affected daily exposure to stressors. PMID:24566240
This study investigated the aggregate exposures of preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to chemicals commonly found in their everyday environments. One primary objective of this study was to identify the important sources and pathways of the participant's exposur...
Salvatore, Jessica E.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Collins, W. Andrew
This study tests a model of young adult romantic quality as a moderator of the effects of early caregiving on anxious-depressed symptoms over a nine-year period in adulthood. Participants (n = 93) were a subsample from a longitudinal study of risk and adaptation. Quality of early caregiving was measured using observational data collected at five points in the first four years of life. Young adult romantic relationship quality was assessed from interviews with participants at age 23. Self-report anxious-depressed symptoms were measured at ages 23, 26, and 32. The results indicated that romantic quality moderated early caregiving to predict symptom levels across this period, with evidence for inoculation, amplification, and compensation effects. A discriminant analysis examining young adult work competence as a moderator provided further evidence for the distinctiveness of romantic relationships in changing the association between early caregiving and adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:23880395
Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.
This study addressed two aims: First, to examine the quality of adult shared book-reading behaviors for teachers and caregivers of children with communication impairments (CI) and, second, to compare the level of child literacy engagement during the teacher-led (group) and caregiver-led (one-on-one) shared book-reading sessions. Sixteen children…
Zirpoli, Thomas J.; Bell, Richard Q.
Perceived unresponsiveness may be more critical to parent-child interaction than a severe disability itself. Controlling adult behaviors may reflect high levels of caregiver motivation and extinction burst effects. Reductions in the amount of caregiver-child interactions may be the outcome of previously unrewarded interaction attempts and…
Chiriboga, David A.; Jang, Yuri; Molinari, Victor; Kim, Giyeon; Ko, Jung Eun
Health psychology has long been involved in studies of factors that lead to more effective caregiving. Drawing on the theory of distributive justice, the underlying hypothesis of this paper was that perceptions of what a demented parent was like, prior to becoming ill, influence an adult child caregiver's provision of care, as well as the caregiver's own well-being. A secondary question dealt with the nature of retrospective ratings by caregiver informants. The sample consisted of triads of two adult children (N = 385) and a parent (N = 201) diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, although in a few instances only one adult child was interviewed. Both retrospective and current ratings of the parent were made by caregivers, who were administered a semantic differential instrument twice over a 10-month period. Comparison of ratings from first and second interview waves suggested that perceptions of what a parent was like, prior to the onset of dementia, were more stable over time than perceptions of what the parent was currently like, at each interview. Ratings of premorbid attributes were more strongly related to ratings of the present for those parents who displayed the least evidence of cognitive decline. Regression analyses supported the hypothesized relationship between adult children's perceptions and both provision of care and well-being variables. Results have implications for projections of caregiver burden and for placement into long-term care. PMID:25750833
Gendron, Tracey; Pelco, Lynn E.; Pryor, Jennifer; Barsness, Sonya; Seward, Lynne
The Virginia Commonwealth University/A Grace Place Caregiver Telephone Support Pilot Program was developed as a service-learning experience for graduate students to address the need for family caregiver support services. The Telephone Support Program was developed by the Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Gerontology, in collaboration…
Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.
ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347
Wang, Rosalie H; Korotchenko, Alexandra; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Mortenson, W Ben; Mihailidis, Alex
Collision avoidance technology has the capacity to facilitate safer mobility among older power mobility users with physical, sensory, and cognitive impairments, thus enabling independence for more users. Little is known about consumers' perceptions of collision avoidance. This article draws on interviews (29 users, 5 caregivers, and 10 prescribers) to examine views on design and utilization of this technology. Data analysis identified three themes: "useful situations or contexts," "technology design issues and real-life application," and "appropriateness of collision avoidance technology for a variety of users." Findings support ongoing development of collision avoidance for older adult users. The majority of participants supported the technology and felt that it might benefit current users and users with visual impairments, but might be unsuitable for people with significant cognitive impairments. Some participants voiced concerns regarding the risk for injury with power mobility use and some identified situations where collision avoidance might be beneficial (driving backward, avoiding dynamic obstacles, negotiating outdoor barriers, and learning power mobility use). Design issues include the need for context awareness, reliability, and user interface specifications. User desire to maintain driving autonomy supports development of collaboratively controlled systems. This research lays the groundwork for future development by illustrating consumer requirements for this technology.
Hahn, Laura; Thapsuwan, Sasinee; Thongcharoenchupong, Natjera
Aim To understand the experiences of caregivers with older people living in Thailand, particularly as related to quality of life and stress management. Method In‐depth interviews with 17 family caregivers were conducted and then data were thematically analysed. Results Carers experience not only negative impacts but also positive impacts from caregiving. Negative impacts include emotional stress, financial struggles and worry due to lack of knowledge. Positive impacts include affection from care recipients, good relationships with caregivers before needing care themselves and encouragement from the wider community. Opportunities to show gratitude, build karma (from good deeds) and ideas shaped largely by Buddhist teachings result in positive experiences. Negotiating between the extremes of bliss and suffering and understanding suffering as a part of life may help carers manage their stress. Conclusions Temples and centres for older people could be engaged to develop caregiving programs. PMID:26969906
Assistance from informal caregivers such as family members, friends, or neighbors is crucial to adequately managing the complex care of heart failure (HF) patients. This study examined the lived experience of African American caregivers caring for African American patients with HF. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 participants who were formally interviewed. The interviews, analyzed using Colaizzi's steps, revealed six themes: layers of support, realization of self-neglect, experiencing the "blues," connecting with healthcare providers, unmet financial needs, and perception of nonadherence. The information regarding the experience of African American caregivers of HF patients obtained through this research will inform the delivery of culturally competent support to caregivers, thereby improving quality of life for both the HF patients and their caregivers.
This article reports on findings from microethnographic research that examined the lived reality of women caregivers through detailed observation of their everyday, embodied experiences. The research, which was rooted in the trend in social gerontology to emphasize subjective experience, focused on five women who were providing care to an older adult with a chronic illness or impairment. Four of the five women were caring for a spouse; one was caring for a parent. Observing the women's daily realities revealed tensions and contradictions between their subjective lived experiences and the pressures of the system in which they were functioning. The data revealed a caregiver habitus characterized by the performance of emotional labor. Performance was visible through dissonance between the caregivers' verbal and nonverbal expressions, and pointed to a high degree of emotion and body management. The women consistently put aside their own needs, in what can be considered a divestment in health capital. There was also evidence of merging between the caregiver and care receiver, made visible through tandem movements. The findings lead to implications for practice and for future aging research, including the benefits of observation for enhancing understanding of clients' experiences.
Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Leotta, Rebecca; Puppi, Irene; Rossi, Bruno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurons and causes progressive physical impairment. Also, other functions, such as breathing, swallowing and speech are compromised, and the loss of independence makes caregiver burden extremely high. The present study aimed at evaluating the differences in the caregiver burden due to age, gender and kinship. Women reported a higher physical and social burden than men, and partners scored higher in several dimensions of the caregiver burden when compared to sons and daughters. With respect to adult child caregivers, daughters reported higher levels of developmental burden than sons. Age has a significant impact on the caregiver burden, especially for the time dedicated to assistance and physical burden; disease severity is significantly related to the physical burden as well, and also with the developmental burden.
Gurwitch, Robin H; Messer, Erica Pearl; Masse, Joshua; Olafson, Erna; Boat, Barbara W; Putnam, Frank W
Child maltreatment impacts approximately two million children each year, with physical abuse and neglect the most common form of maltreatment. These children are at risk for mental and physical health concerns and the ability to form positive social relationships is also adversely affected. Child Adult Relationship Enhancement (CARE) is a set of skills designed to improve interactions of any adult and child or adolescent. Based on parent training programs, including the strong evidence-based treatment, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), CARE was initially developed to fill an important gap in mental health services for children of any age who are considered at-risk for maltreatment or other problems. CARE subsequently has been extended for use by adults who interact with children and youth outside of existing mental health therapeutic services as well as to compliment other services the child or adolescent may be receiving. Developed through discussions with Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) therapists and requests for a training similar to PCIT for the non-mental health professional, CARE is not therapy, but is comprised of a set of skills that can support other services provided to families. Since 2006, over 2000 caregivers, mental health, child welfare, educators, and other professionals have received CARE training with a focus on children who are exposed to trauma and maltreatment. This article presents implementation successes and challenges of a trauma-informed training designed to help adults connect and enhance their relationships with children considered at-risk.
... or those we choose to call family. Caregiver Responsibilities When a family member has a serious illness , ... transportation; do housework; handle your loved one’s former responsibilities, such as child care; and provide help with ...
Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia
In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…
Sorrell, Jeanne M
Family members serving as informal caregivers for loved ones often experience physical, psychological, emotional, social, and financial consequences that can be conceptualized as caregiver burden. As the number of older adults in our society continues to increase, there will be even more demand for family caregivers. It is important to move beyond a focus on the statistics and characteristics of caregiver burden and identify helpful interventions to reduce this burden. Interventions that decrease caregiver burden can enable family caregivers to delay placement of the individual in an institutional setting and improve quality of life for both the caregiver and care recipient.
Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne
Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…
Frampton, Kristen L.; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
Use of metacognitive language by child care center staff in classrooms that serve preschool-aged children was examined. Staff's use of mental-state talk, perspective-taking talk, and activity-relevant questioning with children were coded in a series of 20-s snapshots taken over the course of one full morning per classroom. A total of 3401…
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.
Montrul, Silvina; Sanchez-Walker, Noelia
We report the results of two studies that investigate the factors contributing to non-native-like ability in child and adult heritage speakers by focusing on oral production of Differential Object Marking (DOM), the overt morphological marking of animate direct objects in Spanish. In study 1, 39 school-age bilingual children (ages 6-17) from the…
Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley
A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…
Dallara, Alexis; Meret, Anca; Saroyan, John
Objectives of this review were to examine definitions and background of palliative care, as well as address whether there is an increased need for palliative care education among neurologists. The review also explores what literature exists regarding palliative care within general neurology and child neurology. A literature review was conducted examining use of palliative care within child neurology. More than 100 articles and textbooks were retrieved and reviewed. Expert guidelines stress the importance of expertise in palliative care among neurologists. Subspecialties written about in child neurology include that of peripheral nervous system disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Adult and child neurology patients have a great need for improved palliative care services, as they frequently develop cumulative physical and cognitive disabilities over time and cope with decreasing quality of life before reaching the terminal stage of their illness.
Cary, Mark S.; Rubright, Jonathan D.; Grill, Joshua D.; Karlawish, Jason
Objectives Most Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers are not spouses and yet most AD dementia trials enroll spousal study partners. This study examines the association between caregiver relationship to the patient and willingness to enroll in an AD clinical trial and how caregiver burden and research attitudes modify willingness. Design Interviews with 103 AD caregivers who met criteria for ability to serve as a study partner. Results 54% of caregivers were spouses or domestic partners and the remaining were adult children. Willingness to enroll a patient in a clinical trial was associated with being a spouse (OR = 2.53, p = 0.01), increasing age (OR = 1.39, p = 0.01), and increasing scores on the Research Attitudes Questionnaire (OR = 1.39, p < 0.001). No measures of caregiver burden or patient health were significant predictors of willingness. In multivariate models both research attitudes (OR = 1.37, p < 0.001) and being a spouse, as opposed to an adult child, (OR = 2.06, p = 0.048) were independently associated with willingness to participate. Conclusions Spousal caregivers had both a higher willingness to participate and a more positive attitude toward research. Caregiver burden had no association with willingness to participate. The strongest predictor of willingness was research attitudes. PMID:24805971
Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole
Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and 2007 are used to characterize victims, perpetrators, and caregiver roles, and circumstances that precipitated homicides by a caregiver. A total 68 incidents are categorized into either homicide by neglect ( n = 17), intentional injury of the victim only (n = 21), or homicide followed by suicide of the perpetrator (n = 30). Demographics, mechanism of injury, location of injury, and victim-suspect relationship variables are supplemented by narrative accounts of incidents. In general, findings show that adult homicide victims of a caregiver were widowed (42.6%), non-Hispanic (97.1%), White (88.2%), women (63.2%) killed in their homes (92.6%) with a firearm (35.3%) or by intentional neglect (25.0%) by a husband (30.9%) or a son (22.1%). Nearly half were aged 80 years and older (48.5%), 42.6% were aged 50 to 79 years, and 0.9% were aged 20 to 49 years. Many homicide by caregiver incidents are precipitated by physical illness of the victim or caregiver, opportunity for perpetrator financial gain, mental illness of the caregiver, substance use by the caregiver, or an impending crisis in the life of the caregiver not related to illness. Understanding the vulnerabilities of victims, the characteristics of suspects, and the multiple types of motivations is key to developing effective prevention efforts.
Sloman, Kimberly N; Vollmer, Timothy R; Cotnoir, Nicole M; Borrero, Carrie S W; Borrero, John C; Samaha, Andrew L; St Peter, Claire C
We conducted descriptive observations of 5 individuals with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior while they interacted with their caregivers in either simulated environments (an inpatient hospital facility) or in their homes. The focus of the study was on caregiver reprimands and child problem behavior. Thus, we compared the frequency of problem behavior that immediately preceded a caregiver reprimand to that immediately following a caregiver reprimand, and the results showed that the frequency of problem behavior decreased following a reprimand. It is possible that caregiver reprimands are negatively reinforced by the momentary attenuation of problem behavior, and the implications for long- and short-term effects on caregiver behavior are discussed.
Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4-7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver-child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons and controlling for major depressive disorder, children whose mothers have BPD told stories with the following: (a) more parent-child role reversal, more fear of abandonment, and more negative mother-child and father-child relationship expectations; (b) more incongruent and shameful representations of the self; and (c) poorer emotion regulation indicated by more confusion of boundaries between fantasy and reality and between self and fantasy, more fantasy proneness, less narrative coherence, and marginally more intrusion of traumatic themes. In the sample as a whole, (a) a maladaptive caregiver-child relationship composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance and self-harm; (b) a maladaptive self-composite was associated with maternal self-harm; and (c) a maladaptive emotion regulation composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance, negative relationships, and self-harm. Results are discussed in terms of putative precursors to BPD and preventive interventions.
In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping.
Feldman, Ruth; Klein, Pnina S
To compare children's socialized behavior to parents and nonparental agents, this study examined self-regulated compliance to mothers and caregivers--an early form of internalization--in 90 toddlers, half of whom were also observed with fathers. Adults were observed in play, teaching, and discipline sessions with the child and were interviewed on child-rearing philosophies. Child cognition and emotion regulation were assessed, and naturalistic observations were conducted at child-care locations. Mean-level and rank-order stability were found in child compliance to the 3 adults. Child emotion regulation and adult warm control in a discipline situation were related to self-regulated compliance to the mother, caregiver, and father. Compliance to parents correlated with parental sensitivity and philosophies, and compliance to the caregiver correlated with child cognition and social involvement when child-care quality was controlled. Maternal sensitivity and warm control discipline predicted compliance to the caregiver but not vice versa. Results are consistent with theoretical positions on the generalization of socialization from the mother to nonmaternal agents.
Messman-Moore, T.L.; Brown, A.L.
Objective:: Child maltreatment and family functioning were examined as predictors of adult rape in a sample of 925 college women. Method:: Information was obtained from retrospective self-report questionnaires. Child sexual abuse (CSA) was assessed with the Life Experiences Questionnaire, child emotional abuse (CEA) and physical abuse (CPA) were…
Fink, Dale B.
This training guide was created for organizations in which older adults serve as caregivers for children of 5-14 years of age during the times when they are not in school. The training curriculum was designed so that anyone familiar with the developmental needs of school-age children and the needs and aspirations of older adults would be able to…
Shohet, Cilly; Jaegermann, Nurit
The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) model is a comprehensive developmental approach to help adults understand their role in child development by enhancing the quality of adult-child interactions. This article describes how the Irving B. Harris Program for Infants, Toddlers and Their Families at Bar-Ilan University…
Hayes, Laura; Hawthorne, Graeme; Farhall, John; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Harvey, Carol
Services have been increasingly directed at supporting carers of people living with mental illness but it is difficult to evaluate the impact of service change where benchmarks for carer functioning are sparse. Sixty Australian carers were assessed regarding their quality of life, psychological distress, social isolation and caregiving experience. Their scores were compared with two matched community samples and previous studies. Carers were ten times more likely to be socially isolated and quality of life was significantly less than matched community samples. Over 40 % of the carer sample met criteria for probable psychiatric disorder. Comparison of caregiving experiences with a study 15 years ago showed no improvement in negative caregiving experiences. Carers still face considerable challenges to their wellbeing as they support people living with mental illness, in spite of progress in the development of policy and services.
Palisano, Robert J; Chiarello, Lisa A; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Bartlett, Doreen; An, Mihee
ABSTRACT Aims: Participation in family and recreational activities, self-care, and parent ease of caregiving are important outcomes for young children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to examine use of the Child Engagement in Daily Life and the Ease of Caregiving for Children to measure change over time. Methods: A convenience sample of 387 parents of young children with CP (18 months to 5 years of age) completed the measures twice, a mean of 12.7 months apart. Results: For the Child Engagement in Daily Life, parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and levels II-III reported more change for the Self-care domain (medium effect) than the Family and Recreational Activities domain (small effect) and the Ease of Caregiving for Children (small effect). The change reported by parents of children in levels IV-V on all three measures was less than the criterion for a small effect. Minimal detectable change for each measure varied from 12.1 to 14.1, out of a total possible score of 100. Conclusion: Further research is recommended to determine responsiveness to change following intervention.
Brannan, Ana Maria; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Bickman, Leonard
A study of 984 families of children with emotional and behavioral disturbance used the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire to assess the effects of the shift of primary caregiving to the family due to deinstitutionalization. Results indicate the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, which also identified three related but unique dimensions of…
Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; Keenleyside, Mairi; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan Daly; Hayes, Jennifer; Cahill, Paul; Noonan, Hester; O'Shea, Helen; McCullagh, Avril; McGuinness, Shaun; Rodgers, Catherine; Whelan, Neal; Sheppard, Noel; Browne, Stephen
One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.
Ottley, Jennifer Riggie
Variability in the quality of adult-child interactions among caregivers of young children can be problematic for children's development. However, professional development has been successful in improving caregivers' positive interactions with children. Blending principles of adult learning theory with technology-based coaching can provide a…
Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, Jane; Goldbart, Juliet; Burton, Mark H.
Background: There is scant research on the subject of dysphagia and people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the barriers which caregivers believe make following Speech and Language Therapists' (SLTs) dysphagia management strategies more difficult. Method: Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted with 46 caregivers…
Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin
Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…
Gomes, Barbara; Calanzani, Natalia; Curiale, Vito; McCrone, Paul; Higginson, Irene J
Background Extensive evidence shows that well over 50% of people prefer to be cared for and to die at home provided circumstances allow choice. Despite best efforts and policies, one-third or less of all deaths take place at home in many countries of the world. Objectives 1. To quantify the effect of home palliative care services for adult patients with advanced illness and their family caregivers on patients' odds of dying at home; 2. to examine the clinical effectiveness of home palliative care services on other outcomes for patients and their caregivers such as symptom control, quality of life, caregiver distress and satisfaction with care; 3. to compare the resource use and costs associated with these services; 4. to critically appraise and summarise the current evidence on cost-effectiveness. Search methods We searched 12 electronic databases up to November 2012. We checked the reference lists of all included studies, 49 relevant systematic reviews, four key textbooks and recent conference abstracts. We contacted 17 experts and researchers for unpublished data. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITSs) evaluating the impact of home palliative care services on outcomes for adults with advanced illness or their family caregivers, or both. Data collection and analysis One review author assessed the identified titles and abstracts. Two independent reviewers performed assessment of all potentially relevant studies, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. We carried out meta-analysis where appropriate and calculated numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTBs) for the primary outcome (death at home). Main results We identified 23 studies (16 RCTs, 6 of high quality), including 37,561 participants and 4042 family caregivers, largely with advanced cancer but also congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive
Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica
To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…
Dhingra, Neeraj; Jha, Prabhat; Sharma, Vinod P; Cohen, Alan A; Jotkar, Raju M; Rodriguez, Peter S; Bassani, Diego G; Suraweera, Wilson; Laxminaryan, Ramanan; Peto, Richard
greatly exceeds the current WHO estimate of only 15,000 malaria deaths per year in India (5000 early childhood, 10,000 thereafter). This low estimate should be reconsidered, as should the low WHO estimate of adult malaria deaths worldwide. Funding US National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institute of Health Research, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute. PMID:20970179
Stephens, Samuel A.
Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…
Douglas, Emily M; Mohn, Brandy L
The purpose of this study was to compare children who are fatally and non-fatally maltreated in the United States. In this first national-comparison study, we used the Child Abuse and Neglect Data Set of children and families who encounter/receive support from child welfare services. We found that children who were fatally maltreated were younger, were more likely to live with both their parents, and that their families experienced more financial and housing instability compared to non-fatally maltreated children. Overall, families in which children die use/receive fewer social services, as compared to families in which children live. We discuss the results with regard to child welfare practice and research.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults' lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education.
Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Essien, Grace; Aminu, Francis T; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Neufeld, Lynnette M
We examined whether the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Weeks (MNCHW) in Nigeria would present an opportunity to raise awareness of and demand for the use of zinc and ORS in the treatment for diarrhoea, guided by a conceptual framework designed to assess three theoretical underpinnings (characteristics and performance standard of the health workers, potential reach, and intensity of the intervention), along the impact pathway. Zinc and ORS with education for their appropriate use during the next diarrhoeal episode were delivered as part of the November 2010 and May 2011 MNCHW. On the day of but before participating in MNCHW activities, semi-structured interviews were used for collecting information on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) relating to diarrhoea from 602 caregivers with children aged less than five years. Forty-eight health workers were also interviewed. Nearly all health workers (98%) correctly mentioned the dosage of zinc while only 58% correctly stated the preparation of ORS. The proportion of caregivers with knowledge on the treatment for diarrhoea increased from 46.4% in November 2010 pre-MNCHW to 71.3% in May 2011 pre-MNCHW interviews (p<0.001). More caregivers correctly mentioned the dosage of zinc (80.9%) and stated the preparation of ORS (88.8%) in the November 2010 exit interview immediately after the MNCHW encounter compared to the levels a few months later in the home follow-up visit (53.1% and 37.4% respectively). After attending both rounds of November 2010 and May 2011 MNCHW, caregivers' knowledge on the treatment of diarrhoea increased seven times compared to the caregivers who attended the May 2011 MNCHW only (OR=7.0, p<0.001). Additionally, caregivers were 40% less likely to seek advice outside the home in the treatment for diarrhoea if they had attended both the MNCHWs than if they had attended the May 2011 MNCHW only (OR=0.6, p<0.029). We conclude that providing opportunities for caregivers to receive a sample of zinc and
... Costs; National Alliance for Caregiving and MetLife Mature Market Institute. February 2010 40% to 70% of family ... Costs; National Alliance for Caregiving and MetLife Mature Market Institute. February 2010 73% of family caregivers who ...
... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard and can lead to feelings ...
Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos
Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors,…
Background Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs’ child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers’ VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. Results Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs’ service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers’ wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers’ literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Conclusions VMWs’ service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs’ child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are
Das, Aritra; Detels, Roger; Javanbakht, Marjan; Panda, Samiran
Children living with HIV (CLH) face several physical and psychological challenges. The impact of the disease is not limited to the affected CLH, but also affects their caregivers and family members. We qualitatively explored the experiences, knowledge, concerns, and perceptions of primary caregivers and triangulated those aspects with those expressed by their CLH. We conducted 34 in-depth interviews (IDI) with primary caregivers of 8- to 15-year-old CLH residing in West Bengal, India. Four focus group discussions (FGD) with CLH were held, two each with children aged 8-12 and 13-15 years. Participants were recruited with the help of a community-based organization providing need-based services to adults and CLH. Five major themes shared by caregivers and children were identified, including concerns about HIV, medications, discriminatory behaviors, having a "healthy mind", and the advantages and limitations of available HIV-related health services. Two primary themes exclusively from IDI with caregivers were caregiving challenges and concerns about the future of their CLH. Indian CLH and their caregivers face many daily challenges, and there are many unmet but relevant expectations. Caregiving goes beyond the child-caregiver dynamic, and is intertwined with the local community and the healthcare and support system structures. The current study underscores the need for comprehensive care programs focusing on improving support to both CLH and caregivers.
Badanes, Lisa S; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos
Full-day center-based child care has been repeatedly associated with rising cortisol across the child care day. This study addressed the potential buffering role of attachment to mothers and lead teachers in 110 preschoolers while at child care. Using multi-level modeling and controlling for a number of child, family, and child care factors, children with more secure attachments to teachers were more likely to show falling cortisol across the child care day. Attachment to mothers interacted with child care quality, with buffering effects found for children with secure attachments attending higher quality child care. Implications for early childhood educators are discussed.
Chouinard, Michelle M; Clark, Eve V
Parents frequently check up on what their children mean. They often do this by reformulating with a side sequence or an embedded correction what they think their children said. These reformulations effectively provide children with the conventional form for that meaning. Since the child's utterance and the adult reformulation differ while the intended meanings are the same, children infer that adults are offering a correction. In this way, reformulations identify the locus of any error, and hence the error itself. Analyses of longitudinal data from five children between 2;0 and 4;0 (three acquiring English and two acquiring French) show that (a) adults reformulate their children's erroneous utterances and do so significantly more often than they replay or repeat error-free utterances; (b) their rates of reformulation are similar across error-types (phonological, morphological, lexical, and syntactic) in both languages; (c) they reformulate significantly more often to younger children, who make more errors. Evidence that children attend to reformulations comes from four measures: (a) their explicit repeats of corrected elements in their next turn; (b) their acknowledgements (yeah or uh-huh) as a preface to their next turn; (c) repeats of any new information included in the reformulation; and (d) their explicit rejections of reformulations where the adult has misunderstood. Adult reformulations, then, offer children an important source of information about how to correct errors in the course of acquisition.
Background: Young children are at increased risk of severe outcomes from influenza illness, including hospitalization. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations among children in US Emerging Infections Program sites. Methods: Cases were children 6–59 months of age hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza infections during 2005–2008. Age- and zip-code-matched controls were enrolled. Data on child, caregiver and household characteristics were collected from parents and medical records. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for hospitalization. Results: We enrolled 290 (64%) of 454 eligible cases and 1089 (49%) of 2204 eligible controls. Risk for influenza hospitalization increased with maternal age <26 years [odds ratio (OR): 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–2.9]; household income below the poverty threshold (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4–3.6); smoking by >50% of household members (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4–6.6); lack of household influenza vaccination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5) and presence of chronic illnesses, including hematologic/oncologic (OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.5–31.0), pulmonary (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9–4.4) and neurologic (OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.2) conditions. Full influenza immunization decreased the risk among children 6–23 months of age (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9) but not among those 24–59 months of age (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8–3.0; P value for difference = 0.01). Conclusions: Chronic illnesses, young maternal age, poverty, household smoking and lack of household influenza vaccination increased the risk of influenza hospitalization. These characteristics may help providers to identify young children who are at greatest risk for severe outcomes from influenza illness. PMID:24642518
Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Åström, Sture; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren
The aim of the study was to discover and describe lived experiences of professional care and caregivers among parents of adults who self-harm. Narrative interviews were conducted with six parents of daughters with self-harming behaviours and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The meanings of the parents' narratives of their lived experiences of professional care and caregivers were interpreted as their being involved in ‘limit situations’ comparable to hostage dramas. Several meaningful themes contributed to this interpretation: being trapped in a situation with no escape; being in the prisoner's dock; groping in the dark; and finding glimmers of hope. Parents of daughters who were in care because of self-harming often felt obliged to pay an emotional ransom, which included feelings of being accused, being ‘broken’, being confused, and feeling lost. Moments of peace occurred as welcome breaks offering a short time of rest for the parents. Situations that were understood by the parents and solved in a peaceful way were experienced as a respite and inspired parents with hope for their daughters' recovery. PMID:20877586
Assessment is a critical step in determining appropriate support services. This article discusses "caregiver assessment," a systematic process of gathering information to describe a caregiving situation. Caregiver assessment identifies the particular problems, needs, resources, and strengths of the family caregiver and approaches issues from the…
Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R.
The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child’s ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana (“Sankofa”). “Sankofa” – is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7–18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver’s characteristics predicted caregiver’s illness perception. Intensification of
Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.
Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.
Pallini, Susanna; Laghi, Fiorenzo
The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian Questionnaire on Temperament, while attachment behaviors to professional caregivers were measured by the Attachment Q-Sort. Factor analysis supported four identifiable factors reflecting different concepts, theoretically discussed, related to attentive processes: attentive flexibility, attentive lability, attentive detachment, and attentive disorientation. Attachment security to professional caregivers is predicted through attentive flexibility and negative emotionality. Secure attachment behaviors were found to be related to flexibility of attention. The implications of the findings for future theoretical and empirical development of research in this field are also discussed.
O'Connor, Erin E; Scott, Marc A; McCormick, Meghan P; Weinberg, Sharon L
The current study investigated associations between early mother-child attachment, as well as mother-child and teacher-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in middle childhood. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Findings from a series of individual growth curve analyses revealed that attachment security was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors, while insecure/other and avoidant attachment were positively related to internalizing behaviors. In addition, longitudinal associations were found between mother-child and teacher-child relationships and internalizing and externalizing behaviors across middle childhood. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
Honig, Alice Sterling
Caregiver-infant interactions in the first years of a child's life provide models and shape patterns of responding that can have consequences throughout the life-span. Research and practice have produced knowledge about the sensitivity of outcomes to characteristics of the infant nurturing situation. Infant caregivers should accept babies' need…
Bernard, Brittany L; Bracey, Lauren E; Lane, Kathleen A; Ferguson, Denisha Y; LaMantia, Michael A; Gao, Sujuan; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M
The objectives of this report are to determine the association between performance-based measures of physical function with caregiver reports of physical function in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine whether those associations vary by the level of patients' cognitive functioning. Subjects included 180 patient-caregiver dyads who are enrolled in a clinical trial testing the impact of an occupational therapy intervention plus guideline-level care to delay functional decline among older adults with AD. The primary caregiver-reported measure is the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). Performance-based measures include the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to determine the associations of each physical performance measure with ADCS-ADL, adjusting for cognition function and other covariates. We found significant correlations between caregiver reports and observed performance-based measures across all levels of cognitive function, with patients in the lowest cognitive group showing the highest correlation. These findings support the use of proxy reports to assess physical function among older adults with AD.
Cabote, Christy Joy; Bramble, Marguerite; McCann, Damhnat
Family caregiving for people with younger onset dementia affects everyone in the family unit. This article presents findings of a qualitative systematic review exploring the experiences of family caregivers of persons with younger onset dementia. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of five relevant articles, and two groups within the family unit were identified-child caregivers and adult and spousal caregivers. Using the thematic synthesis approach, five themes emerged: dementia damage, grief for loss of relationship, changes in family roles, positive and negative impacts of family caregiving, and transition to formal care. The review findings support increasing evidence that despite the stress of caring for a person with dementia damage, family members have the capacity to cope, adapt, and grow through their experiences. Nurses can assist families to identify their unique strengths and enhance family resiliency so they can navigate the "lonely road" of younger onset dementia.
Frommer, Eva A.
Originally written for students at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, this guide to child development offers an overview of child development for parents, teachers, and all adults concerned with raising children. Many of the book's ideas come from direct work with children and draw on Rudolf Steiner's approach to child development. The book's…
Jacobvitz, Deborah; Sroufe, L. Alan
Newborn status, ratings of temperament, and experiential (parenting) antecedents of hyperactivity were evaluated in a longitudinal investigation. Experiential variables included maternal intrusive care, seductive behavior towards child, and overstimulation of child. (PCB)
Pallini, Susanna; Laghi, Fiorenzo
The authors attempted to develop and validate the Toddler Attention Questionnaire (TAQ) by examining the relationship between attention and attachment to a professional caregiver. The psychometric reliability and validity of the TAQ was tested with 72 children ranging from 20 to 36 months old. Attentive processes were also measured by the Italian…
Lovell, B.; Moss, M.; Wetherell, M. A.
Background: The positive relationship between problem behaviours of children with additional complex needs and psychological distress in their caregivers has been widely evidenced. Fewer studies, however, have assessed the relationship between care recipients' problem behaviours and key physiological processes, relevant for the physical…
Rosemary, Catherine A.; Roskos, Kathleen A.
Examined the nature of literacy-related, teacher-child talk in the daily routines of three child care centers. Found that adults talked about reading and writing to a modest degree, compared to total talk with children. Incidence of adults' literacy talk, aside from book talk, was primarily intermittent and spontaneous. Discourse features of…
Nanda, Alice Owens
Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…
Mahoney, Diane F; LaRose, Sharon; Mahoney, Edward L
Alzheimer's caregiving literature acknowledges dressing as a major daily stressor but research on this topic is negligible. A qualitative grounded theory approach was used to explore Alzheimer's family caregivers' perspectives about issues that arise when their family members lose the ability to dress independently. Three focus groups and seven individual interviews were conducted and audio recorded with 25 information rich caregivers. Constant comparative analyses and coding of the transcripts identified six major themes leading to a 'Preservation of Self Model: Care Recipient to Care Giver' that portrays the caregiving trajectory. Initially, caregivers tried to protect the self dignity of the family member by maintaining usual routines and absorbing blame for difficulties. Dressing 'battles' occurred and caregivers learned management through trial and error. Crossing adult-child-gender role boundaries escalated discomfort. When facing unrelenting demands, concern shifted to preservation of the caregivers' health and self. Results suggest that caregivers would benefit from more pro-active dressing counseling to shorten the trial and error periods, dressing aids more relevant to dementia and more knowledgeable helpers. The preservation model can facilitate understanding of the caregiving trajectory and guide intervention support.
Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.
Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…
Byrd, B; DeRosa, A P; Craig, S S
60 women and 60 men between the ages of 18 and 45 years (M = 30.5, SD = 9.6) were categorized by sex, age, and birth order (only child, firstborn, lastborn) to assess the differences among the adult only-child, the youngest child, and the oldest child in autonomous characteristics and cohesiveness in family interaction. Analysis of the responses on a biographical data sheet, the California Psychological Inventory, and the Family Adaptability Cohesion Scales III showed that main effects for birth order and sex are significant in the process of separation-individuation and that the only child is less autonomous than the oldest child.
Raveis, Victoria H.; Pretter, Sheindy; Carrero, Monique
The occurrence of cancer is an event of significant importance to family functioning. The present analysis reports on an understudied group profoundly affected by this health event: older mothers caring for an adult child with cancer. As part of a study of breast cancer survivors and their family caregivers, a subsample (N = 13) of older…
Burton, Alice; Whitebook, Marcy; Young, Marci; Bellm, Dan; Wayne, Claudia; Brandon, Richard N.; Maher, Erin
In response to rising demand for information on the child care workforce, the Center for the Child Care Workforce (CCW) and the Human Services Policy Center (HSPC) have initiated a 2-year project to develop a framework and methodology for quantifying the size and characteristics of the U.S. child care workforce, focusing on the workforce serving…
Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L
The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences.
Thompson-Booth, Chloe; Viding, Essi; Mayes, Linda C.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Hodsoll, Sara; McCrory, Eamon
It has been reported previously that infant faces elicit enhanced attentional allocation compared to adult faces in adult women, particularly when these faces are emotional and when the participants are mothers, as compared to non-mothers . However, it remains unclear whether this increased salience of infant faces as compared to adult faces extends to children older than infant age, or whether infant faces have a unique capacity to elicit preferential attentional allocation compared to juvenile or adult faces. Therefore, this study investigated attentional allocation to a variety of different aged faces (infants, pre-adolescent children, adolescents, and adults) in 84 adult women, 39 of whom were mothers. Consistent with previous findings, infant faces were found to elicit greater attentional engagement compared to pre-adolescent, adolescent, or adult faces, particularly when the infants displayed distress; again, this effect was more pronounced in mothers compared to non-mothers. Pre-adolescent child faces were also found to elicit greater attentional engagement compared to adolescent and adult faces, but only when they displayed distress. No preferential attentional allocation was observed for adolescent compared to adult faces. These findings indicate that cues potentially signalling vulnerability, specifically age and sad affect, interact to engage attention. They point to a potentially important mechanism, which helps facilitate caregiving behaviour. PMID:25353640
Umemura, Tomo; Traphagan, John W
Attachment theorists believe that children rely on their caregivers for protection and exploration. Due to this emphasis on independent exploration, however, the extent to which this notion of secure-base behavior is valid in societies emphasizing belongingness, such as Japan, has been questioned. By conducting an in-depth exploration of two Japanese collectivistic concepts, amae and ie, the present paper reexamines the relevance of secure-base behavior in Japan. Current discussions of amae have relied on psychoanalytic concepts that were developed in Western culture, and thus may not accurately represent Japanese parent-child relations. By examining another traditional concept of the family system, ie, this paper proposes that attachment theory is relevant in Japanese culture because children's individual competence is important to their families.
Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…
Pruchno, Rachel A; Meeks, Suzanne
The interrelationships among health-related stress, positive and negative affect, and depressive symptoms patterned in the dynamic model of affect (J. Reich, A. Zautra, & M. Davis, 2003) were examined using data from 932 women having an adult child with a developmental disability. Results indicate that women experience a moderate inverse correlation between positive and negative affect under conditions of low levels of health-related stress, whereas at high levels of stress, positive and negative affect become more strongly inversely correlated. Under high-stress conditions, both negative affect and positive affect have a stronger relationship to depressive symptoms than they do under low-stress conditions.
Wijesinghe, Champa J; Cunningham, Natasha; Fonseka, Pushpa; Hewage, Chandanie G; Østbye, Truls
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 caregivers of children with cerebral palsy attending a tertiary care setting in Sri Lanka, to identify factors associated with caregiver burden. Caregiver burden was defined as "caregiver's response to various stressors associated with caregiving" and was measured using Caregiver Difficulties Scale (CDS), developed specifically for this purpose. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between sociodemographic, stressor, and coping factors and caregiver burden; and to examine whether coping reduces the effect of stressors on burden. Low income, rural residence, male sex, and number of functional deficits of the disabled child correlated significantly with higher caregiver burden, while spousal support correlated with lower burden. Seeking social support reduced the increased burden associated with greater functional impairments. Psychosocial interventions focused on evaluating and improving social support for caregivers may help families at high risk for caregiver distress, to minimize negative outcomes.
Dujela, Carren; Smith, André
We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. PMID:25651586
Williamson, Heather J.; Perkins, Elizabeth A.
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the U.S. predominantly live with their family caregivers. As care delivery and support systems vary widely globally, consideration of caregiver outcomes specifically in the U.S. context is needed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify U.S. family caregiver…
Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; And Others
Examined differences in stressors and well-being for caregivers who care for relative with dementia at home and those with relative in nursing home (n=120). Found no differences in depression or somatic complaints, but nursing home caregivers reported fewer social disruptions and more stressors resulting from activities of daily living assistance,…
Kaizik, Cassandra; Caga, Jashelle; Camino, Julieta; O'Connor, Claire M; McKinnon, Colleen; Oyebode, Jan R; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R; Mioshi, Eneida
The objectives of this observational study were to (1) compare spousal and child caregiver burden; (2) compare co-resident and live-out child caregiver burden; and (3) investigate factors influencing spousal and child caregiver burden. Data was collected from 90 caregivers of people with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) recruited from the Frontotemporal Dementia Research Group (Frontier) at Neuroscience Research, Australia. Of this caregiver group, 43 were spousal caregivers and 47 were child caregivers. Caregiver burden and emotional state were evaluated using the short Zarit Burden Interview and the short version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. The Social Network Index was applied to ascertain the social network of the caregiver, while the Intimate Bond Measure was used to evaluate the current quality of the relationship between the caregiver and the person with dementia. The Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale was used to assess severity of dementia. Spousal and child caregivers experienced similar levels of burden, depression, anxiety, and stress, regardless of disease severity. Co-resident child caregivers had smaller social networks and greater burden than live-out caregivers. Dementia severity was key in spousal caregiver burden, whereas caregiver depression was most important in child caregiver burden. Child and spousal caregivers of individuals with FTD share similar levels of burden, influenced by different factors. Future interventions need to account for these differences.
Kaizik, Cassandra; Caga, Jashelle; Camino, Julieta; O’Connor, Claire M.; McKinnon, Colleen; Oyebode, Jan R.; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R.; Mioshi, Eneida
The objectives of this observational study were to (1) compare spousal and child caregiver burden; (2) compare co-resident and live-out child caregiver burden; and (3) investigate factors influencing spousal and child caregiver burden. Data was collected from 90 caregivers of people with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) recruited from the Frontotemporal Dementia Research Group (Frontier) at Neuroscience Research, Australia. Of this caregiver group, 43 were spousal caregivers and 47 were child caregivers. Caregiver burden and emotional state were evaluated using the short Zarit Burden Interview and the short version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. The Social Network Index was applied to ascertain the social network of the caregiver, while the Intimate Bond Measure was used to evaluate the current quality of the relationship between the caregiver and the person with dementia. The Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale was used to assess severity of dementia. Spousal and child caregivers experienced similar levels of burden, depression, anxiety, and stress, regardless of disease severity. Co-resident child caregivers had smaller social networks and greater burden than live-out caregivers. Dementia severity was key in spousal caregiver burden, whereas caregiver depression was most important in child caregiver burden. Child and spousal caregivers of individuals with FTD share similar levels of burden, influenced by different factors. Future interventions need to account for these differences. PMID:28106550
Hodgson, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A
Salivary measures have emerged in bio-behavioral research that are easy-to-collect, minimally invasive, and relatively inexpensive biologic markers of stress. This article we present the steps for collection and analysis of two salivary assays in research with frail, community residing older adults-salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. The field of salivary bioscience is rapidly advancing and the purpose of this presentation is to provide an update on the developments for investigators interested in integrating these measures into research on aging. Strategies are presented for instructing family caregivers in collecting saliva in the home, and for conducting laboratory analyses of salivary analytes that have demonstrated feasibility, high compliance, and yield quality specimens. The protocol for sample collection includes: (1) consistent use of collection materials; (2) standardized methods that promote adherence and minimize subject burden; and (3) procedures for controlling certain confounding agents. We also provide strategies for laboratory analyses include: (1) saliva handling and processing; (2) salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase assay procedures; and (3) analytic considerations.
VanderBorght, Mieke; Jaswal, Vikram K.
Do preschoolers think adults know more about everything than children? Or do they recognize that there are some things that children might know more about than adults? Three-, four-, and five-year olds (N = 65) were asked to decide whether an adult or child informant would better be able to answer a variety of questions about the nutritional value…
Blay, Josepha A.; Ireson, Judith
A qualitative analysis of four cooking activities undertaken in two nursery classes reveals relationships between the adults' pedagogical beliefs, the choice and structuring of activities, and the nature of adult-child participation. Four adults each planned and carried out separately, one cooking activity of their choice with a small group of…
De Jong Gierveld, Jenny
Recently, rising numbers of mid-life and older adults are starting a "living apart together" (LAT) relationship following divorce or widowhood. LAT describes an intimate relationship wherein partners maintain separate households. This study investigated the characteristics of care arrangements in older long-term LAT couples and elicited personal comments about intra-couple care. We interviewed 25 LAT partners and a comparison group of 17 remarried older adults in the Netherlands in a side study of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Results showed that about half of the LAT partners intended to exchange care if needed (partnership commitment); the other half had ambiguous feelings or intentions to refuse care (independence orientation). However, for those LAT partners already confronted with illness in their current relationship, all provided care to the partner in need. The minority of LAT partners who would not exchange care reciprocally are more likely to give as opposed to receive care.
Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine
Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…
Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.
Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784
Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M; Wild, Lauren G
Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: (a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and (b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p < .001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network.
... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...
... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...
... and adult care institutions. 240.4 Section 240.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult care... or adult care institutions participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. FNS shall pay...
Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L.; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland
Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate “single” on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child’s treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child’s diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child’s diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child’s siblings had gotten worse since their child’s diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. PMID:26668211
Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.
Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…
Managing the transitional care needs of young adults with a complex chronic illness such as cystic fibrosis (CF) as they move from a child-orientated to adult setting has been reported in the literature as challenging and stressful, and may impart additional risks to the young person's health. However, in the Republic of Ireland, which has the highest incidence of CF in the world, the current services provided for children during this transitional period are still reported as underdeveloped. The aim of the author's research was to explore and understand the experience of young people before and after their transitional care, and the factors that both contribute to and hinder that experience. A qualitative approach guided by phenomenological tradition, and using in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that there are a range of needs required for patients during this transitional period, including the need for information, interventions that decrease the negative feelings associated with transition (e.g. distress, anxiety, uncertainty), structured service, and an approach to care that focuses on young adults. The author concludes that health professionals in the clinical setting who have responsibility for young adults in transitional care should focus on these needs to provide a more relevant and effective transition service.
Evaluating parents and adult caregivers as "agents of change" for treating obese children: evidence for parent behavior change strategies and research gaps: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Faith, Myles S; Van Horn, Linda; Appel, Lawrence J; Burke, Lora E; Carson, Jo Ann S; Franch, Harold A; Jakicic, John M; Kral, Tanja V E; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wansink, Brian; Wylie-Rosett, Judith
This scientific statement addresses parents and adult caregivers (PACs) as "agents of change" for obese children, evaluating the strength of evidence that particular parenting strategies can leverage behavior change and reduce positive energy balance in obese youth. The statement has 3 specific aims. The first is to review core behavior change strategies for PACs as used in family-based treatment programs and to provide a resource list. The second is to evaluate the strength of evidence that greater parental "involvement" in treatment is associated with better reductions in child overweight. The third is to identify research gaps and new opportunities for the field. This review yielded limited and inconsistent evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials that greater PAC involvement necessarily is associated with better child outcomes. For example, only 17% of the intervention studies reported differential improvements in child overweight as a function of parental involvement in treatment. On the other hand, greater parental adherence with core behavior change strategies predicted better child weight outcomes after 2 and 5 years in some studies. Thus, the literature lacks conclusive evidence that one particular parenting strategy or approach causally is superior to others in which children have a greater focus in treatment. A number of research gaps were identified, including the assessment of refined parenting phenotypes, cultural tailoring of interventions, examination of family relationships, and incorporation of new technologies. A conceptual model is proposed to stimulate research identifying the determinants of PAC feeding and physical activity parenting practices, the results of which may inform new treatments. The statement addresses the need for innovative research to advance the scope and potency of PAC treatments for childhood obesity.
Hobson, Jessica A; Tarver, Laura; Beurkens, Nicole; Hobson, R Peter
The aim of this study was to examine the relations between severity of children's autism and qualities of parent-child interaction. We studied these variables at two points of time in children receiving a treatment that has a focus on social engagement, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI; Gutstein 2009). Participants were 18 parent-child dyads where the child (16 boys, 2 girls) had a diagnosis of autism and was between the ages of 2 and 12 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed at baseline and later in treatment using the autism severity metric of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Gotham et al. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 693-705 2009). Although the ADOS was designed as a diagnostic measure, ADOS calibrated severity scores (CSS) are increasingly used as one index of change (e.g., Locke et al. Autism, 18, 370-375 2014). Videotapes of parent-child interaction at baseline and later in treatment were rated by independent coders, for a) overall qualities of interpersonal relatedness using the Dyadic Coding Scales (DCS; Humber and Moss The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 128-141 2005), and b) second-by-second parent-child Co-Regulation and Intersubjective Engagement (processes targeted by the treatment approach of RDI). Severity of autism was correlated with lower quality of parent-child interaction. Ratings on each of these variables changed over the course of treatment, and there was evidence that improvement was specifically related to the quality of parent-child interaction at baseline.
Wilson, Barbara J.; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Smith, Stacy L.
Examines the perpetrators of violence on American television in terms of their chronological age. Compares the amount and nature of violence committed by child and teen characters to that committed by adult characters. Suggests that younger perpetrators are depicted in several ways that pose risks for the child viewer. (SG)
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
Geurts, Teun; Poortman, Anne-Rigt; van Tilburg, Theo G.
This study examined whether past grandparental child care is related to present support from adult children. On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors expected that grandparental child care creates a debt that is repaid in the form of receiving support later in life. Using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (N = 349…
Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.
Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…
van den Tweel, Xandra W; Hatzmann, Janneke; Ensink, Elske; van der Lee, Johanna H; Peters, Marjolein; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Grootenhuis, Martha
Caring for a child with sickle cell disease poses extra demands on parents, both practically and psychologically, which may influence their quality of life. Since families of children with sickle cell disease in the Netherlands usually belong to immigrant communities with a low socio-economic status, there may be an additional strain on caregivers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life of caregivers of children with sickle cell disease. The quality of life of female caregivers of sickle cell disease patients, measured with the TNO-AZL Adult Quality of Life questionnaire, was compared to the norm data of healthy Dutch females (n=700) and female caregivers of healthy children with the same socio-economic status and ethnic background (socio-economic status control group). Groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the median difference are presented. The results of questionnaires of 54 caregivers of children with sickle cell disease and 28 caregivers of a control group of the same socio-economic status were analyzed. Caregivers of patients with sickle cell disease had a significantly lower quality of life on all subscales compared to the Dutch norm population. Compared to the control group of the same socio-economic status, the quality of life of caregivers of patients with sickle cell disease was significantly lower on the subscales depressive moods, daily activities and vitality. In this first study reporting on the quality of life of caregivers of children with sickle cell disease, we demonstrate a reduced quality of life in these caregivers compared to the healthy Dutch female population and caregivers of healthy children with the same socio-economic status.
Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice
This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…
Chavajay, P; Rogoff, B
Cultural variation occurred in time-sharing of attention during videotaped home visits with sixteen 14-20-month-old toddlers and their caregivers from a Guatemalan Mayan community and a middle-class community of U.S. European-descent families. The Mayan caregivers and their toddlers were more likely to attend simultaneously to spontaneously occurring competing events than were the U.S. caregivers and their toddlers, who were more likely to alternate their attention between competing events and, in the case of the caregivers. to focus attention on one event at a time. This cultural contrast in prevalence of simultaneous or nonsimultaneous attention occurred in both a 10-min segment of child-focused activities and a 10-min segment of adult-focused activities, replicating and extending the findings of B. Rogoff, J. Mistry, A. Göncü, and C. Mosier (1993), which implicated cultural processes in attention.
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa
In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…
Brebner, Chris; Hammond, Lauren; Schaumloffel, Nicole; Lind, Christopher
Children's early years are critical for development and many children access out-of-home care during this time. Services offering high-quality childcare afford an opportunity to impact positively on children's development, including acquisition of communication skills. A strong, responsive relationship between child and carer is important in…
Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.
We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…
Denison, Julie A; Banda, Harry; Dennis, Alexis C; Packer, Catherine; Nyambe, Namakau; Stalter, Randy M; Mwansa, Jonathan K; Katayamoyo, Patrick; McCarraher, Donna R
Introduction Worldwide, HIV-related mortality among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) increased by 50% from 2005 to 2012 and is attributed in part to a lack of support for adolescent retention to care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This vulnerability reinforces the need to better understand incomplete ART adherence among ALHIV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the world's 2.1 million ALHIV reside. Methods From December 2011 to February 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 32 ALHIV (aged 15 to 18) and 23 of their adult caregivers in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. Interviews were transcribed and translated. An iterative qualitative process was used to code and analyze the data and main themes were summarized regarding the barriers to and facilitators of ART adherence. Results More than a quarter of ALHIV reported missing a day or more of ART (ranging from one day to six months). Barriers to ART adherence included fear of disclosure and anticipated stigma. Few youth were willing to take their drugs outside of the home, which led to missed doses of ART. Similarly, families tended to manage HIV within the home only. As a result, although caregivers and families were often the greatest source of emotional and instrumental support, they coped with HIV in isolation of other potential support from their communities, schools or churches. Factors that supported ART adherence included attending clinic-sponsored youth groups, wanting to maintain one's health and using phone and clock alarms. Involvement of adult caregivers in HIV management varied greatly and was often based on the age and health status of the youth. Some caregivers struggled with letting the adolescents assume responsibility for their medication, and ALHIV had few self-management skills and tools to help them regularly take ART. Conclusions These data highlight the importance of families and home environments in supporting adherence to ART among ALHIV
Kischke, Martina I.
This document presents a collection of brief articles about children which were written in West Germany and compiled for the International Year of the Child. Topics covered include: (1) the importance of children's early years, (2) child abuse, (3) family planning, (4) the need for playgrounds, (5) the German Children's Protection Federation, (6)…
Cuadra, Lorraine E; Jaffe, Anna E; Thomas, Renu; DiLillo, David
Criminal thinking styles were examined as mediational links between different forms of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect) and adult criminal behaviors in 338 recently adjudicated men. Analyses revealed positive associations between child sexual abuse and sexual offenses as an adult, and between child physical abuse/neglect and endorsing proactive and reactive criminal thinking styles. Mediation analyses showed that associations between overall maltreatment history and adult criminal behaviors were accounted for by general criminal thinking styles and both proactive and reactive criminal thinking. These findings suggest a potential psychological pathway to criminal behavior associated with child maltreatment. Limitations of the study as well as research and clinical implications of the results are discussed.
Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D
Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.
Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank
This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…
Newman, Sally M.; Vander Ven, Karen; Ward, Christopher R.
As the American population ages, society has grown more concerned about using older adults' skills and experience so they remain active, contributing members. Noting that work in child care for appropriate older adults is both natural and timely, this manual provides practical, concrete steps for implementing the guidelines of the Productive…
Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.
This guide is intended to help adult literacy teachers in New York present a learning module in which an empowering approach is used to provide adult students with information about child-rearing and prevention techniques to keep their children safe. The first half of the guide consists of reading materials concerning the following: home and road…
Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert
This article analyses adult and child development in the zone of proximal development in an educational practice based in Vygotsky's theories of play: the playworld educational practice. The playworld educational practice is a central component of a Scandinavian play pedagogy that promotes shared responsibility amongst adults and children for…
Fulton, Mary Wills
Analysis of adult evaluation of children's linguistic output provides a basis for elaboration upon the work of McNeill (1970) and Brown (1970). When limited to the uttered words of a child paired with an utterance spoken at an earlier time, adults cannot judge the relative age of the children making those utterances; in fact, their predictions of…
Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila
Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…
Cohen, Christine; Kampel, Thomas; Verloo, Henk
Background Aging at home rather than in an institution is now considered the gold standard. Public health figures document an important demographic transition to an increasingly elderly society. At the same time, this is accompanied by the emergence of significant numbers of innovative technologies to help and support home-dwelling older adults in declining health who wish to remain at home. Study aim To explore the acceptability of intelligent wireless sensor system (IWSS) among home-dwelling older adults in rapidly detecting their health issues. Methods Data were sourced from a pilot 3-month randomized clinical trial that involved 34 older patients in the experimental group (EG) using an IWSS to rapidly detect falls and other health issues at home. The effectiveness of the IWSS was assessed by comparing it to participants’ functional and cognitive status, as measured both before and after the trial. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, Confusion Assessment Method, Cognitive Performance Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Informed Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly were used for the assessments. Acceptability of the IWSS was explored at the end of the study. Results Both older adults and their informal caregivers considered the performance and usefulness of the IWSS intervention to be low to moderate. A majority of the participants were unsatisfied with its ease of use and found multiple obstacles in using and having an intention to use the IWSS. However, their informal caregivers were more satisfied with the program and gave higher scores for usefulness, ease of use, and intention to use IWSS technology. Conclusion The IWSS displayed low-to-moderate acceptability among the older participants and their informal caregivers. We recommend improving and clarifying several components in the IWSS for the development of a design that is user-centered. PMID:27660417
Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A
Newborn status, ratings of temperament, and heretofore neglected experiential (parenting) antecedents of hyperactivity were evaluated in a prospective, longitudinal investigation. The experiential variables were derived from a developmental theory of arousal modulation in the early years. Patterns of maternal intrusive care, seductive behavior, and overstimulation were assessed at 6 months, 2 years, and 3 1/2 years, respectively. 2 of these 3 variables significantly predicted hyperactivity in kindergarten at age 5 or 6, as determined by clinically validated ratings made by teachers. Of the 38 early child variables, which included neonatal behavioral assessments and ratings of activity level by parents and observers on many occasions during the first 2 1/2 years, only the motor maturity factor from 2 composited Brazelton exams yielded a significant relation. In addition, a measure of distractibility at 42 months was predictive of hyperactivity. Although other child measures may prove to be more powerful than those we tested, it will remain the case that prospective data are a critical arbiter of etiological factors in hyperactivity. Such data have important implications for both diagnosis and treatment.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.
Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…
McElroy, Siobhan; Warren, Alison; Jones, Fay
The value of art therapy for older people with mental health problems is well documented although there is a paucity of research for people who are home bound. This study, based in England, involved five clients, all older people with mental health problems, receiving art therapy sessions at home. The clients and caregivers were then interviewed…
MacMaster, Samuel A.
The impact that substance use has on an individual with mental illness has been documented; however, little is known about the impact that this may have for a family caregiver. Data was collected in a cross sectional study using mailed questionnaires to a convenience sample of family members of persons with mental illness (n = 110). Hierarchical…
Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram
In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10-19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group.
Petrass, Lauren; Blitvich, Jenny D; Finch, Caroline F
This study reviewed the relationship between recognized dimensions of supervision and children's injuries based on Saluja et al's (Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2004;11:17-22) hierarchal model of supervision strategies. A systematic review of peer-review studies was done with the earliest records available to 2007. There were 112 potentially relevant articles identified; 31 studies met all inclusion criteria. Reported studies were categorized according to the dimensions of supervision they addressed. Studies were not evenly distributed across the dimensions. There was evidence from the study that directly linking dimensions of supervision to child injury risk and outcomes is scarce. Future studies should consider attention, proximity, and continuity of supervision to provide a holistic understanding of the relationship between supervision and injury.
Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.
Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H
This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.
Bogaerts, Stefan; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias
This study analyzed personality disorders in a group of 33 securely and 51 insecurely attached child molesters. A total of 51 child molesters were selected from a community based educational training program, and the other group was selected from a Belgian prison (n = 33). Research shows that adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure. It is remarkable that very little is known about differences between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. These findings have implications for the aetiology and treatment of child molesters. Future research is necessary to determine patterns of attachment in relationship to personality disorders.
Drugli, May Britt; Mari Undheim, Anne
We studied the quality of caregiver-child relationships from the perspectives of parents and caregivers of young children in full-time day care. The sample consisted of 41 parents of children aged two years or younger (22 boys and 19 girls) in day care, and 35 of their caregivers. Parents and caregivers were interviewed. Parents and caregivers…
Thurman, Tonya R; Jarabi, Ben; Rice, Janet
HIV and AIDS have altered the context in which millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa are raised. Many are under the care of a widowed or ill parent, and others are residing with their extended family. Caregivers of orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) face a variety of stressors that may adversely affect children. This study explores potential benefits of caregivers' membership in support groups on their own psychosocial wellbeing, and on the treatment and psychosocial well-being of OVC aged 8-14 under their care. A post-test study design comparing members and non-members was applied, drawing upon random samples of current and prospective beneficiaries from a rural community in Kenya. With up to two children per caregiver eligible for study inclusion, the sample comprised 766 caregivers and 1028 children. Three-quarters of children had lost at least one parent. Nearly 90% were cared for by a female, often their natural mother or grandmother. Half of the caregivers were widowed and one-fifth had a chronic illness. Over one-third of caregivers were members of support groups, more commonly female caregivers. Regression analyses assessed the effect of support group membership after controlling for household, caregiver and child characteristics. Members reported less social marginalization, better family functioning and more positive feelings towards the children in their care than nonmembers. Children with caregivers in support groups exhibited fewer behavioral problems, higher rates of prosocial behavior and reported lower incidence of abuse from adults in their household. The psychological state of caregivers, however, was not associated with support group membership. Results underscore that quality care of vulnerable children hinges on interventions that address the psychosocial challenges facing their caregivers.
Zielinski, David S.
Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…
Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan
Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…
Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys
Kanamori, Mariano J.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H.
Objectives This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women’s overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Methods Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) data (2006–2007) from 20–49 year old women in Namibia (n=6,305), Swaziland (n=2,786), and Zambia (n=4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. Results OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women’s caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). Conclusions OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers’ overweight status in Namibia. PMID:25630405
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CASH IN LIEU OF DONATED FOODS § 240.4 Cash in lieu of donated foods for nonresidential child and adult...
... on your schedule. Look for our launch soon! FAMILY CARE NAVIGATOR ─ Click on Your State AL AK ... Group) Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn more Caregiver Research Caregivers exhibit ...
Debate about the balance between child- and adult-initiated activities in early childhood settings is long standing. This article reports a study of 29 children aged 4-5 years in a London state school, on the influences of child- and adult-initiated activities on children's self-regulation and metacognition. Whilst both contexts were supportive,…
McCoyd, Judith L. M.; Akincigil, Ayse; Paek, Eun Kwang
The evidence that the birth of a child with a disability leads to divorce or separation is equivocal, with the majority of recent research suggesting that such a birth and childrearing may be stressful, but not necessarily toxic, to the caregiver relationship. Such research has been limited by small sample sizes and nonrepresentative samples and…
Jahnke, Sara; Schmitt, Sabine; Malón, Agustín
This study attempted to measure cognitions about adult-child sex by approaching the issue from a perspective of moral attitudes. We assessed ratings regarding direct and indirect harmfulness, nonconsent, exploitation, and differences in adults' and children's sexualities based on a description of adult-child sex without apparent child discomfort among an online sample of 120 pedohebephilic and 89 nonpedohebephilic German-speaking men. The results showed that only 7.5% among pedohebephilic men had equal or less permissive attitudes than the average control, while 4.5% of nonpedohebephilic men had equal or more permissive attitudes than the average pedohebephilic man. Both groups did not, however, differ in their appraisal that children may suffer indirect harm via stigmatization. The findings also indicate that the moral perception of adult-child sex shows little differentiation among German-speaking laypeople. We discuss the relevance of these findings for clinical practice and propose ideas for subsequent research.
Lindgren, Britt-Marie; Öster, Inger; Åström, Sture; Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
The aim of the study was to illuminate interpretative repertoires that jointly construct the interaction between adult women who self-harm and professional caregivers in psychiatric inpatient care. Participant observations and informal interviews were conducted among six women who self-harm and their professional caregivers in two psychiatric inpatient wards, and analysed using the concept of interpretative repertoires from the discipline of discursive psychology. The analysis revealed four interpretative repertoires that jointly constructed the interaction. The professional caregivers used a “fostering repertoire” and a “supportive repertoire” and the women who self-harmed used a “victim repertoire” and an “expert repertoire.” The women and the caregivers were positioned and positioned themselves and people around them within and among these interpretative repertoires to make sense of their experiences of the interaction. It was necessary to consider each woman's own life chances and knowledge about herself and her needs. The participants made it clear that it was essential for them to be met with respect as individuals. Professional caregivers need to work in partnership with individuals who self-harm—experts by profession collaborating with experts by experience. Caregivers need to look beyond behavioural symptoms and recognise each individual's possibilities for agency. PMID:21897829
Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Aster, Amanda M.
Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent’s sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents’ coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed. PMID:25477556
... accuracy of meal claims submitted for reimbursement by family day care home providers for meals served to children who attend the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) day care homes. The assessment is tasked... family day care homes (FDCHs) during FY 2011. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received...
Lichtman, Karen Melissa
Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…
Msengi, Shadrack Gabriel
This study investigated the perceptions of African American adult family members, their children, and teachers regarding how family members viewed their roles in assisting their elementary-aged children to become better readers. The study compared each of the subgroups' perceptions respectively regarding: (a) the child's reading level; (b) family…
Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki
The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…
Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.
Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…
Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…
Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.
Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…
Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagne, Celia
The aim of this report was to investigate the associations between attachment state of mind, romantic attachment style, and indices of maternal functioning in two relational spheres: the mother-child relationship (i.e., maternal sensitivity and child attachment security) and the marital relationship (i.e., mothers' and their partners' marital…
Williamson, Steven S; Gorman, Paul N; Jimison, Holly B
Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults.
Williamson, Steven S.; Gorman, Paul N.; Jimison, Holly B.
Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults. PMID:25954469
Singh-Manoux, Archana; Dugravot, Aline; Smith, George Davey; Subramanyam, Malavika; Subramanian, S. V.
Objective To examine the association between adult education and child mortality, and to explore the influence of other socioeconomic markers - caste, household wealth and urbanization - on this association. Methods Data were drawn from the 1998–1999 Indian National Family Health Survey from 26 states on 66367 children aged 5 or under. Adult education, head of household and spouse, was categorized into 0, 1–8, and 9 or more years of schooling. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between measures of education and child mortality in analysis adjusted for other socioeconomic markers. Effect modification by caste, household wealth and urbanization was assessed by fitting an interaction term with education. Results Compared to those with no education, 9 or more years of education for the head of household (OR=0.54: 95% CI=0.48–0.62) and the spouse (OR=0.44: 95% CI=0.36–0.54) was associated with lower child mortality in analyses adjusted for age, sex and state of residence. Further adjustments for caste and urbanization attenuated these associations slightly and substantially when adjustments were made for household wealth. Nevertheless, in fully adjusted models, nine or more years of education for the head of household (OR=0.81: 95% CI=0.70–0.93) and the spouse (OR=0.75: 95% CI=0.60–0.94) remained associated with child mortality. There was no effect modification by caste, household wealth and urbanization of the association between adult education and child mortality. Conclusion Our results suggest that adult education has a protective association with child mortality in India. Caste, household wealth and urbanization do not modify or completely attenuate this association. PMID:18300716
Wagner, Betty; Steele, Connie
Information is provided on the following aspects of the Child and Parent Services (CAPS) program for the training of infant caregivers: the modules of study in the caregiver kit, the research basis of the kit, and the use of the kit in teaching field experience courses at the university level. The program was designed for (1) child care aides in…
Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…
Marusak, Hilary A; Carré, Justin M; Thomason, Moriah E
Effective navigation of the social world relies on the correct interpretation of facial emotions. This may be particularly important in formative years. Critically, literature examining the emergence of face processing in youth (children and adolescents) has focused on the neural and behavioral correlates of processing adult faces, which are relationally different from youth participants, and whose facial expressions may convey different meaning than faces of their peers. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, we compared concurrent neural and behavioral responses as youth (N=25) viewed validated, emotionally varied (i.e., anger, fear, happy, and neutral) adult and child face stimuli. We observed that participants made fewer errors when matching adult, compared to child, face stimuli, and that while similar brain regions were involved in processing both adult and child faces, activation in the face processing neural network was greater for adult than child faces. This was true across emotions, and also when comparing neutral adult versus neutral child faces. Additionally, a valence by stimuli-type effect was observed within the amygdala. That is, within adult face stimuli, negative and neutral face stimuli elicited the largest effects, whereas within child face stimuli, happy face stimuli elicited the largest amygdala effects. Thus, heightened engagement of the amygdala was observed for happy child and angry adult faces, which may reflect age-specific salience of select emotions in early life. This study provides evidence that the relational age of the perceived face influences neural processing in youth.
Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.
This research examined children's questions and the reactions to the answers they receive in conversations with adults. If children actively seek explanatory knowledge, they should react differently depending on whether they receive a causal explanation. Study 1 examined conversations following 6 preschoolers' (ages 2-4 years) causal questions in…
Nanda, Alice O; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin
This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills and subskills, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test child-based theoretical measurement models of reading: an achievement model of reading skills, a core deficit model of reading subskills, and an integrated model containing achievement and deficit variables. Although the findings present the best measurement models, the contribution of this article is the description of the difficulties encountered when applying child-based assumptions to developing measurement models for struggling adult readers.
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.
A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043
Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.
A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H.
Caregiving is requisite to wholesome child development from the beginning of life. A cross-sectional microgenetic analysis of six caregiving practices across the child's 1st year (0-12 months) in 42,539 families from nationally representative samples in 38 low- and middle-income countries is reported. Rates of caregiving varied tremendously within…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.
In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…
Fairman, Andrea D.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Datt, Nicole; Garver, Amanda; Parmanto, Bambang; McCue, Michael
The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding the receptivity of clinicians, caregivers and family members, and adults with spina bifida (SB) to the use of a mHealth application, iMobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere) system. Surveys were administered to end user groups in conjunction with a conference presentation at the Spina Bifida Association’s 38th Annual Conference. The survey results were obtained from a total of 107 respondents. Likert scale and qualitative results are provided in consideration of future application of the iMHere system in clinical practice. The results of this survey indicate respondents were receptive and supportive with regard to adopting such a system for personal and professional use. Challenges likely to be encountered in the introduction of the iMHere system are also revealed and discussed. PMID:25945209
Briere, John; Runtz, Marsha; Eadie, Erin; Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha
Based on attachment theory, we hypothesized that self-reported childhood experiences of disengaged parenting (DP) would predict adults' psychological symptoms even more than, on average, childhood sexual, physical, or psychological abuse. In a large (N=640) university sample, bootstrapped multiple regression analyses indicated that although various forms of child maltreatment were correlated with symptomatology at the univariate level, DP was the primary multivariate predictor. Structural equation modeling indicated significant direct paths from (a) DP to both nonsexual child maltreatment and sexual abuse, (b) DP and nonsexual child maltreatment to insecure attachment, and (c) sexual abuse and insecure attachment to symptomatology. There were significant indirect effects of DP on psychological symptoms through sexual and nonsexual abuse, as well as through attachment. These results suggest that although child abuse has direct and indirect impacts on psychological symptoms, exposure to DP may be especially detrimental, both by increasing the risk of child abuse and by virtue of its impacts on attachment insecurity. They also support the potential use of attachment-oriented intervention in the treatment of adults maltreated as children.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic condition with childhood onset that can continue into adulthood. Medication is a fundamental element in the management of this disorder. Atomoxetine is the newest nonstimulant medication approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD. It is the only nonstimulant medication approved by the FDA for treatment of adult ADHD. Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that selectively inhibits the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter. A growing body of literature supports the use of atomoxetine both in children and adults with ADHD. This paper summarizes information from the literature about atomoxetine, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical trials, dosing, and side-effects. PMID:19412494
Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.
The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun–verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the
Catani, Claudia; Sossalla, Iris M
Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic or negative events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in intellectually disabled individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of ID who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression model revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in intellectually disabled individuals. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs
Catani, Claudia; Sossalla, Iris M.
Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic or negative events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in intellectually disabled individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of ID who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression model revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in intellectually disabled individuals. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs
Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P
Hurricane Katrina severely disrupted the lives of many children and families in the central Gulf Coast of the United States. Face-to-face interviews with child-caregiver dyads were conducted at approximately 1 year posthurricane (T1) and 6-10 months later (T2). The contribution of several factors-caregiver's self-reported symptomatology and coping advice and child perceptions of caregiver distress, unavailability, warmth, and caregiver-child conflict-to child-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms was examined. Findings provide partial support for the importance of the caregiving context to children's adjustment. Specifically, higher levels of caregiver-child conflict at T1 were associated with more PTSS at T2, controlling for baseline symptoms. In contrast, higher levels of caregiver education were negatively related to child PTSS at T2. After adjusting for objective hurricane exposure and symptoms at T1, none of the caregiving variables was related to child-reported depressive symptoms at T2. The implications of these findings for efforts to promote children's adjustment after disaster are discussed.
McCartney, Kathleen; Dearing, Eric; Taylor, Beck A.; Bub, Kristen L.
Existing studies of child care have not been able to determine whether higher quality child care protects children from the effects of poverty, whether poverty and lower quality child care operate as dual risk factors, or whether both are true. The objective of the current study was to test two pathways through which child care may serve as a…
Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody
In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region.
Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody
ABSTRACT In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009
Schwarz, Kathleen B.; Garrett, Beth; Hampsey, Jenifer; Thompson, Douglas
Context In the past, nutritional deficiencies were common among homeless families. Because obesity is currently a major public health issue in the United States, it is possible that obesity has supplanted nutritional deficiencies as the “new malnutrition” of the homeless. Objective To perform a pilot study to determine the nutritional status of homeless caregivers and their children in the Baltimore City, Maryland. Design Determination of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) (weight in kg/height in m2) of all subjects and correlation with demographic variables. Setting Six homeless shelters and transitional houses in Baltimore City. Patients Thirty-one caregivers and 60 children. Main Outcome Measures Relationship between caregiver BMI and child BMI and comparison of our data to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) norms. Results Forty-two percent of the children (25 of 60) had a BMI-for-age classifying them as at risk for overweight (18%) or overweight (23%). None were underweight. One hundred percent of girls and 88% of boys under age 7 years were in the normal range for BMI. There were no caregivers in the underweight range for BMI. Seventy-seven percent were either overweight (26%) or obese (51%). When the weight categories of the largely African-American homeless Baltimore caregivers and their children were compared with national data from NHANES 1999–2002 for both African-American poor and nonpoor adult females and children, the Baltimore subjects had the lowest proportion in the healthy range and the highest proportion in the obese (adults) and overweight (children) categories. Caregiver BMI correlated with child BMI: r = 0.43, P = .0002. Conclusion Our data suggest that overweight and obesity are the major forms of malnutrition in homeless families. PMID:17435649
Fitneva, Stanka A.; Pile Ho, Elizabeth; Hatayama, Misako
Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult. In addition, parental and child beliefs were related in Japan but not in Canada. These findings indicate that children growing up in different cultures may take different paths in developing beliefs about age-related knowledge. Implications for theories of socio-cognitive development and learning are discussed. PMID:27632387
Hamann, Cara J; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Among roadway users, bicyclists are considered vulnerable due to their high risk for injury when involved in a crash. Little is known about the circumstances leading to near crashes, crashes, and related injuries or how these vary by age and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates and characteristics of safety-relevant events (crashes, near crashes, errors, and traffic violations) among adult and child bicyclists. Bicyclist trips were captured using Pedal Portal, a data acquisition and coding system which includes a GPS-enabled video camera and graphical user interface. A total of 179 safety-relevant events were manually coded from trip videos. Overall, child errors and traffic violations occurred at a rate of 1.9 per 100min of riding, compared to 6.3 for adults. However, children rode on the sidewalk 56.4% of the time, compared with 12.7% for adults. For both adults and children, the highest safety-relevant event rates occurred on paved roadways with no bicycle facilities present (Adults=8.6 and Children=7.2, per 100min of riding). Our study, the first naturalistic study to compare safety-relevant events among adults and children, indicates large variation in riding behavior and exposure between child and adult bicyclists. The majority of identified events were traffic violations and we were not able to code all risk-relevant data (e.g., subtle avoidance behaviors, failure to check for traffic, probability of collision). Future naturalistic cycling studies would benefit from enhanced instrumentation (e.g., additional camera views) and coding protocols able to fill these gaps.
Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Objective To examine: (a) child maltreatment’s association with young adult daily cigarette smoking, (b) variations in this association by gender, and (c) mediators of this association. Methods For all study participants (N = 1,125, 94% African American), data from multiple sources (e.g., child welfare records) were collected prospectively at child, adolescent, and young adult time points. Authors enlisted multivariate probit regression for objectives a and b versus exploratory and confirmatory mediation strategies for objective c. Results Maltreatment was significantly associated with daily cigarette smoking. Although not moderated by gender, this relation was fully mediated by adolescent indicators of family support/stability, social adjustment, and cognitive/school performance along with young adult indicators of educational attainment, life satisfaction, substance abuse, and criminality. Conclusions Maltreatment places low-income, minority children at risk for daily cigarette smoking and other deleterious young adult health outcomes. Recommended treatment targets include family support/stability, emotion regulation, social skills, and cognitive/academic functioning. PMID:19995869
Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…
Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew
The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P < 0.001). Additional caregiver behaviors included providing their child with a bottle containing cariogenic liquids in a crib (P < 0.001). As a result of this research, it is pertinent that culturally sensitive oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.
Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina
The role of caregiver gender in the likelihood of institutionalization of Taiwanese older adults was explored in this study. A sample of 78 male and 69 female primary caregivers of elderly patients who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior to the study were interviewed. Logistic regression analyses were applied to examine direct and interaction effects of the elderly adult's functioning the caregiver's available resources, the degree of caregiver burden, perceived public opinion toward institutionalization, and precipitating events on the likelihood of institutionalization among Taiwanese male and female caregivers. Women were more likely to institutionalize the older adult for whom they cared. The proposed model correctly predicted the likelihood of institutionalization of an elderly adult based on male versus female caregivers at the 92% level. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization was the most significant predictor of institutionalization for both genders. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization has a strong influence on whether or not caregivers institutionalize an elderly relative. This is consistent with Chinese culture in which public opinion has a much stronger effect on individual behavior than in the United States. American concepts of "minding one's own business" do not exist in Taiwan. It is logical that the older adults' level of functioning would predict the likelihood of institutionalization regardless of caregiver gender. In terms of caregiver characteristics, working hours in male caregivers is more predictive, and the quality of the relationship with the older adult was more predictive of institutionalization for female caregivers.
Moss, Ellen; Smolla, Nicole; Cyr, Chantal; Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Mazzarello, Tania; Berthiaume, Claude
The predictive relation between attachment and mother, teacher, and self-reported psychopathology was examined for a diverse socioeconomic status French Canadian sample of 96 children. Attachment classifications were assigned on the basis of reunion behavior with mother when the children were approximately 6 years old, and child problem behavior was assessed 2 years later using the Child Behavior Checklist (mother report), the Social Behavior Questionaire (teacher report), and the Dominic Questionnaire (child self-report). Results indicated that both insecure/ambivalent and insecure/controlling children children were rated higher than secure children on a composite measure of externalizing problems. Concerning internalizing problems, only the controlling group was significantly higher on both a composite adult (teacher and mother) and self-report measure of internalizing problems. Analyses of clinical cutoff scores showed that only the controlling group had a significantly greater likelihood of overall problem behavior than other children.
The development of human injury tolerance is difficult because of the physical differences between humans and animals, the available dummies, and tissue of the cadaver. Furthermore, human volunteer testing can clearly only be done at subinjurious levels. While considerable biomechanical injury evidence exists for the adult human based on cadaveric studies, little information is available for the pediatric population. However, some material is available from skull bone modulus studies and from the fetal tendon strength and early pediatric studies of the newborn. A review of living human, animal, and human cadaveric studies, which forms the basis for head-neck injury criterion are given. Examples of the use of the Hybrid III dummy for injury prediction such as in the Malibu rollover tests and air bag mechanisms show neck injury levels are considerably above the proposed Malibu 2000 N level.
Reid, Joan A; Sullivan, Christopher J
Extending previous research, this study utilized structural equation modeling to examine the effects of poor mother/child attachment, child neglect, juvenile sexual victimization (JSV), and Finkelhor and Browne's (1985) proposed construct of traumatic sexualization on vulnerability to adult sexual victimization. The proposed model was assessed using data drawn from a sample of African American females involved in a prospective study of child sexual abuse survivors. This group was matched to similar others without such history. Findings suggest that child neglect worsens with poor mother/child attachment, resulting in a greater likelihood of JSV. Both neglect and JSV impact shaming sexual beliefs and behaviors, contributing to the risk for adult sexual victimization. This set of variables accounted for 27% of variance in adult sexual victimization.
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L.; Klika, J. Bart
Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called “a delayed-onset pathway” for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes. PMID:26271556
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Skinner, Martie L; Klika, J Bart
Research provides increasing evidence of the association of child abuse with adult antisocial behavior. However, less is known about the developmental pathways that underlie this association. Building on the life course model of antisocial behavior, the present study examined possible developmental pathways linking various forms of child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual) to adult antisocial behavior. These pathways include child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adulthood measures of partner risk taking, warmth, and antisocial peer influences. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study examining long-term developmental outcomes subsequent to child maltreatment. Participant families in the Lehigh Longitudinal Study were followed from preschool age into adulthood. Analyses of gender differences addressed the consistency of path coefficients across genders. Results for 297 adult participants followed from early childhood showed that, for both genders, physical and emotional child abuse predicted adult crime indirectly through child and adolescent antisocial behavior, as well as adult partner and antisocial peer influences. However, for females, having an antisocial partner predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, and that in turn predicted adult crime. For males, having an antisocial partner was associated with less partner warmth, which in turn predicted an affiliation with antisocial peers, itself a proximal predictor of adult crime. Sexual abuse also predicted adolescent antisocial behavior, but only for males, supporting what some have called "a delayed-onset pathway" for females, whereby the exposure to early risks produce much later developmental outcomes.
The need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a continuum was discussed based on forensic issues in criminal cases involving developmental disorder. Recently, a number of offenders (both juvenile and adult) are being diagnosed with developmental disorder every year, when the system of sending severe juvenile cases from juvenile court to the prosecution as well as the new juror system makes the role of psychiatric examination more important than ever. Because of the unique symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conventional forensic psychiatry does not seem applicable to cases of ASD when making a fair judgement on criminal liability. This indicates that there is a need for not only basic knowledge on child psychiatry for all psychiatrists, but also knowledge on the developmental link between child and adult psychiatry. Therefore, there is a need to merge child and adult psychiatry into a comprehensive field of developmental psychiatry.
Al-Fouzan, Afnan F.; Al-Shinaiber, Rafif M.; Al-Baijan, Refal S.; Al-Balawi, Mohammed M.
Objectives: To evaluate dentists’ knowledge regarding the prevention of infective endocarditis in Saudi Arabia and their implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in March 2014, 801 dentists who practice in different regions of Saudi Arabia completed a questionnaire regarding the need for antibiotic prophylaxis for specific cardiac conditions and specific dental procedures, prophylaxis regimens in adults and children, and recommendations for patients on chronic antibiotics, and in dental emergencies. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests, and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total knowledge level regarding antibiotic prophylaxis among all participants was 52.2%, with a significant difference between dentists who graduated before and after 2007. Comparing the level of knowledge among different dental specialists, surgeons and periodontists had the highest level of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the drug of choice by 63.9% of the participants. Conclusion: This study emphasized the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the guidelines in the students’ curriculum, as well as for strategic placement of the guidelines in locations throughout dental clinics. PMID:25935175
Román-Oyola, Rosa; Reynolds, Stacey; Soto-Feliciano, Ivonnellys; Cabrera-Mercader, Laura; Vega-Santana, Jessica
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have difficulty engaging their children through play, thus affecting the parent-child relationship and parental self-efficacy. This study intended to examine children's sensory profile and adults' playfulness as predictors of parental self-efficacy. A total of 136 parents of children ages 3-7 yr completed the Short Sensory Profile, the Playfulness Scale for Adults, and the Tool to Measure Parenting Self-Efficacy. For the parental couples of children with ASD, the most relevant predictor of general parental self-efficacy was the child's sensory profile. However, adult playfulness resulted in the most relevant predictor of emotional parental self-efficacy. Findings suggest the importance of considering play as a relevant co-occupation that must be acknowledged when intervening with families of children with ASD and considering the child's sensory modulation abilities, as well as parents' playfulness and sense of self-efficacy, as potential outcomes when designing and evaluating treatment programs.
Meindertsma, Heidi B.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.
In educational settings, continuous assessment of the child's level of understanding is necessary to effectively utilize the principles of scaffolding and to create contexts that can advance the scientific reasoning of the child. In this article, we argue that a child's performance is a dynamic notion that is created by all elements in an interaction, including the task. Therefore, we studied preschoolers' levels of scientific reasoning varying different properties of the assessment context. Young children were interviewed about four scientific tasks using one out of four different protocols (varying in the degree of flexibility and adaptiveness) by an adult. In the first study, different task contents resulted in different performance levels. The second study indicated that the most structured protocol elicited the highest maximum level of reasoning in children and the highest percentage of correct predictions. The third study showed differences between the protocols in the adult's verbal behavior. Adaptation in verbal behavior to different children by the adult did not result in higher scientific understanding by the children, whereas a higher degree of task structure did. Combined, the studies emphasize the importance of context, which has implications for assessment and teaching situations.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…
Plunkett, Diane M.
The purpose of this study was to gain greater understanding of the potential benefits of assistive technology (AT) devices on young children's social development. Specifically, changes to the quality of the adult/young child social interactions as a function of the child's access to and use of his/her personal AT device was examined. Using a…
Few Americans meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) yet, a large percentage are overweight. The goal of this research was to examine the association between barriers and facilitators to meeting the DGA and weight in a multi-site study. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 836 caregiver-c...
... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Selecting A Caregiver Who Supports Breastfeeding ...
VanderVen, Karen D.
Patterns of career development in the field of child and youth care are reexamined in relation to roles that involve working directly with children in specific settings as well as in relation to roles that involve working indirectly in support of children through working with other adults, be these parents, other caregivers or professionals. Other…
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Skinner, Martie L.
Gender differences in externalizing and internalizing pathways from child abuse to adult crime were examined across four waves of an extended longitudinal study (N = 186 males and 170 females) using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Results show that child abuse was associated with both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in the elementary school years for both males and females. However, gender differences were found such that internalizing behaviors increased the risk of adult crime for females only, and externalizing behaviors increased the risk of adult crime for males only. Internalizing behaviors among males actually lessened the risk of adult crime, and externalizing behaviors were unrelated to adult crime among females. Findings confirm distinct pathways leading from child abuse to later crime for males and females, which is important for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:26264725
Benefield, Lazelle E; Beck, Cornelia
Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1) the elder and the family caregiver(s) may reside in the same household; or 2) the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation. PMID:18044143
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Bebes y "Toddlers": Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Infant/Toddler Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for caregivers working in center-based infant and toddler day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system. Part 2 explains…
Para Candidatos en Programas de Centros de Cuidado y Educacion Infantil con Ninos de Edad Pre-escolar: Asociado en Desarrollo Infantil Sistema de Evaluacion y Normas de Competencia CDA (Preschool Caregivers in Center-Based Programs: The Child Development Associate Assessment System and Competency Standards).
Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, Washington, DC.
This Spanish-language booklet outlines the requirements of the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential for preschool teachers or caregivers who work in center-based preschool day care programs. Part 1 provides an overview of the CDA credentialing system and the various options, settings, standards, and stages of the CDA assessment system.…
Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M
Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.
Peterson, Shelley W; Knox, Natalie C; Golding, George R; Tyler, Shaun D; Tyler, Andrea D; Mabon, Philip; Embree, Joanne E; Fleming, Fiona; Fanella, Sergio; Van Domselaar, Gary; Mulvey, Michael R; Graham, Morag R
Whereas the infant gut microbiome is the subject of intense study, relatively little is known regarding the nares microbiome in newborns and during early life. This study aimed to survey the typical composition and diversity of human anterior nare microflora for developing infants over time, and to explore how these correlate to their primary caregivers. Single nare swabs were collected at five time points over a one-year period for each subject from infant-caregiver pairs. Our study comprised of 50 infants (recruited at 2 weeks, post delivery) and their 50 primary caregivers. Applying the chaperonin-60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) amplicon as our molecular barcoding marker to census survey the microbial communities, we longitudinally surveyed infant nares microbiota at 5 time points over the course of the first year of life. The inter- and intra-subject diversity was catalogued and compared, both longitudinally and relative to their adult primary caregivers. Although within-subject variability over time and inter-subject variability were both observed, the assessment detected only one or two predominant genera for individual infant samples, belonging mainly to phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Consistent with previously observed microbial population dynamics in other body sites, the diversity of nares microflora increased over the first year of life and infants showed differential operational taxonomic units (OTUs) relative to their matched primary caregiver. The collected evidence also support that both temporal and seasonal changes occur with respect to carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPBs), which may influence host predisposition to infection. This pilot study surveying paired infant/caregiver nare microbiomes provides novel longitudinal diversity information that is pertinent to better understanding nare microbiome development in infants.
“Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship
“Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page
Haijun, Deng; Yong, Huang; Ailong, Huang; Quanxin, Long
There are significant differences in clinical characteristics between chronic hepatitis B virus infected (CHB) child and adult patients. Viral quasispecies characteristics are associated with its pathogenic properties. For hepatitis B virus (HBV), its core region is the main immune recognition region for its enriched epitopes. In our study, we discuss the quasispecies characteristics and positive selection within core gene within chronic HBV infected child and adult patients. By analyzing 170 core gene sequences from child CHB patients and 121 core genes sequences from adult CHB patients, quasispecies characteristics were described by sequence complexity, diversity, non-synonymous substitution ratio (dN) and synonymous substitution ratios (dS). In addition, positive selection sites were also determined by bioinformatics tools. Then, all these parameters were compared between child and adult CHB patient groups. Compared with child patients, adult patients with CHB showed distinct quasispecies characteristics within the core region, had a higher sequence complexity and diversity and more positive selection sites, suggesting that the adult CHB patients had a higher immune selection pressure on the HBV core gene. Reduced selection pressure on the HBV core gene in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients than HBeAg negative CHB patients were observed in both adult and child patient groups. The majority of the screened positive selection sites lay within human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-restricted epitopes. In conclusion, this study analyzed the quasispecies characteristics discrepancy between child and adult patients with CHB, and revealed the possible reason for the distinct clinical characteristics in the perspective of population genetics.
Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A 9-Month Follow-Up from the Perspectives of Both Child and Caregiver
Lin, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, I-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Lin
Objective To assess the effectiveness of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) with functional occupational therapy (OT) at 9-month follow-up in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with bilateral upper limb impairments from the perspectives of both child and caregiver. Methods Twelve children with CP and their caregivers were assessed across 5 time points over 9 months based on the ICF after BoNT-A injection and functional OT in this open-label study. Results Significant differences were found across the 5 time points (p < .05) for both grasp and visual-motor integration with small effects (effect sizes = 0.12–0.24) and the self-care capability and performance of social function (p < .05). However, based on the effect sizes (0.02–0.14), no significant effects were found at the 4 post-test time points. Small effects were found on the psychological domain (effect sizes = 0.25–0.37) and environmental domains (effect size = 0.27) at follow-ups. Conclusion Combining a BoNT-A injection with OT not only reduced the muscle tone and increased ROM but also improved the upper limb function and self-care capability in children with CP. More importantly, these effects persisted for up to 9 months. Functional OT extends the effectiveness of a BoNT-A injection. PMID:26599003
Craig, Benjamin M.; Brown, Derek S.; Reeve, Bryce B.
OBJECTIVE To assess preferences between child behavioral problems and estimate their value on a quality-adjusted life year (QALYs) scale. METHODS Respondents, age 18 or older, drawn from a nationally representative panel between August 2012 and February 2013 completed a series of paired comparisons, each involving a choice between 2 different behavioral problems described using the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI), a 28-item instrument with 6 domains (Anxious/Depressed, Headstrong, Hyperactive, Immature Dependency, Anti-social, and Peer Conflict/Social Withdrawal). Each behavioral problem lasted 1 or 2 years for an unnamed child, age 7 or 10 years, with no suggested relationship to the respondent. Generalized linear model analyses estimated the value of each problem on a QALY scale, considering its duration and child’s age. RESULTS Among 5207 eligible respondents, 4155 (80%) completed all questions. Across the 6 domains, problems relating to antisocial behavior were the least preferred, particularly the items related to cheating, lying, bullying, and cruelty to others. CONCLUSIONS The findings are the first to produce a preference-based summary measure of child behavioral problems on a QALY scale. The results may inform both clinical practice and resource allocation decisions by enhancing our understanding of difficult tradeoffs in how adults view child behavioral problems. Understanding US values also promotes national health surveillance by complementing conventional measures of surveillance, survival, and diagnoses. PMID:26209476
Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower
... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...
... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...
... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...
Shen, April Chiung-Tao
This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…
Milan, Stephanie; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Patrikios, Mary; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Prenatal depressive symptoms have been linked to negative outcomes for mothers and children. Using attachment theory as a framework, this study examined developmental differences in the interpersonal context of prenatal depressive symptoms among adolescents (age 14 to 19 years; n= 352) and young adults (age 20 to 24 years; n= 348). Participants…
Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A
Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national study has compared nutrition-related outcomes of children in CACFP-participating centers to those of similar children in non-participating centers. We use a sample of four-year old children drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort to obtain estimates of associations between CACFP program participation and consumption of milk, fruits, vegetables, fast food, and sweets, and indicators of overweight, underweight status and food insecurity. We find that, among low-income children, CACFP participation moderately increases consumption of milk and vegetables, and may also reduce the prevalence of overweight and underweight. Effects on other outcomes are generally small and not statistically significant.
BECK, AUDREy; CORAK, MILES; TIENDA, MARTA
Immigrants’ age at arrival matters for schooling outcomes in a way that is predicted by child development theory: the chances of being a high school dropout increase significantly each year for children who arrive in a host country after the age of eight. The authors document this process for immigrants in the United States from a number of regions relative to appropriate comparison regions. Using instrumental variables, the authors find that the variation in education outcomes associated with variation in age at arrival influences adult outcomes that are important in the American mainstream, notably English-language proficiency and intermarriage. The authors conclude that children experience migration differently from adults depending on the timing of migration and show that migration during the early years of child development influences educational outcomes. The authors also find that variation in education outcomes induced by the interaction of migration and age at arrival changes the capacity of children to become fully integrated into the American mainstream as adults. PMID:23105147
Beck, Audrey; Corak, Miles; Tienda, Marta
Immigrants' age at arrival matters for schooling outcomes in a way that is predicted by child development theory: the chances of being a high school dropout increase significantly each year for children who arrive in a host country after the age of eight. The authors document this process for immigrants in the United States from a number of regions relative to appropriate comparison regions. Using instrumental variables, the authors find that the variation in education outcomes associated with variation in age at arrival influences adult outcomes that are important in the American mainstream, notably English-language proficiency and intermarriage. The authors conclude that children experience migration differently from adults depending on the timing of migration and show that migration during the early years of child development influences educational outcomes. The authors also find that variation in education outcomes induced by the interaction of migration and age at arrival changes the capacity of children to become fully integrated into the American mainstream as adults.
Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003-2004 (N 1/4 807). Results indicate that adults with documented histories of childhood abuse and/or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings, and fewer assets as adults, compared to matched control children. There is a 14% gap between individuals with histories of abuse/neglect and controls in the probability of employment in middle age, controlling for background characteristics. Maltreatment appears to affect men and women differently, with larger effects for women than men. These new findings demonstrate that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences.
Nyirenda, M; Evandrou, M; Mutevedzi, P; Hosegood, V; Falkingham, J; Newell, M-L
This paper examines how care-giving to adults and/or children and care-receiving is associated with the health and wellbeing of older people aged 50+ in rural South Africa. Data used are from a cross-sectional survey adapted from World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in 2009/10 in rural South Africa. Bivariate statistics and multivariate logistical regression were used to assess the relationship between care-giving and/or care-receiving with functional disability, quality of life or emotional wellbeing, and self-rated health status, adjusted for socio-demographic factors. Sixty-three per cent of 422 older people were care-givers to at least one young adult or child; 27 per cent of older people were care-givers due to HIV-related reasons in young adults; 84 per cent of participants were care-recipients mainly from adult children, grandchildren and spouse. In logistic regressions adjusting for sex, age, marital status, education, receipt of grants, household headship, household wealth and HIV status, care-giving was statistically significantly associated with good functional ability as measured by ability to perform activities of daily living. This relationship was stronger for older people providing care-giving to adults than to children. In contrast, care-givers were less likely to report good emotional wellbeing; again the relationship was stronger for care-givers to adults than children. Simultaneous care-giving and -receiving was likewise associated with good functional ability, but about a 47 per cent lower chance of good emotional wellbeing. Participants who were HIV-infected were more likely to be in better health but less likely to be receiving care than those who were HIV-affected. Our findings suggest a strong relationship between care-giving and poor emotional wellbeing via an economic or psychological stressor pathway. Interventions that improve older people's socio-economic circumstances and reduce
Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
This study was conducted to describe the functioning of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and to examine socio-economic effects on ADL functioning among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) aged 45 years and older (N=480) in Taiwan. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to determine a baseline level of ADL functioning in the study participants. There are five categories of functional impairment using the following cut-off values in Taiwan: total dependence (BI score 0-20), severe (BI score 21-60), moderate (BI score 61-90), mild (BI score 91-99), and total independence (BI score 100) (Taiwan Department of Health, 2012). The results revealed that 2.3% of adults with ID were in total dependence, 11.9% were in severe dependence, 27.9% were in moderate dependence, 8.1% had a mild dependence, and 49.8% were totally independent. In the multiple linear regression model of the ADL score, we determined that educational level, comorbid Down's syndrome, and disability level are the variables able to significantly predict ADL score (R(2)=0.190) after controlling for the factors of age, marital status, and other comorbidity conditions. Those ID adults with a lower education level (primary vs. literate, β=4.780, p=0.031; intermediate vs. literate, β=6.642, p=0.030), with comorbid Down's syndrome (β=-7.135, p=0.063), and with a more severe disability condition (severe vs. mild, β=-7.650, p=0.007; profound vs. mild, β=-19.169, p<0.001) had significantly lower ADL scores. The present study highlights the need to support mobility in older adults with ID as much as possible to optimize independence in this group.
McCartney, Kathleen; Dearing, Eric; Taylor, Beck A.; Bub, Kristen L.
Existing studies of child care have not been able to determine whether higher quality child care protects children from the effects of poverty, whether poverty and lower quality child care operate as dual risk factors, or whether both are true. The objective of the current study was to test two pathways through which child care may serve as a naturally occurring intervention for low-income children: a direct pathway through child care quality to child outcomes, and an indirect pathway through improvements in the home environment. Children were observed in their homes and child care settings at 6, 15, 24, and 36 months. An interaction between family income-to-needs ratio and child care quality predicted School Readiness, Receptive Language, and Expressive Language, as well as improvements in the home environment. Children from low-income families profited from observed learning supports in the form of sensitive care and stimulation of cognitive development, and their parents profited from unobserved informal and formal parent supports. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578561
Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Jin-Ding
Few studies have investigated in detail which factors influence activities of daily living (ADL) in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) comorbid with/without dementia conditions. The objective of the present study was to describe the relation between early onset dementia conditions and progressive loss of ADL capabilities and to examine the influence of dementia conditions and other possible factors toward ADL scores in adults with ID. This study was part of the "Healthy Aging Initiatives for Persons with an Intellectual Disability in Taiwan: A Social Ecological Approach" project. We analyzed data from 459 adults aged 45 years or older with an ID regarding their early onset symptoms of dementia and their ADL profile based on the perspective of the primary caregivers. Results show that a significant negative correlation was found between dementia score and ADL score in a Pearson's correlation test (r=-0.28, p<0.001). The multiple linear regression model reported that factors of male gender (β=4.187, p<0.05), marital status (β=4.79, p<0.05), education level (primary: β=5.544, p<0.05; junior high or more: β=8.147, p<0.01), Down's syndrome (β=-9.290, p<0.05), severe or profound disability level (β=-6.725, p<0.05; β=-15.773, p<0.001), comorbid condition (β=-4.853, p<0.05) and dementia conditions (β=-9.245, p<0.001) were variables that were able to significantly predict the ADL score (R(2)=0.241) after controlling for age. Disability level and comorbidity can explain 10% of the ADL score variation, whereas dementia conditions can only explain 3% of the ADL score variation in the study. The present study highlights that future studies should scrutinize in detail the reasons for the low explanatory power of dementia for ADL, particularly in examining the appropriateness of the measurement scales for dementia and ADL in aging adults with ID.
Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.
Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date has evaluated abuse and methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). However, studies support a role for OXTR in the link between abuse and adverse adult outcomes, showing that abuse can confer greater risk for psychiatric symptoms in those with specific OXTR genotypes. Our study therefore sought to (1) assess the role of epigenetics in the link between abuse and psychopathology and (2) to begin to integrate the genetic and epigenetic literature by exploring associations between OXTR genotypes and DNA CpG methylation. Data on 18 OXTR CpG sites, 44 SNPs, childhood abuse, and adult depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed in 393 African American adults (age = 41±12.8). Overall, 68% of genotypes associated with methylation of nearby CpG sites, with a subset surviving multiple test correction. Child abuse associated with higher methylation of two CpG sites yet did not survive correction or serve as a mediator of psychopathology. However, abuse interacted with CpG methylation to predict psychopathology. These findings suggest a role for OXTR in understanding the influence of early environments on adult psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26822448
MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.
Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…
Kimmel, Jean; Connelly, Rachel
Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Survey, we study the role that socioeconomic factors play in mothers' time choices. We estimate a four-equation system in which the dependent variables are the minutes used in home production, active leisure, market work, and child caregiving. Our results show that mothers' caregiving time…
Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut
Objective To examine whether intra- and intergenerational caregiving affect subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers longitudinally. Methods Data were drawn from the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), which is a population-based longitudinal study of individuals living in Germany aged 40 and over. The waves in 2002, 2008 and 2011 were used (with 10,434 observations). SWB was examined in a broad sense, covering affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB), positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as functional and mental health. While intragenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for spouse/partner, intergenerational caregiving was defined as providing care for mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, partner’s mother or partner’s father. Results Fixed effects regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors, social network, self-efficacy and morbidity showed that intergenerational informal care did not affect the various SWB outcome measures. Intragenerational caregiving affected CWB (women) and mental health (total sample and men), whereas it did not affect the other outcome variables. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of intragenerational caregiving for mental health (men) and cognitive well-being (women). Consequently, interventions to avoid mental illness due to intragenerational caregiving are urgently needed. PMID:26859511
Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.
A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression (“something really bad” or “something just a little bad”). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients. PMID:21077859
Lyon, Thomas D; Ahern, Elizabeth C; Malloy, Lindsay C; Quas, Jodi A
A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression ("something really bad" or "something just a little bad"). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients.
Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A
Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin
The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn.
This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult-child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed.
LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat
Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.
LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat
Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants. PMID:25610415
Urke, Helga B; Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B
This study explored opportunities and choices related to child feeding among women living in a remote and low-income district in the Andean highlands. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with mothers (N = 7) with reputations for providing good child care, and who participated in an NGO-run social and health programme. The aim of this study was to learn about women's positive experience with child feeding, in the context of living in low-income communities. Such knowledge could be of substantial practical value to health promotion practitioners, in illuminating existing local circumstances and practices that produce good child nutrition. The women who were most knowledgeable about child health and diet were better educated and had relatively higher social positions in the community. Regarding contextual factors related to child feeding, numerous references were made to the extensive use of own crops and food stuffs, seen to provide a better diet than that available in cities where people buy their food. In discussing food and meal preparation habits, there were clear references to child welfare and health as motivating factors in the choices that were made. The NGO programme was not mentioned by the interviewer, to avoid prompting, yet the respondents referred to it explicitly, and attributed improved health-related knowledge and skills to the NGO education interventions (e.g. education about nutritious meal preparation, child care skills, and sanitation practices). It is concluded that the women were concerned about providing a good diet to their children, they were aware of the impact of feeding practices on child health, and that education about health and diet helped them to improved feeding practices.
Willis, E. Anne
This paper reports on the development and use of several tools designed to sensitize caregivers to the fact that infants are very different from one another and that caregiving needs to be tailored to the styles and needs of each child. Four approaches were used: (1) having caregivers rate the infants regularly on a small number of rating scales…
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Arnold, Anna; Lewis, Jessica; Maximovich, Alexey; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace
This study describes the multigenerational caregiving structure of infants born to young women, the prenatal predictors of caregiving structure, and the effects of caregiving structure on the health of young mothers and their infants 6 months postpartum. The sample consisted of 784 young mothers involved in a longitudinal study in two U.S. cities. Women were classified into eight caregiving structure groups based on the mother's report of herself as a caregiver and her selection of the baby's father and/or grandparents as caregivers. ANCOVA analyses identified predictors and 6 month postpartum outcomes of caregiving structure. Planned comparisons explored the relationships among caregiving structure groups. A majority of women reported caregiving structures other than herself and the father as caregivers (87.1%). Grandparents were indicated as caregivers by most women (62.2%). Postpartum caregiving groups differed on prenatal social support, self-esteem, attachment avoidance and anxiety, relationship status, and living with the baby's father. While mother's self esteem significantly predicted father involvement, there were no differences on predictors between when the mother and father were caregivers, versus when the mother and grandparents were caregivers. Differences existed between groups on mother and child outcomes, including parenting stress, distress, and child dysfunction. Women reported significantly less parenting stress, child dysfunction, and negative child emotions when she and the father were caregivers, versus when she and grandparents were caregivers. The family system and the intergenerational dynamics within a multigenerational caregiving structure are critical to the health and well-being of both mothers and their children.
Lewis, Jessica; Maximovich, Alexey; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace
This study describes the multigenerational caregiving structure of infants born to young women, the prenatal predictors of caregiving structure, and the effects of caregiving structure on the health of young mothers and their infants 6 months postpartum. The sample consisted of 784 young mothers involved in a longitudinal study in two U.S. cities. Women were classified into eight caregiving structure groups based on the mother’s report of herself as a caregiver and her selection of the baby’s father and/or grandparents as caregivers. ANCOVA analyses identified predictors and 6 month postpartum outcomes of caregiving structure. Planned comparisons explored the relationships among caregiving structure groups. A majority of women reported caregiving structures other than herself and the father as caregivers (87.1%). Grandparents were indicated as caregivers by most women (62.2%). Postpartum caregiving groups differed on prenatal social support, self-esteem, attachment avoidance and anxiety, relationship status, and living with the baby’s father. While mother’s self esteem significantly predicted father involvement, there were no differences on predictors between when the mother and father were caregivers, versus when the mother and grandparents were caregivers. Differences existed between groups on mother and child outcomes, including parenting stress, distress, and child dysfunction. Women reported significantly less parenting stress, child dysfunction, and negative child emotions when she and the father were caregivers, versus when she and grandparents were caregivers. The family system and the intergenerational dynamics within a multigenerational caregiving structure are critical to the health and well-being of both mothers and their children. PMID:20680671
Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W
In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages.
Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W.
In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages. PMID:26598568
Bit-Babik, G; Guy, A W; Chou, C-K; Faraone, A; Kanda, M; Gessner, A; Wang, J; Fujiwara, O
The level and distribution of radiofrequency energy absorbed in a child's head during the use of a mobile phone compared to those in an adult head has been a controversial issue in recent years. It has been suggested that existing methods that are used to determine specific absorption rate (SAR) and assess compliance with exposure standards using an adult head model may not adequately account for potentially higher levels of exposure in children due to their smaller head size. The present study incorporates FDTD computations of locally averaged SAR in two different anatomically correct adult and child head models using the IEEE standard (Std. C95.3-2002) SAR averaging algorithm. The child head models were obtained by linear scaling of the adult head model to replicate the conditions of previous studies reported in the literature and also by transforming the different adult head models based on data on the external shapes of children's heads. The tissue properties of the adult and corresponding child head models were kept the same. In addition, modeling and experimental measurements were made using three spheres filled with a tissue-equivalent mixture to approximate heads of increasing size. Results show that the peak local average SAR over 1 g and 10 g of tissue and the electromagnetic energy penetration depths are about the same in all of the head models under the same exposure conditions. When making interlaboratory comparisons, the model and the SAR averaging algorithm used must be standardized to minimize controversy.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.
Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006
Sillah, A.; Togun, T.; Kandeh, S.; Cole, F.; Jallow, A.; Able-Thomas, A.; Hoelscher, M.; Heinrich, N.; Hill, P. C.; Kampmann, B.
Setting: Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. Objectives: To evaluate uptake, adherence and completion of treatment among tuberculosis (TB) exposed children in The Gambia when isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) is delivered at home Design: Child (age <5 years) contacts of adults with smear-positive TB were prospectively enrolled. Following symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing and clinical evaluation where indicated, those without disease were placed on daily isoniazid, provided monthly at home. Adherence was assessed by pill counts and IsoScreen™ urine test. Results: Of 404 contacts aged <5 years, 368 (91.1%) were offered IPT. Of the 328 (89.4%) for whom consent was received and who commenced IPT, 18 (5.5%) dropped out and 310 (94.5%) remained on IPT to the end of the 6-month regimen. Altogether, 255/328 children (77.7%, 95%CI 73.2–82.2) completed all 6 months, with good adherence. The IsoScreen test was positive in 85.3% (435/510) of all tests among those defined as having good adherence by pill count and in 16% (8/50) of those defined as having poor adherence (P < 0.001). A cascade of care analysis showed an overall completion rate with good adherence of 61% for all child contacts. Conclusion: Home-delivered IPT among child contacts of adults with smear-positive TB in The Gambia achieved verifiable high uptake and adherence rates. System rather than patient factors are likely to determine the success of IPT at national level. PMID:28123958
Egere, U; Sillah, A; Togun, T; Kandeh, S; Cole, F; Jallow, A; Able-Thomas, A; Hoelscher, M; Heinrich, N; Hill, P C; Kampmann, B
Setting: Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. Objectives: To evaluate uptake, adherence and completion of treatment among tuberculosis (TB) exposed children in The Gambia when isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) is delivered at home Design: Child (age <5 years) contacts of adults with smear-positive TB were prospectively enrolled. Following symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing and clinical evaluation where indicated, those without disease were placed on daily isoniazid, provided monthly at home. Adherence was assessed by pill counts and IsoScreen(™) urine test. Results: Of 404 contacts aged <5 years, 368 (91.1%) were offered IPT. Of the 328 (89.4%) for whom consent was received and who commenced IPT, 18 (5.5%) dropped out and 310 (94.5%) remained on IPT to the end of the 6-month regimen. Altogether, 255/328 children (77.7%, 95%CI 73.2-82.2) completed all 6 months, with good adherence. The IsoScreen test was positive in 85.3% (435/510) of all tests among those defined as having good adherence by pill count and in 16% (8/50) of those defined as having poor adherence (P < 0.001). A cascade of care analysis showed an overall completion rate with good adherence of 61% for all child contacts. Conclusion: Home-delivered IPT among child contacts of adults with smear-positive TB in The Gambia achieved verifiable high uptake and adherence rates. System rather than patient factors are likely to determine the success of IPT at national level.
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean; Dee, Tamara
The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified three decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r < .30) correlated with several psychological well-being indicators and predictive of adult anger, self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent.
Brannan, Ana María; Athay, Mary Michele; de Andrade, Ana Regina Vides
This study examined the measurement quality of an abbreviated version of the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. The CGSQ-Short Form 7 (CGSQ-SF7) is practical for routine assessment of objective and subjective internalized caregiver strain. The subjective externalized subscale is not included in the CGSQ-SF7. Findings indicate that the reliability and validity of the shortened objective and subjective internalized subscales are comparable to the original. Examination of construct validity suggested that caregiver, youth, and clinician ratings of child clinical severity were related to objective caregiver strain. However, youth and clinician ratings of child clinical severity were not related to subjective internalized caregiver strain.
Schmitt, Florence; Manninen, Hanna; Santalahti, Päivi; Savonlahti, Elina; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Romer, Georg; Piha, Jorma
This article describes the development of a collaborative relationship between a child psychiatry clinic and an adult oncology clinic within a university hospital. The interest of the child psychiatry clinic was to pay attention to children of parents with cancer, and to propose an intervention to support them. A child-centred family counselling model was designed for this purpose. The preparation, implementation, and results of this project are described. Positive results, as well as mistakes and failures are discussed, and recommendations are made regarding this kind of collaboration.
Ribeiro, Sânzia Bezerra; Cárdia, Maria Claudia Gatto; Almeida, Lais Cristina
The objective present study was to investigate the presence of low back pain in caregivers of a nursing home, related with the labored activities executed by these workers. 16 subjects were investigated, 15 female and one male, with 40,8 age average all being caregivers as their profession. It consisted of three phases, where the first concerns the analysis of the collective work, assessed in a perspective of caregivers, Second, a postural assessment to verify the retractions in such workers and the third stage was used Diagram of Corllet to identify the presence of signs and symptoms in caregivers. The study demonstrated that organizational and biomechanical factors are responsible for the high level of physical fatigue and presence of pain in 93,75% of the caregivers in some region of the body. 50% referred pain in the lumbar region. The results of the postural evaluation confirmed that the caregivers had alterations in the postural alignment, presenting retractions of the anterior and posterior chain. The suggestions are to minimize the risk factors of this productive process and the symptoms and signals presented from these workers by adoption ergonomic measures and the realization of a physical program with stretching and muscular strengthening of the muscles of the anterior and posterior body chain based on the method of Reorganization Postural Sensoperceptive.
Victora, Cesar G; Adair, Linda; Fall, Caroline; Hallal, Pedro C; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh
In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and--for women--lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain--especially after infancy--is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and
Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia; Spicer, Paul
We used data on a national sample of children involved with child welfare systems to compare American Indian caregivers with White, Black, and Hispanic caregivers in their need for, and receipt of, specialty alcohol, drug, and mental health treatment. American Indian caregivers were significantly less likely to receive services than were Hispanic caregivers (P<.05) but not significantly less likely than were White or Black caregivers. Child placement, child age, and caregiver psychiatric comorbidity were significantly associated with service receipt.
Piette, John D; Striplin, Dana; Marinec, Nicolle; Chen, Jenny; Gregory, Lynn A; Sumerlin, Denise L; DeSantis, Angela M; Gibson, Carolyn; Crause, Ingrid; Rouse, Marylena; Aikens, James E
Objective The goal of this trial is to evaluate a novel intervention designed to improve post-hospitalization support for older adults with chronic conditions via: (a) direct tailored communication to patients using regular automated calls post discharge, (b) support for informal caregivers outside of the patient’s household via structured automated feedback about the patient’s status plus advice about how caregivers can help, and (c) support for care management including a web-based disease management tool and alerts about potential problems. Methods 846 older adults with common chronic conditions are being identified upon hospital admission. Patients are asked to identify a “CarePartner” (CP) living outside their household, i.e., an adult child or other social network member willing to play an active role in their post-discharge transition support. Patient-CP pairs are randomized to the intervention or usual care. Intervention patients receive automated assessment and behavior change calls, and their CPs receives structured feedback and advice via email and automated calls following each assessment. Clinical teams have access to assessment results via the web and receive automated reports about urgent health problems. Patients complete surveys at baseline, 30 days, and 90 days post discharge; utilization data is obtained from hospital records. CPs, other caregivers, and clinicians are interviewed to evaluate intervention effects on processes of self-care support, caregiver stress and communication, and the intervention’s potential for broader implementation. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates; other outcomes measured at 30 days and 90 days include functional status, self-care behaviors, and mortality risk. Conclusion This trial uses accessible health technologies and coordinated communication among informal caregivers and clinicians to fill the growing gap between what discharged patients need and available resources. A unique feature of
Hu, Liangshuo; Liu, Xuemin; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Liang; Sha, Huanchen; Zhou, Ying; Tian, Min; Shi, Jianhua; Wang, Wanli; Liu, Chang; Guo, Kun; Lv, Yi; Wang, Bo
Development of organ transplantation is restricted by the discrepancy between the lack of donors and increasing number of patients. The outcome of pediatric donors transplanted into adult recipients especially with donation after circulatory death (DCD) pattern has not been well studied. The aim of this paper is to describe our experience of 3 successful DCD donor child-to-adult liver transplantations lately. Three DCD donors were separately 7, 5, and 8 years old. The ratio between donor graft weight and recipient body weight was 1.42%, 1.00%, and 1.33%, respectively. Ratio between the volume of donor liver and the expected liver volume was 0.65, 0.46, and 0.60. Splenectomy was undertaken for the second recipient according to the portal vein pressure (PVP) which was observed during the operation. Two out of 3 of the recipients suffered with acute kidney injury and got recovered after renal replacement therapy. The first recipient also went through early allograft dysfunction and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The hospital course of the third recipient was uneventful. After 1 year of follow-up visit, the first and second recipients maintain good quality of life and liver function. The third patient was followed up for 5 months until now and recovered well. DCD child-to-adult liver transplantation should only be used for comparatively matched donor and recipient. PVP should be monitored during the operation. The short-term efficacy is good, but long-term follow-up and clinical study with large sample evaluation are still needed.
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. This issue focuses on the goals, expectations, and conflict in the relationship between culture and child caregiving and other care…
Joshi, Gungeet; Gezan, Salvador; Delisle, Tony; Stopka, Christine; Pigg, Morgan; Tillman, Mark
As the older adult population increases, the healthcare system is experiencing a shortage of professional health care providers and caregivers. Consequently, the role of family to serve as caregivers will expand to care for older relatives at home. Thus, a larger proportion of adult children will become caregivers, including young adults enrolled…
Hesse, E; Main, M
This presentation focuses on the disorganized/disoriented (Group D) categories of infant, child, and adult attachment. The infant D category is assigned on the basis of interruptions and anomalies in organization and orientation observed during Ainsworth's strange situation procedure. In neurologically normal low-risk samples, D attachment is not substantially related to descriptions of infant temperament, and usually appears with respect to only one parent. At six, former D infants are often found to be role-inverting (D-Controlling) towards the parent, while drawings and separation-related narratives (D-Fearful) suggest continuing states of fear and disorganization. In adults, marked lapses in reasoning and discourse surrounding the discussion of loss or abuse during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) causes a transcript to be assigned to Unresolved/disorganized (U/d) adult attachment status, which predicts infant D attachment. Bowlby's theory is extended, with the proposal that certain forms of frightening parental behavior will arouse contradictory biologically channeled propensities to approach and to take flight from the parent. Maltreated infants are therefore highly likely to be disorganized. Also identified are subtler forms of frightening parental behavior (including dissociative behavior and anomalous forms of frightened behavior) that appear to lead to infant disorganization. This suggests that infant D attachment may at times represent a second-generation effect of the parent's own continuing unresolved responses to trauma. Infant D attachment predicts disruptive/aggressive and dissociative disorders in childhood and adolescence, while U/d adult attachment appears frequently in psychiatric and criminal populations. Clinical implications are discussed.
Young, Susan; Adamou, Marios; Asherson, Philip; Coghill, David; Colley, Bill; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Hollis, Chris; McCarthy, Jane; Müller, Ulrich; Paul, Moli; Pitts, Mark; Arif, Muhammad
The aim of this consensus statement was to discuss transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services, and formulate recommendations to facilitate successful transition. An expert workshop was convened in June 2012 by the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN), attended by a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals, allied professionals and patients. It was concluded that transitions must be planned through joint meetings involving referring/receiving services, patients and their families. Negotiation may be required to balance parental desire for continued involvement in their child's care, and the child's growing autonomy. Clear transition protocols can maintain standards of care, detailing relevant timeframes, responsibilities of agencies and preparing contingencies. Transition should be viewed as a process not an event, and should normally occur by the age of 18, however flexibility is required to accommodate individual needs. Transition is often poorly experienced, and adherence to clear recommendations is necessary to ensure effective transition and prevent drop-out from services.
Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa
Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults' and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. PMID:24829900
This research examined the relationship between ethnicity and the psychological status and behavior of Jewish and non-Jewish caregivers in relation to the impaired elderly. It was hypothesized that Jewish caregivers would make significantly more use of formal services than non-Jewish (usually Christian) caregivers. Two separate data sets were…
Burton, Lynda C.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Schulz, Richard; Jackson, Sharon; Hirsch, Calvin
Describes transitions over 5 years among community-dwelling elderly spouses into and within caregiving roles and associated health outcomes. The trajectory of health outcomes associated with caregiving was generally downward. Those who transitioned to heavy caregiving had more symptoms of depression, and poorer self-reported health and health…
Pletch, Alison; Morcuende, Jose; Barriga, Hersey; Segura, Jose; Salas, Alexandro
The Ponseti Method of casting and bracing is the gold-standard treatment for congenital clubfoot in young children. Despite its many advantages, outcomes depend heavily on caregiver adherence to the treatment protocol. Our study explored the experience caregivers had with the Ponseti method using a photography-based participatory research method known as Photovoice. Five adult caregivers were recruited from families pursuing clubfoot treatment at the Children's Hospital in Lima, Perú, during June, 2013. Each was provided a digital camera and training and agreed to photograph their experiences caring for a child undergoing Ponseti Method clubfoot treatment. Participants held four to five weekly one-on-one meetings with the researcher to discuss their photos. They also attended a group meeting at the end of the study to view and discuss photos of other participants. Using photos collected at this meeting, participants identified themes that summarized their experiences with treatment and discussed ways to improve delivery of care in order to support caregiver adherence to treatment. These results were presented to clinicians in Lima who use the Ponseti Method. The Photovoice method allowed researchers and participants to study the experience caregivers have with the Ponseti Method, and results can be used to inform the design of patient-based care models.
Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A
Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.
Davis, Kelly D.; Zarit, Steven H.; Moen, Phyllis; Hammer, Leslie B.; Almeida, David M.
Objectives. Women who combine formal and informal caregiving roles represent a unique, understudied population. In the literature, healthcare employees who simultaneously provide unpaid elder care at home have been referred to as double-duty caregivers. The present study broadens this perspective by examining the psychosocial implications of double-duty child care (child care only), double-duty elder care (elder care only), and triple-duty care (both child care and elder care or “sandwiched” care). Method. Drawing from the Work, Family, and Health Study, we focus on a large sample of women working in nursing homes in the United States (n = 1,399). We use multiple regression analysis and analysis of covariance tests to examine a range of psychosocial implications associated with double- and triple-duty care. Results. Compared with nonfamily caregivers, double-duty child caregivers indicated greater family-to-work conflict and poorer partner relationship quality. Double-duty elder caregivers reported more family-to-work conflict, perceived stress, and psychological distress, whereas triple-duty caregivers indicated poorer psychosocial functioning overall. Discussion. Relative to their counterparts without family caregiving roles, women with combined caregiving roles reported poorer psychosocial well-being. Additional research on women with combined caregiving roles, especially triple-duty caregivers, should be a priority amidst an aging population, older workforce, and growing number of working caregivers. PMID:25271309
Littell, Julia H.; Girvin, Heather
Objective: To identify individual, family, and caseworker characteristics associated with problem recognition (PR) and intentions to change (ITC) in a sample of caregivers who received in-home child welfare services following substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. Methods: Caregivers were interviewed at 4 weeks, 16 weeks, and 1 year…
Consistent in its approach to child development and caregiving concepts, this guide for parents and child caregivers explores aspects of family day care in five sections. Section I discusses the design of physically safe environments for children. Section II describes the developing likes and needs of infants, toddlers, preschool children, and…
Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo
The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.
Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang
The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology.
Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L
Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.
Harazni, Lubna; Alkaissi, Aidah
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a childhood disorder affecting children worldwide and has a major burden on the child, family and other caregivers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the experience of the adults that interact on a daily basis with school-aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…
Filipas, Henrietta H; Ullman, Sarah E
The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined as predictors of revictimization. Results indicated that individuals who reported both CSA and ASA had more PTSD symptoms, were more likely to use drugs or alcohol to cope, act out sexually, withdraw from people, and seek therapy services. In addition, the revictimized group reported more self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently. The only factor that predicted revictimization in this study was the number of maladaptive coping strategies used. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Damerell, P.; Howe, C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.
Environmental education is frequently undertaken as a conservation intervention designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of recipients. Much conservation education is aimed at children, with the rationale that children influence the attitudes of their parents, who will consequently change their behaviour. Empirical evidence to substantiate this suggestion is very limited, however. For the first time, we use a controlled trial to assess the influence of wetland-related environmental education on the knowledge of children and their parents and household behaviour. We demonstrate adults exhibiting greater knowledge of wetlands and improved reported household water management behaviour when their child has received wetland-based education at Seychelles wildlife clubs. We distinguish between ‘folk’ knowledge of wetland environments and knowledge obtained from formal education, with intergenerational transmission of each depending on different factors. Our study provides the first strong support for the suggestion that environmental education can be transferred between generations and indirectly induce targeted behavioural changes.
Taubman, P; Behrman, J R
This paper develops a theoretical model of the effects of family size and birth order on educational attainment and earnings. The parental utility maximization model allows the development of closed-form expressions for the within-family ratios of schooling and earnings. A reduced form demand function for each child's schooling and earnings also can be obtained. Each of these functions depends on the exogenous variables of the price of education divided by the price of parental consumption, parental income, the child's endowment, and the parameters of the utility and the production function. Application of this model to empirical data from the Twin and Adult Offspring Sample confirmed both birth order and family size effects for schooling even when parental age, income, education, and father's religion were controlled. The effects were larger for daughters than sons. The difference in educational attainment between 1st and 5th-born was 0.7 years for males and 1.4 years for females. Family size further reduces parental contribution to college education and encourages working, loans, and scholarships. The earnings data do not display birth order effects once family background and sibship size are controlled.
Schenkel, Lindsay S; Rothman-Marshall, Gail; Schlehofer, Deirdre A; Towne, Terra L; Burnash, Danielle L; Priddy, Brittney M
The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment and lifetime exposure to other traumatic events in a sample of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH; n=147) and matched hearing (H; n=317) college students. Participants completed measures of child maltreatment (CM), adult victimization and trauma exposure, and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Overall, DHH participants reported significantly more instances of CM compared to H participants, with 76% of DHH reporting some type of childhood abuse or neglect. Additionally, DHH participants reported experiencing a higher number of different types of CM, and also reported increased incidents of lifetime trauma exposure and elevated PTSD symptoms. Severity of deafness increased the risk of maltreatment, with deaf participants reporting more instances of CM than hard of hearing participants, and hard of hearing participants reporting more instances of CM than H participants. Among DHH participants, having a deaf sibling was associated with reduced risk for victimization, and identification with the Deaf community was associated with fewer current symptoms of PTSD. A regression model including measures of childhood physical and sexual abuse significantly predicted adult re-victimization and accounted for 27% of the variance among DHH participants. DHH participants report significantly higher rates of CM, lifetime trauma, and PTSD symptoms compared to H participants. Severity of deafness appears to increase the risk of being victimized. Being part of the Deaf community and having access to others who are deaf appear to be important protective factors for psychological well-being among DHH individuals.
... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...
Bynner, John; Parsons, Samantha
Data were obtained from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a large-scale longitudinal study in the United Kingdom following up a sample of people born in a single week in 1958 through to adult life, to demonstrate that poor numeracy skills have a major impact. At age 37, a 10 percent sample of 1,714 cohort members were interviewed and…
Haines, Julie A.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Brown, J. Lynne
Noting that children will adjust their food intake to their energy needs, and that offering a variety of foods often will increase their acceptance of new foods, this guide offers instruction on the proper feeding of children ages 3 to 5 in Pennsylvania's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). The menus presented in the guide follow the…
Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Douglas
This study investigated the effect of the adult-child relationship on students' social outcomes, academic competence and school engagement in a two-year Tier 2 intervention, the Check, Connect and Expect program. One hundred and three students from 2nd through 5th grade, their classroom teachers, and nine school-based coaches participated in this…
Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender
Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…
Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.
The susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias due to the physical attractiveness of target persons was examined. Facial features of target persons were occluded in one version of a videotape and unoccluded in another, otherwise identical version. Using a global rating system and a molecular coding strategy, 38 trained…
Pickett-Schenk, Susan A; Bennett, Cynthia; Cook, Judith A; Steigman, Pamela; Lippincott, Richard; Villagracia, Ian; Grey, Dennis
The authors examined changes in caregiving satisfaction and information needs among 462 relatives of individuals with mental illness who participated in a study of a family-led education course, the Journey of Hope (JOH). Participants were randomly assigned to receive JOH or to a control group waiting list and followed for 9 months. General linear model repeated measures analysis of variance found that, compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement in caregiving satisfaction and information needs following course completion and maintained these gains for another 6 months. Education and support from other family members in the form of a structured course is effective in meeting the caregiving needs of relatives of persons with mental illness.
Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C.
Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category—property, person, and society—provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25287414
Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C
Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed.
Nguyen, Huong Thi Thien
The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiment 1 was…
Beals, K P; Wight, R G; Aneshensel, C S; Murphy, D A; Miller-Martinez, D
This study examines the role that mid-life and older wives and mothers play in promoting medication adherence among their HIV-infected husbands or adult sons who require daily living assistance. Interviews were conducted with 112 caregiving dyads, with caregivers reporting on their own behaviours and attitudes towards medications, and care-recipients (persons living with HIV [PLH]) providing information about their own adherence practices. By examining how caregiver characteristics, behaviours, and attitudes may influence PLH adherence it is explicitly recognized that caregivers and PLH are linked within a caregiving dyad. Findings indicate that caregivers often remind PLH to take medications, but these reminders are not significantly associated with adherence. Caregivers also report strong attitudes about medication hassles, concerns over treatment failure and general concerns about adherence. Controlling for background characteristics, high perceived adherence hassles on the part of the caregiver were associated with low PLH adherence, providing evidence of shared influence within the caregiving dyad. Adherence interventions may maximize their effectiveness if they consider the role of the family caregiver because these data suggest that caregiver attitudes are linked with PLH adherence behaviours.
Galvin, James E.; Duda, John E.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Lippa, Carol F.; Taylor, Angela; Zarit, Steven H.
Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a common cause of dementia but to date, little is known about caregiver burden. The Lewy Body Dementia Association (www.LBDA.org) conducted a web-based survey of 962 caregivers (mean age 56y; 88% women). The most common initial symptoms were cognitive (48%), motor (39%), or both (13%). Caregivers expressed concerns about fear of future (77%), feeling stressed (54%), loss of social life (52%) and uncertainty about what to do next (50%). Caregivers reported moderate to severe burden; 80% felt the people around them did not understand their burden and 54% reported feelings of isolation with spousal caregivers reporting more burden than non-spousal caregivers. Only 29% hired in-home assistance while less than 40% used respite or adult day care, geriatric case managers or attended a support group meeting. Lack of service utilization occurred despite two-thirds of caregivers reporting medical crises requiring emergency services, psychiatric care or law enforcement. Caregivers reported preferences for web-based information, directories of LBD expert providers, information on LBD research and location of local support groups. These findings highlight significant unmet needs for LBD caregivers and provide targets for intervention to reduce caregiver burden. Community resources such as the Lewy Body Dementia Association may serve this end, while also providing practical information and support for caregivers. PMID:20505434
Header: Do adult DTC programs prevent child maltreatment? Parental criminal justice involvement and children’s involvement with child protective services: Do adult drug treatment courts prevent child maltreatment?
Eldred, Lindsey M.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.
Background In light of evidence showing reduced criminal recidivism and cost savings, adult drug treatment courts have grown in popularity. However, the potential spillover benefits to family members are understudied. Objectives To examine: 1) the overlap between parents who were convicted of a substance-related offense and their children’s involvement with child protective services (CPS); and 2) whether parental participation in an adult drug treatment court program reduces children’s risk for CPS involvement. Methods Administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and social services were linked at the child level. First, children of parents convicted of a substance-related offense were matched to (a) children of parents convicted of a non-substance-related offense and (b) those not convicted of any offense. Second, we compared children of parents who completed a DTC program with children of parents who were referred but did not enroll, who enrolled for <90 days but did not complete, and who enrolled for 90+ days but did not complete. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model group differences in the odds of being reported to CPS in the one to three years following parental criminal conviction or, alternatively, being referred to a DTC program. Results Children of parents convicted of a substance-related offense were at greater risk of CPS involvement than children whose parents were not convicted of any charge, but DTC participation did not mitigate this risk. Conclusion/Importance The role of specialty courts as a strategy for reducing children’s risk of maltreatment should be further explored. PMID:26789656
McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary
Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978
Lendon, Jessica P.; Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann
This research compared direct and indirect measures of ambivalence, 2 commonly used strategies for measuring intergenerational ambivalence between older parents and their adult children. Directly and indirectly measured ambivalence, corresponding to felt and potential manifestations of the construct, were contrasted with each other and across generations. Data were derived from 253 older parent–adult child dyads participating in the Longitudinal Study of Generations in 2005. Direct and indirect measures of ambivalence were moderately correlated with each other within each generation. Children expressed greater indirect ambivalence than their parents but were no different than their mothers or fathers in their levels of direct ambivalence. Multivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between each type of ambivalence with individual and relationship characteristics found differences in associations across equations. The results suggest that direct and indirect measures are related but represent 2 distinct conceptions of ambivalence. This research highlights the challenges in understanding the full complexity of intergenerational relations and suggests that both generational perspectives be considered in future research. PMID:25378714
Cifu, David X; Carne, William; Brown, Rashelle; Pegg, Phillip; Ong, Jason; Qutubuddin, Abu; Baron, Mark S
This study examined the frequency and degree of caregiver burden in persons with parkinsonism, a group of disorders with four primary symptoms that include tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and bradykinesia. We assessed associations between perceived caregiver burden and physical, cognitive, and functional impairments using well-established tools for persons with parkinsonism. The 49 individuals with parkinsonism ranged in age from 61 to 87 (mean = 75), while their caregivers (N = 49) ranged in age from 48 to 83 (mean = 70). The caregivers were predominantly either wives (82%) or daughters (6%), with other family members, friends, and/or neighbors (12%) making up the rest. The caregivers reported a relatively high ability for coping (mean scores = 4.6/6). Caregiver burden was significantly negatively associated with activities of daily living and motoric difficulties as measured on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Likewise, caregiver burden was negatively associated with caregiver self-reported sleep and coping ability. Results did not demonstrate an association on the UPDRS among mentation, behavior, and mood. We found a significant negative correlation for mentation between the Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination and caregiver burden measures; however, we did not find this association with the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Patient's self-reported pain and caregiver burden were not associated.
Martin, Karin A
This paper investigates how adults respond to sexual behavior among children in child care. Culturally, childhood sexuality is variously understood as natural curiosity, a sign of sexual abuse, or a symptom of a sex-offender in the making. Given these competing cultural meanings, how are sexual-like behaviors by children managed by the adults who care for them? An analysis of qualitative data from Special Investigation Reports by childcare licensing consultants in the state of Michigan is used to examine how parents, child care providers, and child care licensing consultants manage and respond to sexual behavior between children in the context of child care. How sexual behavior is responded to depends primarily on who is doing the responding - parent, childcare provider, or state licensing consultant - rather than what type of behavior is being responded to. Parents respond to a wide range of behaviors between children as if they are incidents of sexual abuse. Childcare providers respond to many of those same incidents as misbehavior. Licensing consultants understand these incidents as violation of rules of supervision, but they were also the only group to ever ask if children's sexual behavior was potentially a sign of a child having been sexually abused in another setting. Providers and parents need more education about what kinds of sexual behavior to be concerned about and what kind to understand as common. More education that sexuality that is "rare" and persistent could be a sign of sexual abuse is needed by all parties.
Cavanaugh, John C.; And Others
Examined applicability of scaffolding and zone of proximal development to the study of dementia. Compared caregiver-patient dyads (n=29) to normal elderly dyads (n=16) in terms of strategies used in completing the Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Results indicated that caregiver-patient dyads can be observed…
Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Gething, Lindsay; Kendig, Hal; Cant, Rosemary
Older parents of adults with intellectual disability are reported to be frequently isolated from the services designed to support their caregiving. The interaction between older parent caregivers' biographies and their involvement with the service system was examined. Parental status was predicted to be an explanatory mechanism for understanding…
Aneshensel, Carol S.; Botticello, Amanda L.; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko
This study describes depressive symptoms among caregivers following bereavement and connects these trajectories to earlier features of caregiving using life course and stress process theory. Data are from a six-wave longitudinal survey (five years) of spouses and adult children caring for someone with Alzheimer's Disease. The analytic subsample (N…