Science.gov

Sample records for adult codling moth

  1. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella–expression in larvae and adults

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William B.; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies. PMID:27006164

  2. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  3. Direct sampling of resting codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults in apple tree canopies and surrounding habitats.

    PubMed

    Epstein, David L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J

    2011-06-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20-24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800-2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0-4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5-3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0-1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006-2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900-1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum + PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths

  4. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod.

  5. Landscape Analysis of Adult Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Distribution and Dispersal within Typical Agroecosystems Dominated by Apple Production in Central Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the spatial distribution and dispersal of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), adults within two heterogeneous agro-ecosystems typical of central Chile; commercial apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, orchards surrounded by various unmanaged host plants. Both a geostatistical analysis of ca...

  6. Landscape analysis of adult codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) distribution and dispersal within typical agroecosystems dominated by apple production in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Basoalto, E; Miranda, M; Knight, A L; Fuentes-Contreras, E

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution and dispersal of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), adults within two heterogeneous agroecosystems typical of central Chile: commercial apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, orchards surrounded by various unmanaged host plants. Both a geostatistical analysis of catches of adult males with a grid of sex pheromone-baited traps and an immunological self-marking technique combined with traps baited with a male and female attractant were used. The spatial analyses identified the key sources of moths within these diverse landscapes. Codling moth catches in traps were spatially associated within distances of ≈ 150-300 m. Similarly, the mean distance from the immunological self-marking plots within the commercial apple orchard to the traps that captured marked adults was 282 m. In contrast, the mean distance in the capture of marked moths from unmanaged self-marking plots to a commercial orchard was 828 m. These data suggest that the success of any future area-wide management programs for codling moth in Chilean pome fruit must include a component for managing or removing noncommercial hosts that surround orchards. This analysis also suggests that the selection pressure for resistance imposed by insecticide sprays within managed orchards is likely dampened by the influx of susceptible moths from unmanaged sites common in central Chile. PMID:22546434

  7. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  10. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  11. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  12. Cross-Resistance Between Azinphos-methyl and Acetamiprid in Populations of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations from apple. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Popula...

  13. Effect of Sex Pheromone and Kairomone Lures on Catches of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone evaluated the performance of a clear vertical interception trap coated with oil and baited with either sex pheromone, pear ester, or both attractants (combo) for adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Baited interception traps caught significan...

  14. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  15. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  16. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  17. Cold hardiness adaptations of codling moth, cydia pomonella

    PubMed

    Neven

    1999-02-01

    The cold hardiness adaptations of natural and laboratory reared populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, were examined. Hemolymph, gut, and whole body supercooling points (SCPs), 24-h LT50s, polyhydroxy alcohol concentrations, hemolymph freezing points, and hemolymph melting points were determined. Nondiapausing codling moth larvae do not have appreciable levels of ice nucleators in the hemolymph or gut. Whole body supercooling points were higher than hemolymph supercooling points. For nondiapausing larvae, LT50s were significantly higher than both the whole body and the hemolymph supercooling points, indicating the presence of chill sensitivity. As the larvae left the food source and spun a cocoon, both hemolymph and whole body SCPs decreased. Diapause destined larvae had significantly lower hemolymph SCPs than nondiapausing larvae, but whole body SCPs were not significantly different from nondiapausing larvae of the same age. The LT50s of diapause destined and diapausing larvae were significantly lower than that of nondiapausing larvae. Codling moths are freezing intolerant, with LT50s close to the average whole body supercooling point in diapause destined and diapausing larvae. The overwintering, diapausing larvae effectively supercool to avoid lethal freezing by removal of ice nucleators from the gut and body without appreciable increase of antifreeze agents such as polyols or antifreeze proteins.

  18. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  19. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  20. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  1. Codling moth resistance and associated pytochemical variation in fruit of Malus tschonoskii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work is ongoing to evaluate the potential for host plant resistance to codling moth and other apple pests among the diverse Malus germplasm housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PRGU) in Geneva, NY. Significant resistance to larval feeding from codling moth has been observed in fruit fro...

  2. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  3. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  4. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome. PMID:27236660

  5. Organophosphate Resistance and its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maritza; Barros-Parada, Wilson; Ramírez, Claudio C; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of apple production worldwide. Insecticide resistance has been reported in all producing countries, based on five different mechanisms. Codling moth in Chile has resistance to azinphos-methyl and tebufenozide in post-diapausing larvae. However, there are no studies about the susceptibility of these populations to insecticides from other chemical groups. Therefore, the efficacy of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, esfenvalerate, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and thiacloprid on neonate and post-diapausing larvae from six field populations was investigated, and identified resistance mechanisms in this species were evaluated. Neonate larvae were susceptible to all insecticides studied, but post-diapausing larvae from four populations were resistant to chlorpyrifos, one of them was also resistant to azinphos-methyl, and another one was resistant to tebufenozide. The acetylcholinesterase insensitivity mutation was not detected, and the sodium channel knockdown resistance mutation was present in a low frequency in one population. Detoxifying enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in adults differed among populations, but chlorpyrifos resistance was associated only with a decreased esterase activity as shown by a significant negative correlation between chlorpyrifos mortality and esterase activity. PMID:26470131

  6. Organophosphate Resistance and its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maritza; Barros-Parada, Wilson; Ramírez, Claudio C; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of apple production worldwide. Insecticide resistance has been reported in all producing countries, based on five different mechanisms. Codling moth in Chile has resistance to azinphos-methyl and tebufenozide in post-diapausing larvae. However, there are no studies about the susceptibility of these populations to insecticides from other chemical groups. Therefore, the efficacy of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, esfenvalerate, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and thiacloprid on neonate and post-diapausing larvae from six field populations was investigated, and identified resistance mechanisms in this species were evaluated. Neonate larvae were susceptible to all insecticides studied, but post-diapausing larvae from four populations were resistant to chlorpyrifos, one of them was also resistant to azinphos-methyl, and another one was resistant to tebufenozide. The acetylcholinesterase insensitivity mutation was not detected, and the sodium channel knockdown resistance mutation was present in a low frequency in one population. Detoxifying enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in adults differed among populations, but chlorpyrifos resistance was associated only with a decreased esterase activity as shown by a significant negative correlation between chlorpyrifos mortality and esterase activity.

  7. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  8. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth. PMID:26487743

  9. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth.

  10. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  11. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  12. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control.

  13. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production. PMID:18330135

  14. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Results Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. Conclusions We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms. PMID:25471491

  15. Combined Sprays of Sex Pheromone and Insecticides to Attract and Kill Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of an "attract-and-kill" approach for control of codling moth by adding half-rates of microencapsulated (MEC) lambda-cyhalothrin or acetamiprid to a sex pheromone formulation in Turkey and the USA in 2006. Two apple orchards were divided into six...

  16. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  17. Genetic Transformation of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct results in identification o...

  18. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management.

  19. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  20. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  1. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  2. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure’s attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013–2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7–33.4 μg wk−1, and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1 could optimize the lure’s efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200–300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field. PMID:26879373

  3. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  4. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  5. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  6. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control. PMID:24763103

  7. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control.

  8. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors.

  9. Multiple Origins of the Sodium Channel kdr Mutations in Codling Moth Populations

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Pierre; Siegwart, Myriam; Olivares, Jerome; Toubon, Jean-François; Lavigne, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to insecticides is one interesting example of a rapid current evolutionary change. DNA variability in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (trans-membrane segments 5 and 6 in domain II) was investigated in order to estimate resistance evolution to pyrethroid in codling moth populations at the World level. DNA variation among 38 sequences revealed a unique kdr mutation (L1014F) involved in pyrethroid resistance in this gene region, which likely resulted from several convergent substitutions. The analysis of codling moth samples from 52 apple orchards in 19 countries using a simple PCR-RFLP confirmed that this kdr mutation is almost worldwide distributed. The proportions of kdr mutation were negatively correlated with the annual temperatures in the sampled regions. Homozygous kdr genotypes in the French apple orchards showed lower P450 cytochrome oxidase activities than other genotypes. The most plausible interpretation of the geographic distribution of kdr in codling moth populations is that it has both multiple independent origins and a spreading limited by low temperature and negative interaction with the presence of alternative resistance mechanisms to pyrethroid in the populations. PMID:22912889

  10. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  11. Recapture of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males: influence of lure type and pheromone background.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Brunner, Jay F; Jones, Vincent P; Bello, Nora M

    2010-08-01

    Recapture of marked male codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), released four distances from traps was measured in experiments comparing either lure type or mating disruption. Experiment 1 assessed recapture by 0.1, 1, and 10 mg of codlemone lures. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed moth recapture in orchard plots with 0, 500, or 1,000 Isomate C Plus dispensers per ha. Moths were released 1, 3, 10, and 30 m downwind of the trap in experiments 1 and 2, and 3, 10, 30, and 45 m in experiment 3. Lure type did not affect recapture, however, significantly more moths were recaptured at 3 m compared with 10 or 30 m. Most moths recaptured < or = 10 m of the trap were recaptured by day 3, whereas most of the moths recaptured > or = 10 m were recaptured after day 3. Thus, 0.1-, 1-, and 10-mg lures, have an attractive range of between 10 and 30 m in orchards lacking mating disruption. Both mating disruption rates greatly reduced moth recapture, and moths recaptured under a 1,000 dispenser per ha rate were recaptured from < or = 10 m and within the first 2 d after release. Similar results were observed when release points were expanded to 45 m. Thus, results suggest that pheromone dispenser technologies and placement strategies that maximize disruption of males that arise within 10 m of a female are needed to markedly improve mating disruption.

  12. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J. R.; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption. PMID:26462935

  13. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    PubMed

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.

  14. Modelling the interactions between phenology and insecticide resistance genes in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Thomas; Chadoeuf, Joël; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Beslay, Dominique; Sauphanor, Benoît

    2005-01-01

    In the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L), insecticide resistance genes have been associated with pleiotropic effects affecting phenology. In this paper, we investigated whether an increase in the frequency of insecticide resistance in field populations of C pomonella was likely to entail significant divergences in the temporal occurrence of both susceptible and insecticide-resistant individuals. For this purpose, we built a phenological model that provided suitable predictions of the distinct and diverging seasonal evolutions of populations of a susceptible and two insecticide-resistant (at two and three loci) homozygous genotypes of C pomonella. Model simulations for each genotype were further compared with pheromone trap catches recorded in a field insecticide-treated population over an 8-year period (from 1992 to 2000), which reflected the progressive annual increase in the frequency of resistance in southeastern France. We found a significant delay in field adult emergence relative to those predicted by the homozygous susceptible model, and the magnitude of such a delay was positively correlated with increasing frequencies of insecticide resistance in the sampled field population of C pomonella. Adult emergence predicted in the theoretical population that was homozygous for resistance at two loci converged with those recorded in the field during the investigated 8-year period. This suggested that the pleiotropic effects of resistance were likely to result in a significant phenological segregation of insecticide-resistant alleles in the field. The results of this study emphasized the potential for pest populations exposed to chemical selection to evolve qualitatively with respect to phenology. This may raise critical questions regarding the use of phenological modelling as a forecasting tool for appropriate resistance management strategies that would take into account the diverging seasonal evolutions of both insecticide resistance and susceptibility.

  15. Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately −15.3°C during summer to −26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to −15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

  16. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  17. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    PubMed

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. PMID:21190707

  18. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  19. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  20. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  1. Characterization of three transcripts encoding small heat shock proteins expressed in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth is a major pest of apples and pears worldwide. Increasing knowledge of how this insect responds to environmental stress will improve field and postharvest control measures used against it. The small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play a major role in cellular responses to environmental st...

  2. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  3. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  4. Influence of within-orchard trap placement on catch of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-04-01

    The influence of trap placement on catches of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., was examined in a series of studies conducted in orchards treated with Isomate-C Plus sex pheromone dispensers. Mark-recapture tests with sterilized moths released along the interface of pairs of treated and untreated apple and pear plots found that significantly more male but not female moths were recaptured on interception traps placed in the treated plots. In a second test, significantly higher numbers of wild male and female moths were caught on interception traps placed in treated versus untreated plots within a heavily infested orchard. The highest numbers of male moths were caught on traps placed along the interior edge of the treated plots. Trap position had no influence on the captures of female moths. In a third test, north-south transects of sex pheromone-baited traps were placed through adjacent treated and untreated plots that received a uniform release of sterilized moths. Traps on the upwind edge of the treated plots caught similar numbers of moths as traps upwind from the treated plots. Moth catch was significantly reduced at all other locations inside versus outside of the treated plots, including traps placed on the downwind edge of the treated plot. In a fourth test, five apple orchards were monitored with groups of sex pheromone-baited traps placed either on the border or at three distances inside the orchards. The highest moth counts were in traps placed at the border, and the lowest moth counts were in traps placed 30 and 50 m from the border. In a fifth test, the proportion of traps failing to catch any moths despite the occurrence of local fruit injury was significantly higher in traps placed 50 versus 25 m from the border. The implications provided by these data for designing an effective monitoring program for codling moth in sex pheromone-treated orchards are discussed.

  5. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Manuela M; Eberle, Karolin E; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A

    2014-11-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth.

  6. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Manuela M.; Eberle, Karolin E.; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  8. Progressive adaptation of a CpGV isolate to codling moth populations resistant to CpGV-M.

    PubMed

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-12-22

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M.

  9. Progressive adaptation of a CpGV isolate to codling moth populations resistant to CpGV-M.

    PubMed

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

  10. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M

    PubMed Central

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

  11. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  12. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    PubMed

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  13. Oviposition Site Selection of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its Consequences for Egg and Neonate Performance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-08-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is a worldwide pest of pome fruit. A better understanding of oviposition site selection by this insect would help management of this pest in orchards. Oviposition site selection of codling moth was assessed by manipulative experiments and field survey. In addition, the temperatures of different sites were recorded. Neonate infestation and egg hatching were tested to evaluate the consequences of oviposition site selection. The percentage of eggs laid on the shady side of apple clusters was significantly higher than on the sunny side. How.ever, this was not influenced by leaf surface turning. Percentage of eggs on upper and lower leaf surfaces was significantly influenced by leaf surface turning. Percentage of eggs on the lower leaf surface was significantly higher than turned lower leaf surface (∼41.1% higher) and significantly higher (∼35.5%) on the turned upper leaf surface on than upper leaf surfaces. There was no significant difference in neonate infestation between leaves and fruit, as well as between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Number of eggs hatching on the shady side of clusters was significantly higher than on the sunny side (56.3% higher). In both the manipulative experiment and field survey, codling moths did not choose the sites with the highest mean temperature, but chose sites suitable for egg development and hatching. This indicates that in the field codling moth, oviposition site selection is not strictly thermophilous, but they look for the lower leaf surface on the shady side, which benefits the offspring.

  14. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radosław; Kuchar, Leszek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold ( T low ) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T low = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  15. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Radosław; Kuchar, Leszek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold (T(low)) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T(low) = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  16. Effect of temperature on long-term storage of codling moth granulovirus formulations.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Headrick, Heather L; Arthurs, Steven P

    2008-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the major pest of apple (Malus spp.) in the western United States and many other regions of the world. The codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) provides a selective and safe means of its control. We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of CpGV, Cyd-X, and Virosoft. All assays were performed with individual C. pomonella neonate larvae in 2-ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 microl of the test virus suspension. Baseline quantitative assays for the two formulations revealed that the LC50 and LC95 values (occlusion bodies per vial) did not differ significantly between the formulations. For year-long studies on Cyd-X stability, the product was stored at -20, 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and quantitative bioassays were conducted after 0, 3, 6, and 12 mo of storage. Cyd-X retained good larvicidal activity from -20 to 25 degrees C, and it was the least negatively affected at the lowest temperature. Storage of Cyd-X at 35 degrees C was detrimental to its larvicidal activity within 3 mo of storage. For longer term storage studies, Cyd-X and Virosoft formulations were stored at 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and assayed for larvicidal activity over a 3-yr period. For recently produced product, a 10-microl sample of a 10(-5) dilution of both formulations resulted in 95-100% mortality in neonate larvae. Larvicidal activity for the Cyd-X formulation remained essentially unaffected for 156 wk when stored at 2 and 25 degrees C, but it began to decline significantly after 20 wk of storage at 35 degrees C. The Virosoft formulation stored at 2 degrees C also remained active throughout the 3-yr study, but it began to decline in larvicidal activity after 144 wk at 25 degrees C and 40 wk at 35 degrees C. The information reported in this study should be useful to growers and commercial suppliers for avoiding decreases in CpGV potency due to improper storage conditions.

  17. Genetic inferences about the population dynamics of codling moth females at a local scale.

    PubMed

    Franck, P; Ricci, B; Klein, E K; Olivares, J; Simon, S; Cornuet, J-M; Lavigne, C

    2011-07-01

    Estimation of demographic parameters is important for understanding the functioning of natural populations and the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes that may impact their dynamics. Here, we used sibship assignment methods to shed light on the local dynamics of codling moth females in eight orchards in a 90-ha domain near Valence, France. Based on full-sib inference among 1,063 genotyped moths, we estimated (1) the effective number of females that had offspring, (2) their fertility and (3) the distribution of their oviposition sites within and among orchards. The average number of females in all the orchards increased between the first (~130) and the second (~235) annual generations. The average fertilities of the females were similar at each generation according to the host plant considered (apple, pear, or walnut), but differed between commercial (~10) and non-treated (~25) apple orchards. Females mainly clustered their eggs on contiguous trees along orchard borders, but they also occasionally dispersed their eggs among different orchards independently of the cultivated host plants or the inter-orchard distances (up to 698 m) during the second annual generation. The mean distance between two oviposition sites was 30 m. Sibship estimates of both the effective number of females and the inter-orchard migration rates (~5%) were in agreement with the observed genetic differentiation among the eight orchards (0.006 < F ( st ) < 0.013). These results confirm and extend previous field and laboratory observations in Cydia pomonella, and they demonstrate that sibship assignments based on genetic data are an interesting alternative to mark-release-recapture methods for inferring insect population dynamics.

  18. Genetic inferences about the population dynamics of codling moth females at a local scale.

    PubMed

    Franck, P; Ricci, B; Klein, E K; Olivares, J; Simon, S; Cornuet, J-M; Lavigne, C

    2011-07-01

    Estimation of demographic parameters is important for understanding the functioning of natural populations and the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes that may impact their dynamics. Here, we used sibship assignment methods to shed light on the local dynamics of codling moth females in eight orchards in a 90-ha domain near Valence, France. Based on full-sib inference among 1,063 genotyped moths, we estimated (1) the effective number of females that had offspring, (2) their fertility and (3) the distribution of their oviposition sites within and among orchards. The average number of females in all the orchards increased between the first (~130) and the second (~235) annual generations. The average fertilities of the females were similar at each generation according to the host plant considered (apple, pear, or walnut), but differed between commercial (~10) and non-treated (~25) apple orchards. Females mainly clustered their eggs on contiguous trees along orchard borders, but they also occasionally dispersed their eggs among different orchards independently of the cultivated host plants or the inter-orchard distances (up to 698 m) during the second annual generation. The mean distance between two oviposition sites was 30 m. Sibship estimates of both the effective number of females and the inter-orchard migration rates (~5%) were in agreement with the observed genetic differentiation among the eight orchards (0.006 < F ( st ) < 0.013). These results confirm and extend previous field and laboratory observations in Cydia pomonella, and they demonstrate that sibship assignments based on genetic data are an interesting alternative to mark-release-recapture methods for inferring insect population dynamics. PMID:21786027

  19. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wearing, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management. PMID:27429560

  20. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management. PMID:27429560

  1. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  2. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities. PMID:27369280

  3. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers.

    PubMed

    Meraner, A; Brandstätter, A; Thaler, R; Aray, B; Unterlechner, M; Niederstätter, H; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many

  4. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  5. Phenotypic screen for RNAi effects in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinda; Gu, Liuqi; Ireland, Stephen; Garczynski, Stephen F; Knipple, Douglas C

    2015-11-10

    RNAi-based technologies have the potential to augment, or replace existing pest management strategies. However, some insect taxa are less susceptible to the induction of the post-transcriptional gene silencing effect than others, such as the Lepidoptera. Here we describe experiments to investigate the induction of RNAi in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a major lepidopteran pest of apple, pear, and walnut. Prior to a knockdown screen, fluorescently labeled small interfering RNA (siRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence were delivered to the surface of artificial diet to which neonate larvae were introduced and subsequently examined for the distribution of fluorescence in their tissues. Fluorescence was highly concentrated in the midgut but its presence in other tissues was equivocal. Next, dsRNAs were made for C. pomonella genes orthologous to those that have well defined deleterious phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. A screen was conducted using dsRNAs encoding cullin-1 (Cpcul1), maleless (Cpmle), musashi (Cpmsi), a homeobox gene (CpHbx), and pumilio (Cppum). The dsRNAs designed from these target genes were administered to neonate larvae by delivery to the surface of the growth medium. None of the dsRNA treatments affected larval viability, however Cpcul1-dsRNA had a significant effect on larval growth, with the average length of larvae about 3mm, compared to about 4mm in the control groups. Measurement of Cpcul1 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed a dose-dependent RNAi effect in response to increasing amount of Cpcul1-dsRNA. Despite their reduced size, Cpcul1-dsRNA-treated larvae molted normally and matured to adulthood in a manner similar to controls. In an additional experiment, Cpcul1-siRNA was found to induce similar stunting effect as that induced by Cpcul1-dsRNA. PMID:26162675

  6. Phenotypic screen for RNAi effects in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinda; Gu, Liuqi; Ireland, Stephen; Garczynski, Stephen F; Knipple, Douglas C

    2015-11-10

    RNAi-based technologies have the potential to augment, or replace existing pest management strategies. However, some insect taxa are less susceptible to the induction of the post-transcriptional gene silencing effect than others, such as the Lepidoptera. Here we describe experiments to investigate the induction of RNAi in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a major lepidopteran pest of apple, pear, and walnut. Prior to a knockdown screen, fluorescently labeled small interfering RNA (siRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence were delivered to the surface of artificial diet to which neonate larvae were introduced and subsequently examined for the distribution of fluorescence in their tissues. Fluorescence was highly concentrated in the midgut but its presence in other tissues was equivocal. Next, dsRNAs were made for C. pomonella genes orthologous to those that have well defined deleterious phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. A screen was conducted using dsRNAs encoding cullin-1 (Cpcul1), maleless (Cpmle), musashi (Cpmsi), a homeobox gene (CpHbx), and pumilio (Cppum). The dsRNAs designed from these target genes were administered to neonate larvae by delivery to the surface of the growth medium. None of the dsRNA treatments affected larval viability, however Cpcul1-dsRNA had a significant effect on larval growth, with the average length of larvae about 3mm, compared to about 4mm in the control groups. Measurement of Cpcul1 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed a dose-dependent RNAi effect in response to increasing amount of Cpcul1-dsRNA. Despite their reduced size, Cpcul1-dsRNA-treated larvae molted normally and matured to adulthood in a manner similar to controls. In an additional experiment, Cpcul1-siRNA was found to induce similar stunting effect as that induced by Cpcul1-dsRNA.

  7. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth

    PubMed Central

    Garczynski, Stephen F.; Coates, Brad S.; Unruh, Thomas R.; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8 341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698 nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1 289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily. PMID:23956229

  8. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  9. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  10. Enhancement of insecticides against codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with L-aspartate in laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Brown, John J

    2014-06-01

    The idea of enhancing insecticide efficacy against phytophagous insects with feeding stimulators was proposed as early as the 1960s, and a number of insect feeding stimulators based on sugars, molasses, and cottonseed extracts, biologically active at relatively high (5% and higher) concentrations, have been advocated. Here, we show that an acidic amino acid, L-aspartate, stimulates feeding in codling moth neonates at much lower concentrations and acts as an effective tank-mixed additive for increasing efficacy of insecticides, reducing fruit damage, and increasing yield of the fruit. In laboratory experiments, 1 mg/ml L-aspartate increased foliage consumption by 40-60% and, when added to Assail 30 SG, Baythroid XL, Delegate WG, or Carbaryl 80S, maintained its feeding stimulatory properties and reduced LD50(s) by approximately 10 times. In a 3-yr field trial, addition of L-aspartate to the aforementioned insecticides at 395 g/ha reduced fruit damage from approximately 6%, on average to < 1% for first-generation codling moth, and from approximately 20 to approximately 5% for the second generation. Interestingly, addition of L-aspartate also increased the average weight of apples by 11-27%, as measured at the time of harvest.

  11. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection. PMID:21905729

  12. Post-Application of Anti-Desiccant Agents Improves Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Formulated Host Cadavers or Aqueous Suspension Against Diapausing Codling Moth Larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. is the most serious pest of apple and other pome fruit worldwide. In temperate climate, diapausing cocooned larvae make up 100% of the population. Control of this stage would reduce or eliminate damage by first generation CM in late spring and early summer. Ento...

  13. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: II. AFLP analysis reflects human-aided local adaptation of a global pest species.

    PubMed

    Thaler, R; Brandstätter, A; Meraner, A; Chabicovski, M; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    Originally resident in southeastern Europe, the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Tortricidae) has achieved a nearly global distribution, being one of the most successful pest insect species known today. As shown in our accompanying study, mitochondrial genetic markers suggest a Pleistocenic splitting of Cydia pomonella into two refugial clades which came into secondary contact after de-glaciation. The actual distribution pattern shows, however, that Central European codling moths have experienced a geographic splitting into many strains and locally adapted populations, which is not reflected by their mitochondrial haplotype distribution. We therefore have applied, in addition to mitochondrial markers, an approach with a higher resolution potential at the population level, based on the analysis of amplification fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). As shown in the present study, AFLP markers elucidate the genetic structure of codling moth strains and populations from different Central European apple orchard sites. While individual genetic diversity within codling moth strains and populations was small, a high degree of genetic differentiation was observed between the analyzed strains and populations, even at a small geographic scale. One of the main factors contributing to local differentiation may be limited gene flow among adjacent codling moth populations. In addition, microclimatic, ecological, and geographic constraints also may favour the splitting of Cydia pomonella into many local populations. Lastly, codling moths in Central European fruit orchards may experience considerable selective pressure due to pest control activities. As a consequence of all these selective forces, today in Central Europe we see a patchy distribution of many locally adapted codling moth populations, each of them having its own genetic fingerprint. Because of the complete absence of any correlation between insecticide resistance and geographic or genetic distances among

  14. Improving the Performance of the Granulosis Virus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Adding the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Sugar.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Basoalto, Esteban; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Studies were conducted with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) to evaluate whether adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E. C. Hansen with brown cane sugar could improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.). Larval mortalities in dipped-apple bioassays with S. cerevisiae or sugar alone were not significantly different from the water control. The addition of S. cerevisiae but not sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV alone. The combination of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV plus either additive alone. The addition of S. cerevisiae improved the efficacy of CpGV similarly to the use of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima (isolated from field-collected larvae). The proportion of uninjured fruit in field trials was significantly increased with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar to CpGV compared with CpGV alone only in year 1, and from the controls in both years. In comparison, larval mortality was significantly increased in both years with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV compared with CpGV alone or from the controls. The numbers of overwintering larvae on trees was significantly reduced from the control following a seasonal program of CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. The addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester did not improve the performance of CpGV or CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. These data suggest that yeasts can enhance the effectiveness of the biological control agent CpGV, in managing and maintaining codling moth at low densities.

  15. Improving the Performance of the Granulosis Virus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Adding the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Sugar.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Basoalto, Esteban; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Studies were conducted with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) to evaluate whether adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E. C. Hansen with brown cane sugar could improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.). Larval mortalities in dipped-apple bioassays with S. cerevisiae or sugar alone were not significantly different from the water control. The addition of S. cerevisiae but not sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV alone. The combination of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV plus either additive alone. The addition of S. cerevisiae improved the efficacy of CpGV similarly to the use of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima (isolated from field-collected larvae). The proportion of uninjured fruit in field trials was significantly increased with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar to CpGV compared with CpGV alone only in year 1, and from the controls in both years. In comparison, larval mortality was significantly increased in both years with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV compared with CpGV alone or from the controls. The numbers of overwintering larvae on trees was significantly reduced from the control following a seasonal program of CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. The addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester did not improve the performance of CpGV or CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. These data suggest that yeasts can enhance the effectiveness of the biological control agent CpGV, in managing and maintaining codling moth at low densities. PMID:26313179

  16. Interactions of two idiobiont parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Unruh, Thomas R; Headrick, Heather L

    2003-07-01

    Simultaneous use of parasitoids and entomopathogenic nematodes for codling moth (CM) control could produce an antagonistic interaction between the two groups resulting in death of the parasitoid larvae. Two ectoparasitic ichneumonid species, Mastrus ridibundus and Liotryphon caudatus, imported for classical biological control of cocooned CM larvae were studied regarding their interactions with Steinernema carpocapsae. Exposure of M. ridibundus and L. caudatus developing larvae to infective juveniles (IJs) of S. carpocapsae (10 IJs/cm2; approximately LC(80-90) for CM larvae) within CM cocoons resulted in 70.7 and 85.2% mortality, respectively. However, diapausing full grown parasitoid larvae were almost completely protected from nematode penetration within their own tightly woven cocoons. M. ridibundus and L. caudatus females were able to detect and avoid ovipositing on nematode-infected cocooned CM moth larvae as early as 12h after treatment of the host with IJs. When given the choice between cardboard substrates containing untreated cocooned CM larvae and those treated with an approximate LC95 of S. carpocapsae IJs (25 IJs/cm2) 12, 24, or 48h earlier, ovipositing parasitoids demonstrated a significant preference for untreated larvae. The ability of these parasitoids to avoid nematode-treated larvae and to seek out and kill cocooned CM larvae that survive nematode treatments enhances the complementarity of entomopathogenic nematodes and M. ridibundus and L. caudatus.

  17. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. PMID:27329623

  18. The crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thompsoni display a synergistic activity against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rang, C; Lacey, L A; Frutos, R

    2000-03-01

    Crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thompsoni strain HnC are active against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a major pest of orchards. Inclusion bodies purified from strain HnC displayed an LC(50) of 3.34 x 10(-3) microgram/microliter. HnC-purified crystals were tenfold more active than Cry2Aa and Cry1Aa toxins, and 100-fold more toxic than Cry1Ab. The 34-kDa and 40-kDa proteins contained in HnC inclusion bodies were shown to act synergistically. The toxicity of crystal proteins produced by the recombinant B. thuringiensis strain BT-OP expressing the full-length native operon was about tenfold higher than that of the 34-kDa protein. When the gene encoding the non-insecticidal 40-kDa protein, which is not active, was introduced into the recombinant strain producing only the 34-kDa protein, the toxicity was raised tenfold and was similar to that of the strain BT-OP.

  19. Evaluation of azinphos-methyl resistance and activity of detoxifying enzymes in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Reyes, Maritza; Barros, Wilson; Sauphanor, Benoît

    2007-04-01

    Regular applications of insecticides have been the main management practice against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Chile. Organophosphates are the most widely used insecticides, and azinphos-methyl is an important element in spray programs. In particular, we evaluated diagnostic doses of azinphos-methyl on neonate and postdiapausing larvae from seven apple (Malus spp.) orchards. We also evaluated the activity of detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), cytochrome P450 polysubstrate monooxygenases (PSMOs), and esterases, which are likely to be involved in resistance to insecticides. Such responses were compared with an insecticide-susceptible strain that has been maintained in the laboratory for several years. Neonate larval mortality of field populations to azinphos-methyl was not significantly different from of the susceptible strain. In contrast, postdiapause larval mortality was significantly lower in the six analyzed populations than in the susceptible strain. The C. pomonella populations with reduced postdiapause mortality to azinphos-methyl also showed statistically higher GST activity. Finally, no significant differences were found in total esterase or PSMO activity between C. pomonella populations. Therefore, the observed reduction in postdiapause larval mortality to azinphos-methyl seems to be associated with an increase in GST activity. PMID:17461082

  20. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Douglas M.; Knight, Alan L.; Henrick, Clive A.; Rajapaska, Dayananda; Lingren, Bill; Dickens, Joseph C.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Buttery, Ronald G.; Merrill, Gloria; Roitman, James; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2001-08-01

    Ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both walnut and apple orchard contexts, but has shown limited effectiveness in a pear orchard context. Rubber septa lures loaded with ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate remained attractive for several months under field conditions. At the same low microgram load rates on septa, the combined gender capture of CM in kairomone-baited traps was similar to the capture rate of males in traps baited with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component. The particular attribute of attracting CM females renders this kairomone a novel tool for monitoring population flight and mating-ovipositional status, and potentially a major new weapon for directly controlling CM populations.

  1. Comparing the genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) from Greece and France: long distance gene-flow in a sedentary pest species.

    PubMed

    Voudouris, C Ch; Franck, P; Olivares, J; Sauphanor, B; Mamuris, Z; Tsitsipis, J A; Margaritopoulos, J T

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is the most important insect pest of apple production in Europe. Despite the economic importance of this pest, there is not information about the genetic structure of its population in Greece and the patterns of gene-flow which might affect the success of control programs. In this study, we analysed nine samples from apple, pear and walnut from various regions of mainland Greece using 11 microsatellite loci. Six samples from the aforementioned hosts from southern France were also examined for comparison. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance analyses separated the codling moth samples in two genetic clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of the individuals from Greece, and the second of those from France, although admixture and miss-classified individuals were also observed. The low genetic differentiation among samples within each country was also revealed by F(ST) statistics (0.009 among Greek samples and 0.0150 among French samples compared to 0.050 global value among all samples and 0.032 the mean of the pair-wise values between the two countries). These F(ST) values suggest little structuring at large geographical scales in agreement with previous published studies. The host species and local factors (climatic conditions, topography, pest control programs) did not affect the genetic structure of codling moth populations within each country. The results are discussed in relation to human-made activities that promote gene-flow even at large geographic distances. Possible factors for the genetic differentiation between the two genetic clusters are also discussed.

  2. Comparing the genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) from Greece and France: long distance gene-flow in a sedentary pest species.

    PubMed

    Voudouris, C Ch; Franck, P; Olivares, J; Sauphanor, B; Mamuris, Z; Tsitsipis, J A; Margaritopoulos, J T

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is the most important insect pest of apple production in Europe. Despite the economic importance of this pest, there is not information about the genetic structure of its population in Greece and the patterns of gene-flow which might affect the success of control programs. In this study, we analysed nine samples from apple, pear and walnut from various regions of mainland Greece using 11 microsatellite loci. Six samples from the aforementioned hosts from southern France were also examined for comparison. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance analyses separated the codling moth samples in two genetic clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of the individuals from Greece, and the second of those from France, although admixture and miss-classified individuals were also observed. The low genetic differentiation among samples within each country was also revealed by F(ST) statistics (0.009 among Greek samples and 0.0150 among French samples compared to 0.050 global value among all samples and 0.032 the mean of the pair-wise values between the two countries). These F(ST) values suggest little structuring at large geographical scales in agreement with previous published studies. The host species and local factors (climatic conditions, topography, pest control programs) did not affect the genetic structure of codling moth populations within each country. The results are discussed in relation to human-made activities that promote gene-flow even at large geographic distances. Possible factors for the genetic differentiation between the two genetic clusters are also discussed. PMID:22032419

  3. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  4. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  5. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  6. Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations and adjuvants as solar protectants for the granulovirus of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L).

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Behle, R W

    2006-10-01

    Commercial formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus (CpGV) are limited by their short residual activity under orchard conditions in the Pacific Northwest. We evaluated spray-dried lignin-encapsulated formulations of CpGV for improved solar stability based on laboratory bioassays with a solar simulator and in field tests in an infested apple orchard. In laboratory tests, aqueous lignin formulations containing a high dosage of 3 x 10(10) occlusion bodies (OB)/L, with and without the additives titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and sugar, provided significant solar protection of virus, i.e., mortality of codling moth exposed to lignin formulations that had been irradiated with 9.36 x 10(6) joules/m(2) was 92-94%, compared with 66-67% from a glycerin-stabilized product (Cyd-X) or suspension of pure unformulated virus at the same rates. By comparison, a lower dosage of the lignin formulation (3 x 10(8)OB/L) did not provide significant solar protection. Equivalent dosage-dependent patterns in solar protection were observed in further tests with the lignin formulation, when an intermediate (3 x 10(9)OB/L) as well as the low dosage provided no solar protection. Equivalent rates of a blank lignin formulation (containing no virus) did not affect larval mortality, suggesting a protective effect of the lignin on the virus at the high rate. The use of several spray adjuvants, 'NuFilm-17' and 'Organic Biolink' (sticker-spreaders at 0.06% v/v), 'Raynox' (sunburn protectant at 5% v/v), and 'Trilogy'(neem oil at 1% v/v) did not provide solar protection of a commercial CpGV preparation in laboratory tests. In season long orchard tests (Golden Delicious), the lignin formulation of CpGV applied at 6.57 x 10(12)OB/ha did not significantly improve control of codling moth or protection of fruit compared with Cyd-X at equivalent rates. Our studies show that lignin-based CpGV formulations provided solar protection at relatively high virus dosages. The testing of lignin

  7. Overcrowding of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) leads to the isolation of five new Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV-SA) isolates.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Debrah, John K; Hill, Martin P; Knox, Caroline; Moore, Sean D

    2013-03-01

    False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) is a serious pest of economic importance to the South African fruit industry. As part of sustainable efforts to control this pest, biological control options that involve the application of baculovirus-based biopesticides such as Cryptogran and Cryptex (both formulated with a South African isolate of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus, CrleGV-SA) are popularly used by farmers. In order to safeguard the integrity of these biopesticides as well as protect against any future development of resistance in the host, we conducted a study to bioprospect for additional CrleGV isolates as alternatives to existing ones. Using overcrowding as an induction method for latent infection, we recovered five new CrleGV isolates (CrleGV-SA Ado, CrleGV-SA Mbl, CrleGV-SA Cit, CrleGV-SA MixC and CrleGV-SA Nels). Single restriction endonuclease (REN) analysis of viral genomic DNA extracted from purified occlusion bodies showed that isolates differed in their DNA profiles. Partial sequencing of granulin and egt genes from the different isolates and multiple alignments of nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. Based on these findings as well as comparisons with other documented CrleGV isolates, we propose two phylogenetic groups for CrleGV-SA isolates recovered in this study. PMID:23277142

  8. Insecticide resistance may enhance the response to a host-plant volatile kairomone for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauphanor, Benoît; Franck, Pierre; Lasnier, Thérèse; Toubon, Jean-François; Beslay, Dominique; Boivin, Thomas; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Renou, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The behavioral and electroantennographic responses of Cydia pomonella (L.) to the ripe pear volatile ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate (Et- E, Z-DD), were compared in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant populations originating from southern France. A dose-response relationship to this kairomonal attractant was established for antennal activity and did not reveal differences between susceptible and resistant strains. Conversely, males of the laboratory strains expressing metabolic [cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidases (mfo)] or physiological (kdr-type mutation of the sodium-channel gene) resistance mechanisms exhibited a significantly higher response to Et- E, Z-DD than those of the susceptible strain in a wind tunnel experiment. No response of the females to this kairomone could be obtained in our wind-tunnel conditions. In apple orchards, mfo-resistant male moths were captured at significantly higher rates in kairomone-baited traps than in traps baited with the sex pheromone of C. pomonella. Such a differential phenomenon was not verified for the kdr-resistant insects, which exhibited a similar response to both the sex pheromone and the kairomonal attractant in apple orchards. Considering the widespread distribution of metabolic resistance in European populations of C. pomonella and the enhanced behavioral response to Et- E, Z-DD in resistant moths, the development of control measures based on this kairomonal compound would be of great interest for the management of insecticide resistance in this species.

  9. Targeting Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults with Low Volume Applications of Insecticides Alone and in Combination with Sex Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies examined the effectiveness of adding insecticides to low volume sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone to manage codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L). The activities of fifteen insecticides against the adult stage were first evaluated with a plastic cup assay. In general, moth longev...

  10. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  11. The influence of larval diet on adult feeding behaviour in the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Raguso, Robert A; Ojeda-Avila, Tamairé; Desai, Sheetal; Jurkiewicz, Melissa A; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-09-01

    Lab-reared sphingid and noctuid moths appear to feed less than wild moths, and often are starved to enhance responsiveness in feeding assays. To measure the impact of larval nutrition on adult feeding, we raised a model sphingid species, Manduca sexta, on control or modified diets (reduced sugar, protein or water, supplemented beta-carotene) or cut tobacco leaves, then conducted feeding assays with artificial flowers. Behaviour was scored and analysed in a double-blind manner. Larval diet affected adult eclosion time, size and fat content, the latter of which was inversely proportional to moth approaches to the floral array in a flight cage. In contrast, behaviours refractory to feeding (sitting, escaping) were associated with sex and barometric pressure, but not with diet or fat content. Frequency of floral approaches and probing was not associated with any variable. However, moths reared on beta-carotene-supplemented diet were 2-3 times more likely to feed, and significantly less likely to sit or show "escape" behaviour than were moths from most other treatments. Our results suggest that decreased visual sensitivity, rather than increased fat content, accounts for reduced adult feeding by lab-reared M. sexta.

  12. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  13. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  14. Captures of MFO-resistant Cydia pomonella adults as affected by lure, crop management system and flight.

    PubMed

    Bosch, D; Rodríguez, M A; Avilla, J

    2016-02-01

    The main resistance mechanism of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in the tree fruit area of Lleida (NE Spain) is multifunction oxidases (MFO). We studied the frequency of MFO-resistant adults captured by different lures, with and without pear ester, and flights in orchards under different crop management systems. The factor year affected codling moth MFO-resistance level, particularly in the untreated orchards, highlighting the great influence of codling moth migration on the spread of resistance in field populations. Chemical treatments and adult flight were also very important but mating disruption technique showed no influence. The second adult flight showed the highest frequency, followed by the first flight and the third flight. In untreated orchards, there were no significant differences in the frequency of MFO-resistant individuals attracted by Combo and BioLure. Red septa lures baited with pear ester (DA) captured sufficient insects only in the first generation of 2010, obtaining a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo and BioLure. In the chemically treated orchards, in 2009 BioLure caught a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo during the first and third flight, and also than DA during the first flight. No significant differences were found between the lures or flights in 2010. These results cannot support the idea of a higher attractiveness of the pear ester for MFO-resistant adults in the field but do suggest a high influence of the response to the attractant depending on the management of the orchard, particularly with regard to the use of chemical insecticides.

  15. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    PubMed

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  16. Adult feeding moths (Sphingidae) differ from non-adult feeding ones (Saturniidae) in activity-timing overlap and temporal niche width.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Nícholas F; de Camargo, Willian R F; Corrêa, Danilo do C V; de Camargo, Amabílio J A; Vieira, Emerson M

    2016-02-01

    According to classic ecology, resource partitioning by segregation along at least one of the three main niche axes (time, food, and space) must take place for the coexistence of species with similar ecological requirements. We used nocturnal light traps to investigate the assemblage structuration of two moth families: Sphingidae (23 species) and Saturniidae (13 species). Because competition for food among adults potentially occurs only among sphingids, only for this family did we expect less overlap of diel activity patterns than expected by chance and also a greater temporal niche width compared to saturniids. Moreover, we expected a greater number of sphingid species pairs to differ in activity timing compared to saturniid pairs. We also hypothesized that in the case of a lack of temporal structuration, sphingids would be morphologically structured in relation to proboscis length. Contrary to what we expected, both families overlapped their activity patterns more than expected by chance alone and sphingid moths were not morphologically structured. Nevertheless, there were 173 significant pairwise differences in temporal activity between sphingids, contrasting with no interspecific differences between saturniids. Sphingid species also showed a wider temporal niche width than saturniids, as expected. Predation risk and abiotic factors may have caused the overall similarities in activity patterns for both families. The temporal niche seemed not to be determinant for the assemblage structuration of moths as a whole for either of the studied families, but segregation along the temporal niche axis of some potentially competing species pairs can be a relevant factor for the coexistence of nectar-feeding species.

  17. A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming. PMID:25551751

  18. A series of abnormal climatic conditions caused the most severe outbreak of first-generation adults of the meadow moth ( Loxostege sticticalis L.) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Zeng, Juan; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-06-01

    The meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., is a destructive migratory pest in the northern temperate zone. The outbreak mechanism of first-generation adults in China remains unclear. In 2008, the density of first-generation larvae was very low or even negligible in most sites in China. However, a great number of first-generation adults appeared unexpectedly in late July, and their offspring caused the most severe infestation on record. The present study aims to determine where the large influx of immigrant adults originated from and how this unprecedented population was established. Source areas were explored by trajectory analysis, and climatic patterns related to the population increase were investigated. Results showed that the outbreak population mainly immigrated from Northeast Mongolia and the Chita State of Russia, and the buildup of such a large population could be attributed to an exceptional northward migration of overwintered adults from North China to East Mongolia in the spring of 2007 and unusually favourable climatic conditions in the next two growth seasons. These results indicated that the population dynamics of meadow moth in Northeast Asia would be difficult to predict when only considering local climatic factors and population size within one country. International joint monitoring and information sharing related to this pest between China, Mongolia and Russia should be implemented.

  19. Increased allocation of adult-acquired carbohydrate to egg production results in its decreased allocation to sex pheromone production in mated females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Harmon, J P

    2014-02-15

    Females of most species of moths produce a volatile sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males over distance. In females of the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens, feeding on carbohydrate (e.g. nectar) supplies precursor, via hemolymph trehalose, for both sex pheromone and egg production. With limited carbohydrate acquisition these two reproductive physiologies might compete for hemolymph trehalose, resulting in an allocation deficit to either sex pheromone or egg production. Using virgin and mated females, which have low and high egg maturation rates, respectively, we fed females a limited diet of (13)C-labeled glucose daily and, using mass isotopomer distribution analysis, determined allocations of adult-acquired carbohydrate (AAC) to newly synthesized pheromone and ovarian and egg fats, our proxies for allocation to egg production. With increased number of feeds, AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose increased, as expected. This led to mated females increasing their proportional allocation of AAC to ovarian and egg fats, but decreasing their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production. By contrast, virgins increased their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production with increased feeds, consistent with increasing AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose. These results show that with limited AAC intake, enhanced egg maturation in mated females results in reduced AAC allocation to pheromone production; this does not occur in virgins because of their lower egg maturation rate. This physiological competition for AAC corresponded with decreased pheromone production in mated moths to levels unlikely to attract mates. Therefore, the availability and/or allocation of AAC may be a proximate mechanism underlying the incidence of polyandry in this and other species of moths.

  20. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Bänziger, H

    1979-03-01

    1. Of the scarce Calyptra minuticornis, C. orthograpta and C. labilis, 51, 24, and 7 adults, respectively, were observed during some 600 night inspections at over 100 sites in 1965--1967 and 1971--1977. 2. Hitherto biologically completely unknown, and not recorded before in S.E. Asia, the latter two species flew in or near tropical monsoon forests in hilly regions (300--600 m) of N. Thailand (C. orthograpta also N. Laos). C. minuticornis was found in these and in tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of S. Thailand and N.W. Malaysia. 3. In N. Thailand the three species were more common at the end of the cool season/start of the hot season and at the start of the rainy season. They were active mainly during the first half of the night 4. Flight and piercing behaviour, alighting, resting, enemies, and the lack of females, were similar to virtually identical with the "classical" skin-piercing blood-sucking C. eustrigata. 5. C. labilis was seen attacking elephant, C. orthograpta also water buffalo and sambar, C. minuticornis also zebu and tapir but not sambar. C. minuticornis settled on man also but did not pierce. 6. Through no piercing of hosts' skin has actually been seen in nature, indirect evidence suggests that the 3 moths are likely to be occasional blood-suckers. They pierced and sucked blood from the author's skin in experiments. 7. Reasons for lack of direct evidence may be: less developed hematophagy, less favoured hosts, lack of easy-to-pierce injured skin (which also trigger the piercing response), different climatic and phytoecological environment, fewer specimens than in the case of C. eustrigata. 8. Field observations and experiments indicate that the closely related, fruit-piercing Oraesia emarginata is not skin-piercing blood-sucking--a habit likely to be exhibited mainly in humid equatorial regions by a few Calyptra only. PMID:35931

  1. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Bänziger, H

    1979-03-01

    1. Of the scarce Calyptra minuticornis, C. orthograpta and C. labilis, 51, 24, and 7 adults, respectively, were observed during some 600 night inspections at over 100 sites in 1965--1967 and 1971--1977. 2. Hitherto biologically completely unknown, and not recorded before in S.E. Asia, the latter two species flew in or near tropical monsoon forests in hilly regions (300--600 m) of N. Thailand (C. orthograpta also N. Laos). C. minuticornis was found in these and in tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of S. Thailand and N.W. Malaysia. 3. In N. Thailand the three species were more common at the end of the cool season/start of the hot season and at the start of the rainy season. They were active mainly during the first half of the night 4. Flight and piercing behaviour, alighting, resting, enemies, and the lack of females, were similar to virtually identical with the "classical" skin-piercing blood-sucking C. eustrigata. 5. C. labilis was seen attacking elephant, C. orthograpta also water buffalo and sambar, C. minuticornis also zebu and tapir but not sambar. C. minuticornis settled on man also but did not pierce. 6. Through no piercing of hosts' skin has actually been seen in nature, indirect evidence suggests that the 3 moths are likely to be occasional blood-suckers. They pierced and sucked blood from the author's skin in experiments. 7. Reasons for lack of direct evidence may be: less developed hematophagy, less favoured hosts, lack of easy-to-pierce injured skin (which also trigger the piercing response), different climatic and phytoecological environment, fewer specimens than in the case of C. eustrigata. 8. Field observations and experiments indicate that the closely related, fruit-piercing Oraesia emarginata is not skin-piercing blood-sucking--a habit likely to be exhibited mainly in humid equatorial regions by a few Calyptra only.

  2. 'Do you remember the first time?' Host plant preference in a moth is modulated by experiences during larval feeding and adult mating.

    PubMed

    Proffit, Magali; Khallaf, Mohammed A; Carrasco, David; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In insects, like in other animals, experience-based modulation of preference, a form of phenotypic plasticity, is common in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of multiple fitness-relevant experiences on insect preference remains largely unexplored. For the multivoltine polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis we investigated effects of larval and adult experiences on subsequent reproductive behaviours. We demonstrate, for the first time in male and female insects, that mating experience on a plant modulates plant preference in subsequent reproductive behaviours, whereas exposure to the plant alone or plant together with sex pheromone does not affect this preference. When including larval feeding experiences, we found that both larval rearing and adult mating experiences modulate host plant preference. These findings represent the first evidence that host plant preferences in polyphagous insects are determined by a combination of innate preferences modulated by sensory feedback triggered by multiple rewarding experiences throughout their lifetime.

  3. A garlic substance disrupts odorant-binding protein recognition of insect pheromones released from adults of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, M; Chang, M-M; Lei, C-L; Yang, F-L

    2016-10-01

    The angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is one of the most serious stored-grain pests worldwide. Control of this moth may be achieved by interfering with olfactory pathways to disrupt male-female communication with sex pheromones, using plant volatiles like garlic or its active substances. Here, three odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes [namely Si. cerealella general OBP 1 (ScerGOBP1), ScerGOBP2 and Si. cerealella pheromone-binding protein (ScerPBP)] were cloned from Si. cerealella antennae, and quantitative real-time PCR showed that these genes were predominantly expressed in adult antennae. ScerPBP expression was male-biased, but ScerGOBP1 and ScerGOBP2 were similar between sexes. The results of competitive binding assays indicated that a garlic substance, diallyl trisulphide (DATS), had similar or even higher binding affinity to ScerPBP than Si. cerealella sex pheromone, 7Z, 11E-hexadecadien-1-ol acetate (HDA). In olfactometer bioassays, DATS significantly reduced the response of adults to HDA when they were exposed to air filled with HDA and DATS. Surprisingly, ScerGOBP2, which is postulated to be involved in the detection of general odours, displayed higher affinity with HDA than did ScerPBP, indicating that ScerGOBP2 may also have a role in pheromone perception. These data suggest that DATS may interfere with recognition of female-produced sex pheromone, disrupting female and male mating behaviour and resulting in a new idea for controlling stored grain pests. PMID:27111111

  4. A specific affinity reagent to distinguish aldehyde dehydrogenases and oxidases. Enzymes catalyzing aldehyde oxidation in an adult moth

    SciTech Connect

    Tasayco, M.L.; Prestwich, G.D. )

    1990-02-25

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and oxidase (AO) enzymes from the tissue extracts of male and female tobacco budworm moth (Heliothis virescens) were identified after electrophoretic protein separation. AO activity was visualized using formazan- or horseradish peroxidase-mediated staining coupled to the AO-catalyzed oxidation of benzaldehyde. A set of six soluble AO enzymes with isoelectric points from pI 4.6 to 5.3 were detected primarily in the antennal extracts. Partially purified antennal AO enzymes also oxidized both (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal, the two major pheromone components of this moth. ALDH activity was detected using a tritium-labeled affinity reagent based on a known irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme. This labeled vinyl ketone, (3H)(Z)-1,11-hexadecadien-3-one, was synthesized and used to covalently modify the soluble ALDH enzymes from tissue extracts. Molecular subunits of potential ALDH enzymes were visualized in the fluorescence autoradiograms of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated proteins of the antenna, head, and leg tissues. Covalent modification of these protein subunits decreased specifically in the presence of excess pheromone aldehyde or benzaldehyde. Labeled vinyl ketones are thus novel tools for the identification of molecular subunits of ALDH enzymes.

  5. Localization of a GABA transporter to glial cells in the developing and adult olfactory pathway of the moth Manduca sexta1

    PubMed Central

    Oland, Lynne A; Gibson, Nicholas J; Tolbert, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Glial cells have several critical roles in the developing and adult olfactory (antennal) lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. Early in development, glial cells occupy discrete regions of the developing olfactory pathway and processes of GABAergic neurons extend into some of these regions. Because GABA is known to have developmental effects in a variety of systems, we explored the possibility that the glial cells express a GABA transporter that could regulate GABA levels to which olfactory neurons and glial cells are exposed. Using an antibody raised against a characterized high-affinity M. sexta GABA transporter with high sequence homology to known mammalian GABA transporters (Mbungu et al., 1995; Umesh and Gill, 2002), we found that the GABA transporter is localized to subsets of centrally derived glial cells during metamorphic adult development. The transporter persists into adulthood in a subset of the neuropil-associated glial cells, but its distribution pattern as determined by light- and electron-microscopic-level immunocytochemistry indicates that it could not serve to regulate GABA concentration in the synaptic cleft. Rather its role is more likely to regulate extracellular GABA levels within the glomerular neuropil. Expression in the sorting zone glial cells disappears after the period of olfactory receptor axon ingrowth, but may be important during ingrowth if GABA regulates axon growth. Glial cells take up GABA, and that uptake can be blocked by DABA. This is the first molecular evidence that the central glial cell population in this pathway is heterogeneous. PMID:20058309

  6. Influence of Dietary Experience on the Induction of Preference of Adult Moths and Larvae for a New Olfactory Cue

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Christophe; Le Ru, Bruno; Dupas, Stéphane; Frérot, Brigitte; Ahuya, Peter; Kaiser-Arnauld, Laure; Harry, Myriam; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2015-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, host plant selection is first conditioned by oviposition site preference of adult females followed by feeding site preference of larvae. Dietary experience to plant volatile cues can induce larval and adult host plant preference. We investigated how the parent’s and self-experience induce host preference in adult females and larvae of three lepidopteran stem borer species with different host plant ranges, namely the polyphagous Sesamia nonagrioides, the oligophagous Busseola fusca and the monophagous Busseola nairobica, and whether this induction can be linked to a neurophysiological phenotypic plasticity. The three species were conditioned to artificial diet enriched with vanillin from the neonate larvae to the adult stage during two generations. Thereafter, two-choice tests on both larvae and adults using a Y-tube olfactometer and electrophysiological (electroantennography [EAG] recordings) experiments on adults were carried out. In the polyphagous species, the induction of preference for a new olfactory cue (vanillin) by females and 3rd instar larvae was determined by parents’ and self-experiences, without any modification of the sensitivity of the females antennae. No preference induction was found in the oligophagous and monophagous species. Our results suggest that lepidopteran stem borers may acquire preferences for new olfactory cues from the larval to the adult stage as described by Hopkins’ host selection principle (HHSP), neo-Hopkins’ principle, and the concept of ‘chemical legacy.’ PMID:26288070

  7. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  8. Identification of biotransformation enzymes in the antennae of codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Su, Xiaoji; Feng, Jinian

    2016-04-10

    Biotransformation enzymes are found in insect antennae and play a critical role in degrading xenobiotics and odorants. In Cydia pomonella, we identified 26 biotransformation enzymes. Among these enzymes, twelve carboxylesterases (CXEs), two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) and six alcohol dehydrogenases (ADs) were predominantly expressed in antennae. Each of the CpomCXEs presents a conserved catalytic triad "Ser-His-Glu", which is the structural characteristic of known insect CXEs. CpomAOXs present two redox centers, a FAD-binding domain and a molybdenum cofactor/substrate-binding domain. The antennal CpomADs are from two protein families, short-chain dehydrogenases/reducetases (SDRs) and medium-chain dehydrogenases/reducetases (MDRs). Putative catalytic active domain and cofactor binding domain were found in these CpomADs. Potential functions of these enzymes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that these enzymes share close relationship with odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) and resistance-associated enzymes of other insect species. Because of commonly observed roles of insect antennal biotransformation enzymes, we suggest antennal biotransformation enzymes presented here are candidate that involved in degradation of odorants and xenobiotics within antennae of C. pomonella.

  9. Impact of hot events at different developmental stages of a moth: the closer to adult stage, the less reproductive output.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chang, Xiang-Qian; Hoffmann, AryA; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-05-22

    Hot days in summer (involving a few hours at particularly high temperatures) are expected to become more common under climate change. How such events at different life stages affect survival and reproduction remains unclear in most organisms. Here, we investigated how an exposure to 40 °C at different life stages in the global insect pest, Plutella xylostella, affects immediate survival, subsequent survival and reproductive output. First-instar larvae showed the lowest survival under heat stress, whereas 3rd-instar larvae were relatively heat resistant. Heat exposure at the 1(st)-instar or egg stage did not influence subsequent maturation success, while exposure at the 3rd-instar larval stage did have an effect. We found that heat stress at developmental stages closer to adult stage caused greater detrimental effects on reproduction than heat stress experienced at earlier life stages. The effects of hot events on insect populations can therefore depend critically on the timing of the event relative to an organism's life-cycle.

  10. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  11. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management.

  12. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  13. Characterizing the interaction between the bogus yucca moth and yuccas: do bogus yucca moths impact yucca reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Sparks, Jed P

    2004-07-01

    Yucca moths are most well known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas, where pollinator moths provide yuccas with pollen and, in exchange, the moth larvae feed on a subset of the developing yucca seeds. The pollinators, however, comprise only two of the three genera of yucca moths. Members of the third genus, Prodoxus, are the "bogus yucca moths" and are sister to the pollinator moths. Adult Prodoxus lack the specialized mouthparts used for pollination and the larvae feed on plant tissues other than seeds. Prodoxus larvae feed within the same plants as pollinator larvae and have the potential to influence yucca reproductive success directly by drawing resources away from flowers and fruit, or indirectly by modifying the costs of the mutualism with pollinators. We examined the interaction between the scape-feeding bogus yucca moth, Prodoxus decipiens, and one of its yucca hosts, Yucca filamentosa, by comparing female reproductive success of plants with and without moth larvae. We determined reproductive success by measuring a set of common reproductive traits such as flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination. In addition, we also quantified the percent total nitrogen in the seeds to determine whether the presence of larvae could potentially reduce seed quality. Flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination were not significantly different between plants with and without bogus yucca moth larvae. In contrast, the percent total nitrogen content of seeds was significantly lower in plants with P. decipiens larvae, and nitrogen content was negatively correlated with the number of larvae feeding within the inflorescence scape. Surveys of percent total nitrogen at three time periods during the flowering and fruiting of Y. filamentosa also showed that larval feeding decreased the amount of nitrogen in fruit tissue. Taken together, the results suggest that although P. decipiens influences nitrogen distribution in Y. filamentosa, this

  14. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  15. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  16. General principles of attraction and competitive attraction as revealed by large-cage studies of moths responding to sex pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. R.; McGhee, P. S.; Siegert, P. Y.; Adams, C. G.; Huang, J.; Grieshop, M. J.; Gut, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of how insects are actually affected by sex pheromones deployed throughout a crop so as to disrupt mating has lacked a mechanistic framework sufficient for guiding optimization of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic. Major hypotheses are competitive attraction, desensitization, and camouflage. Working with codling moths, Cydia pomonella, in field cages millions of times larger than laboratory test tubes and at substrate concentrations trillions of times less than those typical for enzymes, we nevertheless demonstrate that mating disruption sufficiently parallels enzyme (ligand) –substrate interactions so as to justify adoption of conceptual and analytical tools of biochemical kinetics. By doing so, we prove that commercial dispensers of codling moth pheromone first competitively attract and then deactivate males probably for the remainder of a night. No evidence was found for camouflage. We generated and now validate simple algebraic equations for attraction and competitive attraction that will guide optimization and broaden implementation of behavioral manipulations of pests. This analysis system also offers a unique approach to quantifying animal foraging behaviors and could find applications across the natural and social sciences. PMID:20018720

  17. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  18. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala.

  19. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  20. [Thermal tolerance of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiang-Qian; Ma, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Shu; Lü, Liang

    2012-03-01

    Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella is a worldwide important pest on cruciferous vegetables. Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) is often used as an index for the thermal tolerance of insects. By the method of dynamic heating, this paper measured the CTMax of P. xylostella in a self-assembled device, and studied the effects of development stage, rearing temperature, generation, sex, and heat shock on the thermal tolerance of P. xylostella based on the CTMax values. Reared at 25 degrees C, the mean CTMax of the 4th larva (50.31 degrees C) was significantly higher than that of the 1st larva (43.03 degrees C), 2nd larva (46.39 degrees C), 3rd larva (49.67 degrees C), female adult (45.76 degrees C), and male adult (47.73 degrees C); reared at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, the adults had no significant difference in their CTMax; reared at 30 degrees C for 1-, 3-, and 6 generations, the CTMax of the adults also had no significant difference. In all the treatments, the CTMax of the female and male adults had less difference. Heat shock with 40 degrees C for 45 minutes could make the CTMax of 5 day-old male moth increased from 45.51 degrees C to 46.49 degrees C.

  1. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  2. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth.

  3. Chromosomal Evolution in Tortricid Moths: Conserved Karyotypes with Diverged Features

    PubMed Central

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the

  4. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  5. Tiger moth jams bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

    2009-07-17

    In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects.

  6. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  7. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  8. The Potential of Heated Controlled Atmosphere Postharvest Treatments for the Control of False Codling Moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) is an environmentally-friendly postharvest mitigation treatment that uses high temperature forced-air combined with a low oxygen and high carbon dioxide atmosphere to control quarantine pests. The development of CATTS treatments is expensive...

  9. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  10. Auditory system of noctuid moths.

    PubMed

    Roeder, K D

    1966-12-23

    Insect-eating bats find their aerial food by sonar, through emitting ultrasonic chirps and locating sources of echoes. Certain moths have ears sensitive to these chirps and can detect bats well beyond the range of the bats' sonar. On hearing a distant bat, many moths turn and fly directly away from the source of ultrasound. Only one sense cell in each ear of a moth provides the primary nervous information for this response. This article describes my initial attempts to find out how a moth's central nervous system processes the train of chirps reaching its two ears. The ear of a restrained moth is exposed to a sequence of artifically generated ultrasonic pulses that approximates the cries made by a bat. This stimulus can be varied with respect to ultrasonic frequency (pitch), pulse intensity, pulse duration, the interval between pulses, and pulse-train duration. The more sensitive acoustic sense cell responds to all frequencies between about 15,000 and 80,000 cycles per second, but the signal that it transmits to the moth's central nervous system contains no measure of frequency within this range. However, this nerve signal reports variations in the other parameters of the stimulus. The acoustic fiber connects, in the central nervous system, with various nerve cells that transform the signal farther. The signal from a pulse-marker neuron contains no measures of pulse intensity or pulse duration, reporting only changes in interpulse interval and pulse-train duration. A train-marker neuron reports only the duration of the pulse train. The stimulus parameters may be likened to keys, each of which is necessary to gain admittance through a given door but becomes superfluous once this door has been passed. This analogy suggests one of the ways in which a signal is transformed in its passage through the nervous system, and how its specificity is assured in eliciting a given response. In addition to undergoing this kind of transformation, neural signals generated in the two

  11. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

    2014-01-29

    A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails.

  12. Competition between the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis: interactions mediated by host plant chemistry, pathogens, and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Redman, A M; Scriber, J M

    2000-10-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and the northern tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, overlap geographically as well as in their host ranges. Adult female swallowtails are incapable of distinguishing between damaged and undamaged leaves, and the opportunities for competition between these two species are numerous. We designed field and laboratory experiments to look for evidence of indirect competition between P. canadensis and L. dispar larvae. Swallowtail caterpillars were reared in the laboratory on leaves from gypsy-moth-defoliated and undefoliated trees to explore host-plant effects. We tested for pathogen-mediated interactions by rearing swallowtail larvae on both sterilized and unsterilized leaves from defoliated and undefoliated sources. In addition, we measured the effects of known gypsy moth pathogens, as well as gypsy moth body fluids, on the growth and survival of swallowtail larvae. Field experiments were designed to detect the presence of parasitoid-mediated competition, as well: we recorded parasitism of swallowtail caterpillars placed in the field either where there were no gypsy moth larvae present, or where we had artificially created dense gypsy moth populations. We found evidence that swallowtails were negatively affected by gypsy moths in several ways: defoliation by gypsy moths depressed swallowtail growth rate and survival, whether leaves were sterilized or not; sterilization significantly reduced the effect of defoliation, and gypsy moth body fluids proved lethal; and swallowtail caterpillars suffered significantly increased rates of parasitism when they were placed in the field near gypsy moth infestations.

  13. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  14. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  15. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    PubMed Central

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  16. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  17. Attract-and-Kill and other pheromone-based methods to suppress populations of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Manuel; Phillips, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Three attract-and-kill formulations, a gel, a wax panel, and a plastic cylinder were tested in simulated warehouses at three densities of devices and at three densities of moths, Plodia interpunctella Hübner, per room. Wax panels and the cylinder formulations suppressed all the densities of moths with only one device per room. Two field experiments were then conducted during 2005 and 2006 in replicated commercial pet food and grocery stores that harbored natural populations of P. interpunctella. In the summer of 2005, the wax panel formulation suppressed adult male response to monitoring traps and also reduced the numbers of larvae in food bait oviposition cups after the first month of being established. This suppression was maintained until the third month. The second field experiment in 2006 compared three pheromone-based methods of moth suppression in buildings with moth populations in untreated buildings. The mass-trapping treatment showed the lowest adult moth capture after the first month of the experiment until the end of the third month. However, this treatment was similar statistically to use of attract-and-kill panels, mating disruption, and untreated control establishments in most of the weeks. Monitoring of larvae in food cups revealed the pheromone-based methods were not significantly different from each other, but that they suppressed moth populations in most of the weeks when compared with untreated control buildings. This research shows potential for successful pheromone-based suppression methods for Indianmeal moths in commercial applications.

  18. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the vampire moths and their fruit-piercing relatives (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Zahiri, R; Hoy, M A; Janzen, D; Weller, S J; Wahlberg, N

    2012-11-01

    Within butterflies and moths, adult hematophagy is limited to species within the vampire moth genus Calyptra. These moths are placed within the subfamily Calpinae, whose other members are known to exhibit a broad range of feeding behaviors including those that can be considered 'piercers' of fruits or other hosts and 'tear feeders'. Here, we reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis of Calpinae using molecular data to test whether hematophagy in Calyptra arose from plant or animal-related behaviors. We use a Bayesian method of ancestral state reconstruction to determine the most likely feeding behaviors for the subtribes and genera within this lineage.

  19. Optimal control of gypsy moth populations.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Andrew; Lenhart, Suzanne; White, K A J

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates an optimal strategy for the cost effective control of gypsy moth populations. Gypsy moth populations cycle between low sparse numbers to high outbreak levels and it is during the outbreak levels that the moths cause extensive damage to plant foliage which can lead to deforestation. Deforestation can result in significant economic damage to infested areas, and consequently, there have been many efforts to control moth populations. One effective method of control is the use of the biocontrol agent, Gypchek, but its production is costly. We develop a mathematical model which combines population dynamics and optimal control of the moth population to explore strategies by which the total cost of the gypsy moth problem (economic damage and cost of Gypchek) can be minimized.

  20. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions. PMID:27417503

  1. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions.

  2. Archips xylosteana (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Palearctic leaf-rolling moth, new to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Archips xylosteana (L.), a widespread Palearctic tortricid moth, is reported from St. John’s, Newfoundland, the first confirmed records of this species in North America. Adults were collected by beating branches and foliage of a variety of ornamental trees and shrubs on the campus of Memorial Univer...

  3. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  4. Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, early instars, late instars, early pupae and late pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, ...

  5. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  6. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  7. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-06-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  8. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction. PMID:23274850

  9. Cardenolide sequestration by the dogbane tiger moth (Cycnia tenera; Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Cohen, J A; Brower, L P

    1983-04-01

    Cycnia tenera adults, reared as larvae onAsclepias humistrata, had 10 times higher cardenolide concentrations, and contained 15 times more total cardenolide, than did moths reared onA. tuberosa. Thin-layer chromatography confirmed that each individual cardenolide visualized in the adult moths reared on the former host plant corresponds to one present in the plant, thus demonstrating that the insects' cardenolides are indeed derived from the larval food. Adult weights were significantly greater when the larvae had been fed upon the higher cardenolide plant species,A. humistrata. Similar results for other milkweed-feeding insects have been interpreted by some authors as evidence against a metabolic cost of handling cardenolides. However, such interpretations confound cardenolide differences among milkweed species with other differences in plant primary and secondary chemistry that affect insect growth and development. While the cooccurrence inC. tenera of other noxious chemicals (e.g., alkaloids) is not precluded, cardenolides sequestered from larval host plants have probably contributed to the evolution of visual and auditory aposematism in this species. As the eggs are laid in large clutches and larvae are gregarious, such aposematism may have evolved via kin selection.

  10. Effects of polymorphic melanism and larval diet on life history traits of Malacosoma disstria moths.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Jessica; Despland, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the presence and possible genetic basis of polymorphic melanism in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) moth. Adult moths were classified into pattern-based phenotypes and wing darkness was measured to quantify the degree of melanization. We found that two distinct phenotypes, melanic and simple, are present in these moths. Although the full melanic phenotype is sex-limited to males, it is partially expressed in females. We also provide support for the theory that the melanic allele is autosomal and dominant. The effects of larval diet quality on the survival, development and wing melanization of each phenotype were studied by rearing larvae on the foliage of either a primary or secondary host. Diet quality did not differentially affect the two phenotypes; however, melanic males were found to be smaller than simple males regardless of larval diet. Such inherent developmental differences between the two phenotypes could have important consequences for the frequencies of the two morphs.

  11. Commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis for control of Indian meal moth.

    PubMed Central

    Schesser, J H

    1976-01-01

    Doses of four commercial formulations and one experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were mixed with the diet used to rear colonies of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Indian meal moth eggs were introduced to the treated diet, and the resultant adult emergence was tabulated. The experimental formulations ranked as follows in efficacy in controlling the Indian meal moth: Dipel (50% lethal concentration [LC50], 25 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine WP (LC50, 100 mg/kg) greater than Thuricide (LC50, 150 mg/kg) greater than IMC 90007 (LC30, 180 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine Flowable (LC50, 440 mg/kg). PMID:984828

  12. Volatiles emitted from tea plants infested by Ectropis obliqua larvae are attractive to conspecific moths.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Guo-Chang; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Xin, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2014-10-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles have been reported to play a role in the host-searching behavior of herbivores. However, next to nothing is known about the effect of volatiles emitted from tea plants infested by Ectropis obliqua larvae on the behavior of conspecific adults. Here, we found that tea plants infested by E. obliqua caterpillars for 24 h were more attractive to both virgin male and female E. obliqua adults than were intact, uninfested tea plants; moreover, mated female E. obliqua moths were more attracted by infested tea plants and preferentially oviposited on these plants, whereas male moths were repelled by infested plants once they had mated. Volatile analysis revealed that the herbivore infestation dramatically increased the emission of volatiles. Among these volatiles, 17 compounds elicited antennal responses from both male and female virginal moths. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we found that 3 of the 17 chemicals, benzyl alcohol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, and (Z)-3-hexenal, were attractive, but two compounds, linalool and benzyl nitril, were repellent to virgin male and female moths. One chemical, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, was attractive only to virgin males. Mated females were attracted by three compounds, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenal; whereas mated males were repelled by (Z)-3-hexenol. The findings provide new insights into the interaction between tea plants and the herbivores, and may help scientists develop new measures with which to control E. obliqua.

  13. Delayed density-dependent parasitism of eggs and pupae as a contributor to the cyclic population dynamics of the autumnal moth.

    PubMed

    Klemola, Tero; Andersson, Tommi; Ruohomäki, Kai

    2014-08-01

    Many populations of forest Lepidoptera exhibit 10-year cycles in densities, with impressive outbreaks across large regions. Delayed density-dependent interactions with natural enemies are recognized as key factors driving these cyclic population dynamics, but emphasis has typically been on the larval stages. Eggs, pupae and adults also suffer mortality from predators, parasitoids and pathogens, but little is known about possible density relationships between mortality factors and these non-feeding life stages. In a long-term field study, we experimentally deployed autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) eggs and pupae to their natural enemies yearly throughout the 10-year population cycle in northern Norway. The abundance of another geometrid, the winter moth (Operophtera brumata), increased in the study area, permitting comparisons between the two moth species in predation and parasitism. Survival of autumnal moth eggs and pupae was related to the moth abundance in an inverse and delayed manner. Egg and pupal parasitoids dominated as density-dependent mortality factors and predicted the subsequent growth rate of the host population size. In contrast, effects of egg and pupal predators were weakly density dependent, and generally predation remained low. Parasitism rates did not differ between the autumnal and winter moth pupae, whereas predators preferred winter moth pupae over those of the autumnal moth. We conclude that parasitism of the autumnal moth by egg and pupal parasitoids can be related to the changes of the moth density in a delayed density-dependent manner. Furthermore, egg and pupal parasitoids cannot be overlooked as causal factors for the population cycles of forest Lepidoptera in general.

  14. Neurometamorphosis of the ear in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its homologue in the earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F P; Fullard, J H

    1996-10-01

    The adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae: Noctuoidea) has a pair of metathoracic tympanic ears that each contain a two-celled auditory chordotonal organ (CO). The earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae: Bombycoidea), has a homologous pair of three-celled, nonauditory hindwing COs in their place. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the adult CO in both species arises from a preexisting larval organ or if it develops as a novel structure during metamorphosis. We describe the larval metathoracic nervous system of L. dispar and M. disstria, and identify a three-celled chordotonal organ in the anatomically homologous site as the adult CO. If the larval CO is severed from the homologue of the adult auditory nerve (IIIN1b1) in L. dispar prior to metamorphosis, the adult develops an ear lacking an auditory organ. Axonal backfills of the larval IIIN1b1 nerve in both species reveal three chordotonal sensory neurons and one nonchordotonal multipolar cell. The axons of these cells project into tracts of the central nervous system putatively homologous with those of the auditory pathway in adult L. dispar. Following metamorphosis, M. disstria moths retain all four cells (three CO and one multipolar) while L. dispar adults possess two cells that service the auditory CO and one nonauditory, multipolar cell. We conclude that the larval IIIN1b1 CO is the precursor of both the auditory organ in L. dispar and the putative proprioceptor CO in M. disstria and represents the premetamorphic condition of these insects. The implications of our results in understanding the evolution of the ear in the Lepidoptera and insects in general are discussed.

  15. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  16. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal... are amending the South American cactus moth regulations by adding the State of Louisiana to the list of areas quarantined because of South American cactus moth. As a result of this action,...

  17. Development of the larval ovary in the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Beckemeyer, E F; Shirk, P D

    2004-11-01

    The morphogenesis of ovaries and the organization of germ cells within them were visualized during the larval stages of the moth, Plodia interpunctella. The germ cells were observed by utilizing confocal microscopy coupled with immuno-fluorescent staining for the alpha-crystallin protein 25 (alphaCP25). The alphaCP25 was previously shown to be specific to germ cells of pupae and adults, and this study shows that alphaCP25 is present in larval germ cells as well. A cluster of 28 germ cells that stain for alphaCP25 was found in the gonads of newly hatched first instar larvae. The founding germ cells became segregated into four clusters, most likely by somatic cell intrusion, around the beginning of the second instar. Division of the primary germ cells began by the end of the second instar and the formation of all cystoblasts appeared to be completed within the four ovarioles by the end of the third instar. Within the ovarioles of third instar larvae, the germ cells were organized with a distal cap of seven germ cells which was segregated from the majority of the germ cells. The main body of germ cells was arranged around a central germ cell-free core as a spiral. Divisions of the cystoblasts to form cystocyte clusters were nearly completed during the fourth (last) larval instar. These features suggest that the strategy to produce follicles in moths is fundamentally different from the fruitfly, Drosophila. It appears that during the initial stages of ovary development in P. interpunctella, the primary germ cells undergo stage-complete divisions that are completed prior to the onset of the next set of divisions, which results in a complete complement of follicles available by the time of adult eclosion, while in Drosophila the primary germ cell divisions are initiated in the adult stage, and follicles are produced individually as resources are available.

  18. Recovery of fertility by Mediterranean flour moths transferred from continuous light to light:dark

    SciTech Connect

    Riemann, J.G.; Johnson, M.; Thorson, B.

    1981-05-01

    Male Mediterranean flour moths, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), placed in continuous light (LL) from the early pupal stage on were partially sterile as adults. When old adult moths were transferred to alternating light and dark (LD), fertility was not recovered, but fertility was recovered when fairly young males were similarly transferred. Multiple matings of males indicated that recovery was correlated with sperm in the testes at the LL to LD transfer becoming available for ejaculations. Few morphological abnormalities were found in the sperm of LL males, but there was less activity than in the sperm of LD males. At 1 week after eclosion, the testes of LL males contained more sperm bundles than did the testes of LD males, but the LL males had somewhat fewer bundles overall in their reproductive tracts. Disruption of the circadian rhythm regulating movement of sperm from the testes was suggested as the most probable cause of the sterility of LL males.

  19. The Peripheral Olfactory Repertoire of the Lightbrown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jacob A; Jordan, Melissa D; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Crowhurst, Ross N; Newcomb, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is an increasingly global pest of horticultural crops. Like other moths, E. postvittana relies on olfactory cues to locate mates and oviposition sites. To detect these cues, moths have evolved families of genes encoding elements of the peripheral olfactory reception system, including odor carriers, receptors and degrading enzymes. Here we undertake a transcriptomic approach to identify members of these families expressed in the adult antennae of E. postvittana, describing open reading frames encoding 34 odorant binding proteins, 13 chemosensory proteins, 70 odorant receptors, 19 ionotropic receptors, nine gustatory receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, 27 carboxylesterases, 20 glutathione-S-transferases, 49 cytochrome p450s and 18 takeout proteins. For the odorant receptors, quantitative RT-PCR corroborated RNAseq count data on steady state transcript levels. Of the eight odorant receptors that group phylogenetically with pheromone receptors from other moths, two displayed significant male-biased expression patterns, one displayed significant female-biased expression pattern and five were expressed equally in the antennae of both sexes. In addition, we found two male-biased odorant receptors that did not group with previously described pheromone receptors. This suite of olfaction-related genes provides a substantial resource for the functional characterization of this signal transduction system and the development of odor-mediated control strategies for horticultural pests.

  20. The Peripheral Olfactory Repertoire of the Lightbrown Apple Moth, Epiphyas postvittana

    PubMed Central

    Thrimawithana, Amali H.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Newcomb, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is an increasingly global pest of horticultural crops. Like other moths, E. postvittana relies on olfactory cues to locate mates and oviposition sites. To detect these cues, moths have evolved families of genes encoding elements of the peripheral olfactory reception system, including odor carriers, receptors and degrading enzymes. Here we undertake a transcriptomic approach to identify members of these families expressed in the adult antennae of E. postvittana, describing open reading frames encoding 34 odorant binding proteins, 13 chemosensory proteins, 70 odorant receptors, 19 ionotropic receptors, nine gustatory receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, 27 carboxylesterases, 20 glutathione-S-transferases, 49 cytochrome p450s and 18 takeout proteins. For the odorant receptors, quantitative RT-PCR corroborated RNAseq count data on steady state transcript levels. Of the eight odorant receptors that group phylogenetically with pheromone receptors from other moths, two displayed significant male-biased expression patterns, one displayed significant female-biased expression pattern and five were expressed equally in the antennae of both sexes. In addition, we found two male-biased odorant receptors that did not group with previously described pheromone receptors. This suite of olfaction-related genes provides a substantial resource for the functional characterization of this signal transduction system and the development of odor-mediated control strategies for horticultural pests. PMID:26017144

  1. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera.

  2. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  3. Larval sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, M; Gehrke, P; Badeke, E; Sachse, S; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2016-10-01

    Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1). Thirty-eight olfactory sensory neurones were identified in three large sensilla basiconica; six of these are considered as candidate pheromone responsive cells based on the expression of SNMP1. The pheromone receptor HR6 was found to be expressed in two cells and the receptor HR13 in three cells. These putative pheromone responsive neurones were accompanied by cells expressing pheromone-binding protein 1 (PBP1) and PBP2. The results indicate that the responsiveness of larval sensilla to female-emitted sex pheromones is based on the same molecular machinery as in the antennae of adult males. PMID:27465144

  4. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences Among Crops, Wild plants, and Ornamentals as Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Newman, K; You, M; Vasseur, L

    2016-04-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an agricultural pest with high reproductive potential, widespread distribution, and high resistance to different types of insecticides. Although diamondback moth is a common research subject, questions remain regarding its spatial and temporal host plant usage patterns and preferences within agroecosystems. We examined the adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences of the diamondback moth to assess the potential of alternate host plants as either reservoirs or trap crops. Adult females and third and fourth instars were offered multiple plant species within the plant family Brassicaceae to examine contact preferences and larval ingestion rates. Adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences were identical, with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (L.) highly preferred, followed by wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris) (L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) (L.). Ingestion rates varied among tested plants, with the lowest rate on black mustard and highest on aubretia (Aubretia deltoidea) (L.). Highly preferred plant species were determined to be unfavorable for larval growth and potentially lethal to neonates, suggesting their possible use as trap crops. Understanding ovipositional and larval feeding preferences of diamondback moth can also aid in the development of more accurate monitoring and control strategies for this pest.

  5. Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Exhibits Oviposition and Larval Feeding Preferences Among Crops, Wild plants, and Ornamentals as Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Newman, K; You, M; Vasseur, L

    2016-04-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an agricultural pest with high reproductive potential, widespread distribution, and high resistance to different types of insecticides. Although diamondback moth is a common research subject, questions remain regarding its spatial and temporal host plant usage patterns and preferences within agroecosystems. We examined the adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences of the diamondback moth to assess the potential of alternate host plants as either reservoirs or trap crops. Adult females and third and fourth instars were offered multiple plant species within the plant family Brassicaceae to examine contact preferences and larval ingestion rates. Adult oviposition and larval feeding preferences were identical, with garden cress (Lepidium sativum) (L.) highly preferred, followed by wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris) (L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra) (L.). Ingestion rates varied among tested plants, with the lowest rate on black mustard and highest on aubretia (Aubretia deltoidea) (L.). Highly preferred plant species were determined to be unfavorable for larval growth and potentially lethal to neonates, suggesting their possible use as trap crops. Understanding ovipositional and larval feeding preferences of diamondback moth can also aid in the development of more accurate monitoring and control strategies for this pest. PMID:26834144

  6. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  7. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  8. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  9. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Fu, Xiaowei; Mao, Limi; Xing, Zhenlong; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants. PMID:27271592

  10. Host Plants Identification for Adult Agrotis ipsilon, a Long-Distance Migratory Insect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongqiang; Fu, Xiaowei; Mao, Limi; Xing, Zhenlong; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the host relationship of Agrotis ipsilon moths by identifying pollen species adhering them during their long-distance migration. Pollen carried by A. ipsilon moths was collected from 2012 to 2014 on a small island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which is a seasonal migration pathway of this pest species. Genomic DNA of single pollen grains was amplified by using whole genome amplification technology, and a portion of the chloroplast rbcL sequence was then amplified from this material. Pollen species were identified by a combination of DNA barcoding and pollen morphology. We found 28 species of pollen from 18 families on the tested moths, mainly from Angiosperm, Dicotyledoneae. From this, we were able to determine that these moths visit woody plants more than herbaceous plants that they carry more pollen in the early and late stages of the migration season, and that the amounts of pollen transportation were related to moth sex, moth body part, and plant species. In general, 31% of female and 26% of male moths were found to be carrying pollen. Amounts of pollen on the proboscis was higher for female than male moths, while the reverse was true for pollen loads on the antennae. This work provides a new approach to study the interactions between noctuid moth and their host plants. Identification of plant hosts for adult moths furthers understanding of the coevolution processes between moths and their host plants. PMID:27271592

  11. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  12. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana, mature larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Al-Attar, J.

    2014-04-01

    Mature 5th instars of the grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50 to 250 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence, sex ratio and rate of development were examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of the grape vine moth larvae increased with increasing radiation dose. The severity of the effect, however, depends on the criterion used for measuring effectiveness; adult emergence was more severely affected than pupation. Pupation was significantly affected at 150 Gy and decreased by about 25% at 250 Gy. Adult emergence, on the other hand, was significantly affected at 100 Gy and completely prevented at 200 Gy. Probit analysis of dose mortality data for pupation and adult emergence show that the LD99 for preventing subsequent development to pupae and adults was 2668 and 195 Gy, respectively. In addition, the rate of development of mature larvae to the adult stage was negatively affected and sex ratio was skewed in favor of males.

  14. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests.

  15. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128

  16. Cold hardiness of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of pyralid moths.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, M A; Heimpel, G E; Moon, R D; Cannon, C A; Hutchison, W D

    2005-07-01

    The ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) attacks stored-product infesting pyralid moths that are able to overwinter under extremely cold conditions. The extent to which H. hebetor can withstand these conditions is not known, but has important implications for the ability of H. hebetor to provide long-term suppression of these pests in temperate climates. We investigated basic cold hardiness aspects of a mutant eye-color strain of H. hebetor. Feeding larvae and adults of H. hebetor had supercooling points (SCPs) at temperatures higher than those of eggs and pupae. Mean SCPs of females and males were equivalent, as were those of naked and silk-encased pupae. Feeding on honey prior to being subjected to low temperatures significantly increased the SCP of adult females by approximately 8 degrees C. Mortality of pupae and adults increased significantly whenever the temperature dropped below the mean SCP, indicating that H. hebetor does not tolerate freezing. For pupae and adults exposed to -12 and -5 degrees C, the hourly mortality rate increased with time of exposure. Pupae and adults exposed to -12 degrees C for different time intervals showed high mortality after only 1d of exposure. At -5 degrees C, none survived 12d of exposure. A better understanding of how well this parasitoid tolerates low temperatures will be useful in evaluating its potential as a biological control agent of stored-product moths in temperate regions. PMID:15885701

  17. An attempt to increase efficacy of moth mating disruption by co-releasing pheromones with kairomones and to understand possible underlying mechanisms of this technique.

    PubMed

    Stelinski, Lukasz L; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-02-01

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is used worldwide for management of the internal fruit feeding codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). There has been recent interest in the potential of improving mating disruption of C. pomonella, and potentially other insect species in general, by broadcasting combinations of pheromone and attractive host-plant kairomones. Given that such kairomones are attractive by themselves (often to both sexes), and also enhance male moth response to their pheromone, it is possible that the effects of competitive attraction and potentially other mechanisms of disruption might be increased. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that mating disruption of C. pomonella could be enhanced by co-deploying pheromone with either of two kairomones: (2E, 4Z)-2, 4-decadienoate (pear ester), or (E)-β-farnesene, as compared with various pheromone blend components alone. When deployed individually, each kairomone caused a low level of synthetic lure trap disruption and (E)-β-farnesene also caused disruption of mating as measured by tethering virgin females. However, combined release of either pear ester or (E)-β-farnesene with pheromone within the same dispenser or as a co-deployed dispenser treatment, respectively, did not increase the level of mating disruption as compared with deploying pheromone alone. Disruption efficacy did not decline when reducing the amount of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) in dispensers by fourfold, when combined with pear ester. C. pomonella readily were observed briefly approaching all dispenser types (with and without pheromone) in the field. Exposure of male C. pomonella to pear ester alone in a manner mimicking observed field exposures did not reduce the number of males able to contact a female-mimic pheromone lure in flight tunnel assays. Also, reduction of male moth behavioral response to pheromone was similar after exposure to codlemone alone, and codlemone and pear ester after exposures that mimicked those observed in

  18. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... (Ceratitis spp.) and false codling moth (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) in accordance with 7 CFR part 305. Sweet... of false codling moth and Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) via the interstate movement or importation... apricots and plumcots must be treated for false codling moth and Natal fruit fly, as well as...

  19. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  20. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220 mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3 ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10 ms in the lightest moths to 25 ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9 m s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2 m s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1 µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1 µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90 m s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage.

  1. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  2. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  3. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare.

  4. Facilitation of tiger moths by outbreaking tussock moths that share the same host plants.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Grof-Tisza, Patrick; Holyoak, Marcel

    2012-09-01

    1. Ecologists have argued about the commonness and strength of interspecific competition between insect herbivores, but facilitation between herbivores has received much less consideration. We previously found that when two species of folivorous caterpillars co-occurred on a shared host plant, feeding by early season tiger moth caterpillars reduced the growth and reproduction of later season tussock caterpillars. However, densities of tussock caterpillars in summer were positively correlated with densities of tiger moth caterpillars the following spring. 2. In this study, we experimentally manipulated numbers of feeding tussock caterpillars and found that they facilitated tiger moth caterpillars. 3. The depth of the litter layer beneath host lupine bushes was positively correlated with the number of tussock caterpillars feeding on each bush. Experimental additions of litter beneath lupine canopies during summer resulted in increased numbers of tiger moth caterpillars in the following spring, indicating a causal role of litter. Litter potentially provides food, habitat and protection from desiccation and predation. We failed to find evidence that tussock caterpillars facilitated tiger moth caterpillars by mechanisms independent of litter. 4. Our study demonstrates that facilitation may operate between insect herbivores, across life-stages through indirect interactions that are non-trophic. Facilitation operated by a novel mechanism, the accumulation of litter which was a by-product of feeding by one species was valuable to a second species. Facilitation persisted in time and space far beyond the creation of litter by tussock caterpillars which should be considered important ecosystem engineers from the point of view of tiger moths. Facilitations that involve habitat modification may generally connect species that do not interact directly or trophically, and have not previously been considered to affect one another.

  5. Auditory encoding during the last moment of a moth's life.

    PubMed

    Fullard, James H; Dawson, Jeff W; Jacobs, David S

    2003-01-01

    The simple auditory system of noctuoid moths has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology, although these ears have rarely been experimentally stimulated by the sounds they would encounter from naturally attacking bats. We exposed the ears of five noctuoid moth species to the pre-recorded echolocation calls of an attacking bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to observe the acoustic encoding of the receptors at this critical time in their defensive behaviour. The B cell is a non-tympanal receptor common to all moths that has been suggested to respond to sound, but we found no evidence of this and suggest that its acoustic responsiveness is an artifact arising from its proprioceptive function. The A1 cell, the most sensitive tympanal receptor in noctuid and arctiid moths and the only auditory receptor in notodontid moths, encodes the attack calls with a bursting firing pattern to a point approximately 150 ms from when the bat would have captured the moth. At this point, the firing of the A1 cell reduces to a non-bursting pattern with longer inter-spike periods, suggesting that the moth may no longer express the erratic flight used to escape very close bats. This may be simply due to the absence of selection pressure on moths for auditory tracking of bat echolocation calls beyond this point. Alternatively, the reduced firing may be due to the acoustic characteristics of attack calls in the terminal phase and an acoustic maneuver used by the bat to facilitate its capture of the moth. Although the role of less sensitive A2 cell remains uncertain in the evasive flight responses of moths it may act as a trigger in eliciting sound production, a close-range anti-bat behaviour in the tiger moth, Cycnia tenera.

  6. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  7. Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

    2013-07-01

    How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes.

  8. Odorant Receptors of the New Zealand Endemic Leafroller Moth Species Planotortrix octo and P. excessana

    PubMed Central

    Steinwender, Bernd; Thrimawithana, Amali H.; Crowhurst, Ross; Newcomb, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Moths use their sense of smell to find food sources, mating partners and oviposition sites. For this they possess a family of odorant receptors (ORs). Some ORs are used by both sexes whereas others have sex-specific roles. For example, male moths possess ORs specifically tuned to sex pheromones produced by conspecific females. Here we identify sets of ORs from the antennae of New Zealand endemic leafroller moths Planotortrix octo (48 ORs) and P. excessana (47 ORs) using an RNA-Seq approach. Two orthologous ORs show male-biased expression in the adult antennae of both species (OR7 and OR30) and one other OR in each species was female-biased in its expression (PoctOR25, PexcOR14) by qPCR. PAML analysis conducted on male-biased ORs indicated positive selection acting on the male-biased OR7. The fact that OR7 is likely under positive selection, that it is male-biased in its expression and that its orthologue in C. obliquana, CoblOR7, responds to sex pheromone components also utilised by Planotortrix species, suggests that this receptor may also be important in sex pheromone reception in Planotortrix species. PMID:27003722

  9. Odorant Receptors of the New Zealand Endemic Leafroller Moth Species Planotortrix octo and P. excessana.

    PubMed

    Steinwender, Bernd; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Crowhurst, Ross; Newcomb, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Moths use their sense of smell to find food sources, mating partners and oviposition sites. For this they possess a family of odorant receptors (ORs). Some ORs are used by both sexes whereas others have sex-specific roles. For example, male moths possess ORs specifically tuned to sex pheromones produced by conspecific females. Here we identify sets of ORs from the antennae of New Zealand endemic leafroller moths Planotortrix octo (48 ORs) and P. excessana (47 ORs) using an RNA-Seq approach. Two orthologous ORs show male-biased expression in the adult antennae of both species (OR7 and OR30) and one other OR in each species was female-biased in its expression (PoctOR25, PexcOR14) by qPCR. PAML analysis conducted on male-biased ORs indicated positive selection acting on the male-biased OR7. The fact that OR7 is likely under positive selection, that it is male-biased in its expression and that its orthologue in C. obliquana, CoblOR7, responds to sex pheromone components also utilised by Planotortrix species, suggests that this receptor may also be important in sex pheromone reception in Planotortrix species. PMID:27003722

  10. Effects of polymorphic melanism and larval diet on life history traits of Malacosoma disstria moths.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Jessica; Despland, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the presence and possible genetic basis of polymorphic melanism in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) moth. Adult moths were classified into pattern-based phenotypes and wing darkness was measured to quantify the degree of melanization. We found that two distinct phenotypes, melanic and simple, are present in these moths. Although the full melanic phenotype is sex-limited to males, it is partially expressed in females. We also provide support for the theory that the melanic allele is autosomal and dominant. The effects of larval diet quality on the survival, development and wing melanization of each phenotype were studied by rearing larvae on the foliage of either a primary or secondary host. Diet quality did not differentially affect the two phenotypes; however, melanic males were found to be smaller than simple males regardless of larval diet. Such inherent developmental differences between the two phenotypes could have important consequences for the frequencies of the two morphs. PMID:22008291

  11. Odorant Receptors of the New Zealand Endemic Leafroller Moth Species Planotortrix octo and P. excessana.

    PubMed

    Steinwender, Bernd; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Crowhurst, Ross; Newcomb, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Moths use their sense of smell to find food sources, mating partners and oviposition sites. For this they possess a family of odorant receptors (ORs). Some ORs are used by both sexes whereas others have sex-specific roles. For example, male moths possess ORs specifically tuned to sex pheromones produced by conspecific females. Here we identify sets of ORs from the antennae of New Zealand endemic leafroller moths Planotortrix octo (48 ORs) and P. excessana (47 ORs) using an RNA-Seq approach. Two orthologous ORs show male-biased expression in the adult antennae of both species (OR7 and OR30) and one other OR in each species was female-biased in its expression (PoctOR25, PexcOR14) by qPCR. PAML analysis conducted on male-biased ORs indicated positive selection acting on the male-biased OR7. The fact that OR7 is likely under positive selection, that it is male-biased in its expression and that its orthologue in C. obliquana, CoblOR7, responds to sex pheromone components also utilised by Planotortrix species, suggests that this receptor may also be important in sex pheromone reception in Planotortrix species.

  12. Innate Recognition of Pheromone and Food Odors in Moths: A Common Mechanism in the Antennal Lobe?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2010-01-01

    The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection) neurons (PNs) in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses. PMID:20953251

  13. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David; Barrett, Sinead; Beale, Colin M.; Crawford, Terry J.; Ellis, Sam; Gullett, Tallulah; Parsons, Mark S.; Relf, Penny; Robertson, Paul; Small, Julian; Wainwright, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L.) (Malpighiales: Salicaceae). Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30–35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005) with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species’ requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas. PMID:27333285

  14. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Barrett, Sinead; Beale, Colin M; Crawford, Terry J; Ellis, Sam; Gullett, Tallulah; Mayhew, Peter J; Parsons, Mark S; Relf, Penny; Robertson, Paul; Small, Julian; Wainwright, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L.) (Malpighiales: Salicaceae). Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005) with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas. PMID:27333285

  15. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  16. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  17. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  18. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  19. Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented Sporopollenin Breakdown by an Animal

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shixiao; Li, Yongquan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Dianxiang; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their mouthparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments in tropical China revealed that two species of Deltophora (Gelechioidea) are the exclusive pollinators of two species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) on which their larvae develop and from which the adults take pollen and nectar. DNA sequences placed the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths with pollen on their mouthparts after 2-3 days of starvation no longer carried intact grains, and SEM photographs showed exine fragments on their proboscises. GC-MS revealed cis-β-ocimene as the dominant volatile in leaves and flowers, but GC-MS analyses of proboscis extracts failed to reveal an obvious sporopollenin-dissolving compound. A candidate is ethanolamine, which occurs in insect hemolymphs and is used to dissolve sporopollenin by palynologists. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of any insect and indeed any animal chemically dissolving pollen. PMID:21552530

  20. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  1. Phylogeographic structure in the bogus yucca moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): comparisons with coexisting pollinator yucca moths.

    PubMed

    Althoff, D M; Groman, J D; Segraves, K A; Pellmyr, O

    2001-10-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the closely related genus Prodoxus also specialize on yuccas, but they do not pollinate and their larvae feed on different plant parts. Previous research demonstrated that the geographically widespread Prodoxus quinquepunctellus can rapidly specialize to its host plants and may harbor hidden species diversity. We examined the phylogeographic structure of P. quinquepunctellus across its range to compare patterns of diversification with six coexisting pollinator yucca moth species. Morphometric and mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I sequence data indicated that P. quinquepunctellus as currently described contains two species. There was a deep division between moth populations in the eastern and the western United States, with limited sympatry in central Texas; these clades are considered separate species and are redescribed as P. decipiens and P. quinquepunctellus (sensu stricto), respectively. Sequence data also showed a lesser division within P. quinquepunctellus s.s. between the western populations on the Colorado Plateau and those elsewhere. The divergence among the three emerging lineages corresponded with major biogeographic provinces, whereas AMOVA indicated that host plant specialization has been relatively unimportant in diversification. In comparison, the six pollinator species comprise three lineages, one eastern and two western. A pollinator species endemic to the Colorado Plateau has evolved in both of the western lineages. The east-west division and the separate evolution of two Colorado Plateau pollinator species suggest that similar biogeographic factors have

  2. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  3. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs.

  4. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs. PMID:26371156

  5. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    PubMed Central

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

  6. Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kyle J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M

    2009-03-01

    Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit two significant periodicities: a dominant period of 8-10 years and a subdominant period of 4-5 years. In this study, we used a simulation model and spatially referenced time series of outbreak intensity data from the Northeastern United States to show that the bimodal periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth outbreaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy moth abundance at and above a 4 km(2) scale of resolution. We also used geographically weighted regression models to explore the effects of gypsy moth host-tree abundance on the periodicity of gypsy moths. We found that the strength of 5-year cycles increased relative to the strength of 10-year cycles with increasing host tree abundance. We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability enhances the growth rates of gypsy moth populations.

  7. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  8. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop.

  9. [MOTH FLIES (DIPTERA, PSYCHODIDAE) AS A NEW MEDICAL DISINSECTION OBJECT].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, M A

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to moth flies, a new medical disinsection object in our country. These insects are common in urban areas, generally in the premises with poor sanitary conditions. Moth fly larvae may cause accidental human urinary miasmata; imagoes, if many, become a worrisome factor; a source of allergy, and potential mechanical vectors of human diseases. In this connection, it is necessary to implement measures to control the number of the moth flies when the latter are detected on the objects particularly in therapeutic and preventive facilities and public catering esablishments.

  10. Phylogeny and Evolution of Pharmacophagy in Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zaspel, Jennifer M.; Weller, Susan J.; Wardwell, Charles T.; Zahiri, Reza; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears) to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera) and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region), one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA), and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP) software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC). Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition. PMID:25036028

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of pharmacophagy in tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Weller, Susan J; Wardwell, Charles T; Zahiri, Reza; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears) to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera) and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region), one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA), and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP) software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC). Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition. PMID:25036028

  12. Phylogeny and evolution of pharmacophagy in tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Weller, Susan J; Wardwell, Charles T; Zahiri, Reza; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears) to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera) and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region), one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA), and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP) software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC). Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition.

  13. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  14. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  15. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  16. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Tobias; Mitesser, Oliver; Perkin, Elizabeth K; Weiß, Nina-Sophie; Oehlert, Martin; Mattig, Emily; Hölker, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. In this study, we sought to determine whether street lights could limit moth dispersal and whether there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex-specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for 2 years at an experimental set-up. To estimate the attraction radii, we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0·44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner light was 2·77 times more attractive than a wing light with an equivalentre attraction radius of c. 23 m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume (i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures and (ii) that public lighting may affect moth movement between patches. PMID:27146262

  17. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Tobias; Mitesser, Oliver; Perkin, Elizabeth K; Weiß, Nina-Sophie; Oehlert, Martin; Mattig, Emily; Hölker, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. In this study, we sought to determine whether street lights could limit moth dispersal and whether there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex-specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for 2 years at an experimental set-up. To estimate the attraction radii, we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0·44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner light was 2·77 times more attractive than a wing light with an equivalentre attraction radius of c. 23 m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume (i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures and (ii) that public lighting may affect moth movement between patches.

  18. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5 Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

  19. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-03-20

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5 Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded.

  20. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    PubMed

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  1. Ectoparasitic Acugutturid Nematodes of Adult Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, A. M.; Rogers, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    Noctuidonema guyaneme is an interesting ectoparasite of adult Lepidoptera that feeds on hosts from at least five families with its long stylet. Noctuidonema guyanense spends its entire life on the adult moth and is sustained as it is passed from moth to moth during host mating. Overlapping host generations are essential for parasite survival. This nematode occurs throughout tropical and subtropical America and is transported by at least one of its hosts, Spodoptera frugiperda, during migration to northern sites in the United States each spring. Noctuidonema guyanense debilitates its hosts. Research conducted to help determine the biological control importance of this nematode is reviewed. Two additional species, N. daptria and N. dibolia, are now known for Noctuidonema. PMID:19277339

  2. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  3. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  4. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Tobin, P. C.; Thistle, H. W.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  5. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    PubMed

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  6. Freeze fitness in alpine Tiger moth caterpillars and their parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Hawes, T C; Wharton, D A

    2011-09-01

    The adaptive fitness of a freeze-tolerant insect may be mediated by both endogenous and exogenous interactions. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize the freeze tolerance of alpine Tiger moth caterpillars (Metacrias huttoni) and highlight two poorly explored indices of the potential attrition of fitness: (1) downstream development and reproduction; (2) parasitism. Caterpillars survived temperatures as low as -16°C and demonstrated >90% 72-h survival after exposures to -10°C. Two-week acclimations at 5, 10, and 20°C had no effect on body water content, haemolymph osmolality or survival of equilibrium freezing, but there was a significant elevation of the temperature of crystallization (T (c)) in those caterpillars acclimated to 5°C. Cell viability of fat body tissue was resilient to freezing (-10 to -16°C), but midgut and tracheal cells showed significant degradation. Pupation and eclosion were unaffected by freezing at -5 or -10°C. Likewise, there were no significant differences in egg production or the proportion of eggs that hatched between control and frozen insects. By contrast, the ability of tachinid larvae to survive freezing within their hosts means that parasitism plays an important role in regulating population size. Mean parasitism of caterpillars by tachinids was 33.3 ± 7.2%. Pupation and imago emergence of tachinids after host 'endo-nucleation' was >75%. Eclosed adult tachinids showed a non-significant increase in the incidence of wing abnormalities in relation to low temperature exposure.

  7. Identification of Putative Olfactory Genes from the Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta via an Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an extremely important oligophagous pest species of stone and pome fruits throughout the world. As a host-switching species, adult moths, especially females, depend on olfactory cues to a large extent in locating host plants, finding mates, and selecting oviposition sites. The identification of olfactory genes can facilitate investigation on mechanisms for chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding We generated transcriptome of female antennae of G.molesta using the next-generation sequencing technique, and assembled transcripts from RNA-seq reads using Trinity, SOAPdenovo-trans and Abyss-trans assemblers. We identified 124 putative olfactory genes. Among the identified olfactory genes, 118 were novel to this species, including 28 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins, 17 chemosensory proteins, 48 odorant receptors, four gustatory receptors, 24 ionotropic receptors, two sensory neuron membrane proteins, and one odor degrading enzyme. The identified genes were further confirmed through semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR for transcripts coding for 26 OBPs and 17 CSPs. OBP transcripts showed an obvious antenna bias, whereas CSP transcripts were detected in different tissues. Conclusion Antennal transcriptome data derived from the oriental fruit moth constituted an abundant molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of the species. This study provides a foundation for future research on the molecules involved in olfactory recognition of this insect pest, and in particular, the feasibility of using semiochemicals to control this pest. PMID:26540284

  8. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species’ distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  9. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species' distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  10. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-07-25

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species' distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities.

  11. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  12. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  14. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  15. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  16. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  18. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  1. Pathogenicity of a Microsporidium Isolate from the Diamondback Moth against Noctuid Moths:Characterization and Implications for Microbiological Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Idris Abd; Dieng, Hamady; Abu Hassan, Zainal Abidin; Ramli, Norazsida; Kermani, Nadia; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX) and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL) isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE) exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. Conclusion/Significance The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a valuable

  2. Keeping up with bats: dynamic auditory tuning in a moth.

    PubMed

    Windmill, James Frederick Charles; Jackson, Joseph Curt; Tuck, Elizabeth Jane; Robert, Daniel

    2006-12-19

    Many night-flying insects evolved ultrasound sensitive ears in response to acoustic predation by echolocating bats . Noctuid moths are most sensitive to frequencies at 20-40 kHz , the lower range of bat ultrasound . This may disadvantage the moth because noctuid-hunting bats in particular echolocate at higher frequencies shortly before prey capture and thus improve their echolocation and reduce their acoustic conspicuousness . Yet, moth hearing is not simple; the ear's nonlinear dynamic response shifts its mechanical sensitivity up to high frequencies. Dependent on incident sound intensity, the moth's ear mechanically tunes up and anticipates the high frequencies used by hunting bats. Surprisingly, this tuning is hysteretic, keeping the ear tuned up for the bat's possible return. A mathematical model is constructed for predicting a linear relationship between the ear's mechanical stiffness and sound intensity. This nonlinear mechanical response is a parametric amplitude dependence that may constitute a feature common to other sensory systems. Adding another twist to the coevolutionary arms race between moths and bats, these results reveal unexpected sophistication in one of the simplest ears known and a novel perspective for interpreting bat echolocation calls.

  3. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  4. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengjun; Lu, Bin; Xiao, Haijun; Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  5. Quantitative genetics of preference and performance on chickpeas in the noctuid moth, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Cotter, S C; Edwards, O R

    2006-05-01

    If a novel, resistant host-plant genotype arises in the environment, insect populations utilising that host must be able to overcome that resistance in order that they can maintain their ability to feed on that host. The ability to evolve resistance to host-plant defences depends upon additive genetic variation in larval performance and adult host-choice preference. To investigate the potential of a generalist herbivore to respond to a novel resistant host, we estimated the heritability of larval performance in the noctuid moth, Helicoverpa armigera, on a resistant and a susceptible variety of the chickpea, Cicer arietinum, at two different life stages. Heritability estimates were higher for neonates than for third-instar larvae, suggesting that their ability to establish on plants could be key to the evolution of resistance in this species; however, further information regarding the nature of selection in the field would be required to confirm this prediction. There was no genetic correlation between larval performance and oviposition preference, indicating that female moths do not choose the most suitable plant for their offspring. We also found significant genotype by environment interactions for neonates (but not third-instar larvae), suggesting that the larval response to different plant genotypes is stage-specific in this species.

  6. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  7. Dispersion in time and space affect mating success and Allee effects in invading gypsy moth populations.

    PubMed

    Robinet, C; Lance, D R; Thorpe, K W; Onufrieva, K S; Tobin, P C; Liebhold, A M

    2008-09-01

    1. Understanding why invading populations sometimes fail to establish is of considerable relevance to the development of strategies for managing biological invasions. 2. Newly arriving populations tend to be sparse and are often influenced by Allee effects. Mating failure is a typical cause of Allee effects in low-density insect populations, and dispersion of individuals in space and time can exacerbate mate-location failure in invading populations. 3. Here we evaluate the relative importance of dispersal and sexual asynchrony as contributors to Allee effects in invading populations by adopting as a case study the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), an important insect defoliator for which considerable demographic information is available. 4. We used release-recapture experiments to parameterize a model that describes probabilities that males locate females along various spatial and temporal offsets between male and female adult emergence. 5. Based on these experimental results, we developed a generalized model of mating success that demonstrates the existence of an Allee threshold, below which introduced gypsy moth populations are likely to go extinct without any management intervention.

  8. A reversible color polyphenism in American peppered moth (Biston betularia cognataria) caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mohamed A F; Parnell, Robin S; Grant, Bruce S

    2008-09-04

    Insect body color polyphenisms enhance survival by producing crypsis in diverse backgrounds. While color polyphenisms are often indirectly induced by temperature, rearing density, or diet, insects can benefit from immediate crypsis if they evolve polyphenisms directly induced by exposure to the background color, hence immediately deriving protection from predation. Here, we examine such a directly induced color polyphenism in caterpillars of the geometrid peppered moth (Biston betularia). This larval color polyphenism is unrelated to the genetic polymorphism for melanic phenotypes in adult moths. B. betularia caterpillars are generalist feeders and develop body colors that closely match the brown or green twigs of their host plant. We expand on previous studies examining the proximal cues that stimulate color development. Under controlled rearing conditions, we manipulated diets and background reflectance, using both natural and artificial twigs, and show that visual experience has a much stronger effect than does diet in promoting precise color matching. Their induced body color was not a simple response to reflectance or light intensity but instead specifically matched the wavelength of light to which they were exposed. We also show that the potential to change color is retained until the final (sixth) larval instar. Given their broad host range, this directly induced color polyphenism likely provides the caterpillars with strong protection from bird predation.

  9. Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  10. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  11. Phenotypic impacts of PBAN RNA interference in an ant, Solenopsis invicta, and a moth, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K; Coy, Monique; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Insect neuropeptide hormones represent more than 90% of all insect hormones. The PBAN/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides, and they are expected to be found from all insect groups. These species-specific neuropeptides have been shown to have a variety of functions from embryo to adult. PBAN is well understood in moth species relative to sex pheromone biosynthesis, but other potential functions are yet to be determined. Recently, we focused on defining the PBAN gene and peptides in fire ants in preparation for an investigation of their function(s). RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a convenient tool to investigate unknown physiological functions in insects, and it is now an emerging method for development of novel biologically-based control agents as alternatives to insecticides. This could be a paradigm shift that will avoid many problems associated with conventional chemical insecticides. In this study, we selected the PBAN gene and its neuropeptide products as an RNAi target from two insect groups; a social insect, the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and a non-social insect, the corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). Both insects are economically important pests. We report negative impacts after PBAN dsRNA treatment to suppress PBAN gene transcription during developmental and adult stages of both species, e.g. increased adult and larval mortality, delayed pupal development and decreased sex pheromone production in the moth. This is an important first step in determining the multiple functions of the PBAN gene in these two insects. This work illustrates the variety of phenotypic effects observed after RNAi silencing of the PBAN gene and suggests the possibility of novel biologically-based insect pest control methods. PMID:22705256

  12. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available. PMID:19482996

  13. Larval nutrition affects life history traits in a capital breeding moth.

    PubMed

    Colasurdo, Nadia; Gélinas, Yves; Despland, Emma

    2009-06-01

    Fitness depends not only on resource uptake but also on the allocation of these resources to various life history functions. This study explores the life-history consequences of larval diet in terms not only of larval performance but also of adult body composition and reproductive traits in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hübner). Caterpillars were reared on their preferred tree host, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), or on one of three artificial foods: high protein:low carbohydrate, equal protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or low protein:high carbohydrate. Survivorship, larval development rate and adult body size were lowest on the carbohydrate-biased diet and similar on the protein-biased and equal-ratio diets. Fecundity increased with body size but did not otherwise differ between diets. Moths reared on the carbohydrate-biased diet allocated a lower proportion of their mass to the ovaries and more to somatic growth whereas those on equal-ratio and protein-biased diets allocated more to reproductive tissue and less to somatic tissue. These differences in allocation to reproduction arose from differences in the size of eggs, an index of offspring quality. No differences were found in lipid and protein content of female ovaries, accessory glands or somatic tissue, or of the whole body of male moths. The findings show that physiological processes regulate the composition of the different components of the adult body. Diet effects occur as differences in overall body size and in relative allocation to these components. Although lepidopterans can, to a large extent, compensate post-ingestively for nutritionally deficient diets, investment in reproduction vs somatic growth depends on the nutrients available.

  14. The potential of the fungus, Muscodor albus, as a microbial control agent of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored potatoes.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Neven, Lisa G

    2006-03-01

    Potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, is a serious pest of stored potato in most countries where potatoes are grown. Entomopathogens offer promise as alternatives to broad spectrum insecticides for management of this pest. The fungus Muscodor albus, which produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals, was tested for its insecticidal activity against PTM. Adults and neonate larvae were exposed to volatiles generated by 15 or 30 g of M. albus rye grain culture plus water for 72 h in hermetically sealed 28.3 L chambers at 24 degrees C. Mean percent mortalities in adult moths exposed to 0, 15, and 30 g of fungal formulation were 0.9, 84.6, and 90.6%, respectively. Development to the pupal stage of PTM that were exposed as neonate larvae to 15 or 30 of M. albus culture was reduced by 61.8 and 72.8%, respectively, relative to controls.

  15. Host Plant-Associated Population Variation in the Carob Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis Suggests a Nutritional Basis.

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods. PMID:20337550

  16. Host plant-associated population variation in the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A geometric morphometric analysis suggests a nutritional basis.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods.

  17. Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

  18. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  19. Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth.

    PubMed

    Gripenberg, Sofia; Ovaskainen, Otso; Morriën, Elly; Roslin, Tomas

    2008-07-01

    1. The spatial structure of natural populations may profoundly influence their dynamics. Depending on the frequency of movements among local populations and the consequent balance between local and regional population processes, earlier work has attempted to classify metapopulations into clear-cut categories, ranging from patchy populations to sets of remnant populations. In an alternative, dichotomous scheme, local populations have been classified as self-sustaining populations generating a surplus of individuals (sources) and those depending on immigration for persistence (sinks). 2. In this paper, we describe the spatial population structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak Quercus robur. We relate moth dispersal to the distribution of oaks on Wattkast, a small island (5 km(2)) off the south-western coast of Finland. 3. We build a spatially realistic metapopulation model derived from assumptions concerning the behaviour of individual moths, and show that the model is able to explain part of the variation in observed patterns of occurrence and colonization. 4. While the species was always present on large trees, a considerable proportion of the local populations associated with small oaks showed extinction-recolonization dynamics. The vast majority of moth individuals occur on large trees. 5. According to model predictions, the dominance of local vs. regional processes in tree-specific moth dynamics varies drastically across the landscape. Most local populations may be defined broadly as 'sinks', as model simulations suggest that in the absence of immigration, only the largest oaks will sustain viable moth populations. Large trees in areas of high oak density will contribute most to the overall persistence of the metapopulation by acting as sources of moths colonizing other trees. 6. No single 'metapopulation type' will suffice to describe the oak-moth system. Instead, our study supports the notion that

  20. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20–40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  1. Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?

    PubMed

    Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth.

  2. A developmental perspective on the evolution of sexual size dimorphism of a moth.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, R Craig; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2010-07-01

    Males and females of almost all organisms exhibit sexual differences in body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). How the sexes evolve to be different sizes, despite sharing the same genes that control growth and development, and hence a common genetic architecture, has remained elusive. Here, we show that the genetic architecture (heritabilities and genetic correlations) of the physiological mechanism that regulates size during the last stage of larval development of a moth, differs between the sexes, and thus probably facilitates, rather than hinders, the evolution of SSD. We further show that the endocrine system plays a critical role in generating SSD. Our results demonstrate that knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying the physiological process during development that ultimately produces SSD in adults can elucidate how males and females of organisms evolve to be of different sizes.

  3. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  4. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  5. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights.

  6. The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.

  7. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  8. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed.

  9. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID:27003884

  10. Geographic and temporal variation in moth chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Groot, Astrid T; Inglis, Olive; Bowdridge, Scott; Santangelo, Richard G; Blanco, Carlos; López, Juan D; Vargas, Antonio Terán; Gould, Fred; Schal, Coby

    2009-08-01

    In moth pheromone communication signals, both quantitative and qualitative intraspecific differences have been found across geographic regions. Such variation has generally been hypothesized to be due to selection, but evidence of genetic control of these differences is largely lacking. To explore the patterns of variation in pheromone signals, we quantified variation in the female sex pheromone blend and male responses of two closely related noctuid moth species in five different geographic regions for 2-3 consecutive years. We found significant variation in the ratios of sex pheromone blend components as well as in male response, not only between geographic regions but also within a region between consecutive years. The temporal variation was of a similar magnitude as the geographic variation. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting such temporal variation in moth chemical communication systems. The geographic variation seems to at least partly be controlled by genetic factors, and to be correlated with the quality of the local chemical environment. However, the pattern of temporal variation within populations suggests that optimization of the pheromonal signal also may be driven by within-generation physiological adjustments by the moths in response to their experience of the local chemical environment.

  11. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  12. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  13. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  14. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  15. Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Whitmire, Stefanie L; Tobin, Patrick C

    2006-03-01

    Exotic invasive species are a mounting threat to native biodiversity, and their effects are gaining more public attention as each new species is detected. Equally important are the dynamics of exotic invasives that are previously well established. While the literature reports many examples of the ability of a newly arrived exotic invader to persist prior to detection and population growth, we focused on the persistence dynamics of an established invader, the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States. The spread of gypsy moth is largely thought to be the result of the growth and coalescence of isolated colonies in a transition zone ahead of the generally infested area. One important question is thus the ability of these isolated colonies to persist when subject to Allee effects and inimical stochastic events. We analyzed the US gypsy moth survey data and identified isolated colonies of gypsy moth using the local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. We then determined region-specific probabilities of colony persistence given the population abundance in the previous year and its relationship to a suite of ecological factors. We observed that colonies in Wisconsin, US, were significantly more likely to persist in the following year than in other geographic regions of the transition zone, and in all regions, the abundance of preferred host tree species and land use category did not appear to influence persistence. We propose that differences in region-specific rates of persistence may be attributed to Allee effects that are differentially expressed in space, and that the inclusion of geographically varying Allee effects into colony-invasion models may provide an improved paradigm for addressing the establishment and spread of gypsy moth and other invasive exotic species.

  16. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids.

    PubMed

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K; Spalding, Adrian; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2013-08-23

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations.

  17. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  18. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Lee, Thomas D; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S; Boettner, George H; Dodds, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  19. Sex pheromone of the winter moth, a geometrid with unusually low temperature precopulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, W L; Hill, A S; Linn, C E; Meinwald, J; Jain, S C; Herbert, H J; Smith, R F

    1982-08-13

    The sex pheromone for the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.), has been identified as the novel compound (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene. The male moths respond to the pheromone at low temperatures (4 degrees to 15 degrees C) and exhibit an upper response limit that coincides with the lower response limit for other reported moth sex pheromone systems. The pheromone attracted two other geometrid species, O. bruceata (Bruce spanworm) and O. occidentalis. PMID:17817538

  20. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  1. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  2. An alpha-crystallin protein cognate in germ cells of the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Shirk, P D; Zimowska, G

    1997-02-01

    Previously we had reported the production of an antiserum to an antigen found primarily in germ cells of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Zimowska et al., 1991). The antigen, molecular weight 25,000 kDa, and a related protein, molecular weight 21,000 kDa, co-purified with the follicular epithelium yolk protein. Antisera to the two proteins were raised, and they both reacted with the same four small polypeptides, which had molecular weights of 20,000, 21,000, 25,000 and 28,000 kDa, that were present in the eggs throughout embryogenesis. A 30 amino acid sequence of an internal fragment of the 25,000 kDa molecular weight polypeptide showed sequence similarity with the alpha-crystallin A chain polypeptides from the lenses of vertebrate eyes and, to a lesser extent, with small heat shock proteins. Based on the sequence similarity with the alpha-crystallins, we suggest that this family of polypeptides from the germ cells of this moth be considered as cognates of the alpha-crystallins, and the 25,000 molecular weight polypeptide described here be given the designation ac25. Using immuno-gold labeling with antiserum to ac25, the alpha-crystallins were shown to be distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the oocyte and nurse cells, but not present within yolk spheres or other organelles of the oocyte or nurse cells. Immunofluorescent staining of males showed antigenic material in the sperm bundles within the testes. Oenocytes of the pupal and adult stages also contained cross-reactive material.

  3. Predator Mimicry: Metalmark Moths Mimic Their Jumping Spider Predators

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Jadranka; Wagner, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping spiders responded to Brenthia with territorial displays, indicating that Brenthia were sometimes mistaken for jumping spiders, and not recognized as prey. Our experimental results and a review of wing patterns of other insects indicate that jumping spider mimicry is more widespread than heretofore appreciated, and that jumping spiders are probably an important selective pressure shaping the evolution of diurnal insects that perch on vegetation. PMID:17183674

  4. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bente G.; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC)-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:26462937

  5. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

  6. The Ontogeny of Sexual Size Dimorphism of a Moth: When Do Males and Females Grow Apart?

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Daws, Andrew; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism) is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high). We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger) increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults. PMID:25184664

  7. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides.

  8. Potential of Hymenopteran larval and egg parasitoids to control stored-product beetle and moth infestation in jute bags.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, C; Ulrichs, C; Schaarschmidt, S; Badii, B K; Addai, I K; Obeng-Ofori, D; Schöller, M

    2014-08-01

    The control of stored-product moths in bagged commodities is difficult because the developmental stages of the moths are protected by the bagging material from control measures such as the application of contact insecticides. Studies were carried out to assess the ability of Hymenopteran parasitoids to locate their hosts inside jute bags in the laboratory. The ability of different parasitoids to penetrate jute bags containing rice was investigated in a controlled climate chamber. Few Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) passed through the jute material while a high percentage of Lariophagus distinguendus (Förster), Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were able to enter the Petri-dishes. Significantly more L. distinguendus and T. elegans entered compared to H. hebetor. There was significant difference in the mean percentage parasitoids invading depending on species. Head capsules and/or thorax widths were measured in order to determine whether the opening in the jute material would be large enough for entry of the parasitoids. These morphometric data differed depending on parasitoid species and sex. The parasitoid Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) did not enter the bags, but located host larvae inside the jute bags and parasitized rice moths Corcyra cephalonica larvae by stinging through the jute material. Venturia canescens significantly reduced the number of C. cephalonica adults emerging from the bagged rice; therefore, it could be released in storage rooms containing bagged rice for biological control of C. cephalonica. The use of parasitoids to suppress stored-product insect pests in bagged commodities could become a valuable supplement to the use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:24846572

  9. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth.

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T; Dekker, Teun

    2013-04-30

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once "locked on" to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this "mental shortcut" may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to "evolve," even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant "gestalts." Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies.

  10. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  11. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  12. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  13. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators.

  14. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

  15. Space travel shortens diapause in gypsy moth eggs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D K; Morgan, N O; Webb, R E; Bell, R A

    1991-02-01

    Field-collected and laboratory-reared gypsy moth eggs were exposed to microgravity, cosmic radiation, sub-freezing temperatures, unusual vibrations, and other extraterrestrial phenomena while they were sealed for 6 days, in January, in a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the open bay of a NASA earth-orbiting spacecraft, the Columbia. Insects were not exposed to light after preparation for and during space flight. Under field conditions, out-of-doors, the eggs should have hatched in April, after 3-4 months of chilling temperatures and should not have hatched after the 6 days of chilling to -11 degrees C during flight in the Columbia spacecraft. However by April 1, more than 4000 larvae had hatched from eggs that had travelled in space, as opposed to approximately 350 from a similar number of control, earthbound eggs. These results indicate that the period of a circannual rhythm in field- and lab-reared insects had been shortened, presumably as result of exposure to microgravity, other factors associated with space flight, and/or conditions of outer space. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop methods for rearing the gypsy moth year round, without the necessity of three months chilling interspersed in the development process. This, in turn, would facilitate production of large numbers of insects for sterile male release or for use as a rearing medium for parasites, predators and pathogens of the gypsy moth.

  16. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  17. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  18. Acoustic feature recognition in the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera.

    PubMed

    Fullard, James H; Ratcliffe, John M; Christie, Christopher G

    2007-07-01

    Certain tiger moths (Arctiidae) defend themselves against bats by phonoresponding to their echolocation calls with trains of ultrasonic clicks. The dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, preferentially phonoresponds to the calls produced by attacking versus searching bats, suggesting that it either recognizes some acoustic feature of this phase of the bat's echolocation calls or that it simply reacts to their increased power as the bat closes. Here, we used a habituation/generalization paradigm to demonstrate that C. tenera responds neither to the shift in echolocation call frequencies nor to the change in pulse duration that is exhibited during the bat's attack phase unless these changes are accompanied by either an increase in duty cycle or a decrease in pulse period. To separate these features, we measured the moth's phonoresponse thresholds to pulsed stimuli with variable versus constant duty cycles and demonstrate that C. tenera is most sensitive to echolocation call periods expressed by an attacking bat. We suggest that, under natural conditions, C. tenera identifies an attacking bat by recognizing the pulse period of its echolocation calls but that this feature recognition is influenced by acoustic power and can be overridden by unnaturally intense sounds.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  20. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

  1. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  2. Tiger moth responses to a simulated bat attack: timing and duty cycle.

    PubMed

    Barber, J R; Conner, W E

    2006-07-01

    Many night-flying insects perform complex, aerobatic escape maneuvers when echolocating bats initiate attack. Tiger moths couple this kinematic defense with an acoustic reply to a bat's biosonar-guided assault. The jamming hypothesis for the function of these moth sounds assumes that tiger moth clicks presented at high densities, temporally locked to the terminal phase of the bat attack will produce the greatest jamming efficacy. Concomitantly, this hypothesis argues that moths warning bats of bad tasting chemicals sequestered in their tissues should call early to give the bat time to process the meaning of the warning signal and that moths calling at low duty cycles are more likely to employ such an aposematic strategy. We report here the first investigation of a tiger moth assemblage's response to playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. This assemblage of arctiid moths first answered the echolocation attack sequence 960+/-547 ms (mean +/- s.d.) from the end of the bat attack. The assemblage reached a half-maximum response shortly after the first response, at 763+/-479 ms from the end of the terminal buzz. Tiger moth response reached a maximum at 475+/-344 ms from the end of the sequence; during the approach phase, well before the onset of the terminal buzz. In short, much of tiger moth response to bat attack occurs outside of the jamming hypotheses' predictions. Furthermore, no relationship exists between the duty cycle of a tiger moth's call (and thus the call's probability of jamming the bat) and its temporal response to bat attack. These data call into doubt the assumptions behind the jamming hypothesis as currently stated but do not directly test the functionality of arctiid sounds in disrupting echolocation in bat-moth aerial battles.

  3. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in geometrid moths.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Sami M; Välimäki, Panu; Carrasco, David; Mäenpää, Maarit I; Mänttäri, Satu

    2012-08-01

    A resource allocation trade-off is expected when resources from a common pool are allocated to two or more traits. In holometabolous insects, resource allocation to different functions during metamorphosis relies completely on larval-derived resources. At adult eclosion, resource allocation to the abdomen at the expense of other body parts can be seen as a rough estimate of resource allocation to reproduction. Theory suggests geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen, but there are currently no empirical data on it. We measured resource allocation to the abdomen at adult eclosion in four geometrid moths along a latitudinal gradient. Resource (total dry material, carbon, nitrogen) allocation to the abdomen showed positive allometry with body size. We found geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in each species, and this variation was independent of allometry in three species. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen was complex. Resource allocation to the abdomen was relatively high in partially bivoltine populations in two species, which fits theoretical predictions, but the overall support for theory is weak. This study indicates that the geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen is not an allometric consequence of geographic variation in resource acquisition (i.e., body size). Thus, there is a component of resource allocation that can evolve independently of resource acquisition. Our results also suggest that there may be intraspecific variation in the degree of capital versus income breeding.

  4. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  5. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 ± 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species. PMID:20345309

  6. Transplant Antennae and Host Brain Interact to Shape Odor Perceptual Space in Male Moths.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Gyu; Poole, Kathy; Linn, Charles E; Vickers, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses to odors rely first upon their accurate detection by peripheral sensory organs followed by subsequent processing within the brain's olfactory system and higher centers. These processes allow the animal to form a unified impression of the odor environment and recognize combinations of odorants as single entities. To investigate how interactions between peripheral and central olfactory pathways shape odor perception, we transplanted antennal imaginal discs between larval males of two species of moth Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa that utilize distinct pheromone blends. During metamorphic development olfactory receptor neurons originating from transplanted discs formed connections with host brain neurons within olfactory glomeruli of the adult antennal lobe. The normal antennal receptor repertoire exhibited by males of each species reflects the differences in the pheromone blends that these species employ. Behavioral assays of adult transplant males revealed high response levels to two odor blends that were dissimilar from those that attract normal males of either species. Neurophysiological analyses of peripheral receptor neurons and central olfactory neurons revealed that these behavioral responses were a result of: 1. the specificity of H. virescens donor olfactory receptor neurons for odorants unique to the donor pheromone blend and, 2. central odor recognition by the H. subflexa host brain, which typically requires peripheral receptor input across 3 distinct odor channels in order to elicit behavioral responses.

  7. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in geometrid moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelä, Sami M.; Välimäki, Panu; Carrasco, David; Mäenpää, Maarit I.; Mänttäri, Satu

    2012-08-01

    A resource allocation trade-off is expected when resources from a common pool are allocated to two or more traits. In holometabolous insects, resource allocation to different functions during metamorphosis relies completely on larval-derived resources. At adult eclosion, resource allocation to the abdomen at the expense of other body parts can be seen as a rough estimate of resource allocation to reproduction. Theory suggests geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen, but there are currently no empirical data on it. We measured resource allocation to the abdomen at adult eclosion in four geometrid moths along a latitudinal gradient. Resource (total dry material, carbon, nitrogen) allocation to the abdomen showed positive allometry with body size. We found geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in each species, and this variation was independent of allometry in three species. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen was complex. Resource allocation to the abdomen was relatively high in partially bivoltine populations in two species, which fits theoretical predictions, but the overall support for theory is weak. This study indicates that the geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen is not an allometric consequence of geographic variation in resource acquisition (i.e., body size). Thus, there is a component of resource allocation that can evolve independently of resource acquisition. Our results also suggest that there may be intraspecific variation in the degree of capital versus income breeding.

  8. Evaluation of Two Formulated Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors, Hexaflumuron and Lufenuron Against the Raisin Moth, Ephestia figulilella

    PubMed Central

    Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC50 = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC50= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

  9. Evaluation of two formulated chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron against the raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella.

    PubMed

    Khajepour, Simin; Izadi, Hamzeh; Asari, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    The raisin moth, Ephestia figulilella Gregson (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, and causes severe quantitative and qualitative losses throughout the world. The larvae attack various drying and dried fruits, fallen figs, and damaged or moldy clusters of grapes on vines. Control of this pest in storage depends mostly on synthetic pesticides with several adverse side effects. To mitigate the adverse effects of these pesticides, investigations have focused on the development of compounds with more selectivity, and short residual life. In this research, insecticidal effects of two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and lufenuron, were investigated against E. figulilella. Graded concentrations of each pesticide were prepared with distilled water. One-day-old fifth instar were sprayed by Potter's precision spray tower. Application of hexaflumuron and lufenuron on last instar larvae of E. figulilella caused not only mortality in larval stage, but also caused defects in pupal and adult stages. Larval mortality increased as concentration increased. The longevity of the fifth instars in both hexaflumuron and lufenuron treatments, in comparison with the controls, increased by more than 12 days. The longevity of adults decreased by about 10 days. Probit analysis data revealed that the sensitivity of the test insect to hexaflumuron (EC(50) = 95.38 ppm) was greater than lufenuron (EC(50)= 379.21 ppm). PMID:23425138

  10. Transplant Antennae and Host Brain Interact to Shape Odor Perceptual Space in Male Moths.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Gyu; Poole, Kathy; Linn, Charles E; Vickers, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses to odors rely first upon their accurate detection by peripheral sensory organs followed by subsequent processing within the brain's olfactory system and higher centers. These processes allow the animal to form a unified impression of the odor environment and recognize combinations of odorants as single entities. To investigate how interactions between peripheral and central olfactory pathways shape odor perception, we transplanted antennal imaginal discs between larval males of two species of moth Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa that utilize distinct pheromone blends. During metamorphic development olfactory receptor neurons originating from transplanted discs formed connections with host brain neurons within olfactory glomeruli of the adult antennal lobe. The normal antennal receptor repertoire exhibited by males of each species reflects the differences in the pheromone blends that these species employ. Behavioral assays of adult transplant males revealed high response levels to two odor blends that were dissimilar from those that attract normal males of either species. Neurophysiological analyses of peripheral receptor neurons and central olfactory neurons revealed that these behavioral responses were a result of: 1. the specificity of H. virescens donor olfactory receptor neurons for odorants unique to the donor pheromone blend and, 2. central odor recognition by the H. subflexa host brain, which typically requires peripheral receptor input across 3 distinct odor channels in order to elicit behavioral responses. PMID:26816291

  11. Enantiomer and conformer recognition of (+) and (-)-disparlure and their analogs by the pheromone binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Adult female gypsy moths produce a sex pheromone (+)-(7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, to attract male gypsy moths. To better understand the recognition of (+)-disparlure by the male's olfactory system, we synthesized racemic and enantiopure oxa and thia analogs of (+)-disparlure (ee>98%). Ab initio calculations of the conformeric landscapes around the dihedral angles C5-6-7-8 and C7-8-9-10 of (+)-disparlure and corresponding dihedral angles of analogs revealed that introduction of the heteroatom changes the conformeric landscape around these important epitopes. The energy difference between HOMO and LUMO decreased after oxygen or sulfur was introduced into the backbone. Consistent with this, an enhancement of binding affinity between sulfur analogs and the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) was observed in vitro. Docking of the pheromone and analogs onto models of the two known PBPs of the gypsy moth revealed that the internal binding pocket of PBP1 showed higher selectivity than that of PBP2, consistent with in vitro binding assays. Further energy analysis revealed that enantiomers adopted different conformations with different energies when docked in the internal binding pocket of PBPs, resulting in enantiomer discrimination of PBPs towards disparlure and its analogs. PMID:23434366

  12. Weight differences of male and female pupae of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and host-sex preference by two parasitoid species Lymantrichneumon disparis and Exorista larvarum.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Mohammad-Reza; Barari, H; Kara, K

    2009-03-01

    Weight differences of male and female pupae of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] and its two parasitoids Lymantrichneumon disparis (Poda) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Exorista larvarum (L.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) host preference were examined in this study. Lymantria dispar pupae were collected from trunks and branches of 20 Ironwood trees (Parotia persica) in two sampling dates, 10 July 2005 and 24 July 2005. The pest pupae were weighted and then saved at room temperature until adults of gypsy moth or its parasitoids emerged. The most L. dispar pupae collected in the first sampling were male whereas those in the second one were female and both male and female pupae in the second sampling were smaller than those in first sampling. The majority of male pupae (98.29%) were less than 0.6 g and most of female pupae (79.39%) were more than 0.6 g in weight. The most of L. disparis emerged from male pupae of L. dispar, whereas the majority of E. larvarum emerged from female pupae. Implications of the results for biological control strategy of gypsy moth are discussed.

  13. Enantiomer and conformer recognition of (+) and (-)-disparlure and their analogs by the pheromone binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Adult female gypsy moths produce a sex pheromone (+)-(7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, to attract male gypsy moths. To better understand the recognition of (+)-disparlure by the male's olfactory system, we synthesized racemic and enantiopure oxa and thia analogs of (+)-disparlure (ee>98%). Ab initio calculations of the conformeric landscapes around the dihedral angles C5-6-7-8 and C7-8-9-10 of (+)-disparlure and corresponding dihedral angles of analogs revealed that introduction of the heteroatom changes the conformeric landscape around these important epitopes. The energy difference between HOMO and LUMO decreased after oxygen or sulfur was introduced into the backbone. Consistent with this, an enhancement of binding affinity between sulfur analogs and the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) was observed in vitro. Docking of the pheromone and analogs onto models of the two known PBPs of the gypsy moth revealed that the internal binding pocket of PBP1 showed higher selectivity than that of PBP2, consistent with in vitro binding assays. Further energy analysis revealed that enantiomers adopted different conformations with different energies when docked in the internal binding pocket of PBPs, resulting in enantiomer discrimination of PBPs towards disparlure and its analogs.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  18. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  20. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  1. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomic responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, A; Sardans, J; Hódar, J A; Garcia-Porta, J; Guenther, A; Oravec, M; Urban, O; Peñuelas, J

    2016-05-01

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at element and molecular levels have focused on the elemental composition or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defence metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and avoid those with higher levels of defence compounds. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, both local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under attack from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing relative concentrations of terpenes and some phenolics. Systemic responses differed between pine subspecies, and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Our results support the hypothesis that foliar nutrient concentrations are not a key factor for plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition, since folivory was not associated with any of the elements analysed. Phenolic compounds generally did not increase in the attacked trees, questioning the suggestion of induction of phenolics following folivory attack and the anti-feeding properties of phenolics. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, in both primary and secondary metabolism, which was less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Local pine responses were similar between pine subspecies, while systemic responses were more distant.

  2. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomic responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, A; Sardans, J; Hódar, J A; Garcia-Porta, J; Guenther, A; Oravec, M; Urban, O; Peñuelas, J

    2016-05-01

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at element and molecular levels have focused on the elemental composition or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defence metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and avoid those with higher levels of defence compounds. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, both local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under attack from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing relative concentrations of terpenes and some phenolics. Systemic responses differed between pine subspecies, and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Our results support the hypothesis that foliar nutrient concentrations are not a key factor for plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition, since folivory was not associated with any of the elements analysed. Phenolic compounds generally did not increase in the attacked trees, questioning the suggestion of induction of phenolics following folivory attack and the anti-feeding properties of phenolics. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, in both primary and secondary metabolism, which was less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Local pine responses were similar between pine subspecies, while systemic responses were more distant. PMID:26642818

  3. A short, high-temperature treatment of host larvae to analyze Wolbachia-host interactions in the moth Ostrinia scapulalis.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takafumi N; Kayukawa, Takumi; Matsuo, Takashi; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2015-10-01

    Maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia cause various reproductive alterations in their hosts. Wolbachia induces male-specific death during embryonic and larval stages in the moth Ostrinia scapulalis. To investigate how the density of Wolbachia affects their performance in the host, we attempted to reduce its density using a short, high-temperature treatment of the host at the larval stage. Individuals cured of infection as well as sexual mosaics, which harbor Wolbachia, were obtained by this method in the next generation. The sex of uninfected offspring was exclusively male, similar to that of the offspring of larvae treated with antibiotics. A strong correlation was found between Wolbachia density in female moths and the sex ratio of their progeny. These results suggest that a short, high-temperature treatment at the larval stage reduced the density of Wolbachia in the adult stage, and, hence, inhibited interference with the host's development in the next generation. Since the direct effects of the heat treatment on Wolbachia were transient, this method may be useful for specifying the critical time for interference by Wolbachia in host development.

  4. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  5. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  6. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  7. An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2010-09-14

    Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude. PMID:20727755

  8. Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Smith, Christopher I; Leebens-Mack, James; Pellmyr, Olle

    2012-03-01

    Coevolution is thought to be especially important in diversification of obligate mutualistic interactions such as the one between yuccas and pollinating yucca moths. We took a three-step approach to examine if plant and pollinator speciation events were likely driven by coevolution. First, we tested whether there has been co-speciation between yuccas and pollinator yucca moths in the genus Tegeticula (Prodoxidae). Second, we tested whether co-speciation also occurred between yuccas and commensalistic yucca moths in the genus Prodoxus (Prodoxidae) in which reciprocal evolutionary change is unlikely. Finally, we examined the current range distributions of yuccas in relationship to pollinator speciation events to determine if plant and moth speciation events likely occurred in sympatry or allopatry. Co-speciation analyses of yuccas with their coexisting Tegeticula pollinator and commensalistic Prodoxus lineages demonstrated phylogenetic congruence between both groups of moths and yuccas, even though moth lineages differ in the type of interaction with yuccas. Furthermore, Yucca species within a lineage occur primarily in allopatry rather than sympatry. We conclude that biogeographic factors are the overriding force in plant and pollinator moth speciation and significant phylogenetic congruence between the moth and plant lineages is likely due to shared biogeography rather than coevolution.

  9. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  10. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth.

  11. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  12. Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

  13. Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

    1999-01-01

    The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

  14. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  15. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  16. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  17. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  18. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  19. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, F; Girod, R; Vassal, J M; Chandre, F; Lagneau, C; Fouque, F; Guiral, D; Raude, J; Robert, V

    2012-05-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as "papillonite" in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first "papillonite" epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  20. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  1. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  2. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  3. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin Wang, Dapeng

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  4. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  5. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  6. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1103 - Isomate-C; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... moth pheromone (Isomate-C) E,E-8,10-dodecenyl alcohol, dodecanol, tetradecanol is exempt from the... dispensers for use in orchards with encapsulated polyethylene tubing to control codling moth....

  8. 40 CFR 180.1103 - Isomate-C; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... moth pheromone (Isomate-C) E,E-8,10-dodecenyl alcohol, dodecanol, tetradecanol is exempt from the... dispensers for use in orchards with encapsulated polyethylene tubing to control codling moth....

  9. 40 CFR 180.1103 - Isomate-C; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... moth pheromone (Isomate-C) E,E-8,10-dodecenyl alcohol, dodecanol, tetradecanol is exempt from the... dispensers for use in orchards with encapsulated polyethylene tubing to control codling moth....

  10. 40 CFR 180.1103 - Isomate-C; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... moth pheromone (Isomate-C) E,E-8,10-dodecenyl alcohol, dodecanol, tetradecanol is exempt from the... dispensers for use in orchards with encapsulated polyethylene tubing to control codling moth....

  11. 40 CFR 180.1103 - Isomate-C; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... moth pheromone (Isomate-C) E,E-8,10-dodecenyl alcohol, dodecanol, tetradecanol is exempt from the... dispensers for use in orchards with encapsulated polyethylene tubing to control codling moth....

  12. Development and reproductive potential of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on selected wild crucifer species.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Qin; Sun, Yuan-Xing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-02-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is an oligophagous insect that primarily feeds on members of the family Cruciferae. The development, survival, and reproductive potential of P. xylostella were studied on eight wild cruciferous species: Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, Cardamine hirsuta L., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz, Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz, Thlaspi arvense L., and Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Developmental durations of immatures from egg to adult emergence differed significantly among the plant species, with the longest period recorded on C. macrophylla (20.8 d) and the shortest on R. indica (15.8 d). The female pupae of P. xylostella reared on C. leucantha and T. arvense were lighter (4.2 and 4.3 mg/pupa) than those reared on other hosts (5.2-6.5 mg/pupa), and the male pupae from T. arvense were the lightest (3.1 mg/pupa) among all colonies. Survival from egg to adult emergence ranged from 95.7% on R. indica to 48.8% on T. arvense. The longevity (10.1 d) of P. xylostella female and the oviposition period (7.7 d) were the longest when larvae fed R. indica than those that fed on other wild hosts. Female adults of P. xylostella from O. violaceus, C. macrophylla, and Ca. bursa-pastoris had higher fecundity (305-351 eggs/female) than from other wild host plants, whereas that from R. indica had the lowest fecundity (134 eggs/female). C. hirsuta was the best wild host plant for P. xylostella because of the highest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.2402), whereas T. arvense was the least favorable hosts with the lowest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.1577). The results from this study will be useful for interpretation of the performance and population dynamics of P. xylostella on wild hosts and cultivated cruciferous vegetables.

  13. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity. PMID:16005110

  14. Environment-mediated morph-linked immune and life-history responses in the aposematic wood tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Nokelainen, Ossi; Lindstedt, Carita; Mappes, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    1. Warning signals are expected to evolve towards conspicuousness and monomorphism, and thereby hamper the evolution of multiple colour morphs. Here, we test fitness responses to different rearing densities to explain colour polymorphism in aposematic wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) males. 2. We used larval lines sired by white or yellow adult males selected for small or large melanization patterns of coloration. We reared these selected lines either solitarily (favourable conditions) or in aggregations (challenged conditions), and followed their performance to adult stage. We tested whether differences in larval density affected life-history traits, adult melanin expression, adult morph (white or yellow) survival and immunological responses. 3. We found that the aggregated environment increased mortality of larvae, but decreased larval developmental time and pupa weight. Adult wing melanin pigmentation was dependent on larval melanin expression but not rearing density. We also confirmed that adult wing coloration had a genetic basis (h(2) = 0.42) and was not influenced by larval growth density. Adult yellow males survived better from aggregations in comparison with white males, which may be related to differences in immune defence. White males had better encapsulation ability, whereas yellow males had increased lytic activity of haemolymph in the aggregations. 4. Our main results highlight, that morph-linked immune responses mediated by differential growth density may facilitate the maintenance of colour polymorphism in aposematic species. In nature, risk of diseases and parasites vary spatially and temporally. Therefore, both yellow and white adult morphs can be maintained due to their differential investment in immune defence in heterogeneous environments.

  15. Biology, temperature thresholds, and degree-day requirements for development of the cucumber moth, Diaphania indica, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzade, Sareh; Izadi, Hamzeh; Namvar, Pyman; Samih, Mohamad Amin

    2014-05-02

    The cucumber moth, Diaphania indica (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a tropical and sub-tropical cucurbits pest and a key greenhouse pest in the Jiroft region of Iran. In this study, the effect of different temperatures on the development of this pest was investigated on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), leaves in a growth chamber at various constant temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35ºC). The results indicated that the development period from egg to adult death at the decreased with increasing temperature. Mortality was greatest at 35ºC. Based on a linear model, the highest and lowest temperature thresholds were recorded for male insects and pupal stage as 16ºC and 9.04ºC with thermal constants of 100 and 144.92 degree days, respectively.

  16. Diamondback moth in Ukraine: current status and potential for use biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Likar, Y; Stefanovska, T

    2009-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xillostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the insect pest damaging cabbage in Ukraine, especially in the Southern region. Biology, damage, population dynamics of diamondback moth and effect of natural enemies on the level of infestation of this pest by parasitoids and pathogens were studied in 2004-2007 in the laboratory and field conditions. Obtained results show that in general the pest has 2-3 generations, although up to 5-6 can evolve in the South. Fecundity and life longevity of Diamondback were studied on white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and two basic weeds: shepherd's purse and wild mustard. The host plant affects fecundity and life span of the diamondback moth. Fecundity differs significantly and is highest with white cabbage. Fauna of Diamondback moth parasitoids is quite rich. All stages are affected by numerous parasitoids and predators. Around 22 parasitoid species were recorded during the study. Overall parasitism ranged from 18% to 60% varying essentially between the areas. Apanteles (Cotesia) sp., Diadegma sp., Trichogramma sp. were most common in all areas. Steinernema sp., entomopathogenic nematodes are found to be natural enemies of diamondback moth. The range of natural enemies contributes significantly to the control of Diamondback moth. Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies should be used in IPM systems in order to control diamondback moth on cabbage. Entomopathogenic nematodes are prominent biocontrol agents.

  17. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  18. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

  19. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  20. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    PubMed

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-09-22

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes.

  1. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naive big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable-an aposematic signal.

  2. Naïve bats discriminate arctiid moth warning sounds but generalize their aposematic meaning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Chadwell, Brad A; Garrett, Nick; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Conner, William E

    2009-07-01

    Naïve red (Lasiurus borealis Müller) and big brown (Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois) bats quickly learn to avoid noxious sound-producing tiger moths. After this experience with a model tiger moth, bats generalize the meaning of these prey-generated sounds to a second tiger moth species producing a different call. Here we describe the three-dimensional kinematic and bioacoustic details of this behaviour, first, as naïve bats learn to deal with an unpalatable model tiger moth and subsequently, as they avoid acoustic mimics. The tiger moths' first clicks influenced the bats' echolocation behaviour and the percentage of interactions that included terminal buzzes was associated with capture and investigatory behaviour. When the mimic was introduced, the bats decreased both their minimum distance to the tiger moth and the time at which they broke off their attack compared with their exposure to the model on the night before. These kinematic signatures closely match the bats' behaviour on their first night of experience with the model. Minimum distances and time of pursuit cessation increased again by the last night of the mimic's presentation. These kinematic and bioacoustic results show that although naïve bats generalize the meaning of aposematic tiger moth calls, they discriminate the prey-generated signals as different and investigate. Extrapolating to experienced bats, these results suggest that acoustic predators probably exert potent and fine-scaled selective forces on acoustic mimicry complexes.

  3. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

  4. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  5. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  6. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  7. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  8. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken'Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective 'single pgFARs' produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a 'single reductase' can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  9. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order.

  10. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-06-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process-genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases-one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies. PMID:25626887

  11. Sex pheromone components of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Hahn, Roger; Khaskin, Grigori; Ramaseshiah, Gujjandadu; Singh, Balbir; Hehar, Gagandeep K; Gries, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    The Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), has been recognized as a distinct species since 1865 but closely resembles a diminutive form of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We tested the hypothesis that the sex pheromones of L. obfuscata and L. dispar are similar. In laboratory mate acceptance studies, very few male L. dispar made copulatory attempts when paired with female L. obfuscata, suggesting that female L. obfuscata emit one or more pheromone components antagonistic to male L. dispar. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract of female L. obfuscata, (Z)-2-methyloctadec-7-ene (2Me-7Z-18Hy) and (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] were most abundant and elicited the strongest responses from male L. obfuscata antennae. In field experiments near Solan (Himachal Pradesh, India), 2Me-7Z-18Hy and (+)-disparlure in combination attracted more male L. obfuscata than did either component alone. This two-component sex pheromone contrasts with the single-component sex pheromone [(+)-disparlure] of L. dispar. The contrasting composition of the lymantriid communities inhabited by L. obfuscata and L. dispar may explain why 2Me-7Z-18Hy is a pheromone component in L. obfuscata and a pheromone antagonist in L. dispar and why (-)-disparlure reduces pheromonal attraction of male L. dispar but not male L. obfuscata.

  12. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  13. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek M; Liebhold, Andrew M; Tobin, Patrick C; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2006-11-16

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most thoroughly studied biological invasion in the world, providing a unique opportunity to explore spatiotemporal variability in rates of spread. Here we describe evidence for periodic pulsed invasions, defined as regularly punctuated range expansions interspersed among periods of range stasis. We use a theoretical model with parameter values estimated from long-term monitoring data to show how an interaction between strong Allee effects (negative population growth at low densities) and stratified diffusion (most individuals disperse locally, but a few seed new colonies by long-range movement) can explain the invasion pulses. Our results indicate that suppressing population peaks along range borders might greatly slow invasion.

  14. Using yellow rocket as a trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2005-06-01

    Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in field plots of cabbage alone were 5.2-11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several rows of yellow rocket. In an outdoor experiment in screenhouses, P. xylostella oviposition on cabbage was compared among six treatments that varied in the percentage of yellow rocket in relation to cabbage (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32% of the plants were yellow rocket). Results indicated that the percentage of eggs laid on cabbage decreased as the percentage of yellow rocket in the treatment increased, but this decrease was not significant beyond 20% of the plants being yellow rocket. In 2004, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae in field plots of cabbage alone were 1.6-2.4 and 1.7-2.8 times higher than numbers in treatments with 10 and 20% trap crop, respectively. Sticky trap and sweep net captures of P. xylostella adults indicated that within-field dispersal was reduced by the presence of yellow rocket and aggregation occurred around yellow rocket plants. Our study suggests that using yellow rocket as a trap crop may reduce P. xylostella infestations in cabbage fields, and this possibility is discussed in the context of general crop and insect pest management practices in crucifers.

  15. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics. PMID:26201216

  16. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics.

  17. Desaturases from the spotted fireworm moth (Choristoneura parallela) shed light on the evolutionary origins of novel moth sex pheromone desaturases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitian; Rooney, Alejandro P; Xue, Bingye; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2004-11-24

    Six acyl-CoA desaturase-encoding cDNAs from mRNA isolated from the spotted fireworm moth, Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were characterized and assayed for functionality. The expression levels of these cDNAs were determined in the pheromone gland and fat body by real-time PCR and the resulting patterns are in line with results from published studies on other moth sex pheromone desaturases. The cDNAs were found to correspond to six genes. Using both biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, four of these were found to belong to previously characterized desaturase functional groups [the Delta 10,11, the Delta 9 (16>18) and the Delta 9 (18>16) groups]. A desaturase highly expressed in the pheromone gland was a novel E11 desaturase that was specific to 14-carbon precursor acids. The fifth gene [CpaZ9(14-26)] was found to display a novel Z9 activity indicating that it belongs to a new Delta 9 functional group, whereas the sixth gene was determined to be nonfunctional with respect to desaturase activity. In accordance with previous studies, we find that desaturases of the Delta 10,11 and Delta 14 groups, which are the fastest evolving desaturases and possess the novel pheromone biosynthetic function, are expressed primarily in the pheromone gland whereas all other desaturases, which do not possess the novel reproductive function, evolve more slowly and display the ancestral metabolic function and pattern of gene expression.

  18. Tritrophic choice experiments with bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Tanja H; Potting, Roel P J; Denholm, Ian; Clark, Suzanne J; Clark, Alison J; Stewart, C Neal; Poppy, Guy M

    2003-06-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely to have consequent effects on parasitoids specialising on such pests. A better understanding of the interaction between transgenic plants, pests and parasitoids is important to limit disruption of biological control and to provide background knowledge essential for implementing measures for the conservation of parasitoid populations. It is also essential for investigations into the potential role of parasitoids in delaying the build-up of Bt-resistant pest populations. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major pest of brassica crops, is normally highly susceptible to a range of Bt toxins. However, extensive use of microbial Bt sprays has led to the selection of resistance to Bt toxins in P. xylostella. Cotesia plutellae is an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella larvae. Although unable to survive in Bt-susceptible P. xylostella larvae on highly resistant Bt oilseed rape plants due to premature host mortality, C. plutellae is able to complete its larval development in Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae. Experiments of parasitoid flight and foraging behaviour presented in this paper showed that adult C. plutellae females do not distinguish between Bt and wildtype oilseed rape plants, and are more attracted to Bt plants damaged by Bt-resistant hosts than by susceptible hosts. This stronger attraction to Bt plants damaged by resistant hosts was due to more extensive feeding damage. Population scale experiments with mixtures of Bt and wildtype plants demonstrated that the parasitoid is as effective in controlling Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae on Bt plants as on wildtype plants. In these experiments equal or higher numbers of parasitoid adults emerged per

  19. The effect of rearing temperature on development, body size, energetics and fecundity of the diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Garrad, R; Booth, D T; Furlong, M J

    2016-04-01

    Temperature is arguably the most important abiotic factor influencing the life history of ectotherms. It limits survival and affects all physiological and metabolic processes, including energy and nutrient procurement and processing, development and growth rates, locomotion ability and ultimately reproductive success. However, the influence of temperature on the energetic cost of development has not been thoroughly investigated. We show that in the diamondback moth [Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)] rearing temperature (range 10-30°C) affected growth and development rates, the energetic cost of development and fecundity. Rearing at lower temperatures increased development times and slowed growth rate, but resulted in larger adult mass. Fecundity was lowest at 10°C, highest at 15°C and intermediate at temperatures of 20°C and above. At a given rearing temperature fecundity was correlated with pupal mass and most eggs were laid on the first day of oviposition, there was no correlation between total eggs laid and adult longevity. The highest production cost was incurred at 10°C; this decreased with increasing temperature, was minimized in the range 20-25°C, and then increased again at 30°C. These minimized production costs occurred at temperatures close to the intrinsic optimum temperature for this species and may reflect the rearing temperature for optimal fitness. Thus at sub-optimal temperatures greater food resources are required during the development period. Predicted increased temperatures at the margins of the current core distribution of P. xylostella could ameliorate current seasonal effects on fecundity, thereby increasing the probability of winter survival leading to more resilient range expansion and an increased probability of pest outbreaks.

  20. Tritrophic choice experiments with bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Tanja H; Potting, Roel P J; Denholm, Ian; Clark, Suzanne J; Clark, Alison J; Stewart, C Neal; Poppy, Guy M

    2003-06-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely to have consequent effects on parasitoids specialising on such pests. A better understanding of the interaction between transgenic plants, pests and parasitoids is important to limit disruption of biological control and to provide background knowledge essential for implementing measures for the conservation of parasitoid populations. It is also essential for investigations into the potential role of parasitoids in delaying the build-up of Bt-resistant pest populations. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major pest of brassica crops, is normally highly susceptible to a range of Bt toxins. However, extensive use of microbial Bt sprays has led to the selection of resistance to Bt toxins in P. xylostella. Cotesia plutellae is an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella larvae. Although unable to survive in Bt-susceptible P. xylostella larvae on highly resistant Bt oilseed rape plants due to premature host mortality, C. plutellae is able to complete its larval development in Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae. Experiments of parasitoid flight and foraging behaviour presented in this paper showed that adult C. plutellae females do not distinguish between Bt and wildtype oilseed rape plants, and are more attracted to Bt plants damaged by Bt-resistant hosts than by susceptible hosts. This stronger attraction to Bt plants damaged by resistant hosts was due to more extensive feeding damage. Population scale experiments with mixtures of Bt and wildtype plants demonstrated that the parasitoid is as effective in controlling Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae on Bt plants as on wildtype plants. In these experiments equal or higher numbers of parasitoid adults emerged per

  1. DNA barcoding reveals a largely unknown fauna of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Lees, D C; Kawahara, A Y; Rougerie, R; Ohshima, I; Kawakita, A; Bouteleux, O; De Prins, J; Lopez-Vaamonde, C

    2014-03-01

    Higher taxa often show increasing species richness towards tropical low latitudes, a pattern known as the latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). A rare reverse LBG (with greater richness towards temperate high latitudes) is exhibited by Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths, in which most described species occur in northern temperate areas. We carried out the first assessment of gracillariid species diversity in two Neotropical regions to test whether the relatively low tropical species diversity of this family is genuine or caused by insufficient sampling and a strong taxonomic impediment. Field surveys in six French Guianan and one Ecuadorian site produced 516 gracillariid specimens that were DNA barcoded to facilitate identification and to match larvae inside leaf mines with adults. Species delineation from sequence data was approximated using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery and Refined Single Linkage Analysis through the Barcode Index Number system, and the proportion of described/undescribed species was estimated after comparison with types of 83% of described species. Locally, alpha-diversity far exceeds that of any known temperate fauna, with as many as 108 candidate species (59.3% as singletons) collected at one site, and with an estimated species richness lower bound of 240 species. Strikingly, at least 85% of the species collected as adults were found to be undescribed. Our sampling represents the most thorough survey of gracillariid species diversity in the Neotropics to date and the results from both our molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the current reverse LBG seen in this group is an artefact of insufficient sampling and a strong description deficit in the Neotropics. PMID:24119085

  2. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  4. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  5. INSECT FLIGHT. Luminance-dependent visual processing enables moth flight in low light.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, Simon; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Hall, Robert W; Daniel, Thomas L

    2015-06-12

    Animals must operate under an enormous range of light intensities. Nocturnal and twilight flying insects are hypothesized to compensate for dim conditions by integrating light over longer times. This slowing of visual processing would increase light sensitivity but should also reduce movement response times. Using freely hovering moths tracking robotic moving flowers, we showed that the moth's visual processing does slow in dim light. These longer response times are consistent with models of how visual neurons enhance sensitivity at low light intensities, but they could pose a challenge for moths feeding from swaying flowers. Dusk-foraging moths avoid this sensorimotor tradeoff; their nervous systems slow down but not so much as to interfere with their ability to track the movements of real wind-blown flowers.

  6. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  7. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  8. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  9. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  10. Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Warning coloration can be disruptive: aposematic marginal wing patterning in the wood tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Honma, Atsushi; Mappes, Johanna; Valkonen, Janne K

    2015-11-01

    Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This delusion can work even when the prey's pattern elements are highly contrasting; thus, it is possible for an animal's coloration to combine both warning and disruptive functions. The coloration of the wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) is such that the moth is conspicuous when it rests on vegetation, but when it feigns death and drops to the grass- and litter-covered ground, it is hard to detect. This death-feigning behavior therefore immediately switches the function of its coloration from signaling to camouflage. We experimentally tested whether the forewing patterning of wood tiger moths could function as disruptive coloration against certain backgrounds. Using actual forewing patterns of wood tiger moths, we crafted artificial paper moths and placed them on a background image resembling a natural litter and grass background. We manipulated the disruptiveness of the wing pattern so that all (marginal pattern) or none (nonmarginal pattern) of the markings extended to the edge of the wing. Paper moths, each with a hidden palatable food item, were offered to great tits (Parus major) in a large aviary where the birds could search for and attack the "moths" according to their detectability. The results showed that prey items with the disruptive marginal pattern were attacked less often than prey without it. However, the disruptive function was apparent only when the prey was brighter than the background. These results suggest that warning coloration and disruptive coloration can work in concert and that the moth, by feigning death, can switch the function of its coloration from warning to disruptive. PMID:26640666

  12. Warning coloration can be disruptive: aposematic marginal wing patterning in the wood tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Honma, Atsushi; Mappes, Johanna; Valkonen, Janne K

    2015-11-01

    Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This delusion can work even when the prey's pattern elements are highly contrasting; thus, it is possible for an animal's coloration to combine both warning and disruptive functions. The coloration of the wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) is such that the moth is conspicuous when it rests on vegetation, but when it feigns death and drops to the grass- and litter-covered ground, it is hard to detect. This death-feigning behavior therefore immediately switches the function of its coloration from signaling to camouflage. We experimentally tested whether the forewing patterning of wood tiger moths could function as disruptive coloration against certain backgrounds. Using actual forewing patterns of wood tiger moths, we crafted artificial paper moths and placed them on a background image resembling a natural litter and grass background. We manipulated the disruptiveness of the wing pattern so that all (marginal pattern) or none (nonmarginal pattern) of the markings extended to the edge of the wing. Paper moths, each with a hidden palatable food item, were offered to great tits (Parus major) in a large aviary where the birds could search for and attack the "moths" according to their detectability. The results showed that prey items with the disruptive marginal pattern were attacked less often than prey without it. However, the disruptive function was apparent only when the prey was brighter than the background. These results suggest that warning coloration and disruptive coloration can work in concert and that the moth, by feigning death, can switch the function of its coloration from warning to disruptive.

  13. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  14. Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix)

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Rossini, Carmen; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

  15. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  16. 50 years of studying the scarlet tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A

    1989-10-01

    A growing number of long-term studies in plant and animal ecological genetics is now rewarding the patience, perseverance and perspicacity of those involved. A handful have involved work spanning 30 years and more, with an initial major impact on the way the study of population biology has developed. It is 50 years since investigation of the medionigra form of the scarlet tiger moth began, and in spite of very low allele frequencies and population numbers the medionigra allele persists in the original population. It is only by such long-term studies that we will be able to obtain more than just a cursory understanding of what really happens in natural populations of plants and animals.

  17. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  18. Ejaculate economics: an experimental test in a moth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spermatogenesis is costly. As a consequence, males should optimize the use of their sperm to maximize their reproductive outputs in their lifetime. However, experimental evidence on this prediction is largely lacking. Here, we examine how a male moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) responds to the presence of rivals or additional mates and how such response influences his lifetime reproductive fitness. We show that when rival males are present around a copulating pair, the male ejaculates more sperm to win a sperm competition battle but in such an environment he inseminates fewer females, sires fewer offspring and lives shorter. The opposite is the case when additional females are present during copulation. These findings reveal that elevated reproductive expenditure owing to sperm competition intensity is made at the expense of longevity and future reproduction.

  19. Evolutionary escalation: the bat-moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-06-01

    Echolocation in bats and high-frequency hearing in their insect prey make bats and insects an ideal system for studying the sensory ecology and neuroethology of predator-prey interactions. Here, we review the evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, and consider the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations. Ears evolved in a remarkable number of body locations across insects, with the original selection pressure for ears differing between groups. Although cause and effect are difficult to determine, correlations between hearing and life history strategies in moths provide evidence for how these two variables influence each other. We consider life history variables such as size, sex, circadian and seasonal activity patterns, geographic range and the composition of sympatric bat communities. We also review hypotheses on the neural basis for anti-predator behaviours (such as evasive flight and sound production) in moths. It is assumed that these prey adaptations would select for counter-adaptations in predatory bats. We suggest two levels of support for classifying bat traits as counter-adaptations: traits that allow bats to eat more eared prey than expected based on their availability in the environment provide a low level of support for counter-adaptations, whereas traits that have no other plausible explanation for their origination and maintenance than capturing defended prey constitute a high level of support. Specific predator counter-adaptations include calling at frequencies outside the sensitivity range of most eared prey, changing the pattern and frequency of echolocation calls during prey pursuit, and quiet, or 'stealth', echolocation. PMID:27252453

  20. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  1. Germline transformation of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., using the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Naish, N; Walker, A S; Morrison, N I; Scaife, S; Fu, G; Dafa'alla, T; Alphey, L

    2012-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most economically important agricultural pests. The larvae of this moth cause damage by feeding on the foliage of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and rapeseed. Control generally comprises chemical treatment; however, the diamondback moth is renowned for rapid development of resistance to pesticides. Other methods, such as biological control, have not been able to provide adequate protection. Germline transformation of pest insects has become available in recent years as an enabling technology for new genetics-based control methods, such as the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL(®) ). In the present study, we report the first transformation of the diamondback moth, using the piggyBac transposable element, by embryo microinjection. In generating transgenic strains using four different constructs, the function of three regulatory sequences in this moth was demonstrated in driving expression of fluorescent proteins. The transformation rates achieved, 0.48-0.68%, are relatively low compared with those described in other Lepidoptera, but not prohibitive, and are likely to increase with experience. We anticipate that germline transformation of the diamondback moth will permit the development of RIDL strains for use against this pest and facilitate the wider use of this species as a model organism for basic studies.

  2. Unexpected dynamic up-tuning of auditory organs in day-flying moths.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    In certain nocturnal moth species the frequency range of best hearing shifts to higher frequencies during repeated sound stimulation. This could provide the moths with a mechanism to better detect approaching echolocating bats. However, such a dynamic up-tuning would be of little value for day-flying moths that use intra-specific acoustic communication. Here we examined if the ears of day-flying moths provide stable tuning during longer sound stimulation. Contrary to our expectations, dynamic up-tuning was found in the ear of the day-flying species Urania boisduvalii and Empyreuma pugione. Audiograms were measured with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The level of the dominant distortion product (i.e. 2f1-f2) varied as a function of time by as much as 45 dB during ongoing acoustic stimulation, showing a systematic decrease at low frequencies and an increase at high frequencies. As a consequence, within about 2 s of acoustic stimulation, the DPOAEs audiogram shifted from low to high frequencies. Despite the up-tuning, the range of best audition still fell within the frequency band of the species-specific communication signals, suggesting that intra-specific communication should not be affected adversely. Up-tuning could be an ancestral condition in moth ears that in day-flying moths does not underlie larger selection pressure.

  3. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-01

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  4. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region.

  5. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  6. Weather-driven dynamics in a dual-migrant system: moths and bats.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jennifer J; Westbrook, John K; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-05-01

    Animal migrations generate large spatial and temporal fluctuations in biomass that provide a resource base for many predator-prey interactions. These interactions are often driven by continent-scale weather patterns and are difficult to study. Few studies have included migratory animals on more than a single trophic level or for periods spanning multiple entire seasons. We tracked migrations of three species of agricultural pest noctuid moths over the 2010-2012 autumn seasons as the moths travelled past a large colony of migratory Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in Texas. Increases in moth abundance, mass of bats and duration of bat activity outside of the cave were correlated with passage of cold fronts over the study area and related increases in northerly wind. Moth responses to weather patterns varied among species and seasons, but overall moth abundances were low in late summer and spiked after one or more cold front passages in September and October. Changes in bat mass and behaviour appear to be consequences of bat migration, as cave use transitioned from summer maternity roost to autumn migratory stopover sites. Weather-driven migration is at considerable risk from climate change, and bat and moth responses to that change may have marked impacts on agricultural systems and bat ecosystem services.

  7. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  8. A new gland associated with the retrocerebral complex of the adult corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the discovery of a putative new gland associated with the retrocerebral complex in the adults of Helicoverpa zea. The gland was not observed in Manduca sexta and few other species of moths. The pair of glands, each 40-60 µm in diameter, is located on either side of the recurrent nerve. Eac...

  9. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (beta-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of beta-carotene (standard diet, low beta-carotene, high beta-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on beta-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of beta-carotene (low beta and high beta) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals.

  10. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  11. Fabrication of silica moth-eye structures by photo-nanoimprinting using ordered anodic porous alumina molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagishita, Takashi; Endo, Takahide; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Moth-eye structures composed of an ordered array of tapered SiO2 pillars were fabricated by photo-nanoimprinting using anodic porous alumina as a mold. The formation of SiO2 moth-eye structures was carried out using a photosensitive polysilane solution as a precursor of silica. The SiO2 moth-eye structures formed on the surface of a glass plate effectively suppressed the reflection of incident light.

  12. Chemical composition of sex pheromone of oriental fruit moth and rates of release by individual female moths.

    PubMed

    Lacey, M J; Sanders, C J

    1992-08-01

    The sex pheromone emitted by individual calling females of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta, was trapped within glass capillaries, and the composition and release rates were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aerial release of (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate ranged up to 25.3 ng/hr, while the mean release rate was 8.48 ± 7.26 ng/hr (±SD). The proportion of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate to (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate was remarkably constant (4.20 ± 0.60%). Significant amounts of dodecyl acetate were also recovered but, contrary to previous reports, only trace quantities of (Z)-8-dodecenol were detected in the effluvium.

  13. The dependence of behavioral auditory thresholds on the delay of echo-like signals in noctuid moths (lepidoptera, noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lapshin, D N; Vorontsov, D D

    2009-03-01

    The auditory system of noctuoid moths capable to respond to ultrasounds has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology. Many moths avoid hunting bats by listening for their echolocation calls and taking evasive manoeuvres to escape predation. Besides these flight defences, certain tiger moths (Arctiidae) emit high-frequency clicks to jam the echolocator of an attacking bat. Another suggested function for ultrasonic audition in moths along with their capability to emit loud ultrasonic clicks was pulse echolocation. However, it seemed difficult to arrange sufficient temporal resolution in a simple invertebrate auditory system. Here we present an evidence of moth's capability to perceive an echo following its own click with a very short delay. The behavioral responses of moths to the acoustic pulses imitating echoes of their own clicks were investigated under conditions of tethered flight. It has been found that such echo-like stimulation evokes an increase in average emission rate of own acoustic signals in moths. Auditory thresholds were measured in two noctuid species (Enargia paleacea Esp. and Blepharita satura Schiff.) at stimulus delays 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ms in relation to the respective moth clicks. Our findings reveal the ability of these moths to perceive echoes of their own signals, thus demonstrating potential possibility for use of pulse echolocation.

  14. Effects of weather factors on the abundance and diversity of moths in a temperate deciduous mixed forest of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2008-01-01

    Three-year (2004-2006) monitoring results of macrolepidoptera using light traps in a temperate deciduous mixed forest were analyzed to investigate the relationship between moth diversity and nine weather variables. Results of stepwise regression analyses showed that mean daily temperature was the main predictor for moth diversity. The present study also revealed that each moth family was affected by a set of different weather factors (rainfall, relative humidity, or duration of sunshine) probably due to different life-history strategies. The impacts of recent climate change on insect populations may be evidenced in the close relationship between moth abundance and mean temperature.

  15. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  16. Quantitative analysis of the effects of ultrasound from an odor sprayer on moth flight behavior.

    PubMed

    Skals, Niels; Plepys, Dainius; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Löfstedt, Christer; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    A piezoelectric sprayer was recently developed for precision release of odor stimuli in olfactory research. The device replaces conventional dispensers used to release semiochemicals in studies of moth flight toward sources. However, the device generates high-frequency sounds in the range that some moths can hear. Ultrasound from the standard set-up sprayer had a considerable impact on flight behavior of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma, tested in a flight tunnel. It was affected at all behavioral stages when the dispenser was driven at 120 kHz. Only 5% of the moths reached the source when exposed to 120-kHz sound from the dispenser compared to 65% in the control group without sound. The proportion taking flight was also reduced. Hearing threshold curves obtained electrophysiologically revealed that moths were sensitive to the frequency range at which the sprayer was operated and that sound intensity from the sprayer was up to 40 dB above the moths' electrophysiological hearing threshold. The audiogram for A. gamma was similar to audiograms obtained for other noctuids. Hearing sensitivity was highest at around 15 kHz, where the threshold was 35 dB SPL (sound pressure level). The threshold increased with frequency up to 94 dB SPL at 160 kHz. We improved the sprayer to operate at 300 kHz, which is beyond the hearing ability of most insects with ears. At this high frequency, the moths' sensitivity to ulrasound is reduced considerably, and we did not observe any effect on flight behavior compared to a control group without sound. Accordingly, this new piezoelectric sprayer can be used with ultrasound-sensitive insects and insensitive insects alike. PMID:12647854

  17. The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2005-12-01

    We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context.

  18. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  19. Notable plesiomorphies and notable specializations: head structure of the primitive "tongue moth" Acanthopteroctetes unifascia (Lepidoptera: Acanthopteroctetidae).

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Niels P; Rota, Jadranka; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    The Acanthopteroctetidae are one of the first-originated family-group lineages within "tongue moths" (Lepidoptera-Glossata). The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account (based on whole mount preparations, serial sections, and Scanning electron microscopy) of the cephalic structure of an adult exemplar of the family, to supplement the sparse available information. Notable plesiomorphies include the retention of frontal retractors of the narrow labrum, a high supraocular index linked to strong development of cranio-mandibular ad- and abductors, and perhaps the unusually short but still coilable (just ca. 1.5 turns) galeal "tongue." Notable specializations (probably mostly family autapomorphies) include a complement of large sensilla placodea on the male antennae, an apical attachment of the long dorsal tentorial arm to the cranium, an extreme reduction of the single-segmented labial palps, a particularly strong subgenal bridge and a surface structure of near-parallel ridges on the ommatidial corneae. The presence of sizable saccular mandibular (type 1) glands opening into the adductor apodeme is unexpected, no counterparts being known from neighboring taxa. The same is true for ventral salivarium dilator muscles originating on the prelabium; and tentatively suggested to be homologues of the extrinsic palp flexors (the insertion shift being related to loss of original function due to palp reduction), rather than to the ventral salivarium muscles of more basal insects. A complete "deutocerebral loop"' may or may not be developed, as is true for a mutual appression of the optic lobe and circumoesophageal connective/suboesophageal ganglion, enclosing the anterior tentorial arm between them; a suboesophageal innervation of the retrocerebral complex was not observed. No characters bearing on the monophyly of the Coelolepida were identified. The scapo-pedicellar articulation with a scapal process and a smooth intercalary sclerite is reminiscent of

  20. Developmental changes in the density of ionic currents in antennal-lobe neurons of the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Alison R; Hildebrand, John G

    2002-06-01

    Early in metamorphic adult development, action potentials elicited from Manduca sexta antennal lobe neurons are small in amplitude, long in duration, and calcium dependent. As development proceeds, the action potential waveform becomes larger in amplitude, shorter in duration, and increasingly sodium dependent. Whole cell voltage-clamp analysis of Manduca antennal-lobe neurons in vitro has been used to identify voltage-activated currents that contribute to developmental changes in the electrical excitability of these cells. Proximal Branching neurons [putative projection (output) neurons] and Rick Rack neurons (putative local antennal-lobe interneurons) are examined in detail early (pupal stage 5) and late (pupal stage 14) in adult metamorphosis. In both cell types, four voltage-gated and two calcium-dependent ionic currents have been identified. Cell-type-specific changes in the density of sodium, calcium, and potassium currents correlate temporally with changes in cell excitability and spike waveform. Developmental changes in ionic current profiles are accompanied also by the emergence of cell-type-specific response characteristics in the cells. Together with the accompanying paper, this study provides an important foundation for examining the impact of developmental changes in electrical excitability on the growth, electrical properties and connectivity of neurons in central olfactory pathways of the moth.

  1. Expression of clock genes period and timeless in the central nervous system of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella.

    PubMed

    Kobelková, Alena; Závodská, Radka; Sauman, Ivo; Bazalová, Olga; Dolezel, David

    2015-04-01

    Homologous circadian genes are found in all insect clocks, but their contribution to species-specific circadian timing systems differs. The aim of this study was to extend research within Lepidoptera to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying circadian clock plasticity and evolution. The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae), represents a phylogenetically ancestral lepidopteran species. We have identified circadian rhythms in egg hatching, adult emergence, and adult locomotor activity. Cloning full-length complementary DNAs and further characterization confirmed one copy of period and timeless genes in both sexes. Both per and tim transcripts oscillate in their abundance in E. kuehniella heads under light-dark conditions. PER-like immunoreactivity (PER-lir) was observed in nuclei and cytoplasm of most neurons in the central brain, the ventral part of subesophageal complex, the neurohemal organs, the optic lobes, and eyes. PER-lir in photoreceptor nuclei oscillated during the day with maximal intensity in the light phase of the photoperiodic regime and lack of a signal in the middle of the dark phase. Expression patterns of per and tim messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were revealed in the identical location as the PER-lir was detected. In the photoreceptors, a daily rhythm in the intensity of expression of both per mRNA and tim mRNA was found. These findings suggest E. kuehniella as a potential lepidopteran model for circadian studies. PMID:25637625

  2. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  3. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  4. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  5. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Derks, Martijn F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth. PMID:26227816

  6. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs.

  7. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology.

    PubMed

    Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A M; Visser, Marcel E; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-07-29

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth.

  8. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted. PMID:20568610

  9. Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

    1999-01-01

    In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

  10. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  11. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand's North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand's climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  12. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand’s North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand’s climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  13. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Rice Moth, Corcyra cephalonica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)3. The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)9, (AT)8 elements. PMID:23413968

  14. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  15. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    PubMed

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  16. Moth-Eye TiO2 Layer for Improving Light Harvesting Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Min; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Yoon, Jungjin; Yoo, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A moth-eye nanostructured mp-TiO2 film using conventional lithography, nano-imprinting and polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamping methods is demonstrated for the first time. Power conversion efficiency of the moth-eye patterned perovskite solar cell is improved by ≈11%, which mainly results from increasing light harvesting efficiency by structural optical property.

  17. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  18. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  19. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  20. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  1. Optical effects of highly curved multilayer structure found in the scale of structurally colored moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2009-08-01

    Multilayer interference phenomenon has been widely applied to various optical components that have highly wavelength-selective properties in reflection and transmission. In nature, some animals also take advantage of a similar mechanism for the coloration of their brilliant bodies. However, natural examples of multilayer thin-film structure are often modified in some structural aspects, and the modifications have been found to cause interesting optical effects. Recently, we found such an example, highly curved multilayer structure, in the wing scale of the Madagascan sunset moth. In this paper, we report the extended study of this subject. First, we will review the structural characteristics and various optical phenomena that occur on the wing of the moth. Second, inspired by the coloration mechanism of the moth wing, we newly consider multilayer designs for the color plates that change their colors depending on the analyzing direction of polarization.

  2. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  3. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  4. Synemon ignita sp. nov., a new sun moth species from southern Australia (Lepidoptera, Castniidae).

    PubMed

    Kallies, Axel; Edwards, Ted; Young, Andy; Douglas, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Sun moths (Castniidae) constitute a family of day-flying moths that due to their slim bodies, broad and often richly coloured wings and clubbed antennae closely resemble butterflies. However, despite this superficial similarity, sun moths are not related to butterflies but belong to the diverse cossoid assemblage of lepidopterous families (Edwards et al. 1998). Until recently, Castniidae were assigned to the superfamily Sesioidea (Minet 1991). A molecular study by Mutanen et al. (2010), however, failed to find support for a close relationship of Sesiidae and Castniidae, resulting in the inclusion of both families in a larger concept of Cossoidea (Nieukerken et al. 2011). In contrast, Heikkil et al. (2015) who added considerable morphological data to DNA, recovered Sesioidea as monophyletic, with Sesiidae, Castniidae and Brachodidae as constituent families, yet with low support values. Thus, although the monophyly of Castniidae is well supported, the systematic position of this family is unresolved. PMID:27394467

  5. Where to find a mate? Resource-based sexual communication of webbing clothes moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine

    2002-02-01

    Mate location in moths typically entails long-range attraction of males to female-produced pheromone. Here, we show that male and female webbing clothes moths, Tineola bisselliella, seek larval habitats (dry carrion, animal lairs, etc) to encounter mates. With males seeking, and arriving at, larval habitat earlier at night than females, male-produced pheromonal and sonic signals enhance the habitat's attractiveness to females. This resource-based mating strategy of T. bisselliella differs from that known for most other moths. It may have evolved in response to larval habitats that are patchy and temporary, but that disseminate attractive semiochemicals so abundantly that T. bisselliella encounter them more readily than their own pheromones.

  6. Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-11-20

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops.

  7. Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Seungmuk; Song, Kyungjun; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Kim, Namsoo; Lim, Hyuneui

    2013-11-13

    Broadband antireflection (AR) is essential for improving the photocurrent generation of photovoltaic modules or the enhancement of visibility in optical devices. Beyond conventional AR coating methods, moth eye mimicking nanostructures give new directions to enhance broadband antireflection through the selection of geometrical parameters, such as height, periodic distance, shape, and arrangement. This study numerically and experimentally investigates the behavior of light on complex nanostructures designed to mimic the surface of the moth eye with mixed shapes and various arrangements. To obtain broadband AR, we rigorously study the design parameters, such as height, periodic distance, shape, and arrangement, on a transparent quartz substrate. Several kinds of nanopillar arrays are elaborately fabricated including mixed nanostructures comprising pointy and round shapes in ordered and random arrangements via colloidal lithography. The optimal morphology of moth eye nanostructure arrays for broadband antireflection is suggested in view of reflectance and average weight transmittance.

  8. Long-distance dispersal of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) facilitated its initial invasion of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Blackburn, Laura M

    2008-02-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread is dominated by stratified dispersal, and, although spread rates are variable in space and time, the gypsy moth has invaded Wisconsin at a consistently higher rate than in other regions. Allee effects, which act on low-density populations ahead of the moving population that contribute to gypsy moth spread, have also been observed to be consistently weaker in Wisconsin. Because a major cause of an Allee effect in the gypsy moth is mate-finding failure at low densities, supplementing low-density populations with immigrants that arrive through dispersal may facilitate establishment and consequent spread. We used local indicator of spatial autocorrelation methods to examine space-time gypsy moth monitoring data from 1996 to 2006 and identify isolated, low-density colonies that arrived through dispersal. We measured the distance of these colonies from the moving population front to show that long-distance dispersal was markedly present in earlier years when Wisconsin was still mainly uninfested. Recently, however, immigrants arriving through long-distance dispersal may no longer be detected because instead of invading uninfested areas, they are now supplementing high-density colonies. In contrast, we observed no temporal pattern in the distance between low-density colonies and the population front in West Virginia and Virginia. We submit that long-distance dispersal, perhaps facilitated through meteorological mechanisms, played an important role in the spread dynamics of the initial Wisconsin gypsy moth invasion, but it currently plays a lesser role because the portion of Wisconsin most susceptible to long-distance immigrants from alternate sources is now heavily infested.

  9. Outbreak of caterpillar dermatitis caused by airborne hairs of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi).

    PubMed

    Balit, C R; Ptolemy, H C; Geary, M J; Russell, R C; Isbister, G K

    Caterpillars may be an under-recognised cause of skin and eye reactions. We report a four-month outbreak of recurrent papulourticarial rash among staff and visitors at a community centre. Caterpillar of the mistletoe browntail moth The cause was eventually diagnosed as airborne hairs from (Euproctis edwardsi). caterpillars of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi), which infested a eucalypt tree growing in front of the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first clear case of airborne caterpillar hairs causing dermatitis in an indoor environment.

  10. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  11. Computer analysis and mapping of gypsy moth levels in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT-1 digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of using LANDSAT-1 multispectral digital data and imagery, supplemented by ground truth and aerial photography, was investigated as a new method of surveying gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar (L.)) (Lepidoptera; Lymantriidae) defoliation, which has greatly increased in Pennsylvania in recent years. Since the acreage and severity of gypsy moth defoliation reaches a peak from mid-June through the first few days of July, the July 8, 1973, LANDSAT-1 scene was chosen for analysis. Results indicate that LANDSAT-1 data can be used to discriminate between defoliated and healthy vegetation in Pennsylvania and that digital processing methods can be used to map the extent and degree of defoliation.

  12. Outbreak of caterpillar dermatitis caused by airborne hairs of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi).

    PubMed

    Balit, C R; Ptolemy, H C; Geary, M J; Russell, R C; Isbister, G K

    Caterpillars may be an under-recognised cause of skin and eye reactions. We report a four-month outbreak of recurrent papulourticarial rash among staff and visitors at a community centre. Caterpillar of the mistletoe browntail moth The cause was eventually diagnosed as airborne hairs from (Euproctis edwardsi). caterpillars of the mistletoe browntail moth (Euproctis edwardsi), which infested a eucalypt tree growing in front of the centre. To our knowledge, this is the first clear case of airborne caterpillar hairs causing dermatitis in an indoor environment. PMID:11837874

  13. Toxicity of Different Diets Contaminated with Various Fungi to Rice Moth Larvae (Corcyra Cephalonica St.)

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Umashashi C.; Chandra, T.; Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Growth studies of rice moth larvae (Corcyra cephalonica st) have been carried out in groundnut meal and wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus, A. oryzae, P. purpurogenus and P. rubrum. It was observed that the diets contaminated with A. flavus only are toxic to these larvae. Wheat bran contaminated with A. flavus is more toxic than contaminated groundnut meal. The higher toxicity of wheat bran contaminated diet has been discussed. Aflatoxins produced in different substrata are shown to differ when analysed chromatographically. Growth studies of rice moth larvae have also been carried out with aflatoxin and the susceptibility of these larvae has been established. PMID:4227044

  14. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-07-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples ( Malus domestica L.) and pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 °C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  15. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations.

  16. Tiger moths and the threat of bats: decision-making based on the activity of a single sensory neuron.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H; Arthur, Benjamin J; Hoy, Ronald R

    2009-06-23

    Echolocating bats and eared moths are a model system of predator-prey interaction within an almost exclusively auditory world. Through selective pressures from aerial-hawking bats, noctuoid moths have evolved simple ears that contain one to two auditory neurons and function to detect bat echolocation calls and initiate defensive flight behaviours. Among these moths, some chemically defended and mimetic tiger moths also produce ultrasonic clicks in response to bat echolocation calls; these defensive signals are effective warning signals and may interfere with bats' ability to process echoic information. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of a single auditory neuron (the A1 cell) provides sufficient information for the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, to decide when to initiate defensive sound production in the face of bats. Thus, despite previous suggestions to the contrary, these moths' only other auditory neuron, the less sensitive A2 cell, is not necessary for initiating sound production. However, we found a positive linear relationship between combined A1 and A2 activity and the number of clicks the dogbane tiger moth produces.

  17. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Klein, Kenneth T; Leonard, Donna S

    2009-12-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps. We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap. We deployed a total of 352 automated traps under field conditions across several U.S. states over a 5-yr period. In many cases, there was general congruence between male moth capture and the number of recorded events. Although it was difficult to decipher an individual recording event because of the tendency for over-recording, the overall distribution of recorded events was useful in assessing male gypsy moth flight behavior and phenology. The time stamp for recorded events corroborated a previous report of crepuscular gypsy moth male flight behavior, because, although most moths were trapped between 12 and 16 h, there was a consistent period of flight activity between 20 and 22 h. The median male flight duration was 24 d (228 DD, base threshold = 10 degrees C), but there were several traps that recorded flight periods >42 d that could not be explained by overcounting given the congruence between moth capture and the number of recorded events. Unusually long flight periods could indicate the introduction of male moths or other life stages that developed under different climatic conditions.

  18. Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  19. A free lunch? No cost for acquiring defensive plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a specialist arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Trigo, José R; Futuyma, Douglas J

    2012-12-01

    Many herbivorous insects sequester defensive chemicals from their host plants. We tested sequestration fitness costs in the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We added pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations. Of all the larval and adult fitness components measured, only development time was negatively affected by PA concentration. These results were repeated under stressful laboratory conditions. On the other hand, the amount of PAs sequestered greatly increased with the diet PA concentration. Absence of a detectable negative effect does not necessarily imply a lack of costs if all individuals express the biochemical machinery of detoxification and sequestration constitutively. Therefore, we used qPCR to show that expression of the gene used to detoxify PAs, pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenase (pno), increased 41-fold in our highest PA treatment. Nevertheless, fitness components were affected only slightly or not at all, suggesting that sequestration in this species does not incur a strong cost. The apparent lack of costs has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of ecological interactions; for example, it implies that selection by specialist herbivores may decrease the levels of certain chemical defences in plant populations.

  20. Characterization of the transcriptome of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar identifies numerous transcripts associated with insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, ChuanWang; Sun, LiLi; Wen, RongRong; Shang, QingLi; Ma, Ling; Wang, ZhiYing

    2015-03-01

    Although the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar causes extensive forest damage worldwide, little is known regarding the genes involved in its development or response to insecticides. Accordingly, characterization of the transcriptome of L. dispar larvae would promote the development of toxicological methods for its control. RNA-seq analysis of L. dispar larvae messenger RNA (mRNA) generated 62,063 unigenes with N50 of 993 bp, from which 23,975 unique sequences (E-value < 10(-5)) were identified using a BLASTx search of the NCBI non-redundant (nr) database. Using functional classification in the Gene Ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) databases, 7,309 indentified sequences were categorized into 51 functional groups and 8,079 sequences were categorized into 25 functional groups, respectively. Moreover, we identified a large number of transcripts encoding known insecticide targets, or proteins involved in the metabolism of insecticides. Reads per kilobase of unigene length per million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis identified 39 high abundance transcripts, of which 27 exhibited significantly altered expression patterns across the egg, larvae, pupae, male and female adult stages. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic sequence resource for L. dispar, which will form the basis for future identification of candidate insecticide resistance genes in L. dispar.

  1. Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed.

  2. Reproductive Biology and Functional Response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a Natural Enemy of the Tomato Moth, Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E.; Luna, María G.

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2–15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  3. A free lunch? No cost for acquiring defensive plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a specialist arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Trigo, José R; Futuyma, Douglas J

    2012-12-01

    Many herbivorous insects sequester defensive chemicals from their host plants. We tested sequestration fitness costs in the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We added pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations. Of all the larval and adult fitness components measured, only development time was negatively affected by PA concentration. These results were repeated under stressful laboratory conditions. On the other hand, the amount of PAs sequestered greatly increased with the diet PA concentration. Absence of a detectable negative effect does not necessarily imply a lack of costs if all individuals express the biochemical machinery of detoxification and sequestration constitutively. Therefore, we used qPCR to show that expression of the gene used to detoxify PAs, pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenase (pno), increased 41-fold in our highest PA treatment. Nevertheless, fitness components were affected only slightly or not at all, suggesting that sequestration in this species does not incur a strong cost. The apparent lack of costs has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of ecological interactions; for example, it implies that selection by specialist herbivores may decrease the levels of certain chemical defences in plant populations. PMID:23110459

  4. To quiver or to shiver: increased melanization benefits thermoregulation, but reduces warning signal efficacy in the wood tiger moth

    PubMed Central

    Hegna, Robert H.; Nokelainen, Ossi; Hegna, Jonathan R.; Mappes, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Melanin production is often considered costly, yet beneficial for thermoregulation. Studies of variation in melanization and the opposing selective forces that underlie its variability contribute greatly to understanding natural selection. We investigated whether melanization benefits are traded off with predation risk to promote observed local and geographical variation in the warning signal of adult male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). Warning signal variation is predicted to reduce survival in aposematic species. However, in P. plantaginis, male hindwings are either yellow or white in Europe, and show continuous variation in melanized markings that cover 20 to 90 per cent of the hindwing. We found that the amount of melanization increased from 40 to 59 per cent between Estonia (58° N) and north Finland (67° N), suggesting melanization carries thermoregulatory benefits. Our thermal measurements showed that more melanic individuals warmed up more quickly on average than less melanic individuals, which probably benefits flight in cold temperatures. With extensive field experiments in central Finland and the Alpine region, we found that more melanic individuals suffered increased predation. Together, our data suggest that warning signal efficiency is constrained by thermoregulatory benefits. Differences in relative costs and benefits of melanin probably help to maintain the geographical warning signal differences. PMID:23363631

  5. Characterization of the transcriptome of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar identifies numerous transcripts associated with insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, ChuanWang; Sun, LiLi; Wen, RongRong; Shang, QingLi; Ma, Ling; Wang, ZhiYing

    2015-03-01

    Although the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar causes extensive forest damage worldwide, little is known regarding the genes involved in its development or response to insecticides. Accordingly, characterization of the transcriptome of L. dispar larvae would promote the development of toxicological methods for its control. RNA-seq analysis of L. dispar larvae messenger RNA (mRNA) generated 62,063 unigenes with N50 of 993 bp, from which 23,975 unique sequences (E-value < 10(-5)) were identified using a BLASTx search of the NCBI non-redundant (nr) database. Using functional classification in the Gene Ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) databases, 7,309 indentified sequences were categorized into 51 functional groups and 8,079 sequences were categorized into 25 functional groups, respectively. Moreover, we identified a large number of transcripts encoding known insecticide targets, or proteins involved in the metabolism of insecticides. Reads per kilobase of unigene length per million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis identified 39 high abundance transcripts, of which 27 exhibited significantly altered expression patterns across the egg, larvae, pupae, male and female adult stages. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic sequence resource for L. dispar, which will form the basis for future identification of candidate insecticide resistance genes in L. dispar. PMID:25868817

  6. Concurrent modulation of neuronal and behavioural olfactory responses to sex and host plant cues in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Kromann, Sophie H; Saveer, Ahmed M; Binyameen, Muhammad; Bengtsson, Marie; Birgersson, Göran; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Becher, Paul G

    2015-01-22

    Mating has profound effects on animal physiology and behaviour, not only in females but also in males, which we show here for olfactory responses. In cotton leafworm moths, Spodoptera littoralis, odour-mediated attraction to sex pheromone and plant volatiles are modulated after mating, producing a behavioural response that matches the physiological condition of the male insect. Unmated males are attracted by upwind flight to sex pheromone released by calling females, as well as to volatiles of lilac flowers and green leaves of the host plant cotton, signalling adult food and mating sites, respectively. Mating temporarily abolishes male attraction to females and host plant odour, but does not diminish attraction to flowers. This behavioural modulation is correlated with a response modulation in the olfactory system, as shown by electro-physiological recordings from antennae and by functional imaging of the antennal lobe, using natural odours and synthetic compounds. An effect of mating on the olfactory responses to pheromone and cotton plant volatiles but not to lilac flowers indicates the presence of functionally independent neural circuits within the olfactory system. Our results indicate that these circuits interconnect and weigh perception of social and habitat odour signals to generate appropriate behavioural responses according to mating state.

  7. To quiver or to shiver: increased melanization benefits thermoregulation, but reduces warning signal efficacy in the wood tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Hegna, Robert H; Nokelainen, Ossi; Hegna, Jonathan R; Mappes, Johanna

    2013-03-22

    Melanin production is often considered costly, yet beneficial for thermoregulation. Studies of variation in melanization and the opposing selective forces that underlie its variability contribute greatly to understanding natural selection. We investigated whether melanization benefits are traded off with predation risk to promote observed local and geographical variation in the warning signal of adult male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). Warning signal variation is predicted to reduce survival in aposematic species. However, in P. plantaginis, male hindwings are either yellow or white in Europe, and show continuous variation in melanized markings that cover 20 to 90 per cent of the hindwing. We found that the amount of melanization increased from 40 to 59 per cent between Estonia (58° N) and north Finland (67° N), suggesting melanization carries thermoregulatory benefits. Our thermal measurements showed that more melanic individuals warmed up more quickly on average than less melanic individuals, which probably benefits flight in cold temperatures. With extensive field experiments in central Finland and the Alpine region, we found that more melanic individuals suffered increased predation. Together, our data suggest that warning signal efficiency is constrained by thermoregulatory benefits. Differences in relative costs and benefits of melanin probably help to maintain the geographical warning signal differences.

  8. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    PubMed

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage.

  9. Biological Control of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum, by the brown lygodium moth, Neomusotima conspurcatalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most problematic invasive weeds impacting natural areas in southern and central Florida. Management has proven difficult and expensive, which prompted interest in the development of biological control options. The brown lygodium moth, Neom...

  10. Tarsi of male heliothine moths contain aldehydes and butyrate esters as potential pheromone components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Noctuidae is one of the most specious moth families and contains the genera Helicoverpa and Heliothis. Their major sex pheromone component is (Z)-11-hexadecenal except for Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon both of which utilize (Z)-9-hexadecenal. The minor components of heliothine ...

  11. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia.  PMID:25283909

  12. Convergent patterns of long-distance nocturnal migration in noctuid moths and passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, Thomas; Chapman, Jason W; Bäckman, Johan; Smith, Alan D; Karlsson, Håkan; Nilsson, Cecilia; Reynolds, Don R; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hill, Jane K

    2011-10-22

    Vast numbers of insects and passerines achieve long-distance migrations between summer and winter locations by undertaking high-altitude nocturnal flights. Insects such as noctuid moths fly relatively slowly in relation to the surrounding air, with airspeeds approximately one-third of that of passerines. Thus, it has been widely assumed that windborne insect migrants will have comparatively little control over their migration speed and direction compared with migrant birds. We used radar to carry out the first comparative analyses of the flight behaviour and migratory strategies of insects and birds under nearly equivalent natural conditions. Contrary to expectations, noctuid moths attained almost identical ground speeds and travel directions compared with passerines, despite their very different flight powers and sensory capacities. Moths achieved fast travel speeds in seasonally appropriate migration directions by exploiting favourably directed winds and selecting flight altitudes that coincided with the fastest air streams. By contrast, passerines were less selective of wind conditions, relying on self-powered flight in their seasonally preferred direction, often with little or no tailwind assistance. Our results demonstrate that noctuid moths and passerines show contrasting risk-prone and risk-averse migratory strategies in relation to wind. Comparative studies of the flight behaviours of distantly related taxa are critically important for understanding the evolution of animal migration strategies.

  13. Wind selection and drift compensation optimize migratory pathways in a high-flying moth.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hill, Jane K; Riley, Joe R; Sivell, Duncan; Smith, Alan D; Woiwod, Ian P

    2008-04-01

    Numerous insect species undertake regular seasonal migrations in order to exploit temporary breeding habitats [1]. These migrations are often achieved by high-altitude windborne movement at night [2-6], facilitating rapid long-distance transport, but seemingly at the cost of frequent displacement in highly disadvantageous directions (the so-called "pied piper" phenomenon [7]). This has lead to uncertainty about the mechanisms migrant insects use to control their migratory directions [8, 9]. Here we show that, far from being at the mercy of the wind, nocturnal moths have unexpectedly complex behavioral mechanisms that guide their migratory flight paths in seasonally-favorable directions. Using entomological radar, we demonstrate that free-flying individuals of the migratory noctuid moth Autographa gamma actively select fast, high-altitude airstreams moving in a direction that is highly beneficial for their autumn migration. They also exhibit common orientation close to the downwind direction, thus maximizing the rectilinear distance traveled. Most unexpectedly, we find that when winds are not closely aligned with the moth's preferred heading (toward the SSW), they compensate for cross-wind drift, thus increasing the probability of reaching their overwintering range. We conclude that nocturnally migrating moths use a compass and an inherited preferred direction to optimize their migratory track.

  14. Pericarp strength of sunflower and its value for plant defense against the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower pericarps provide a barrier against seed-feeding by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum. Pericarp hardening is thought to be accelerated by a phytomelanin layer beneath the hypodermis, but among germplasm with phytomelanin, broad variation in sunflower pericarp strength exi...

  15. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  16. Arabidopsis genotypes resistant and susceptible to diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Putellidea): No net effects on insect growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plutella xylostella (L.), diamondback moth (DBM) is a destructive pest of the Brassicaceae including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis vary in the amounts of leaf area consumed when fed on by DBM, which has been used as a measure of resistance to DBM. Recombinant inbred lin...

  17. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in Argentina and Chile during 2010-11 evaluated a new trap (Ajar) for monitoring the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Ajar trap was delta-shaped with a jar filled with a terpinyl acetate plus brown sugar bait attached to the bottom center of the trap. The screened lid of ...

  18. Optical diffraction by the microstructure of the wing of a moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, D. J.; Smit, J. E.; Lee, M. E.; Möller, A.

    1995-09-01

    On the wing of the moth Trichoplusia orichalcea a prominent, apparently highly reflective, golden spot can be seen. Scales from this area of the wing exhibit a regular microstructure resembling a submicrometer herringbone pattern. We show that a diffraction process from this structure is responsible for the observed optical properties, such as directionality, brightness variations, polarization, and color.

  19. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Terry; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-06-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production of biofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity. We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn, miscanthus, switchgrass and native prairie, to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity. Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops. Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops, and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments. The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape.

  20. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... interim rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2009 (74 FR 48001-48002... FR 48001-48002 on September 21, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 301... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana,...