Science.gov

Sample records for adult coho salmon

  1. Recurrent Die-Offs of Adult Coho Salmon Returning to Spawn in Puget Sound Lowland Urban Streams

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Myers, Mark S.; McCarthy, Sarah G.; Labenia, Jana S.; McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Ylitalo, Gina M.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Laetz, Cathy A.; Stehr, Carla M.; French, Barbara L.; McMillan, Bill; Wilson, Dean; Reed, Laura; Lynch, Katherine D.; Damm, Steve; Davis, Jay W.; Collier, Tracy K.

    2011-01-01

    Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90%) of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1) assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2) compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3) identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia), fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek) from 2002–2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60–100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002). Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture) in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States. PMID:22194802

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    1983-01-01

    The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is native to the northern Pacific Ocean, spawning and rearing in streams from Monterey Bay, California, to Point Hope, Alaska, and southward along the Asiatic coast to Japan. Its center of abundance in North America is from Oregon to Alaska (Briggs 1953; Godfrey 1965; Hart 1973; Scott and Crossman 1973). Coho salmon have been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes and reservoirs and lakes throughout the United States to provide put-and-grow sport fishing (Scott and Crossman 1973; Wigglesworth and Rawson 1974). No subspecies of coho salmon have been described (Godfrey 1965).

  3. Comparison of five techniques for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in adult coho salmon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Mallett, R.W.; Mulcahy, D.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of kidney, spleen, coelomic fluid, and blood from 56 sexually mature coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were examined for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum by five methods. The overall prevalence (all sample types combined) of R. salmoninarum in the fish was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 86% by the combined results of the direct fluorescent antibody and the direct filtration-fluorescent antibody techniques, 39% by culture, 11% by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and 5% by agarose gel immunodiffusion. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay absorbance levels and the counts by fluorescent antibody techniques for kidney, spleen, and coelomic fluid, and significant positive correlations (P < 0.001) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay absorbance levels for all four of the sample types.

  4. A top-down survival mechanism during early marine residency explains coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Jacob J.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Molly V.; Fergusson, Emily A.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2009-12-01

    Coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a vital component in the southeast Alaska marine ecosystem and are an important regional fishery resource; consequently, understanding mechanisms affecting their year-class strength is necessary from both scientific and management perspectives. We examined correlations among juvenile coho salmon indices, associated biophysical variables, and adult coho salmon harvest data from southeast Alaska over the years 1997-2006. We found no relationship between summer indices of juvenile coho salmon growth, condition, or abundance with subsequent harvest of adult coho salmon in the region. However, using stepwise regression, we found that variation in adult coho salmon harvest was largely explained by indices of juvenile pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) abundance (67%) and zooplankton abundance (24%). To determine if high juvenile pink salmon abundance indicates favorable "bottom-up" lower trophic level environmental conditions for juvenile coho salmon, we plotted abundance of juvenile pink salmon against growth and condition of juvenile coho salmon. No change in growth or condition of juvenile coho salmon was observed in relation to the abundance index for juvenile pink salmon. Therefore, we hypothesize that coho salmon year-class strength in southeast Alaska is influenced by a "top-down" predator control mechanism that results from more abundant juvenile pink salmon, which serve as a predator buffer during early marine residency.

  5. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  6. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  7. Comparison of electronarcosis and carbon dioxide sedation effects on travel time in adult Chinook and Coho Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keep, Shane G; Allen, M. Brady; Zendt, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    The immobilization of fish during handling is crucial in avoiding injury to fish and is thought to reduce handling stress. Chemical sedatives have been a primary choice for fish immobilization. However, most chemical sedatives accumulate in tissues, and often food fishes must be held until accumulations degrade to levels safe for human consumption. Historically, there have been few options for nonchemical sedation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used for decades as a sedative, and while it does not require a degradation period, it does have drawbacks. The use of electronarcosis is another nonchemical option that does not require degradation time. However, little is known about the latent and delayed effects on migration rates of adult salmonids that have been immobilized with electricity. We compared the travel times of adult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch through a fishway at river kilometer (rkm) 4, and to rkm 16 and rkm 32 after being immobilized with either CO2 or electronarcosis. Travel times of fish treated with either CO2 or electronarcosis were similar within species. Because of the nearly instantaneous induction of and recovery from electronarcosis, we recommend it as an alternative to CO2 for handling large adult salmonids.

  8. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  9. Landscape Ecotoxicology of Coho Salmon Spawner Mortality in Urban Streams

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Blake E.; Buhle, Eric R.; Arnold, Paul; Davis, Jay W.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning from the ocean to spawn in urban basins of the Puget Sound region have been prematurely dying at high rates (up to 90% of the total runs) for more than a decade. The current weight of evidence indicates that coho deaths are caused by toxic chemical contaminants in land-based runoff to urban streams during the fall spawning season. Non-point source pollution in urban landscapes typically originates from discrete urban and residential land use activities. In the present study we conducted a series of spatial analyses to identify correlations between land use and land cover (roadways, impervious surfaces, forests, etc.) and the magnitude of coho mortality in six streams with different drainage basin characteristics. We found that spawner mortality was most closely and positively correlated with the relative proportion of local roads, impervious surfaces, and commercial property within a basin. These and other correlated variables were used to identify unmonitored basins in the greater Seattle metropolitan area where recurrent coho spawner die-offs may be likely. This predictive map indicates a substantial geographic area of vulnerability for the Puget Sound coho population segment, a species of concern under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our spatial risk representation has numerous applications for urban growth management, coho conservation, and basin restoration (e.g., avoiding the unintentional creation of ecological traps). Moreover, the approach and tools are transferable to areas supporting coho throughout western North America. PMID:21858112

  10. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  11. ADULT COHO SALMON AND STEELHEAD USE OF BOULDER WEIRS IN SOUTHWEST OREGON STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The placement of log and boulder structures in streams is a common and often effective technique for improving juvenile salmonid rearing habitat and increasing fish densities. Less frequently examined has been the use of these structures by adult salmonids. In 2004, spawner densi...

  12. Parasite burdens in experimental families of coho salmon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, W.T.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the possibility that parasites affect survival rates of anadromous hatchery coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch during their period in the wild. Survival was estimated from the rates at which adults returned to the hatchery. The frequency of infection of heart tissue by metacercariae of Nanophyetus sp. was higher in individuals from families with relatively high survival. Various degrees of parasitic and bacterial infection were observed in all groups. We frequently saw extensive infection and tissue reaction to trophozoites of Ceratomyxa sp. (probably C. shasta) in the apparent absence of spores, suggesting that the clinical method now used to determine the presence of Ceratomyxa infection needs to be reassessed.

  13. Pesticides in urban streams and prespawn mortality of Pacific coho salmon.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Hearsey, James W

    2013-10-01

    The listing of several runs of Pacific salmon as threatened or endangered and associated federal, state, and local efforts to restore/enhance salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest make it imperative that the factors associated with these population declines are understood. Prespawn mortality (PSM) has been documented in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) within urban streams in western Washington since the late 1990s and is characterized by a suite of neurological and respiratory symptoms with mortality occurring shortly thereafter. Mortality rates in returning adults have ranged between 17 and 100%. The cause of PSM is not known, but the presence of pesticide residues within urban streams led to a hypothesis that PSM in coho salmon and pesticides in urban streams were linked. We exposed pairs of "green" (unripe) prespawn male and female coho salmon to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Longevity, ripening in female salmon, and brain acetylcholinesterase were not significantly affected by continuous exposure to the maximum reported concentrations of the pesticides. Fertilization, hatching success, and growth of fry were also not affected when green adults were exposed to these concentrations for 96 h. The absence of effects suggests it is unlikely that pesticides within stormwater are singularly responsible for PSM in coho salmon or that they impair the reproductive capability of exposed adults.

  14. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Elliott, Robert F.; Schmidt, Larry J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Bouchard, Patrick M.; Holey, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during our study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. We estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  15. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    SciTech Connect

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Desorcie, T.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Elliott, R.F.; Bouchard, P.M.; Holey, M.E.

    1998-10-15

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. The authors used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. The estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during the study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. The authors estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50%$ of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  16. Habitat use by subyearling Chinook and coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1781 habitat observations were made on Chinook salmon (698) and coho salmon (1083). During both spring and fall, subyearling coho salmon used pool habitat with abundant cover. During spring, principal component analysis revealed that water depth was the most important variable governing subyearling Chinook salmon habitat use. Substrate materials used by Chinook salmon in the spring and coho salmon in the fall were significantly smaller than were present on average within the study reaches. When the two species occurred sympatrically during spring they exhibited similar habitat selection. Although the habitat used by coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries was consistent with observations of habitat use in their native range, higher water velocities were less important to Chinook salmon than has previously been reported.

  17. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  18. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  19. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  20. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts.

    PubMed

    Spromberg, Julann A; Baldwin, David H; Damm, Steven E; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-04-01

    Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated.We exposed otherwise healthy coho spawners to: (i) artificial storm water containing mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or above concentrations previously measured in urban run-off; (ii) undiluted storm water collected from a high traffic volume urban arterial road (i.e. highway run-off); and (iii) highway run-off that was first pre-treated via bioinfiltration through experimental soil columns to remove pollutants.We find that mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons - conventional toxic constituents in urban storm water - are not sufficient to cause the spawner mortality syndrome. By contrast, untreated highway run-off collected during nine distinct storm events was universally lethal to adult coho relative to unexposed controls. Lastly, the mortality syndrome was prevented when highway run-off was pretreated by soil infiltration, a conventional green storm water infrastructure technology.Our results are the first direct evidence that: (i) toxic run-off is killing adult coho in urban watersheds, and (ii) inexpensive mitigation measures can improve water quality and promote salmon survival. Synthesis and applications. Coho salmon, an iconic species with exceptional economic and cultural significance, are an ecological sentinel for the harmful effects of untreated urban run-off. Wild coho populations cannot withstand the high rates of mortality

  1. Relative yield of two transferrin phenotypes in coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, John D.; Johnson, A. Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    Experimental groups of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of transferring types AA and AC were compared to determine relative growth and survival before release, yields from the fishery, and returns of fish to the hatchery as 2- and 3-yr-olds. In the hatchery, growth was faster and survival higher in the AA than in the AC types. However, yields of AA and AC types were equal, although the yield of AC types as 3-yr-olds was greater than that of AA types because more of the AA males matured in 2 years. We concluded that it would be futile to attempt to increase the yield of coho salmon by maximizing the frequency of biochemical phenotypes that display only a temporary advantage over other types.

  2. Glucose metabolic gene expression in growth hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Panserat, Stéphane; Kamalam, Biju Sam; Fournier, Jeanne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonids are generally known to be glucose intolerant. However, previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon display modified nutritional regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis compared to non-transgenic fish, suggesting the potential for better use of glucose in GH transgenic fish. To examine this in detail, GH transgenic and non-transgenic coho salmon were subjected to glucose tolerance test and subsequent metabolic assessments. After intra-peritoneal injection of 250mg/kg glucose, we analysed post-injection kinetics of glycaemia and expression of several key target genes highly involved in glucose homeostasis in muscle and liver tissues. Our data show no significant differences in plasma glucose levels during peak hyperglycaemia (3-6h after injection), demonstrating a similar glucose tolerance between transgenic and non transgenic. However, and unrelated to the hyperglycaemic episode, GH transgenic fish return to a slightly lower basal glycaemia values 24h after injection. Correspondingly, GH transgenic fish exhibited higher mRNA levels of glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in liver, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) in muscle. These data suggest that these metabolic actors may be involved in different glucose use in GH transgenic fish, which would be expected to influence the glucose challenge response. Overall, our data demonstrate that GH transgenic coho salmon may be a pertinent animal model for further study of glucose metabolism in carnivorous fish.

  3. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  4. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  5. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  6. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  7. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Effects of loqqinq on the habitat behavioral ecology of juvenile coho of coho salmon and cutthroat trout salmon in stream channels. J. Fish. in coastal...SEnvironmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and UT! CW Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) EET SCOHO SALMON E CE 2Y -N o SCoastal Ecology Group SFish and...organisms, principally fish, of sport, commercial, or ecological importance. The profiles are designed to provide coastal managers, engineers, and

  8. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  9. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON SUMMER ABUNDANCE: HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Varying habitat conditions found across a stream network during the summer months may limit the abundance of salmonids such as coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We examined the abundance of juvenile coho salmon across a stream network in an Oregon coast range basin from 2002 through ...

  10. OVER-WINTER JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL IN A COASTAL OREGON STREAM NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Winter habitat has the potential to be a limiting factor for the production and condition of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts, but little is known about how the variation of habitat throughout whole stream networks influences coho smolts. Over a four year period (2002 - ...

  11. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with this system will work on the

  12. Behavior and movement of formerly landlocked juvenile coho salmon after release into the free-flowing Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Henning, Julie A.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Royer, Ida M.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Formerly landlocked Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) juveniles (age 2) were monitored following release into the free-flowing Cowlitz River to determine if they remained in the river or resumed seaward migration. Juvenile Coho Salmon were tagged with a radio transmitter (30 fish) or Floy tag (1050 fish) and their behavior was monitored in the lower Cowlitz River. We found that 97% of the radio-tagged fish remained in the Cowlitz River beyond the juvenile outmigration period, and the number of fish dispersing downstream decreased with increasing distance from the release site. None of the tagged fish returned as spawning adults in the 2 y following release. We suspect that fish in our study failed to migrate because they exceeded a threshold in size, age, or physiological status. Tagged fish in our study primarily remained in the Cowlitz River, thus it is possible that these fish presented challenges to juvenile salmon migrating through the system either directly by predation or indirectly by competition for food or habitat. Given these findings, returning formerly landlocked Coho Salmon juveniles to the free-flowing river apparently provided no benefit to the anadromous population. These findings have management implications in locations where landlocked salmon have the potential to interact with anadromous species of concern.

  13. Density-dependence at sea for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; McGie, A.M.; Nickelson, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    The success of expanded salmon hatchery programs will depend strongly on the degree of density-induced diminishing returns per smolt released. Several authors have addressed the question of density-dependent mortality at sea in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), but have come to conflicting conclusions. We believe there are compelling reasons to reinvestigate the data, and have done so for public hatchery fish, using a variety of approaches. The results provide evidence that survival of these public hatchery fish is negatively affected, directly by the number of public hatchery smolts and indirectly by the number of private hatchery smolts. These results are weak, statistically, and should be considered primarily as a caution to those who, on the basis of other published work, believe that density-dependence does not exist. The results reported here also re-emphasize the often overlooked point that inferences drawn from data are strongly biased by investigators' views of how the systems of interest work and by the statistical assumptions they make preparatory to the analysis of those data.

  14. Residues of DDT in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were higher in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan in 1966–70 (average 18.1 ppm in fish 558–684 mm long) than in lake trout of the same size-class from Lake Superior in 1968–69 (4.4 ppm), and higher in adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Lake Michigan in 1968–71 (averages for different year-classes, 9.9–14.0 ppm) than in those from Lake Erie in 1969 (2.2 ppm). Residues were significantly higher in lake trout from southern Lake Michigan than in those from the northern part of the lake. In lakes Michigan and Superior, the levels increased with length of fish and percentage oil. In Lake Michigan coho salmon, the residues remained nearly stable (2–4 ppm) from September of the 1st yr of lake residence through May or early June of the 2nd yr, but increased three to four times in the next 3 mo. Residues in Lake Erie coho salmon did not increase during this period, which preceded the spawning season. Although the concentrations of total residues in whole, maturing Lake Michigan coho salmon remained unchanged from August 1968 until near the end of the spawning season in January 1969, the residues were redistributed in the tissues of the spawning-run fish; concentrations in the loin and brain were markedly higher in January than in August. This relocation of DDT residues accompanied a marked decrease in the percentage of oil in the fish, from 13.2 in August to 2.8 in January. Concentrations of residues were relatively high in eggs of both lake trout (4.6 ppm) and coho salmon (7.4–10.2 ppm) from Lake Michigan. The percentage composition of the residues (p,p′DDE, o,p′/DDT, p,p′DDT, and p,p′DDT) did not differ significantly with life stage, size, age, or locality, or date of collection of lake trout or coho salmon.

  15. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  16. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  17. Medication inhibits tolerance to seawater in coho salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Johnson, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 10 therapeutic and two anesthetic agents to healthy smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) by conventional methods were followed by two different posttreatment circumstances. In condition I, fish were treated and then transferred directly to 28‰ seawater for 10 days; in condition II, fish were treated and held in fresh water for 4 days before their medium was gradually changed over a 4-hour period to 28‰ seawater. In condition I, no mortality occurred among fish treated with 2,4-D, trichlorofon, simazine, quinaldine, or light to moderate doses of MS-222. About 10% mortality occurred among fish treated with formalin and nifurpirinol. High mortality in seawater followed treatments with copper sulfate, hyamine 1622, potassium permanganate, malachite green (one protocol), and heavy doses of MS-222. In condition II, mortality was reduced but still high for copper sulfate and potassium permanganate, much lower for malachite green and hyamine 1622, and zero for the other agents. The results indicate that additional recovery time in fresh water is necessary between some treatments and exposure to salt water.

  18. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  19. Spatio-temporal covariability in coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch) survival, from California to southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Steven L. H.; Botsford, Louis W.; Hastings, Alan

    2009-12-01

    One of the motivations of the GLOBEC Northeast Pacific program is to understand the apparent inverse relationship between the increase in salmon catches in the Gulf of Alaska and concurrent declines in the California Current System (CCS). We therefore used coded wire tag (CWT) data to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of covariability in the survival of hatchery coho salmon along the coast from California to southeast Alaska between release years 1980 and 2004. There is substantial covariability in coho salmon survival between neighboring regions along the coast, and there is clear evidence for increased covariability within two main groups - a northern and southern group. The dividing line between the groups lies approximately at the north end of Vancouver Island. However, CWT survivals do not support inverse covariability in hatchery coho salmon survival between southeast Alaska and the CCS over this 25 year time span. Instead, the hatchery coho survival in southeast Alaska is relatively uncorrelated with coho survival in the California Current System on inter-annual time scales. The 50% correlation and e-folding scales (distances at which magnitude of correlations decreases to 50% and e -1 (32.8%), respectively) of pairwise correlations between individual hatcheries were 150 and 217 km, which are smaller than that reported for sockeye, pink, and chum salmon. The 50% correlation scale of coho salmon is also substantially smaller than those reported for upwelling indices and sea surface temperature. There are also periods of 5-10 years with high covariability between adjacent regions on the scale of hundreds of km, which may be of biological and physical significance.

  20. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  1. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  2. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  3. 76 FR 35755 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... water quality, peak/base stream flow and several physical habitat parameters for OC coho salmon... the secondary effects of residential development- water quality degradation from septic drainage... alterations of, and interactions among, hydrology, physical habitat structure, water quality, and fish...

  4. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON END-OF-SUMMER SIZE: HIERARACHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The size of coho salmon juveniles entering the winter has been shown to influence overwinter survival, and hence may be a useful indicator of linkages between summer habitat conditions and subsequent smolt production. We are investigating habitat-specific demographics of juvenile...

  5. INFLUENCE OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE SPATIAL VARIABILITY ON DISTRIBUTION AND CONDITION OF JUVENILE COHO SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract

    Temperature during the summer months can influence the distribution, abundance and physiology of stream salmonids such as coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Effects can be direct, via physiological responses, as well as indirect, via limited food resources, alter...

  6. Modeling stream network-scale variation in coho salmon overwinter survival and smolt size

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple regression and hierarchical mixed-effects models to examine spatial patterns of overwinter survival and size at smolting in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in relation to habitat attributes across an extensive stream network in southwestern Oregon over ...

  7. Pesticides in urban streams and early life stages of Pacific coho salmon.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams and are believed to be primarily the result of homeowner use. Although concentrations in most cases are low (<1 µg/L), there is concern that pesticide inputs threaten efforts to restore and enhance salmon habitat. The authors exposed early life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of those pesticides most frequently reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Life stages were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail simulating those in urban streams in fall and winter when coho salmon eggs and sac fry are present. Nominal concentrations of eight herbicides, two insecticides, a fungicide, and a breakdown product were the maximum detected. Fertilization, hatching success, survival, deformities, and growth of fry were not significantly affected. A reduction in fertilization success (19-25%) was not reproducible even when gametes were exposed to 100 times the maximum concentrations detected. Based on the end points examined in the present study, the results suggest that direct exposure to the pesticides most frequently detected in urban streams in western Washington does not impair early life stages of coho salmon and is not a major factor governing the recovery of salmon populations. The extent to which pesticide exposure would affect smoltification, outmigration, and ocean survival needs to be determined.

  8. 75 FR 16745 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... coho salmon in the archeological record; (3) differences in geology, climate, and hydrology between... similarities in climate, geology, and hydrology of watersheds in Santa Cruz and coastal San Mateo...

  9. Survey of parasites in threatened stocks of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon by examination of wet tissues and histology.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jayde A; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Peterson, Tracy S; Rodnick, Kenneth J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting studies on the impacts of parasites on Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch). An essential first step is documenting the geographic distribution of infections, which may be accomplished by using different methods for parasite detection. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to (1) identify parasite species infecting these stocks of coho salmon and document their prevalence, density, and geographic distribution; (2) assess the pathology of these infections; and (3) for the first time, determine the sensitivity and specificity of histology for detecting parasites compared with examining wet preparations for muscle and gill infections. We examined 576 fry, parr, and smolt coho salmon in total by histology. The muscle and gills of 219 of these fish also were examined by wet preparation. Fish were collected from 10 different locations in 2006-2007. We identified 21 different species of parasites in these fish. Some parasites, such as Nanophyetus salmincola and Myxobolus insidiosus, were common across all fish life stages from most basins. Other parasites, such as Apophallus sp., were more common in underyearling fish than smolts and had a more restricted geographic distribution. Additional parasites commonly observed were as follows: Sanguinicola sp., Trichodina truttae , Epistylis sp., Capriniana piscium, and unidentified metacercariae in gills; Myxobolus sp. in brain; Myxidium salvelini and Chloromyxum majori in kidney; Pseudocapillaria salvelini and adult digenean spp. in the intestine. Only a few parasites, such as the unidentified gill metacercariae, elicted overt pathologic changes. Histology had generally poor sensitivity for detecting parasites; however, it had relatively good specificity. We recommend using both methods for studies or monitoring programs requiring a comprehensive assessment of parasite identification, enumeration, and parasite-related pathology.

  10. Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.J.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Myers, H.K.; Zeigel, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of fish models for carcinogen bioassays and the study of chemically induced cancer in wild fish species. Among salmonid species, rainbow trout have mainly been used for carcinogenesis research, in part due to the role played by this species in the discovery of the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Recently, apparatus and methodology for microinjection of salmonid fish embryos with chemical carcinogens has been described. Because eggs produced by Pacific salmon are relatively much larger than those of rainbow trout, they would provide an attractive subject for embryo microinjection. The Great Lakes are annually stocked with large numbers of coho salmon. It has been recommended to use coho salmon as an indicator for monitoring ecosystem health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout the Great Lakes are from a common genetic strain and in the lake environment they have a defined food source and life cycle. These considerations led the authors to test coho salmon for their sensitivity to the potent hepatocarcinogen, AFB1. The present report describes in preliminary form, the results of these experiments.

  11. Experimental hexamitiasis in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdner)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1965-01-01

    An exogenous strain of cultured Hexamita salmonis (Moore) was employed to induce trophic hexamitiasis in otherwise disease-free juveniles of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Mortality and growth were the parameters used to detect the effects of hexamitiasis on the two species. Two levels of each of the three experimental factors under study, Hexamita infection, species of fish, and density of fish, were arranged in a three-way factorial design. Replicate lots involved a total of 1,440 fish held under controlled laboratory conditions.Comparisons of growth and mortality indicate that infection with H. salmonis over a period of 8 weeks is innocuous to coho salmon. Steelhead trout suffered a low, but statistically significant mortality which subsided after the sixth week; growth rate was not affected.

  12. Previously undocumented two-year freshwater residency of juvenile coho salmon in Prairie Creek, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, E.; Duffy, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Over 2,000 juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during the fall of 1998 and 1999 in Prairie Creek, California, as part of a study on individual winter growth rates and movement of juvenile coho salmon. During this study, age-2 out-migrants were incidentally observed. Previously, it had been generally assumed that all juvenile coho salmon in northern California streams spend only 1 year in freshwater before out-migrating at age 1 and that a 2-year freshwater life history pattern was found only in the more northerly portions of the species' range. Subsequently, scale analysis of PIT-tagged fish recaptured during spring out-migration was used as a basis for estimating the proportion of out-migrants displaying a 1- or 2-year freshwater residency life history. Twenty-eight percent (28%) of out-migrants captured in spring 2000 displayed a 2-year freshwater residency life history, apparently related to low winter growth rates documented in related research in the study stream. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Jayde A.; Romer, Jeremy; Sifneos, Jean C.; Madsen, Lisa; Schreck, Carl B.; Glynn, Michael; Kent, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    We are studying the impacts of parasites on threatened stocks of Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In our previous studies, we have found high infections of digeneans and myxozoans in coho salmon parr from the lower main stem of West Fork Smith River (WFSR), Oregon. In contrast parr from tributaries of this river, and outmigrating smolts, harbor considerably less parasites. Thus, we have hypothesized that heavy parasite burdens in parr from this river are associated with poor overwintering survival. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the possible effects these parasites have on smolt fitness. We captured parr from the lower main stem and tributaries of WFSR and held them in the laboratory to evaluate performance endpoints of smolts with varying degrees of infection by three digeneans (Nanophyetus salmincola, Apophallus sp., and neascus) and one myxozoan (Myxobolus insidiosus). The parameters we assessed were weight, fork length, growth, swimming stamina, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. We repeated our study on the subsequent year class and with hatchery reared coho salmon experimentally infected with N. salmincola. The most significant associations between parasites and these performance or fitness endpoints were observed in the heavily infected groups from both years. We found that all parasite species, except neascus, were negatively associated with fish fitness. This was corroborated for N. salmincola causing reduced growth with our experimental infection study. Parasites were most negatively associated with growth and size, and these parameters likely influenced the secondary findings with swimming stamina and ATPase activity levels.

  14. An isolate of Piscirickettsia salmonis from white seabass is fully virulent for coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, M.L.; Hedrick, R.P.; Winton, J.R.; Fryer, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The virulence of the WSB-98 isolate of Piscirickettsia salmonis from white seabass Atractoscion nobilis was compared with that of the American Type Culture Collection type strain LF-89, which was originally isolated from coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. In controlled laboratory challenges of juvenile coho salmon, the isolate from white seabass exhibited virulence that was equal to or greater than that of LF-89. The cumulative percent mortality (CPM) was similar between groups of coho salmon receiving an intraperitoneal injection of WSB-98 at 104.5 tissue culture infectious dose with 50% endpoint (TCID50)/fish (CPM = 98%) or an injection of LF-89 at 104.8 TCID50/fish (CPM = 95%). The mean day to death of 9.3 d for WSB-98 and 18.6 d for LF-89, however, differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between the two isolates. The virulence of an isolate of P. salmonis from white seabass for a salmonid species is consistent with the hypothesis that nonsalmonids can serve as natural marine hosts for the bacterium and potential sources for infection of salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  15. Linking climate change projections for an Alaskan watershed to future coho salmon production.

    PubMed

    Leppi, Jason C; Rinella, Daniel J; Wilson, Ryan R; Loya, Wendy M

    2014-06-01

    Climate change is predicted to dramatically change hydrologic processes across Alaska, but estimates of how these impacts will influence specific watersheds and aquatic species are lacking. Here, we linked climate, hydrology, and habitat models within a coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) population model to assess how projected climate change could affect survival at each freshwater life stage and, in turn, production of coho salmon smolts in three subwatersheds of the Chuitna (Chuit) River watershed, Alaska. Based on future climate scenarios and projections from a three-dimensional hydrology model, we simulated coho smolt production over a 20-year span at the end of the century (2080-2100). The direction (i.e., positive vs. negative) and magnitude of changes in smolt production varied substantially by climate scenario and subwatershed. Projected smolt production decreased in all three subwatersheds under the minimum air temperature and maximum precipitation scenario due to elevated peak flows and a resulting 98% reduction in egg-to-fry survival. In contrast, the maximum air temperature and minimum precipitation scenario led to an increase in smolt production in all three subwatersheds through an increase in fry survival. Other climate change scenarios led to mixed responses, with projected smolt production increasing and decreasing in different subwatersheds. Our analysis highlights the complexity inherent in predicting climate-change-related impacts to salmon populations and demonstrates that population effects may depend on interactions between the relative magnitude of hydrologic and thermal changes and their interactions with features of the local habitat.

  16. Coastal fog frequency and watershed recharge metrics for coho salmon conservation recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    Endangered Central California Coast coho salmon benefit from summertime occurrences of fog and low cloud cover (FLCC). Watershed hydrology is a critical factor affecting population dynamics of coho and FLCC affects this in three ways. First, streams remain cooler in late summer when shaded by FLCC—high temperatures are lethal to coho. Second, more water reaches the stream when FLCC shades riparian vegetation thereby reducing evapotranspiration. Third, fog drip adds water directly into streams. The increased stream flow can be a critical resource in late summer when coastal watersheds are at their lowest subsurface discharge rate. Associated low stream flows can trap juvenile coho in pools, resulting in high rates of mortality due to higher predation exposure, overheating and, if the pool dries up, lack of habitat. The 2012 National Marine Fisheries Service Final Recovery Plan identified 75 watersheds that historically supported coho salmon. The recovery team used biological and environmental metrics to identify subwatersheds where recovery action implementation had the highest probability of improving coho salmon population survival. These subwatersheds were classified into three categories: Core (n=89), Phase I (n=93), or Phase II (N=157) (CPP). Differences among the CPP-rated subwatersheds were explored using FLCC frequency data, derived from a decade of hourly weather satellites, combined with groundwater recharge metrics from the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) to provide additional environmental dimensions. Average summertime (June, July, August, and September) FLCC in the subwatersheds ranged from 2.2 -11.3 hrs/day and cumulative groundwater recharge ranged from 6 mm -894 mm. A two dimensional scatterplot (x = FLCC; y = recharge) of subwatersheds divided into 4 quadrants , (low FLCC - low recharge, low - high, high - low, high - high, ) shows 11 Core, 6 Phase I, and 5 Phase II areas in the high - high quadrant. The majority of Phase I and II areas are in

  17. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2013-01-01

    The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 hr) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 hrs exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes to the olfactory epithelium within 48 hrs of Cd exposure, although the extent of olfactory injury was less severe than observed for fish in the high dose Cd group. Furthermore adverse behavioral effects were present in some coho receiving the low dose of Cd following a 16-day depuration. In summary, acute exposures to environmental levels of Cd can cause olfactory injury in coho salmon that may persist following depuration. Mechanism-based biomarkers of

  18. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutchsalmon from the north coast of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  19. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-01-11

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation.

  20. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the δ15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  1. Glacial biogeography of North American coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Smith, C T; Nelson, R J; Wood, C C; Koop, B F

    2001-12-01

    To study the glacial biogeography of coho we examined 20 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence in samples from Alaska to California. Microsatellite data divided our samples among five biogeographic regions: (1) Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia; (2) the Queen Charlotte Islands; (3) the mainland coast of British Columbia and northern Washington State; (4) the Thompson River; and (5) Oregon and California. The D-loop sequence data suggested three geographical regions: (1) Oregon and California; (2) the Thompson River; and (3) all the other sites north of the southern ice margin. Microsatellite data revealed no difference in the number of alleles in different regions, but mitochondrial DNA data revealed a cline of decreasing diversity from south to north. We suggest that the two signals presented by these different marker types illuminate two time frames in the history of this species. Endemic microsatellite diversity in Alaska and on the Queen Charlotte Islands provides evidence in favour of Fraser Glaciation refugia in these regions. The loss of mitochondrial variation from south to north suggests that one of the earlier, more extensive, Pleistocene glaciations eliminated coho from its northern range.

  2. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  3. Some physiological aspects of sublethal heat stress in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1973-01-01

    A rapid (3 min) but sublethal temperature increase from 10 to 20 imposed a greater stress on juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) than on juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Both species suffered hyperglycemia, hypocholesterolemia, increased blood hemoglobin, and decreased blood sugar regulatory precision, but the steelhead recovered more quickly. Acid–base equilibrium was essentially unaffected, and only the coho suffered any significant interrenal vitamin C depletion. Vitamin C normalization required about 24 hr.

  4. 2004 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2005-08-01

    From January to July of 2004, 33 entrapments and 56 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 7,834 salmonids, made up of three species, were collected (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (85%), chum salmon (8%), and coho salmon (7%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three species of salmon.

  5. 2003 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2004-09-01

    From January to July of 2003, 42 entrapments and 25 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 6,122 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (69%), chum salmon (7%), and coho salmon (24%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  6. 2002 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy

    2003-10-01

    From January to July of 2002, 79 entrapments and 22 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 2,272 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (49%), chum salmon (29%), and coho salmon (22%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  7. The stress of Formalin treatments in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1971-01-01

    Changes in gill function, acid–base balance and pituitary activation occurring during standard 200 ppm formalin treatments of juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were compared. Plasma Cl−, Ca++, total CO2, and interrenal vitamin C in the trout declined continuously and in proportion to the exposure time, but the salmon were able to maintain these metabolic parameters at approximately initial levels. Blood pH and alkaline reserve regulation of the salmon was also less affected by formalin treatments, especially during prolonged exposures. The oxygen consumption of both species was depressed, but substantially more so in the trout than could be accounted for by decreased ventilation rates. Little frank hemolysis occurred in either species, but there was a significant bilirubinemia in the trout.

  8. Predation of Karluk River sockeye salmon by coho salmon and char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, J.D.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Emlen, J.M.; Wilmot, R.L.; Finn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The number of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Alaska's Karluk River (Fig. 1) declined from millions to thousands during the early part of the present century. Rounsefell (1958) discussed alternative explanations for the decline including a general loss offertility ofthe system as the number of salmon carcasses declined, competition, overfishing, subtle changes in climate, and predation; he concluded that the combined effect of predation and fishing was the most probable explanation. Later, Van Cleave and Bevan (1973) suggested that the weir constructed in the river each year to facilitate counting the fish as they entered the system was the most probable cause ofthe decline. Itprevented free movement of both adults and juveniles in the river. All of these hypotheses remain as potential explanations for the decline

  9. Expression profiles of Fsh-regulated ovarian genes during oogenesis in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, José M; Luckenbach, J Adam; Yamamoto, Yoji; Swanson, Penny

    2014-01-01

    The function of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) during oogenesis in fishes is poorly understood. Using coho salmon as a fish model, we recently identified a suite of genes regulated by Fsh in vitro and involved in ovarian processes mostly unexplored in fishes, like cell proliferation, differentiation, survival or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To better understand the role of these Fsh-regulated genes during oocyte growth in fishes, we characterized their mRNA levels at discrete stages of the ovarian development in coho salmon. While most of the transcripts were expressed at low levels during primary growth (perinucleolus stage), high expression of genes associated with cell proliferation (pim1, pcna, and mcm4) and survival (ddit4l) was found in follicles at this stage. The transition to secondary oocyte growth (cortical alveolus and lipid droplet stage ovarian follicles) was characterized by a marked increase in the expression of genes related to cell survival (clu1, clu2 and ivns1abpa). Expression of genes associated with cell differentiation and growth (wt2l and adh8l), growth factor signaling (inha), steroidogenesis (cyp19a1a) and the ECM (col1a1, col1a2 and dcn) peaked in vitellogenic follicles, showing a strong and positive correlation with transcripts for fshr. Other genes regulated by Fsh and associated with ECM function (ctgf, wapl and fn1) and growth factor signaling (bmp16 and smad5l) peaked in maturing follicles, along with increases in steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, ovarian genes regulated by Fsh showed marked differences in their expression patterns during oogenesis in coho salmon. Our results suggest that Fsh regulates different ovarian processes at specific stages of development, likely through interaction with other intra- or extra-ovarian factors.

  10. Coho Salmon Habitat in a Changing Environment-Green Valley Creek, Graton, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M. D.; Kobor, J. S.; Sherwood, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Green Valley Creek (GVC) is a small (101 sq km) aquatic habitat refugium in the Russian River watershed (3,840 sq km) in coastal northern California. Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch) is endangered per the Federal Endangered Species Act, and GVC is one stream where coho have persisted. Fish surveys in GVC have found high species diversity, growth rates, and over-summer survival. The upper portion of GVC comprises a principal tributary (20 sq km) that provides spawning and rearing habitat for coho. The second principal tributary, Atascadero Creek, is comparable in size, but has few fish. Atascadero Creek and lower GVC have broad, densely vegetated floodplains. A Recovery Plan for the Central Coastal California coho Evolutionarily Significant Unit has been developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which applies to the Russian River and its tributaries. Cooperative research regarding fish populations and habitat, a captive breeding and release program for native coho salmon, and efforts to plan for and restore habitat are ongoing. These regional efforts are particularly active in GVC, and participants include NMFS, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District, the California Coastal Conservancy, the University of California Cooperative Extension, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, among others. Our research focuses on hydrologic, geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the watershed in relation to aquatic habitat. Natural watershed factors contributing to habitat for coho include proximity to the coastal summer fog belt with cool temperatures, the Wilson Grove Formation aquifer that maintains dry season stream flow, and structural geology favorable for active floodplain morphology. Human impacts include water use and agriculture and rural residential development. Historic human impacts include stream clearing and draining of wetlands and floodplain for agriculture, which likely

  11. Mortality of experimentally descaled smolts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in fresh and salt water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.; Smith, Stanley D.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of slime from 25% of the body caused no deaths among smolts of coho salmon in fresh water or in seawater (28‰). Removal of slime and scales from the same percentage of body area caused no deaths in fresh water, but 75% mortality within 10 days in seawater. The 10-day median tolerance limit was 10% scale removal immediately before the smolts entered seawater. Mortality was highest when the scales were removed from the area of the rib cage. Recovery of smolts in fresh water from a loss of scales that would be lethal in seawater occurred rapidly; 90% of the fish regained tolerance to seawater within 1 day.

  12. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  13. Selection of spawning sites by coho salmon in a northern California stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, K.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of various factors contributing to spawning site use by a population of threatened coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Freshwater Creek, California, and created a predictive model of spawning habitat selection based on logistic regression analysis. We excluded sampling sites that previous studies had established as unsuitable on the basis of depth and substrate criteria and asked why fish chose particular locations and not others in seemingly suitable habitat. We evaluated surface water velocity, depth, substrate size composition, gravel inflow rates, vertical hydraulic gradient, geomorphic channel units, hyporheic water physicochemistry, cover, and proximity to other redds not in sampling sites during the 2004-2005 spawning season. In univariate comparisons with unused sites, coho salmon selected sites with a smaller median particle diameter, a larger percentage of gravel-pebble substrate, and higher gravel inflow rates. Based on multivariate logistic regression, the probability of a site's being used for spawning was best modeled as a positive function of the gravel-pebble fraction of the substrate, location at a pool or run tail, and the presence of existing redds in close proximity to the site. This model explained 38% of the variation in the data and was a better predictor of spawning habitat use than a more traditional model based on depth, velocity, and substrate. Our results highlight the potential importance of social behavior in contributing to habitat selection by spawning salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  14. Epizootiology and histopathology of Parvicapsula sp. in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, William T.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2003-01-01

    The epizootiology and histopathology of the myxosporean Parvicapsula sp. was studied during monthly health surveys of 4 groups of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at a commercial farm in Puget Sound, Washington, USA, from 1984 to 1986. No Parvicapsula sp. was detected in histological samples taken from juvenile fish in fresh water, but the parasite was detected in fish from all groups 2 to 8 mo after transfer to seawater net pens. Groups placed in seawater net pens in November and December had a higher prevalence of infection, and a longer period of continuous detected infection, than those introduced into net pens in May. For the groups transferred to seawater in November and December, the highest infection prevalence (45 to 90%) was detected during the following March and April. Among 13 tissues examined histologically, only the pseudobranch and kidney were positive for Parvicapsula sp., with 26 (62%) of 42 positive fish showing infections only in the pseudobranch, 5 (12%) showing infections only in the kidney, and 11 (26%) showing infections in both organs. Both the pseudobranch and kidney were apparent primary infection sites, but pseudobranch infections appeared to persist longer in a population. Pseudobranch infections were frequently heavy and associated with extensive inflammation and necrosis of filament and lamellar tissues. The kidney had been the only infection site reported for Parvicapsula sp. in previous studies of coho salmon.

  15. Epizootiology and histopathology of Parvicapsula sp. in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, William T.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2003-01-01

    The epizootiology and histopathology of the myxosporean Parvicapsula sp. was studied during monthly health surveys of 4 groups of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch at a commercial farm in Puget Sound, Washington, USA, from 1984 to 1986. No Parvicapsula sp. was detected in histological samples taken from juvenile fish in fresh water, but the parasite was detected in fish from all groups 2 to 8 mo after transfer to seawater net pens. Groups placed in seawater net pens in November and December had a higher prevalence of infection, and a longer period of continuous detected infection, than those introduced into net pens in May. For the groups transferred to seawater in November and December, the highest infection prevalence (45 to 90%) was detected during the following March and April. Among 13 tissues examined histologically, only the pseudobranch and kidney were positive for Parvicapsula sp., with 26 (62%) of 42 positive fish showing infections only in the pseudobranch, 5 (12%) showing infections only in the kidney, and 11 (26%) showing infections in both organs. Both the pseudobranch and kidney were apparent primary infection sites, but pseudobranch infections appeared to persist longer in a population. Pseudobranch infections were frequently heavy and associated with extensive inflammation and necrosis of filament and lamellar tissues. The kidney had been the only infection site reported for Parvicapsula sp. in previous studies of coho salmon.

  16. Hormonal control of hepatic glycogen metabolism in food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vijayan, M.M.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.; Moon, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma cortisol concentration and liver cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor activities of continuously swimming, food-deprived coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) did not differ from those of resting, fed fish. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in the exercising, starved fish, but there were no significant differences in either hepatic glycogen concentration or hepatic activities of glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, pyruvate kinase, or lactate dehydrogenase between the two groups. Total glucose production by hepatocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups; glycogen breakdown accounted for all the glucose produced in the resting, fed fish whereas it explained only 59% of the glucose production in the exercised animals. Epinephrine and glucagon stimulation of glucose production by hepatocytes was decreased in the exercised fish without significantly affecting hepatocyte glycogen breakdown in either group. Insulin prevented glycogen breakdown and enhanced glycogen deposition in exercised fish. The results indicate that food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon conserve glycogen by decreasing the responsiveness of hepatocytes to catabolic hormones and by increasing the responsiveness to insulin (anabolic hormone).

  17. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, Cristian; Díaz, Nelson F.; Gomez, Gilda; López, María Eugenia; Iturra, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), various quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners) produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC) that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002) were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10) with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035) mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map. PMID:22888302

  18. 76 FR 6383 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... understanding of salmonid life histories and life stages, the use of different common names (which sometimes... coho salmon, which reside in fresh water for a full year. Three of the four lots were originally... County, California) and major summer water diversions in Soquel Creek (Santa Cruz County,...

  19. VARIATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON END-OF-SUMMER SIZE AND ABUNDANCE: HIERARCHICAL ANALYSIS OF HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The size of coho salmon juveniles entering the winter has been shown to influence overwinter survival, and hence may be a useful indicator of linkages between summer habitat conditions and subsequent smolt production. We are investigating habitat-specific demographics of juvenile...

  20. Resistance of different stocks and transferrin genotypes of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, to bacterial kidney disease and vibriosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter , Gary W.; Schreck, Carl B.; McIntyre, John D.

    1979-01-01

    Juvenile coho salmon and steelhead trout ofdifferentstocks and three transferrin genotypes(AA, AC, and CCl, all reared in identical or similar environments, were experimentally infected with Corynebacterium sp., the causative agent ofbacterial kidney disease, or with Vibrio anguillarum, the causative agent of vibriosis. Mortality due to the pathogens was compared among stocks within a species and among transferrin genotypes within a stock to determine whetherthere was a geneticbasis for resistance to disease. Differences in resistance to bacterial kidney disease among coho salmon stocks had a genetic basis. Stock susceptibility to vibriosis was strongly influenced by environmental factors. Coho salmon orsteelhead trout of one stock may be resistant to one disease but susceptible to another. The importance of transferrin genotype of coho salmon in resistance to bacterial kidney disease was stock specific; in stocks that showed differential resistance of genotypes, the AA was the most susceptible. No differencesin resistance to vibriosis were observed among transferrin genotypes.

  1. Elevated temperatures increase the toxicity of pesticide mixtures to juvenile coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Laetz, Cathy A; Baldwin, David H; Hebert, Vincent R; Stark, John D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures and elevated temperatures are parallel freshwater habitat stressors for Pacific salmon in the western United States. Certain combinations of organophosphate (OP) insecticides are known to synergistically increase neurotoxicity in juvenile salmon. The chemicals interact to potentiate the inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and disrupt swimming behavior. The metabolic activation and detoxification of OPs involve temperature-sensitive enzymatic processes. Salmon are ectothermic, and thus the degree of synergism may vary with ambient temperature in streams, rivers, and lakes. Here we assess the influence of water temperature (12-21°C) on the toxicity of ethoprop and malathion, alone and in combination, to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). A mixture of ethoprop (0.9 μg/L) and malathion (0.75 μg/L) produced synergistic AChE inhibition at 12°C, and the degree of neurotoxicity approximately doubled with a modest temperature increase to 18°C. Slightly lower concentrations of ethoprop (0.5 μg/L) combined with malathion (0.4 μg/L) did not inhibit brain AChE activity but did produce a temperature-dependent reduction in liver carboxylesterase (CaE). The activity of CaE was very sensitive to the inhibitory effects of ethoprop alone and both ethoprop-malathion combinations across all temperatures. Our findings are an example of how non-chemical habitat attributes can increase the relative toxicity of OP mixtures. Surface temperatures currently exceed water quality criteria in many western river segments, and summer thermal extremes are expected to become more frequent in a changing climate. These trends reinforce the importance of pollution reduction strategies to enhance ongoing salmon conservation and recovery efforts.

  2. In situ biomonitoring of PAH-contaminated sediments using juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Barbee, Gary C; Barich, John; Duncan, Bruce; Bickham, John W; Matson, Cole W; Hintze, Christopher J; Autenrieth, Robin L; Zhou, Guo-Dong; McDonald, Thomas J; Cizmas, Leslie; Norton, Dale; Donnelly, Kirby C

    2008-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous marine and freshwater sediment contaminants. Extensive data exist to confirm that PAHs are toxic to aquatic receptors. However, limited information is available regarding the bioavailability and genotoxicity of sediment PAHs to aquatic organisms. This study investigated an integrated biomonitoring approach using chemical analyses and biomarkers to characterize the bioavailability and genotoxicity of a complex PAH mixture in freshwater lake sediments associated with a former manufactured gas plant (MGP). Sediment PAH genotoxicity was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), DNA adduct (32)P-postlabeling, and erythrocyte micronuclei in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) caged in the water column. Significant PAH-induced genotoxicity was observed with FCM and (32)P-postlabeling, but not with erythrocyte micronuclei. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood and hepatic DNA adducts correlated with sediment, but not water column PAH concentrations. Total hepatic DNA adducts in salmon caged nearest the former MGP facility was 39+/-6.5 (RALx10(9)), while salmon caged in a reference lake had 28+/-2.3 total hepatic DNA adducts per 10(9) nucleotides. These results indicate that in situ biomonitoring using biomarkers and caged fish can be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic PAHs in sediments.

  3. Nutritional factors in the biochemical pathology of Corynebacterial kidney disease in the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Ross, A.J.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of diet ingredient on the morbidity and biochemical pathogenesis of corynebacterial kidney disease was investigated using juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fed the Abernathy dry ration made up with either corn gluten or cottonseed meal (isoprotein, isocaloric substitution). Evaluation of incidence of infection, pituitary activation and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism, acid-base balance, renal function, and hematopoietic activity showed that the actual disease incidence was about the same for both diets but the nonspecific stress of infection was more severe in fish fed the corn gluten.Discriminant function calculations combining four physiological parameters gave a probability of 0.86 for successfully diagnosing infected fish on the basis of these blood chemistry tests.

  4. Limited epizootic of neuroblastoma in coho salmon reared in chlorinated-dechlorinated water

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, T.R.; Hendricks, J.D.

    1984-02-01

    During the 1976-77 brood year, approximately 12 cases of neuroblastoma were observed in a captive group of 100,000 fingerling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) reared in a commercial hatchery. The tumors were large, occurring in the skeletal muscle near the dorsal fin causing conspicuous bulging of the overlying integument. Tumors examined from 3 fish each consisted of neuroblasts in trabecular patterns interspersed by glial fibrillar material and linear cavities resembling central neural canals lined by ependyma-like cells. Ganglion-like cells also were apparent morphologically and by special stain. Cancer of the tumor was characterized by an abundance of mitotic figures with occasional abnormal divisions, local invasion of normal tissues, and potentially metastatic tumor cell aggregates in organ vasculature. The etiology of this tumor may have been related to mutagenic-carcinogenic halogenated compounds possibly formed in the hatchery water supply during continuous chlorination of incoming river water.

  5. Accuracy of nonmolecular identification of growth-hormone- transgenic coho salmon after simulated escape.

    PubMed

    SundströM, L F; Lõhmus, M; Devlin, R H

    2015-09-01

    Concerns with transgenic animals include the potential ecological risks associated with release or escape to the natural environment, and a critical requirement for assessment of ecological effects is the ability to distinguish transgenic animals from wild type. Here, we explore geometric morphometrics (GeoM) and human expertise to distinguish growth-hormone-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) specimens from wild type. First, we simulated an escape of 3-month-old hatchery-reared wild-type and transgenic fish to an artificial stream, and recaptured them at the time of seaward migration at an age of 13 months. Second, we reared fish in the stream from first-feeding fry until an age of 13 months, thereby simulating fish arising from a successful spawn in the wild of an escaped hatchery-reared transgenic fish. All fish were then assessed from 'photographs by visual identification (VID) by local staff and by GeoM based on 13 morphological landmarks. A leave-one-out discriminant analysis of GeoM data had on average 86% (72-100% for individual groups) accuracy in assigning the correct genotypes, whereas the human experts were correct, on average, in only 49% of cases (range of 18-100% for individual fish groups). However, serious errors (i.e., classifying transgenic specimens as wild type) occurred for 7% (GeoM) and 67% (VID) of transgenic fish, and all of these incorrect assignments arose with fish reared in the stream from the first-feeding stage. The results show that we presently lack the skills of visually distinguishing transgenic coho salmon from wild type with a high level of accuracy, but that further development-of GeoM methods could be useful in identifying second-generation,fish from nature as a nonmolecular approach.

  6. Genetic versus Rearing-Environment Effects on Phenotype: Hatchery and Natural Rearing Effects on Hatchery- and Wild-Born Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Chittenden, Cedar M.; Biagi, Carlo A.; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Davidsen, Anette Grimsrud; Kondo, Hidehiro; McKnight, Allison; Pedersen, Ole-Petter; Raven, Peter A.; Rikardsen, Audun H.; Shrimpton, J. Mark; Zuehlke, Brett; McKinley, R. Scott; Devlin, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature—capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions. PMID:20808853

  7. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  8. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  9. Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Prefer and Are Less Aggressive in Darker Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Leigh P.; Franks, Becca; Weary, Daniel M.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Fish are capable of excellent vision and can be profoundly influenced by the visual properties of their environment. Ambient colours have been found to affect growth, survival, aggression and reproduction, but the effect of background darkness (i.e., the darkness vs. lightness of the background) on preference and aggression has not been evaluated systematically. One-hundred Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), a species that is increasing in popularity in aquaculture, were randomly assigned to 10 tanks. Using a Latin-square design, every tank was bisected to allow fish in each tank to choose between all the following colour choices (8 choices in total): black vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and a mixed dark grey/black pattern, as well as industry-standard blue vs. white, light grey, dark grey, and black. Fish showed a strong preference for black backgrounds over all other options (p < 0.01). Across tests, preference strength increased with background darkness (p < 0.0001). Moreover, having darker backgrounds in the environment resulted in less aggressive behaviour throughout the tank (p < 0.0001). These results provide the first evidence that darker tanks are preferred by and decrease aggression in salmonids, which points to the welfare benefits of housing farmed salmon in enclosures containing dark backgrounds. PMID:27028731

  10. Elevated streamflows increase dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter: Implications of climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Bumbaco, Karin A.

    2012-01-01

    A 4-year evaluation was conducted to determine the proportion of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch passing Cowlitz Falls Dam, on the Cowlitz River, Washington, during winter. River and reservoir populations of coho salmon parr were monitored using radiotelemetry to determine if streamflow increases resulted in increased downstream movement and dam passage. This was of interest because fish that pass downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam become landlocked in Riffe Lake and are lost to the anadromous population. Higher proportions of reservoir-released fish (0.391-0.480) passed Cowlitz Falls Dam than did river-released fish (0.037-0.119). Event-time analyses demonstrated that streamflow increases were important predictors of dam passage rates during the study. The estimated effect of increasing streamflows on the risk of dam passage varied annually and ranged from 9% to 75% for every 28.3 m3/s increase in streamflow. These results have current management implications because they demonstrate the significance of dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter months when juvenile fish collection facilities are typically not operating. The results also have future management implications because climate change predictions suggest that peak streamflow timing for many watersheds in the Pacific Northwest will shift from late spring and early summer to winter. Increased occurrence of intense winter flood events is also expected. Our results demonstrate that juvenile coho salmon respond readily to streamflow increases and initiate downstream movements during winter months, which could result in increased passage at dams during these periods if climate change predictions are realized in the coming decades.

  11. Variation in the population structure of Yukon River chum and coho salmon: Evaluating the potential impact of localized habitat degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, J.B.; Spearman, William J.; Sage, G.K.; Miller, S.J.; Flannery, B.G.; Wenburg, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA-RFLP) analyses to test the hypothesis that chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and coho salmon O. kisutch in the Yukon River, Alaska, exhibit population structure at differing spatial scales. If the hypothesis is true, then the risk of losing genetic diversity because of habitat degradation from a gold mine near a Yukon River tributary could differ between the two species. For each species, collections were made from two tributaries in both the Innoko and Tanana rivers, which are tributaries to the lower and middle Yukon River. The results revealed a large difference in the degree and spatial distribution of population structure between the two species. For chum salmon, the microsatellite loci (F-statistic [FST] = 0.021) and mtDNA (F ST = -0.008) revealed a low degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively large geographic scale. This large-scale population structure should minimize, although not eliminate, the risk of genetic diversity loss due to localized habitat degradation. For coho salmon, the microsatellites (FST = 0.091) and mtDNA (FST = 0.586) revealed a high degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively small geographic scale. This small-scale population structure suggests that coho salmon are at a relatively high risk of losing genetic diversity due to lo-calized habitat degradation. Our study underscores the importance of a multispecies approach for evaluating the potential impact of land-use activities on the genetic diversity of Pacific salmon.

  12. Sublethal and acute toxicity of the ethylene glycol butyl ether ester formulation of triclopyr to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Johansen, J A; Geen, G H

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of Garlon4, the ethylene glycol butyl ether ester formulation of the herbicide tryclopyr, to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was investigated at several lethal and sublethal concentrations. Fish behavior, random activity and oxygen uptake were monitored. Coho salmon exhibited three distinct responses related to concentration and duration of exposure: (1) at concentrations greater than 0.56 mg/L fish were initially lethargic, then regressed to a highly distressed condition characterized by elevated oxygen uptake and finally death, (2) at 0.32-0.43 mg/L fish were lethargic throughout the exposure period with reduced oxygen uptake, and (3) at concentrations less than or equal to 0.10 mg/L fish were hypersensitive to stimuli, exhibiting elevated activity and oxygen uptake levels during photoperiod transitions. Whole body residue analysis showed that uptake of the ester and subsequent hydrolysis to the acid form in the fish was rapid, with significant accumulation of the acid in the tissues. This suggests that some threshold tissue concentrations were associated with the observed results. For juvenile coho salmon the 96-hr LC50 of Garlon4 was 0.84 mg/L.

  13. Population effects of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon depend on food availability and genotype by environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Robert H; D'Andrade, Mark; Uh, Mitchell; Biagi, Carlo A

    2004-06-22

    Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms requires determination of their fitness and invasiveness relative to conspecifics and other ecosystem members. Cultured growth hormone transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have enhanced feeding capacity and growth, which can result in large enhancements in body size (>7-fold) relative to nontransgenic salmon, but in nature, the ability to compete for available food is a key factor determining survival fitness and invasiveness of a genotype. When transgenic and nontransgenic salmon were cohabitated and competed for different levels of food, transgenic salmon consistently outgrew nontransgenic fish and could affect the growth of nontransgenic cohorts except when food availability was high. When food abundance was low, dominant individuals emerged, invariably transgenic, that directed strong agonistic and cannibalistic behavior to cohorts and dominated the acquisition of limited food resources. When food availability was low, all groups containing transgenic salmon experienced population crashes or complete extinctions, whereas groups containing only nontransgenic salmon had good (72.0 +/- 4.3% SE) survival, and their population biomass continued to increase. Thus, effects of growth hormone transgenic salmon on experimental populations were primarily mediated by an interaction between food availability and population structure. These data, while indicative of forces which may act on natural populations, also underscore the importance of genotype by environment interactions in influencing risk assessment data for genetically modified organisms and suggest that, for species such as salmon which are derived from large complex ecosystems, considerable caution is warranted in applying data from individual studies.

  14. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  15. Low-level copper exposures increase visibility and vulnerability of juvenile coho salmon to cutthroat trout predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Baldwin, David H.; Beauchamp, David A.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Copper contamination in surface waters is common in watersheds with mining activities or agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential human land uses. This widespread pollutant is neurotoxic to the chemosensory systems of fish and other aquatic species. Among Pacific salmonids (), copper-induced olfactory impairment has previously been shown to disrupt behaviors reliant on a functioning sense of smell. For juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch), this includes predator avoidance behaviors triggered by a chemical alarm cue (conspecific skin extract). However, the survival consequences of this sublethal neurobehavioral toxicity have not been explored. In the present study juvenile coho were exposed to low levels of dissolved copper (5–20 μg/L for 3 h) and then presented with cues signaling the proximity of a predator. Unexposed coho showed a sharp reduction in swimming activity in response to both conspecific skin extract and the upstream presence of a cutthroat trout predator (O. clarki clarki) previously fed juvenile coho. This alarm response was absent in prey fish that were exposed to copper. Moreover, cutthroat trout were more effective predators on copper-exposed coho during predation trials, as measured by attack latency, survival time, and capture success rate. The shift in predator–prey dynamics was similar when predators and prey were co-exposed to copper. Overall, we show that copper-exposed coho are unresponsive to their chemosensory environment, unprepared to evade nearby predators, and significantly less likely to survive an attack sequence. Our findings contribute to a growing understanding of how common environmental contaminants alter the chemical ecology of aquatic communities.

  16. Low-level copper exposures increase visibility and vulnerability of juvenile coho salmon to cutthroat trout predators.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Baldwin, David H; Beauchamp, David A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2012-07-01

    Copper contamination in surface waters is common in watersheds with mining activities or agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential human land uses. This widespread pollutant is neurotoxic to the chemosensory systems of fish and other aquatic species. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), copper-induced olfactory impairment has previously been shown to disrupt behaviors reliant on a functioning sense of smell. For juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch), this includes predator avoidance behaviors triggered by a chemical alarm cue (conspecific skin extract). However, the survival consequences of this sublethal neurobehavioral toxicity have not been explored. In the present study juvenile coho were exposed to low levels of dissolved copper (5-20 microg/L for 3 h) and then presented with cues signaling the proximity of a predator. Unexposed coho showed a sharp reduction in swimming activity in response to both conspecific skin extract and the upstream presence of a cutthroat trout predator (O. clarki clarki) previously fed juvenile coho. This alarm response was absent in prey fish that were exposed to copper. Moreover, cutthroat trout were more effective predators on copper-exposed coho during predation trials, as measured by attack latency, survival time, and capture success rate. The shift in predator-prey dynamics was similar when predators and prey were co-exposed to copper. Overall, we show that copper-exposed coho are unresponsive to their chemosensory environment, unprepared to evade nearby predators, and significantly less likely to survive an attack sequence. Our findings contribute to a growing understanding of how common environmental contaminants alter the chemical ecology of aquatic communities.

  17. Relative virulence of three isolates of Piscirickettsia salmonis for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, M.L.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Winton, J.R.; Fryer, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis was first recognized as the cause of mortality among pen-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Chile. Since the initial isolation of this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium in 1989, similar organisms have been described from several areas of the world, but the associated outbreaks were not reported to be as serious as those that occurred in Chile. To determine if this was due to differences in virulence among isolates of P. salmonis, we conducted an experiment comparing isolates from Chile, British Columbia, Canada, and Norway (LF-89, ATL-4-91 and NOR-92, respectively). For each of the isolates, 3 replicates of 30 coho salmon were injected intraperitoneally with each of 3 concentrations of the bacterium. Negative control fish were injected with MEM-10. Mortalities were collected daily for 41 d post-injection. Piscirickettsiosis was observed in fish injected with each of the 3 isolates, and for each isolate, cumulative mortality was directly related to the concentration of bacterial cells administered. The LF-89 isolate was the most virulent, with losses reaching 97% in the 3 replicates injected with 105.0 TCID50, 91% in the replicates injected with 104.0 TCID50, and 57% in the fish injected with 103.0 TCID50. The ATL-4-91 isolate caused losses of 92% in the 3 replicates injected with 105.0 TCID50, 76% in the fish injected with 104.0 TCID50, and 32% in those injected with 103.0 TCID50. The NOR-92 isolate was the least virulent, causing 41% mortality in the replicates injected with 104.6 TCID50. At 41 d post-injection, 6% of the fish injected with 103.6 TCID50 NOR-92 had died. Mortality was only 2% in the fish injected with 102.6 TCID50 NOR-92, which was the same as the negative control group. Because the group injected with the highest concentration (104.6 TCID50) of NOR-92 was still experiencing mortality at 41 d, it was held for an additional 46 d. At 87 d post-injection, the cumulative mortality in this group had reached 70

  18. The effect of thiamine injection on upstream migration, survival, and thiamine status of putative thiamine-deficient coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, J.D.; Williston, B.; Amcoff, P.; Balk, L.; Pecor, C.; Ketola, H.G.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Honeyfield, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    A diet containing a high proportion of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus results in a thiamine deficiency that has been associated with high larval salmonid mortality, known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), but relatively little is known about the effects of the deficiency on adults. Using thiamine injection (50 mg thiamine/kg body weight) of ascending adult female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch on the Platte River, Michigan, we investigated the effects of thiamine supplementation on migration, adult survival, and thiamine status. The thiamine concentrations of eggs, muscle (red and white), spleen, kidney (head and trunk), and liver and the transketolase activity of the liver, head kidney, and trunk kidney of fish injected with thiamine dissolved in physiological saline (PST) or physiological saline only (PS) were compared with those of uninjected fish. The injection did not affect the number of fish making the 15-km upstream migration to a collection weir but did affect survival once fish reached the upstream weir, where survival of PST-injected fish was almost twice that of controls. The egg and liver thiamine concentrations in PS fish sampled after their upstream migration were significantly lower than those of uninjected fish collected at the downstream weir, but the white muscle thiamine concentration did not differ between the two groups. At the upper weir, thiamine levels in the liver, spleen, head kidney, and trunk kidney of PS fish were indistinguishable from those of uninjected fish (called "wigglers") suffering from a severe deficiency and exhibiting reduced equilibrium, a stage that precedes total loss of equilibrium and death. For PST fish collected at the upstream weir, total thiamine levels in all tissues were significantly elevated over those of PS fish. Based on the limited number of tissues examined, thiamine status was indicated better by tissue thiamine concentration than by transketolase activity. The adult injection method we used appears to

  19. Interaction of growth hormone overexpression and nutritional status on pituitary gland clock gene expression in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; White, Samantha L; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are involved in generating a circadian rhythm that is integrated with the metabolic state of an organism and information from the environment. Growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, show a large increase in growth rate, but also attenuated seasonal growth modulations, modified timing of physiological transformations (e.g. smoltification) and disruptions in pituitary gene expression compared with wild-type salmon. In several fishes, circadian rhythm gene expression has been found to oscillate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, as well as in multiple peripheral tissues, but this control system has not been examined in the pituitary gland nor has the effect of transgenic growth modification been examined. Thus, the daily expression of 10 core clock genes has been examined in pituitary glands of GH transgenic (T) and wild-type coho salmon (NT) entrained on a regular photocycle (12L: 12D) and provided either with scheduled feeding or had food withheld for 60 h. Most clock genes in both genotypes showed oscillating patterns of mRNA levels with light and dark cycles. However, T showed different amplitudes and patterns of expression compared with wild salmon, both in fed and starved conditions. The results from this study indicate that constitutive expression of GH is associated with changes in clock gene regulation, which may play a role in the disrupted behavioural and physiological phenotypes observed in growth-modified transgenic strains.

  20. Quantitative interlake comparison of thyroid pathology in Great Lakes coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Moccia, R.D.; Leatherland, J.F.; Sonstegard, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, Erie, or Huron were found to suffer epizootics of thyroid hyperplasia and goiters which appeared to have an environmental etiology. There were 13-fold differences in goiter prevalence within the Great Lakes, and the differences in goiter frequency were correlated with the degree of thyroid hyperplasia. A means of assessing the degree of thyroid hyperplasia (thyroid index) is described, and the derived index was used to facilitate statistical interlake and interspecies comparisons. Despite the hyperplastic (or goitered) condition in all prespawning or spawning Great Lakes salmon, serum thyroid hormone levels were generally higher than in prespawning coho salmon from the Fraser River, British Columbia, indicating that the Great Lakes fish were not necessarily hypothyroid. The hyperplastic lesions appear to undergo progressive changes: (a) large follicles, partly colloid depleted, surrounded by cuboidal epithelial cells; (b) small follicles, largely colloid depleted, surrounded by columnar epithelial cells (in this form, the follicles commonly assume a trabeculate arrangement); (c) ''microfollicles'' with greatly enlarged columnar epithelial cells encompassing very small follicles; (d) apparently afollicular lesions with little or no colloid in evidence. There was some evidence of benign invasiveness, although the lesions generally resembled simple hyperplastic parenchymatous goiters seen in humans.

  1. Assessment of juvenile coho salmon movement and behavior in relation to rehabilitation efforts in the Trinity River, California, using PIT tags and radiotelemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Robert; Hemphill, Nina; Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steve; Hannon, John; Jenkins, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast (SONCC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) is federally listed as a threatened species. The Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) is rehabilitating the Trinity River to restore coho salmon (coho) and other salmonid populations. In order to evaluate the program’s actions, several studies of movements and behavior of coho in the Trinity River were conducted from 2006 to 2009, including snorkel surveys and mark-recapture techniques based on Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, elastomer tags, and radio transmitters. Catch, recapture, and condition of natural sub-yearlings, along with site fidelity and emigration of hatchery-reared yearlings in rehabilitated and reference habitats, were studied. Location was important because coho were absent from the lower controlled and rehabilitated sites most of the time. However, rehabilitation did not have a significant effect on natural coho salmon at the site level. Apparent survival of radio-tagged, hatchery-reared yearling coho released downstream from Lewiston Dam was much lower in the first 10 km downstream from the release site than in other areas between Lewiston Dam and the Klamath River estuary. Estimated survival of yearling hatchery coho salmon per 100 km down to Blake’s Riffle was estimated at 64 % over the distance of the 239 km study area. Migration primarily occurred at night in the upper Trinity River; however, as yearlings moved through the lower Trinity River towards the Klamath River, estuary nocturnal migration became less. Apparent survival was generally lowest in areas upstream from the North Fork of the Trinity River.

  2. Some blood chemistry values for the juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Chatterton, K.

    1971-01-01

    Overlapping Gaussian distribution curves were resolved into normal ranges for 1800 clinical test values obtained from caudal arterial blood or plasma of more than 1000 juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) held under defined conditions of diet and temperature. Estimated normal blood chemistry ranges were bicarbonate, 9.5–12.6 mEq/liter; blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 0.9–3.4 mg/100 ml; chloride, 122–136 mEq/liter; cholesterol, 88–262 mg/100 ml;pCO2, 2.6–6.1 mm Hg (10 C); glucose, 41–135 mg/100 ml; hematocrit, 32.5–52.5%; hemoglobin, 6.5–9.9 g/100 ml; total protein, 1.4–4.3 g/100 ml; blood pH (10 C), 7.51–7.83. The calculated range of normal acid–base balance vs. water temperature is also presented.

  3. Loma salmonae (Protozoa: Microspora) infections in seawater reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, M.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Groff, J.M.; Hedrick, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Loma salmonae (Putz et al., 1965) infections were observed in five groups of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, reared in seawater net-pens in Washington State, U.S.A. in 1984–1986. Ultrastructural characteristics, size of spores, tissues and host infected, and geographical location identified the microsporidium as Loma salmonae. Preserved spores measured 4.4×2.3 (4–5.6×2–2.4) μm and exhibited 14–17 turns of the polar filament. Infections were evident in the gills of some fish before seawater entry, but few parasites were observed and they caused little tissue damage. Infections observed in fish after transfer to seawater were associated with significant pathological changes in the gills. A mixed inflammatory infiltrate was associated with ruptured microsporidian xenomas within the vessels and interstitium of the primary lamellae. Microsporidian spores were dispersed throughout the lesions and were often seen inside phagocytes. The parasite was also observed in the heart, spleen, kidney and pseudobranchs; however, the inflammatory lesions were common only in the heart.Monthly examination of fish after transfer to seawater showed peak prevalences (33–65%) of gill infections during the summer. Although moribund fish were often infected with other pathogens, the high prevalence of L. salmonae infections and the severity of the lesions it caused, suggested that this parasite significantly contributed to the recurrent summer mortalities observed at this net-pen site.

  4. Stochastic modeling in biological populations with sexual reproduction through branching models: application to Coho salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    The motivation behind this research is to develop appropriate mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of animal populations with sexual reproduction. We introduce a new class of two-sex branching models where several mating strategies between females and males and a variety of possibilities for the process of reproduction are taken into account. Unlike other classes of two-sex models which assume that mating and reproduction are influenced by the number of couples in the population, we now consider the most realistic case where both biological processes are affected by the numbers of females and males in the population, which may differ. Under a general parametric setting, we deal with inferential questions about the main parameters affecting the reproduction process. By considering the observation over time of the numbers of females and males up to when a certain pre-set generation is reached, we derive Bayes estimators for such parameters. With the purpose of determining highest posterior density credibility sets, we also propose a computational algorithm. As illustration, we include an application to Coho salmon populations.

  5. Summary of Survival Data from Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River, Northern California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the effects of the discharge from Iron Gate Dam on the Klamath River on juvenile coho salmon during their seaward migration began in 2005. Estimates of fish survival through various reaches of the river downstream of the dam were completed in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. This report describes the estimates of survival during 2009, and is a complement to similar reports for 2006, 2007, and 2008. For each year, a series of numerical models were evaluated to determine apparent survival and recapture probabilities of radio-tagged fish in several river reaches between Iron Gate Hatchery at river kilometer 309 and a site at river kilometer 33. The evaluations indicate that the primary differences among years are in the survivals through reaches upstream of the confluence of the Scott River with the Klamath River. Data from 2009, one of two years when fish from both hatchery and wild origins were available for analysis, indicate that survival of wild and hatchery fish are similar.

  6. Summary of Survival Data from Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River, Northern California, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steven; Hansel, Hal C.

    2009-01-01

    A study to estimate the effects of Iron Gate Dam discharge on ESA-listed juvenile coho salmon during their seaward migration to the ocean was begun in 2005. Estimates of survival through various reaches of river downstream from the dam were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008 as part of this process. This report describes the estimates of survival during 2008, and is a complement to similar reports from 2006 and 2007. In each year, a series of models were evaluated to determine apparent survival and recapture probabilities of radio-tagged fish in several river reaches between Iron Gate Hatchery at river kilometer 309 and a site at river kilometer 33. These results indicate most trends in survival among reaches were similar to those from 2006 and 2007, but the magnitudes of the estimated survivals were lower in 2008. The differences in survivals from Iron Gate Hatchery to river kilometer 33 in 2006 (0.653 SE 0.039), 2007 (0.497 SE 0.044), and 2008 (0.406 SE 0.032) were caused primarily by differences in survival upstream from the Scott River. This report is intended as a brief description of the survivals estimated from the fish released in 2008 to be used by others interested in the data.

  7. Seasonal changes in cortisol sensitivity and glucocorticoid receptor affinity and number in leukocytes of coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpe, Cameron

    1993-01-01

    To determine if there were organ-specific changes in immune responses or immune-endocrine interaction, we monitored in vitro immune response, cortisol sensitivity and number and affinity of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in leukocytes from freshwater-adapted juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during the physiological changes that prepare them to enter the marine environment. During this period, absolute immune response declined, but splenic leukocytes generated more antibody-producing cells than did cells from anterior kidney. Splenic leukocytes were initially more sensitive to the suppressive effects of cortisol and had fewer GR than leukocytes from the anterior kidney. Leukocytes from the anterior kidney were initially insensitive to cortisol but developed sensitivity at about the same time as the dissociation constant and number of GR increased. In vitro incubation of anterior kidney leukocytes in cortisol altered GR variables when experiments were conducted during March through September but not during November through February. In some years, changes in GR or immune responses were correlated with plasma cortisol titers, but in other years there was no correlation. Thus, the exact relation between cortisol, GR and immune response in anadromous salmonids is unclear and other factors are involved.

  8. Effects of fluctuating temperature on mortality, stress, and energy reserves of juvenile coho salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.E.; Gharrett, J.A.; Carls, M.G.; Rice, S.D.; Moles, A.; Korn, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of fluctuating diel temperature cycles on survival, growth, plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, liver weight, and liver glycogen of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were determined. Temperature cycles (10-13/sup 0/, 9-15/sup 0/, 8-17/sup 0/, and 6.5-20/sup 0/C) were selected to stimulate observed temperatures in clear-cuts of southeastern Alaska. Different levels of feeding, including starvation, were used in each of the tests. LT50s (peak temperature within a cycle producing 50% mortality) were 28/sup 0/C for age-0 fish (350 mg) and 26/sup 0/ for age-II fish (22-g presmolts). Cyclic temperatures for 40 d, averaging 11/sup 0/C daily, did not influence growth of age-0 fish on any food ration as compared to controls held at a constant 11/sup 0/C. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were significantly greater in fish maintained for 20 d in the 6.5-20/sup 0/C cycle but not different in fish in 10-13/sup 0/ and 9-15/sup 0/ cycles or a constant 11/sup 0/C. These elevated concentrations may be indicators of long-term stress. Plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in starved fish than in fed fish at all temperature regimes; however, fluctuating temperature did not enhance starvation effects on cortisol levels. Diel temperature cycles did not affect liver weights or liver glycogen concentrations.

  9. Invasive European bird cherry disrupts stream-riparian linkages: effects on terrestrial invertebrate prey subsidies for juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.; Blanchard, Arny L.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of invasive species in riparian forests has the potential to affect both terrestrial and aquatic organisms linked through cross-ecosystem resource subsidies. However, this potential had not been explored in regards to terrestrial prey subsidies for stream fishes. To address this, we examined the effects of an invasive riparian tree, European bird cherry (EBC, Prunus padus), spreading along urban Alaskan salmon streams, by collecting terrestrial invertebrates present on the foliage of riparian trees, their subsidies to streams, and their consumption by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Riparian EBC supported four to six times less terrestrial invertebrate biomass on its foliage and contributed two to three times lower subsidies relative to native deciduous trees. This reduction in terrestrial invertebrate biomass was consistent between two watersheds over 2 years. In spite of this reduction in terrestrial prey resource input, juvenile coho salmon consumed similar levels of terrestrial invertebrates in stream reaches bordered by EBC. Although we did not see ecological effects extending to stream salmonids, reduced terrestrial prey subsidies to streams are likely to have negative consequences as EBC continues to spread.

  10. Survival of juvenile chinook salmon and coho salmon in the Roza Dam fish bypass and in downstream reaches of the Yakima River, Washington, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Hansen, Amy C.

    2016-12-22

    Estimates of juvenile salmon survival are important data for fishery managers in the Yakima River Basin. Radiotelemetry studies during 2012–14 showed that tagged juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that passed through the fish bypass at Roza Dam had lower survival than fish that passed through other routes at the dam. That study also identified flow-survival relationships in the reaches between the Roza Dam tailrace and Sunnyside Dam. During 2012–14, survival also was estimated through reaches downstream of Sunnyside Dam, but generally, sample sizes were low and the estimates were imprecise. In 2016, we conducted an evaluation using acoustic cameras and acoustic telemetry to build on information collected during the previous study. The goal of the 2016 research was to identify areas where mortality occurs in the fish bypass at Roza Dam, and to estimate reach-specific survival in reaches downstream of the dam. The 2016 study included juvenile Chinook salmon and coho salmon (O. kisutch).Three acoustic cameras were used to observe fish behavior (1) near the entrances to the fish bypass, (2) at a midway point in the fish bypass (convergence vault), and (3) at the bypass outfall. In total, 504 hours of acoustic camera footage was collected at these locations. We determined that smolt-sized fish (95–170 millimeters [mm]) were present in the highest proportions at each location, but predator-sized fish (greater than 250 mm) also were present at each site. Fish presence generally peaked during nighttime hours and crepuscular periods, and was low during daytime hours. In the convergence vault, smolt-sized fish exhibited holding behavior patterns, which may explain why some fish delayed while passing through the bypass.Some of the acoustic-tagged fish were delayed in the fish bypass following release, but there was no evidence to suggest that they experienced higher mortality than fish that were released at the bypass outfall or downstream of the dam

  11. Summary of Migration and Survival Data from Radio-Tagged Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Trinity River, Northern California, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The survival of hatchery-origin juvenile coho salmon from the Trinity River Hatchery was estimated as they migrated seaward through the Trinity and Klamath Rivers. The purpose of the study was to collect data for comparison to a similar study in the Klamath River and provide data to the Trinity River Restoration Program. A total of 200 fish fitted with radio transmitters were released into the Trinity River near the hatchery (river kilometer 252 from the mouth of the Klamath River) biweekly from March 19 to May 28, 2008. Fish from the earliest release groups took longer to pass the first detection site 10 kilometers downstream of the hatchery than fish from the later release groups, but travel times between subsequent sites were often similar among the release groups. The travel times of individuals through the 239 kilometer study area ranged from 15.5 to 84.6 days with a median of 43.3 days. The data and models did not support differences in survival among release groups, but did support differences among river reaches. The probability of survival in the first 53 kilometers was lower than in the reaches farther downstream, which is similar to trends in juvenile coho salmon in the Klamath River. The lowest estimated survival in this study was in the first 10 kilometers from release in the Trinity River (0.676 SE 0.036) and the highest estimated survival was in the final 20 kilometer reach in the Klamath River (0.987 SE 0.013). Estimated survivals of radio-tagged juvenile coho salmon from release to Klamath River kilometer 33 were 0.639 per 100 kilometers for Trinity River fish and 0.721 per 100 kilometers for Klamath River fish.

  12. Behaviour of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in marine mesocosms assessed by acoustic tag telemetry.

    PubMed

    Hollo, T; Watson, B M; Johnston, S V; Devlin, R H

    2017-02-05

    Underwater acoustic tag telemetry was used to assess behavioural differences between juvenile wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, NT) and growth hormone (GH) transgenic (T) coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in a contained simulated ocean environment. T O. kisutch were found across days to maintain higher baseline swimming speeds than NT O. kisutch and differences in response to feeding were detected between T and NT genotypes. This is the first study to assess behaviour of GH transgenic salmonids in a marine environment and has relevance for assessing whether behavioural effects of GH overexpression seen in freshwater environments can be extrapolated to oceanic phases of the life cycle.

  13. Effects of chronic growth hormone overexpression on appetite-regulating brain gene expression in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Leggatt, Rosalind A; Chan, Michelle; Volkoff, Hélène; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-09-15

    Organisms must carefully regulate energy intake and expenditure to balance growth and trade-offs with other physiological processes. This regulation is influenced by key pathways controlling appetite, feeding behaviour and energy homeostasis. Growth hormone (GH) transgenesis provides a model where food intake can be elevated, and is associated with dramatic modifications of growth, metabolism, and feeding behaviour, particularly in fish. RNA-Seq and qPCR analyses were used to compare the expression of multiple genes important in appetite regulation within brain regions and the pituitary gland (PIT) of GH transgenic (fed fully to satiation or restricted to a wild-type ration throughout their lifetime) and wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). RNA-Seq results showed that differences in both genotype and ration levels resulted in differentially expressed genes associated with appetite regulation in transgenic fish, including elevated Agrp1 in hypothalamus (HYP) and reduced Mch in PIT. Altered mRNA levels for Agrp1, Npy, Gh, Ghr, Igf1, Mch and Pomc were also assessed using qPCR analysis. Levels of mRNA for Agrp1, Gh, and Ghr were higher in transgenic than wild-type fish in HYP and in the preoptic area (POA), with Agrp1 more than 7-fold higher in POA and 12-fold higher in HYP of transgenic salmon compared to wild-type fish. These data are consistent with the known roles of orexigenic factors on foraging behaviour acting via GH and through MC4R receptor-mediated signalling. Igf1 mRNA was elevated in fully-fed transgenic fish in HYP and POA, but not in ration-restricted fish, yet both of these types of transgenic animals have very pronounced feeding behaviour relative to wild-type fish, suggesting IGF1 is not playing a direct role in appetite stimulation acting via paracrine or autocrine mechanisms. The present findings provide new insights on mechanisms ruling altered appetite regulation in response to chronically elevated GH, and on potential pathways by which

  14. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  15. Effects of selenium dietary enhancement on hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), when compared with wild coho: hepatic enzymes and seawater adaptation evaluated.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felton, S.P.; Landolt, M.L.; Grace, R.; Palmisano, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), were fed elevated levels of selenium (as Na2SeO3) to raise eviscerated body burdens to the level measured in wild counterparts. The goal was to find a dietary concentration that would achieve the desired effect without causing damage to growth and normal development. To measure some indices of health, the detoxifying enzymes chosen were hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD). Eviscerated body selenium (Se) concentration, GSH-Px and SOD levels were measured during and at the end of the 9 month freshwater feeding trial. Selenium retention and enzyme activity were also measured during 6 months’residence in sea water (SW). Selenium supplements were added to a commercial ration to give final concentrations of 1.1, 8.6, 11.1, 13.6 μg g-1 Se in the four respective diets. The results indicated that a dietary concentration of 8.6 μg g-1selenium was capable of inducing eviscerated body burdens similar to those found in wild fish. The elevated selenium levels persisted throughout the freshwater (FW) rearing phase, but declined when the fish were fed an unsupplemented ration upon SW entry. Superoxide dismutase levels did not increase above control levels. Glutathione peroxidase levels increased in fish fed the supplemented diets. GSH-Px activity declined in the higher supplemented dietary groups when all groups were reduced to the control group level of 1.1 μg g-1. Cumulative mortality in SW was 20% in fish fed either the 1.1 or the 8.6 μg g-1 Se diets. The 8.6 μg g-1 Se supplemented diets did produce healthy coho, comparable to their wild counterparts.

  16. Gene expression in caged juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchys kisutch) exposed to the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A P; Oris, J T; Stubblefield, W A

    2006-11-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) resulted in the release of 258,000 barrels of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. The current study, conducted in 2004, sought to use juvenile Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) caged in situ to determine whether biomarker induction differed at sites where the adjacent shoreline contained buried residues from the 1989 oil spill compared to sites that were never oiled. Juvenile Coho salmon were caged at five sites; three oiled during the 1989 EVOS and two that were not oiled. Tissue samples were collected from organisms caged at each site as well as a control group housed onboard the research vessel. Analysis of CYP1A, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPO) gene expression was conducted using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Statistically significant levels of CYP1A expression were observed at some sites indicating increased hydrocarbon exposure. No patterns were observed regarding sites that were originally oiled or not oiled by the 1989 EVOS, indicating that sources of PAHs other than EVOS oil occur in PWS.

  17. Development of a multiplex gene expression assay for components of the endocrine growth axis in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C; Luckenbach, J Adam; Dickey, Jon T; Beckman, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the efficacy of the Quantigene plex (QGP) technology for measuring a panel of endocrine growth-related transcripts in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. The QGP technology permits the simultaneous quantification of multiple targeted mRNAs within a single tissue homogenate using sequence-specific probes and requires no reverse transcription (RT) or amplification as is required for RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Using liver homogenates from coho salmon under fed and fasted conditions, we compared the detectable fold differences of steady-state mRNA levels between the QGP and probe-based RT-qPCR assays for insulin-like growth factors (igf1 and igf2), insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (igfbp1b, igfbp2a, and igfbp2b), somatolactin receptor (slr), and growth hormone receptors (ghr1 and ghr2). Significant, positive correlations for all genes between the two assays were found. In addition, the relatively low variance of results from the QGP assay suggests that this is a suitable method for a comprehensive analysis of endocrine growth-related transcripts and could potentially be used to develop assays for other gene networks in teleosts.

  18. The effects of smoltification on the uptake, distribution and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in coho salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, M.A.; Kennedy, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Benzo[a]pyrene uptake, distribution and metabolism patterns were investigated from February to June during the transformation of freshwater coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liparr to smolts. At a constant benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 5ug/L, BaP uptake rates increased from 0.01 ug-h{sup {minus}1}-g{sup {minus}1} in February to 0.04 ug-h{sup {minus}1}-g{sup {minus}1} in May and declined to 0.03 ug-h{sup {minus}1}-g{sup {minus}1} in June. Following a 24 hour exposure, the accumulation of BaP in the liver, gills, visceral fat and kidney increased from February to May and declined to June. This pattern appeared to be due to changes in BaP uptake rates. In contrast, the percent body burden in bile remained low (20--25%) until the end of May when it increased to 45-50%. The amounts of BaP in the tissues such as stomach, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain did not show significant differences throughout the study. An analysis of bile suggested that coho salmon parr and smolts are capable of metabolizing benzo[a]pyrene via Phase 1 and Phase 2 transformation reactions to glucuronide, sulfate and possibly glutathione conjugates. The majority of BaP metabolites in the bile were unidentified water-soluble compounds.

  19. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O B; Beckman, Brian R; Iwama, George K; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  20. Acute Physiological Stress Down-Regulates mRNA Expressions of Growth-Related Genes in Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiki; Afonso, Luis O. B.; Beckman, Brian R.; Iwama, George K.; Devlin, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH) binding to the GH receptor (GHR). Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish. PMID:23990952

  1. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN AN OREGON COAST RANGE STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes (13C, 15N, 34S) to study the use of salmon carcasses, eggs and fry by over-wintering coho juveniles in two streams of the Oregon Coast Range. Our work is paired with detailed data gathering on stream habitat condition, temperature, chemistry and PIT-t...

  2. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  3. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Coho salmon. [Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Laufle, J.C.; Pauley, G.B.; Shepard, M.F.

    1986-04-01

    The coho is anadromous, swimming upstream from the ocean in fall to spawn. The fry hatch in the spring and outmigrate 1 to 2 years later. They usually spend two growing seasons at sea. They require clear, cold, well-oxygenated (<4 mg/l) stream water (1 m/sec) for spawning and rearing, with a gravel substrate, adequate cover, and a food supply of insects, crustaceans, and fishes for the young. All populations of coho salmon are limited by the amount of suitable rearing area available. They are sought after in both sport and commercial fisheries, and are very sensitive, especially the early life stages in streams, to such human-made impacts as siltation, pollution, removal of cover, and barriers to migration. Current management objectives of the State of Washington are toward MSH (maximum susstained harvest), with the treaty Indian tribes under the Boldt Decision (United States vs State of Washington) having a legal right to 50% of the catchable allocation.

  4. Some physiological consequences of handling stress in the juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1972-01-01

    The stress of handling juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) in soft water and in water with added salts was evaluated using blood and tissue chemistry fluctuations as indices of metabolic and endocrine function. Changes in plasma glucose, chloride, calcium, and cholesterol levels indicated that significant osmoregulatory and metabolic dysfunctions can occur and persist for about 24 hr after handling in soft water. Pituitary activation, as judged by lack of interrenal ascorbate depletion, did not occur. Increasing the ambient NaCl and Ca++ levels to about 100 milliosmols and 75–120 ppm, respectively, partially or completely alleviated the hyperglycemia and hypochloremia indicating that the stress of handling had been reduced.

  5. Influence of water temperature on gill sodium, potassium-stimulated ATPase activity in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, W.S.; McLain, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    1. Gill sodium, potassium-stimulated ATPase activity was determined from December to July in gills of yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) maintained at four temperatures, 6, 10, 15 and 20°C.2. Compared to fish held at 6°C, elevation in ATPase activity and the associated parr-smolt transformation were accelerated in fish at 10 and 15°C whereas animals at 20°C experienced at best only a transitory elevation in activity.3. Fish transferred from one temperature to another developed ATPase activities characteristic of fish residing at temperatures to which they were transferred.4. Cold water (6°C) tended to preserve the elevated ATPase activity while higher temperatures (10 and 15°C) caused decreases after an initial accelerated increase.

  6. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch strain differences in disease resistance and non-specific immunity, following immersion challenges with Vibrio anguillarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balfry, Shannon K.; Maule, Alec G.; Iwama, George K.

    2001-01-01

    Two strains of freshwater-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were compared for differences in the activity of selected non-specific immune factors before and after lethal and non-lethal immersion challenges with the marine bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum (Vang). Two disease challenge experiments were performed. The first experimental challenge resulted in no mortality; however, significant strain and challenge treatment effects were detected at Day 16 post-challenge. Strain differences in plasma lysozyme activity were found in pre-challenge samples. The second challenge experiment compared the same strains of coho salmon following immersion challenges in different doses of Vang. The fish were sampled at Days 0, 2, 7, and 18 post-challenge and mortality, plasma lysozyme, and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity were compared. There were significant strain differences in mortality in the high dose group. The more disease-resistant strain was found to have higher levels of plasma lysozyme and anterior kidney phagocyte respiratory burst activity. These strain differences were detected at various times in the lethal (high dose) and non-lethal challenge groups. There was a clear relationship between the enhanced survival of the more disease-resistant strain and a more sustained, elevated non-specific immune response following the experimental disease challenges. The results of this study suggest that the basis for strain differences in innate disease resistance is related to the ability of the fish to respond quickly to the initial infection and to maintain the response until the infection is quelled.

  7. Toxic effects in C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice following consumption of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated Great Lakes coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum).

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, G B; Leatherland, J F; Sonstegard, R A

    1987-01-01

    Diets containing coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) from the Pacific Ocean or from Lakes Erie, Michigan, and Ontario [containing a gradation from low to high of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, (HAHs)] were fed to C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice. Following a 4-month dietary exposure to Lake Ontario salmon, both strains of mice demonstrated hepatomegaly. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (ERR) enzyme levels were elevated in livers of C57B1/6 mice fed diets of salmon from all of the Great Lakes studied, with exceptionally high levels detected in C57B1/6 mice fed Lake Ontario salmon. Induction of ERR enzyme levels was detected in DBA/2 mice only following dietary exposure to Lake Ontario salmon. Serum levels of L-thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thryonine (T3) were suppressed in C57B1/6 mice following consumption of Lake Ontario coho salmon, but T3 and T4 levels remained unchanged in DBA/2 mice. In general, pathobiological effects correlated with both dietary HAH exposure level and Ah receptor status. PMID:3691436

  8. Full-Genome Sequencing and Confirmation of the Causative Agent of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome in Coho Salmon Identifies a New Type of Piscine Orthoreovirus

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Tomokazu; Nawata, Akatsuki; Sakai, Takamitsu; Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Terashima, Sachiko; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kumagai, Akira; Nakayasu, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS) causes mass mortality in farmed salmonid fish, including the coho salmon, Onchorhynchus kisutchi, and chinook salmon, O. tshawytscha. The causative agent of the disease is a virus with an icosahedral virion structure, but this virus has not been characterized at the molecular level. In this study, we sequenced the genome of a virus purified from EIBS-affected coho salmon. The virus has 10 dsRNA genomic segments (L1, L2, L3, M1, M2, M3, S1, S2, S3, and S4), which closely resembles the genomic organization of piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), the causative agent of heart and skeletal inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon and HSMI-like disease in coho salmon. The genomic segments of the novel virus contain at least 10 open reading frames (ORFs): lambda 1 (λ1), λ2, λ3, mu 1 (μ1), μ2, μNS, sigma 1 (σ1), σ2, σ3, and σNS. An additional ORF encoding a 12.6-kDa protein (homologue of PRV p13) occurs in the same genomic segment as σ3. Phylogenetic analyses based on S1 and λ3 suggest that this novel virus is closely related to PRV, but distinctly different. Therefore, we designated the new virus ‘piscine orthoreovirus 2’ (PRV-2). Reverse transcription–quantitative real-time PCR revealed a significant increase in PRV-2 RNA in fish blood after the artificial infection of EIBS-naïve fish but not in that of fish that had recovered from EIBS. The degree of anemia in each fish increased as the PRV-2 RNA increased during an epizootic season of EIBS on an inland coho salmon farm. These results indicate that PRV-2 is the probable causative agent of EIBS in coho salmon, and that the host acquires immunity to reinfection with this virus. Further research is required to determine the host range of PRV species and the relationship between EIBS and HSMI in salmonid fish. PMID:27788206

  9. 77 FR 476 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast Coho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Plan Southern Oregon/ Northern California Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit AGENCY... Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). NMFS is soliciting review and... Fisheries Service, 1655 Heindon Road, Arcata, CA 95521, Attn: Recovery Coordinator/SONCC Coho Salmon...

  10. Growth and endocrine effects of recombinant bovine growth hormone treatment in non-transgenic and growth hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Raven, P A; Sakhrani, D; Beckman, B; Neregård, L; Sundström, L F; Björnsson, B Th; Devlin, R H

    2012-05-15

    To examine the relative growth, endocrine, and gene expression effects of growth hormone (GH) transgenesis vs. GH protein treatment, wild-type non-transgenic and GH transgenic coho salmon were treated with a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine GH (bGH; Posilac). Fish size, specific growth rate (SGR), and condition factor (CF) were monitored for 14 weeks, after which endocrine parameters were measured. Transgenic fish had much higher growth, SGR and CF than non-transgenic fish, and bGH injection significantly increased weight and SGR in non-transgenic but not transgenic fish. Plasma salmon GH concentrations decreased with bGH treatment in non-transgenic but not in transgenic fish where levels were similar to controls. Higher GH mRNA levels were detected in transgenic muscle and liver but no differences were observed in GH receptor (GHR) mRNA levels. In non-transgenic pituitary, GH and GHR mRNA levels per mg pituitary decreased with bGH dose to levels seen in transgenic salmon. Plasma IGF-I was elevated with bGH dose only in non-transgenic fish, while transgenic fish maintained an elevated level of IGF-I with or without bGH treatment. A similar trend was seen for liver IGF-I mRNA levels. Thus, bGH treatment increased fish growth and influenced feedback on endocrine parameters in non-transgenic but not in transgenic fish. A lack of further growth stimulation of GH transgenic fish suggests that these fish are experiencing maximal growth stimulation via GH pathways.

  11. Users' guide to system dynamics model describing Coho salmon survival in Olema Creek, Point Reyes National Seashore, Marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Torregrosa, Alicia; Madej, Mary Ann; Reichmuth, Michael; Fong, Darren

    2014-01-01

    The system dynamics model described in this report is the result of a collaboration between U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and National Park Service (NPS) San Francisco Bay Area Network (SFAN) staff, whose goal was to develop a methodology to integrate inventory and monitoring data to better understand ecosystem dynamics and trends using salmon in Olema Creek, Marin County, California, as an example case. The SFAN began monitoring multiple life stages of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Olema Creek during 2003 (Carlisle and others, 2013), building on previous monitoring of spawning fish and redds. They initiated water-quality and habitat monitoring, and had access to flow and weather data from other sources. This system dynamics model of the freshwater portion of the coho salmon life cycle in Olema Creek integrated 8 years of existing monitoring data, literature values, and expert opinion to investigate potential factors limiting survival and production, identify data gaps, and improve monitoring and restoration prescriptions. A system dynamics model is particularly effective when (1) data are insufficient in time series length and/or measured parameters for a statistical or mechanistic model, and (2) the model must be easily accessible by users who are not modelers. These characteristics helped us meet the following overarching goals for this model: Summarize and synthesize NPS monitoring data with data and information from other sources to describe factors and processes affecting freshwater survival of coho salmon in Olema Creek. Provide a model that can be easily manipulated to experiment with alternative values of model parameters and novel scenarios of environmental drivers. Although the model describes the ecological dynamics of Olema Creek, these dynamics are structurally similar to numerous other coastal streams along the California coast that also contain anadromous fish populations. The model developed for Olema can be used, at least as a

  12. BLACK SPOT INFESTATION IN JUVENILE COHO SALMON AND THE INFLUENCE OF OREGON COASTAL STREAM SUMMER TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater survival and growth of juvenile salmon are affected by many factors, including high summer temperatures and other stressors such as parasitism. Delayed or suppressed growth related to stress can influence subsequent survival of juvenile salmonids in freshwater and mar...

  13. Trophic pathways supporting juvenile Chinook and Coho salmon in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska: patterns of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial resource use across a seasonally dynamic habitat mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rine, Kristin M.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Schoen, Erik R.; Nightengale, Timothy L.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions of terrestrial-, freshwater-, and marine-derived prey resources to stream fishes vary over time and space, altering the energy pathways that regulate production. In this study, we determined large-scale use of these resources by juvenile Chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Oncorhynchus kisutch, respectively) in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska. We resolved spatial and temporal trophic patterns among multiple macrohabitat types along a 97 km segment of the river corridor via stable isotope and stomach content analyses. Juvenile salmon were supported primarily by freshwater-derived resources and secondarily by marine and terrestrial sources. The relative contribution of marine-derived prey to rearing salmon was greatest in the fall within off-channel macrohabitats, whereas the contributions of terrestrial invertebrate prey were generally greatest during midsummer, across all macrohabitats. No longitudinal (upstream–downstream) diet pattern was discernable. These results highlight large-scale spatial and seasonal patterns of energy flow and the dynamic interplay of pulsed marine and terrestrial prey subsidies to juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in a large, complex, and relatively pristine glacial river.

  14. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  15. Changes in numbers of leukocytes in immune organs of juvenile coho salmon after acute stress or cortisol treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Schreck, Carl B.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of acute stress and cortisol treatment on the number of leukocytes (normalized for fish body weight) in the blood, thymus, spleen, and anterior kidney of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. In acutely stressed or cortisol-fed fish, the numbers of leukocytes increased significantly in the thymus and anterior kidney, and decreased significantly in blood and spleen within 1 d after treatment. Numbers of cells in the anterior kidney, blood, and spleen returned to control levels by 3 d after treatment, but cell numbers in the thymus remained significantly greater than control values until 3–7 d after acute stress. Although dietary cortisol resulted in increased plasma cortisol titers and caused the same changes in leukocyte distribution as those caused by acute stress, the magnitude or duration of elevated cortisol levels and leukocyte numbers were not correlated. These results suggest that, although increased plasma cortisol titers induced by stress may be involved in the change in number of cells in various immune organs, factors other than cortisol are involved as well.

  16. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tullos, Desiree D.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  17. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Sundström, L Fredrik; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT), and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3) in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  18. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K.; Gallagher, Evan P.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Beyer, Richard P.; Farin, Federico M.; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver plays a role in energetics, and olfactory rosettes are involved in behavior. Between all salinity treatments, liver had the highest number of differentially expressed genes at 1616, gills had 1074, and olfactory rosettes had 924, using a 1.5-fold cutoff and a false discovery rate of 0.5. Higher responsiveness of liver to metabolic changes after salinity acclimation to provide energy for other osmoregulatory tissues such as the gills may explain the differences in number of differentially expressed genes. Differentially expressed genes were tissue- and salinity-dependent. There were no known genes differentially expressed that were common to all salinity treatments and all tissues. Gene ontology term analysis revealed biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components that were significantly affected by salinity, a majority of which were tissue-dependent. For liver, oxygen binding and transport terms were highlighted. For gills, muscle, and cytoskeleton-related terms predominated and for olfactory rosettes, immune response-related genes were accentuated. Interaction networks were examined in combination with GO terms and determined similarities between tissues for potential osmosensors, signal transduction cascades, and transcription factors. PMID:26260986

  19. Does resolution of flow field observation influence apparent habitat use and energy expenditure in juvenile coho salmon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, Desirée.; Walter, Cara; Dunham, Jason

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated how the resolution of observation influences interpretation of how fish, juvenile Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), exploit the hydraulic environment in streams. Our objectives were to evaluate how spatial resolution of the flow field observation influenced: (1) the velocities considered to be representative of habitat units; (2) patterns of use of the hydraulic environment by fish; and (3) estimates of energy expenditure. We addressed these objectives using observations within a 1:1 scale physical model of a full-channel log jam in an outdoor experimental stream. Velocities were measured with Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry at a 10 cm grid spacing, whereas fish locations and tailbeat frequencies were documented over time using underwater videogrammetry. Results highlighted that resolution of observation did impact perceived habitat use and energy expenditure, as did the location of measurement within habitat units and the use of averaging to summarize velocities within a habitat unit. In this experiment, the range of velocities and energy expenditure estimates increased with coarsening resolution (grid spacing from 10 to 100 cm), reducing the likelihood of measuring the velocities locally experienced by fish. In addition, the coarser resolutions contributed to fish appearing to select velocities that were higher than what was measured at finer resolutions. These findings indicate the need for careful attention to and communication of resolution of observation in investigating the hydraulic environment and in determining the habitat needs and bioenergetics of aquatic biota.

  20. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, L. Fredrik; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT), and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3) in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models. PMID:28068416

  1. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest). Coho Salmon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    rivers represent irnPdssdble bdrriers. 2 %- .. •ny that enter the Sacramento River chum salmon (0. ketd) and sockeye should be regdrded as strays...1986. Effects of logging on McGill University, Montreal , Quebec. winter habitat of juvenile salmonids 101 pp. in Alaska streams. N. Am. J. Fish. Manaqe

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics of alternative male phenotypes in coho salmon populations in response to ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Yusuke; Fleming, Ian A

    2006-03-01

    1. The coexistence of alternative reproductive phenotypes will probably be shaped by spatial and temporal variability in the environment. However, the effects of such variability on coexistence and the scale at which it operates are seldom understood. 2. To quantify such effects, we examined spatial and temporal dynamics in the abundance and frequency of alternative phenotypes of male coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum, which mature as either large fighters (age-3 'hooknoses') or small sneakers (age-2 'jacks'). Using over 20 years of data on coded-wire tagged fish released from nine Oregon hatcheries, we tested for the effects of ocean environment independent of those due to freshwater rearing. 3. Annual fluctuations of the abundance of jack and hooknose males within populations were correlated strongly by brood year (cohort) but not by return year (breeding group). This occurred independently of significant effects of release practice (i.e. the number of fish released, body size at release and date of release), indicating that a synchronized fluctuation in mortality during the first year at sea was the predominant cause. As a result, the annual frequency of the alternative phenotypes at breeding varied considerably within populations. 4. Spatial patterns in the annual fluctuations of the two phenotypes were similar (i.e. synchronous among populations), except that jacks showed local spatial structure (decreased synchrony with distance) not evident among hooknoses. This suggests that oceanic processes affecting the two phenotypes operate at different spatial scales. Despite effects on salmon abundance, the ocean environment had little influence through its effects on salmon growth on the relative frequencies of the alternative phenotypes within and among populations. 5. The results provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of alternative phenotypes, including an intragenerational time lag that increases annual variability in phenotype frequencies at

  3. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  4. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  5. Effects of food ration on SMR: influence of food consumption on individual variation in metabolic rate in juvenile coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2012-03-01

    1. Consistency of differences in standard metabolic rate (SMR) between individual juvenile salmonids and the apparently limited ability of individuals to regulate their SMR has led many researchers to conclude that differences in individual SMR are fixed (i.e. genetic). 2. To test for the effects of food ration on individual performance and metabolism, SMR was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption using flow-through respirometry on individually separated young of the year coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) placed on varying food rations over a period of 44 days. 3. Results demonstrate that the quantity of food consumed directly affects SMR of juvenile coho salmon, independent of specific dynamic action (SDA, an elevation in metabolic rate from the increased energy demands associated with digestion immediately following a meal) and indicates that higher food consumption is a cause of elevated SMR rather than a consequence of it. Juvenile coho salmon therefore demonstrated an ability to regulate their SMR according to food availability and ultimately food consumption. 4. This study indicates that food consumption may play a pivotal role in understanding individual variation in SMR independent of inherent genetic differences. We suggest that studies involving SMR need to be cautious about the effects of intra-individual differences in food consumption in communal tanks or in different microhabitats in the wild as disproportionate food consumption may contribute more to variation in SMR than intrinsic (genetic) factors. 5. In general, our results suggest that evolutionary changes in SMR are likely a response to selection on food consumption and growth, rather than SMR itself.

  6. Genotype-Temperature Interaction in the Regulation of Development, Growth, and Morphometrics in Wild-Type, and Growth-Hormone Transgenic Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Björklund, Mats; Devlin, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The neuroendocrine system is an important modulator of phenotype, directing cellular genetic responses to external cues such as temperature. Behavioural and physiological processes in poikilothermic organisms (e.g. most fishes), are particularly influenced by surrounding temperatures. Methodology/Principal Findings By comparing the development and growth of two genotypes of coho salmon (wild-type and transgenic with greatly enhanced growth hormone production) at six different temperatures, ranging between 8° and 18°C, we observed a genotype-temperature interaction and possible trend in directed neuroendocrine selection. Differences in growth patterns of the two genotypes were compared by using mathematical models, and morphometric analyses of juvenile salmon were performed to detect differences in body shape. The maximum hatching and alevin survival rates of both genotypes occurred at 12°C. At lower temperatures, eggs containing embryos with enhanced GH production hatched after a shorter incubation period than wild-type eggs, but this difference was not apparent at and above 16°C. GH transgenesis led to lower body weights at the time when the yolk sack was completely absorbed compared to the wild genotype. The growth of juvenile GH-enhanced salmon was to a greater extent stimulated by higher temperatures than the growth of the wild-type. Increased GH production significantly influenced the shape of the salmon growth curves. Conclusions Growth hormone overexpression by transgenesis is able to stimulate the growth of coho salmon over a wide range of temperatures. Temperature was found to affect growth rate, survival, and body morphology between GH transgenic and wild genotype coho salmon, and differential responses to temperature observed between the genotypes suggests they would experience different selective forces should they ever enter natural ecosystems. Thus, GH transgenic fish would be expected to differentially respond and adapt to shifts in

  7. 2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A.

    2006-01-01

    During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of

  8. Facing the River Gauntlet: Understanding the Effects of Fisheries Capture and Water Temperature on the Physiology of Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Raby, Graham D.; Clark, Timothy D.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Patterson, David A.; Bett, Nolan N.; Wilson, Samantha M.; Willmore, William G.; Suski, Cory D.; Hinch, Scott G.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of bycatch mortality can be achieved by complementing field studies with laboratory experiments that use physiological assessments. This study examined the effects of water temperature and the duration of net entanglement on physiological disturbance and recovery in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after release from a simulated beach seine capture. Heart rate was monitored using implanted electrocardiogram biologgers that allowed fish to swim freely before and after release. A subset of fish was recovered in respirometers to monitor metabolic recovery, and separate groups of fish were sacrificed at different times to assess blood and white muscle biochemistry. One hour after release, fish had elevated lactate in muscle and blood plasma, depleted tissue energy stores, and altered osmoregulatory status, particularly in warmer (15 vs. 10°C) and longer (15 vs. 2 min) capture treatments. A significant effect of entanglement duration on blood and muscle metabolites remained after 4 h. Oxygen consumption rate recovered to baseline within 7–10 h. However, recovery of heart rate to routine levels was longer and more variable, with most fish taking over 10 h, and 33% of fish failing to recover within 24 h. There were no significant treatment effects on either oxygen consumption or heart rate recovery. Our results indicate that fishers should minimize handling time for bycatch and maximize oxygen supply during crowding, especially when temperatures are elevated. Physiological data, such as those presented here, can be used to understand mechanisms that underlie bycatch impairment and mortality, and thus inform best practices that ensure the welfare and conservation of affected species. PMID:25901952

  9. Facing the river gauntlet: understanding the effects of fisheries capture and water temperature on the physiology of coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Raby, Graham D; Clark, Timothy D; Farrell, Anthony P; Patterson, David A; Bett, Nolan N; Wilson, Samantha M; Willmore, William G; Suski, Cory D; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of bycatch mortality can be achieved by complementing field studies with laboratory experiments that use physiological assessments. This study examined the effects of water temperature and the duration of net entanglement on physiological disturbance and recovery in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after release from a simulated beach seine capture. Heart rate was monitored using implanted electrocardiogram biologgers that allowed fish to swim freely before and after release. A subset of fish was recovered in respirometers to monitor metabolic recovery, and separate groups of fish were sacrificed at different times to assess blood and white muscle biochemistry. One hour after release, fish had elevated lactate in muscle and blood plasma, depleted tissue energy stores, and altered osmoregulatory status, particularly in warmer (15 vs. 10°C) and longer (15 vs. 2 min) capture treatments. A significant effect of entanglement duration on blood and muscle metabolites remained after 4 h. Oxygen consumption rate recovered to baseline within 7-10 h. However, recovery of heart rate to routine levels was longer and more variable, with most fish taking over 10 h, and 33% of fish failing to recover within 24 h. There were no significant treatment effects on either oxygen consumption or heart rate recovery. Our results indicate that fishers should minimize handling time for bycatch and maximize oxygen supply during crowding, especially when temperatures are elevated. Physiological data, such as those presented here, can be used to understand mechanisms that underlie bycatch impairment and mortality, and thus inform best practices that ensure the welfare and conservation of affected species.

  10. Gene--environment interactions influence feeding and anti-predator behavior in wild and transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Sundström, L F; Löhmus, M; Devlin, R H

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions are known to affect phenotypic development in many organisms, making the characteristics of an animal reared under one set of conditions not always representative of animals reared under a different set of conditions. Previous results show that such plasticity can also affect the phenotypes and ecological interactions of different genotypes, including animals anthropogenically generated by genetic modification. To understand how plastic development can affect behavior in animals of different genotypes, we examined the feeding and risk-taking behavior in growth-enhanced transgenic coho salmon (with two- to threefold enhanced daily growth rates compared to wild type) under a range of conditions. When compared to wild-type siblings, we found clear effects of the rearing environment on feeding and risk-taking in transgenic animals and noted that in some cases, this environmental effect was stronger than the effects of the genetic modification. Generally, transgenic fish, regardless of rearing conditions, behaved similar to wild-type fish reared under natural-like conditions. Instead, the more unusual phenotype was associated with wild-type fish reared under hatchery conditions, which possessed an extreme risk averse phenotype compared to the same strain reared in naturalized conditions. Thus, the relative performance of genotypes from one environment (e.g., laboratory) may not always accurately reflect ecological interactions as would occur in a different environment (e.g., nature). Further, when assessing risks of genetically modified organisms, it is important to understand how the environment affects phenotypic development, which in turn may variably influence consequences to ecosystem components across different conditions found in the complexity of nature.

  11. The effect of temperature and ration size on the growth, body composition, and energy content of juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Frank, Anthony M.; Rottiers, Donald V.; Adams, Jean V.

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile (postsmolt) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsuch) were held in fresh water in the laboratory at 5, 10, 15, and 18A?C for 8 weeks and fed freshly thawed, juvenile alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) at rates equal to 1 and 2 % of their wet body weight/day, and also at the ad libitum or unrestricted ration rate. Most rapid growth in weight (1.2% wet body weight/day) occurred among fish fed the ad libitum ration at 15A?C; growth was most rapid at about 10A?C for fish fed the 2% ration (0.7%/day), and the 1% ration (0.1%/day). Gross conversion efficiency was highest at 10A?C for all three ration levels. Gross body constituents and energy content of the test fish changed with temperature and ration during the study. Growth rate was positively related to lipid, energy content, and ration; lipid and energy content were positively related to water temperature; lipid, energy content, growth rate, ration, and water temperature were negatively related to water content; and protein was not related to any of the test variables. At the end of the study, water (68.7 to 76.4%) and lipid (3.5 to 10.4%) content were more variable than ash (1.8 to 3.1%), carbohydrate (0.1 to 1.9%), and protein (16.9 to 19.4%) content. Energy content of the fish increased with ration and was highest for each ration level at 15A?C.

  12. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho Salmon AGENCY: National Marine... Central California Coast (CCC) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) to... Resources, (301) 427-8403. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Central California Coast (CCC)...

  13. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  14. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  15. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  16. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  17. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WA Upper Skagit Chinook, coho, and pink salmon Gorge Lake Dam 17110006 WA Sauk River Chinook, coho... Snohomish River Chinook, coho, and pink salmon n/a 17110012 WA Lake Washington Chinook and coho salmon Cedar... Mid. Columbia - Lake Wallula Chinook and coho salmon n/a 17070102 OR/WA Walla Walla River...

  18. Assessing possible thermal rearing restrictions for juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) through thermal infrared imaging and in-stream monitoring, Redwood Creek, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, M.A.; Currens, C.; Ozaki, V.; Yee, J.; Anderson, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified patterns in stream temperature in a northern coastal California river using thermal infrared (TIR) imaging and in-stream monitoring and related temperature patterns to the historical and present distributions of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In Redwood Creek, California, water temperature increased from the headwaters to about 60 km downstream, then gradually decreased over the next 40 km as the river approaches the Pacific Ocean. Despite the lack of fish migration barriers, juvenile coho are currently only observed in the downstream-most 20 km, whereas historically they were found in 90 km of river channel. Maximum daily temperatures and duration of elevated stream temperatures were not significantly different in the headwater and downstream reaches but were significantly higher in the 50 km long intervening reach, where maximum weekly maximum temperatures ranged from 23 to 27??C. An increase in stream temperatures in the middle basin during the last three decades as a result of channel aggradation, widening, and the removal of large riparian conifers may play an important role in restricting juvenile coho to one-fifth of their historical range. ?? 2006 NRC.

  19. Physiological response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to handling and crowding stress in intensive fish culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1976-01-01

    Moving 4–5-in. coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) held in soft (20 ppm CaCO3) water from the relatively light loading density of 0.5 lb/ft3 to 1, 2, or 4 lb/ft3 (density index, DI = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8) caused significant stress as indicated by loss of feeding behavior, but only minimal physiological disturbances, as indicated by lack of hyperglycemia or hypochloremia. However, moving them to 6 or 12 lb/ft3 (DI = 1.2, 2.4) caused significant physiological stress which required at least a week for recovery. Smolting coho salmon were physiologically stressed by population densities of 1 lb/ft3 or more and a subclinical corynebacterial kidney infection was activated. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) (4–5 in.) were physiologically stressed when moved and held at 1 lb/ft3 or more but retained normal feeding behavior. This indicates that handling and crowding stress will be minimized in softwater areas if densities in fish distribution trucks or in ponds or raceways during disease treatments are held to 0.1–0.5 lb/gal.

  20. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  1. Effects of Habitat Enhancement on Steelhead Trout and Coho Salmon Smolt Production, Habitat Utilization, and Habitat Availability in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Hohler, David B.

    1987-06-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1986 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1986) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station (see Appendix 2). The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat

  2. Physiological Benefits of Being Small in a Changing World: Responses of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to an Acute Thermal Challenge and a Simulated Capture Event

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Timothy D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Drenner, S. Matthew; Lotto, Andrew; Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Patterson, David A.; Farrell, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure) in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20°C at 3°C h−1) was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males (‘jacks’). Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7°C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3±0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3±0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20±0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b∼1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater ‘oxygen debt’ that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ∼6 mg min−1 kg−1. Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non

  3. Survival and migration behavior of juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River relative to discharge at Iron Gate Dam, Northern California, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg; Hetrick, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a study of survival and migration behavior of radio-tagged juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Klamath River, northern California, in 2007. This was the third year of a multi-year study with the goal of determining the effects of discharge at Iron Gate Dam (IGD) on survival of juvenile coho salmon downstream. Survival and factors affecting survival were estimated in 2006 and 2007 after work in 2005 showed radio telemetry could be used effectively. The study has included collaborative efforts among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Karuk and Yurok Tribal Fisheries Departments, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The objectives of the study included: (1) estimating the survival of wild and hatchery juvenile coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam, determining the effects of discharge and other covariates on juvenile coho salmon survival (2) and migration (3), and (4) determining if fish from Iron Gate Hatchery (IGH) could be used as surrogates for the limited source of wild fish. We have been able to meet the first objective by estimating the survivals of hatchery and wild fish (when available) downstream of IGD. We have not yet met the second or third objectives, because we have been unable to separate effects of discharge from other environmental variables as they pertain to the survival or migration of juvenile coho salmon. This was foreseen when the study began, as it was known there would likely be no experimental discharges. A multi-year analysis will be conducted after the data for the third planned year are available. The fourth objective was initiated in 2006, but wild fish were not available in 2007. The next year wild fish may be available is in 2009, based on their 3-year cycle of abundance. River discharges during the 2007 study period (April 10 through July 28, 2007) were below average compared to the period of record beginning in 1962. Average daily

  4. Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, as Influenced by Habitat Enhancement: Annual Report 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred H.

    1986-09-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, is designed to increase the annual number of chinook and coho salmon, and steelhead trout smolt outmigrants. The primary objectives of the evaluation include the: (1) evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements; (2) evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements; and (3) evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and Forest Service funds on Fish Creek. This report focuses on the projects completed in the basin in 1983, 1984, and 1985, and their evaluation.

  5. Oxytetracycline depletion from skin-on fillet tissue of coho salmon fed oxytetracycline medicated feed in freshwater at temperatures less than 9°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Evered, Joy A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent approved in the USA for treating certain bacterial diseases in salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures greater than or equal to 9°C. This study was conducted to provide the information necessary to expand the OTC label to include treatment of diseased salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures below 9°C. The study was designed to treat juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with OTC-medicated feed and determine the depletion of OTC from the skin-on fillet tissue. Oxytetracycline depletion was evaluated in juvenile coho salmon (weight range, 13–62 g) fed OTC-medicated feed at a rate of 88.2 mg OTC/kg body weight/day for 10 days. Pairs of skin-on fillets were taken from individual fish on days 4 and 10 during the treatment phase and on days 1, 4, 8, 14, and 19 during the depletion phase. Water temperatures during the study period ranged from 4.1°C to 8.5°C. The OTC concentrations in medicated feed and skin-on fillets were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The maximum mean OTC concentration in fillet tissue was 932 ng/g, 1 day after the last treatment and decreased to 32 ng/g 19 days after the last treatment. The log-linear loss of OTC from the fillet tissue was biphasic with a terminal phase half-life of 4.9 days.

  6. Uptake and clearance of exogenous estradiol-17β and testosterone during the early development of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), including eggs, alevins and fry.

    PubMed

    Piferrer, F; Donaldson, E M

    1994-07-01

    The uptake and clearance of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) were examined during the initial stages of development of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), including eyed-eggs, newly hatched alevins and first feeding fry. Radiolabeled steroids were administered through the water in tracer amounts with or without their nonradioactive form at 400 μg l(-1). Regardless of developmental stage, saturation levels were invariably attained earlier for T than for E2, thus resulting in a higher incorporation of E2. However, both steroids had similar clearance patterns. Uptake and clearance was clearly stage-dependent, being fastest in fry, intermediate in alevins and slowest in eggs. Furthermore, combined uptake and clearance patterns showed that exposure to steroid was also higher for E2 than for T and stage-dependent, but always markedly highest in alevins. Subsequently, based on the observed elimination of the estrogen, a double immersion in E2 at 400 μg 1(-1), administered 2 days apart to maximize exposure during the alevin stage, was assayed for its effect on sex reversal and found to induce the production of 100% females. We suggest that the yolk, which is present in substantial amounts during the initial stages of development in salmonids, can retain the exogenously administered liposoluble steroids, thus providing developing embryos with an extended supply of, and exposure to, these steroids well after the treatment is finished. Together, these findings help to explain the previously observed high effectiveness of sex steroids administered during early development in regulating gonadal differentiation in salmonids, the higher effectiveness of E2 compared to T, and clarify the localization of the most sensitive period to the action of exogenous steroids at the alevin stage in the coho salmon.

  7. Thermally induced chronic developmental stress in coho salmon: Integrating measures of mortality, early growth and fluctuating asymmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.B.; Emlen, J.M.; Hershberger, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental stability, or homeostasis, facilitates the production of consistent phenotypes by buffering against stress. Fluctuating asymmetry is produced by developmental instability and is manifested as small random departures from bilateral symmetry. Increased fluctuating asymmetry is thought to parallel compromised fitness, in part, because stress promotes energy dissipation. Compensatory energy expenditures within the organism are required to complete development, thus promoting instability through reductions in homeostasis. Increased heterozygosity may enhance developmental stability by reducing energy dissipation from stress through increased metabolic efficiency, possibly by providing greater flexibility in metabolic pathways. Traditionally, fluctuating asymmetry has been used as a bioindicator of chronic stress, provided that selective mortality of less fit individuals did not reduce stress-mediated increases in fluctuating asymmetry to background levels produced by natural developmental error, or create data inconsistencies such as higher asymmetry in groups exposed to lower stress. Unfortunately, absence of selective mortality and its effects, while often assumed, can be difficult to substantiate. We integrated measures of early growth, mortality, fluctuating asymmetry (mandibular pores, pectoral finrays, pelvic finrays, and gillrakers on the upper and lower arms of the first branchial arch) and directional asymmetry (branchiostegal rays) to assess chronic thermal stress (fluctuating temperatures as opposed to ambient temperatures) in developing eggs from two different coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) stocks and their reciprocal hybrids. Hybridization provided insight on the capacity of heterozygosity to reduce stress during development. Although egg losses were consistently higher in crosses exposed to fluctuating temperatures, egg mortality was predominantly a function of maternal stock of origin. Post-hatch losses were higher in crosses exposed to

  8. Metabolic hormones regulate basal and growth hormone-dependent igf2 mRNA level in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes: effects of insulin, glucagon, dexamethasone, and triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Pierce, A L; Dickey, J T; Felli, L; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    2010-03-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. Circulating Igfs are produced by the liver. In mammals, Igf1 mediates the postnatal growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (Gh), whereas Igf2 stimulates fetal and placental growth. Hepatic Igf2 production is not regulated by Gh in mammals. Little is known about the regulation of hepatic Igf2 production in nonmammalian vertebrates. We examined the regulation of igf2 mRNA level by metabolic hormones in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes. Gh, insulin, the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex), and glucagon increased igf2 mRNA levels, whereas triiodothyronine (T(3)) decreased igf2 mRNA levels. Gh stimulated igf2 mRNA at physiological concentrations (0.25x10(-9) M and above). Insulin strongly enhanced Gh stimulation of igf2 at low physiological concentrations (10(-11) M and above), and increased basal igf2 (10(-8) M and above). Dex stimulated basal igf2 at concentrations comparable to those of stressed circulating cortisol (10(-8) M and above). Glucagon stimulated basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at supraphysiological concentrations (10(-7) M and above), whereas T(3) suppressed basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at the single concentration tested (10(-7) M). These results show that igf2 mRNA level is highly regulated in salmon hepatocytes, suggesting that liver-derived Igf2 plays a significant role in salmon growth physiology. The synergistic regulation of igf2 by insulin and Gh in salmon hepatocytes is similar to the regulation of hepatic Igf1 production in mammals.

  9. Long-term changes in the fine-scale population structure of coho salmon populations (Oncorhynchus kisutch) subject to extensive supportive breeding.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, W H; Myers, J M; Naish, K A

    2009-10-01

    The long-term viability of a metapopulation depends partly on the gene flow among sub-populations. Management approaches such as translocations and supportive breeding between closely related populations may affect gene flow and overall structure, and therefore viability. Here, we examined temporal changes in the fine-scale population structure of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) by comparing archived (1938) and modern (2001-2005) populations in six rivers within a single conservation unit (Puget Sound, Washington) sampled before and after an extended period of between-river transfers and releases of millions of cultured salmon. Genotype frequencies at eight microsatellite loci showed that current populations descended from historical Puget Sound populations, but populations in different rivers that exchanged fish for hatchery propagation share more of their ancestry recently than they did historically. Historically, populations in different rivers were isolated by geographic distance, but that relationship is no longer significant. Allelic richness among all populations declined significantly, suggesting that genetic drift has increased because of a population bottleneck. Populations in different rivers and within the same river have become more diverged, providing further evidence for a widespread bottleneck. Previously, we observed that genetic distance significantly decreased with the number of fish exchanged; however, some populations apparently resisted introgression. Altered gene flow and lost diversity may affect the complexity, and therefore resiliency of sub-populations within a conservation unit. Plans for artificial culture need to maintain existing genetic diversity and avoid disrupting the fine-scale structure by using local populations for parents whenever possible.

  10. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greatly reduced spawning runs of anadromous salmon in streams of the Pacific Northwest (USA) have led to concerns about the effects of reduced marine derived nutrients (MDN's) on sustaining over-wintering juvenile salmon in those streams. In response to these concerns, state a...

  11. The pituitary-thyroid axis during the parr-smolt transformation of Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch: quantification of TSH β mRNA, TSH, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Donald A; Swanson, Penny; Dickhoff, Walton W

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to quantify pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) β mRNA, pituitary and plasma TSH and plasma thyroid hormone levels during the parr-smolt transformation of Coho salmon that occurs in spring from February to May. The status of the pituitary-thyroid axis was assessed using an RNase protection assay for pituitary TSH β mRNA and radioimmunoassays for salmon pituitary and plasma TSH and thyroid hormones. TSH β mRNA was highest during late winter (February) (4.9 pg/μg DNA) and gradually declined during spring (2.3 pg/μg DNA). In contrast, pituitary and plasma TSH levels showed a small, but statistically non-significant change during smoltification. Despite minimal change in plasma TSH levels, characteristically large increases in plasma T4 (January-3.3 ng/ml to April-10.2 ng/ml) and significant, but modest increases in plasma T3 (February-2.4 ng/ml to April-5.8 ng/ml) were observed. Regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between plasma T4 and T3 and negative relationship between plasma T3 and pituitary TSH β mRNA. However, all other relations were not significant. These data suggest a significant role for peripheral regulation (i.e. T4-T3 conversion, change in tissue sensitivity, hormone degradation rate) as well as evidence of central regulation via negative feedback at the level of the pituitary gland in regulation of thyroid activity in salmon. Furthermore, the increased thyroid sensitivity to TSH (shown previously), in the face of relatively constant plasma TSH levels, may be the major factor responsible for the increased thyroid activity observed during smoltification.

  12. Gas bubble disease: mortalities of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in water with constant total gas pressure and different oxygen-nitrogen ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding gas-bubble disease can be found in a recent publication by Rucker (1972); one by the National Academy of Science (Anonymous in press); and an unpublished report by Weitkamp and Katz (1973)." Most discussions on gas-bubble disease have dealt with the inert gas, nitrogen-oxygen was given a secondary role. It is important to know the relationship of nitrogen and oxygen when we are concerned with the total gas pressure in water. Where water becomes aerated at dams or falls, oxygen and nitrogen are usually about equally saturated, however, many of the samples analyzed from the Columbia River indicate that nitrogen is often about 7% higher than oxygen when expressed as a percentage. When oxygen is removed from water by metabolic and chemical action, or when oxygen is added to the water by photosynthesis, there is a definite change in the ratio of oxygen and the inert gases (mainly nitrogen with some argon, etc.). This present study shows the effect of varying the oxygen and nitrogen ratio in water on fingerling coho salmon, Oncorh.llnchllS kislltch, while maintaining a constant total gas pressure. The primary purpose of these experiments was to determine differences in lethality of various gas ratios of oxygen and nitrogen at a constant total gas pressure of 119%. I also wished to determine whether there was a difference in susceptibility between sizes and stocks of juvenile coho. Also to be examined was the effect of reducing the oJl:ygen while holding the nitrogen constant.

  13. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  14. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  15. Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, as Influenced by Habitat Enhancement, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, John; Everest, Fred H.; Heller, David A.

    1986-09-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1985 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (19824986) to be financed by Forest Service funds. Several factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin were identified during the first year of the study, and the scope of the habitat improvement effort was subsequently enlarged. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to provide additional funding for work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is designed to increase the annual number of chinook and coho salmon, and steelhead trout smolt outmigrants. The primary objectives of the evaluation include the: (1) Evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat Improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and Forest Service funds on Fish Creek. Several prototype enhancement projects were constructed and tested during the first three years of the study. The Intention was to identify successful techniques that could then be broadly applied within the bash. This stepwise procedure has been largely successful in identifying the most promising enhancement techniques for the Fish Creek

  16. Rearing in natural and recovering tidal wetlands enhances growth and life-history diversity of Columbia Estuary tributary coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch population.

    PubMed

    Craig, B E; Simenstad, C A; Bottom, D L

    2014-07-01

    This study provides evidence of the importance of tributary tidal wetlands to local coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch populations and life-history diversity. Subyearling and, to a lesser extent, yearling O. kisutch life histories utilized various estuary habitats within the Grays River, a tidal freshwater tributary of the Columbia River estuary, including restoring emergent wetlands and natural forested wetlands. Migration timing data, size distributions, estuary residence and scale patterns suggest a predominance of subyearling migrant life histories, including several that involve extended periods of estuary rearing. Estuarine-rearing subyearling O. kisutch exhibited the greatest overall growth rates; the highest growth rates were seen in fish that utilized restoring emergent wetlands. These results contrast with studies conducted in the main-stem Columbia River estuary, which captured few O. kisutch, of which nearly all were hatchery-origin yearling smolts. Restoration and preservation of peripheral and tributary wetland habitats, such as those in the Grays River, could play an important role in the recovery of natural O. kisutch populations in the Columbia River and elsewhere.

  17. Effects of Iron Gate Dam discharge and other factors on the survival and migration of juvenile coho salmon in the lower Klamath River, northern California, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steven; Stutzer, Greg; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Current management of the Klamath River includes prescribed minimum discharges intended partly to increase survival of juvenile coho salmon during their seaward migration in the spring. To determine if fish survival was related to river discharge, we estimated apparent survival and migration rates of yearling coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam. The primary goals were to determine if discharge at Iron Gate Dam affected coho salmon survival and if results from hatchery fish could be used as a surrogate for the limited supply of wild fish. Fish from hatchery and wild origins that had been surgically implanted with radio transmitters were released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam at river kilometer 309. Tagged fish were used to estimate apparent survival between, and passage rates at, a series of detection sites as far downstream as river kilometer 33. Conclusions were based primarily on data from hatchery fish, because wild fish were only available in 2 of the 4 years of study. Based on an information-theoretic approach, apparent survival of hatchery and wild fish was similar, despite differences in passage rates and timing, and was lowest in the 54 kilometer (km) reach between release and the Scott River. Models representing the hypothesis that a short-term tagging- or handling-related mortality occurred following release were moderately supported by data from wild fish and weakly supported by data from hatchery fish. Estimates of apparent survival of hatchery fish through the 276 km study area ranged from 0.412 (standard error [SE] 0.048) to 0.648 (SE 0.070), depending on the year, and represented an average of 0.790 per 100 km traveled. Estimates of apparent survival of wild fish through the study area were 0.645 (SE 0.058) in 2006 and 0.630 (SE 0.059) in 2009 and were nearly identical to the results from hatchery fish released on the same dates. The data and models examined supported positive effects of water

  18. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  19. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  20. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  1. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  2. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  3. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon: Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program, October 1994-September 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1995-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 26, 1994 to June 27, 1995. A total of 1,531 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 688 adult, 236 jack, and 368 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawvtscha); 984 adult and 62 jack coho (O. kisutch) ; and 388 adult and 108 jack spring chinook (O. tshawvtscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 971 summer steelhead; 581 adult and 27 jack fall chinook; 500 adult and 22 jack coho; and 363 adult and 61 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were also 373 summer steelhead; 12 adult, 186 jack and 317 subjack fall chinook; 379 adult and 32 jack coho; and 15 adult and one jack spring chinook released at Threemile Dam. In addition, 154 summer steelhead were hauled to Bonifer and Minthorn for brood. The Westland Canal facility, located near the town of Echo, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The facility operated for a total of 179 days between December 2, 1994 and July 19, 1995. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 137 days and were trapped 42 days. Three steelhead kelts and an estimated 1,560 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from the Westland Canal trap to the Umatilla River boat ramp at rivermile 0.5. Approximately 98% of the fish transported this year were salmonids. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass began operating March 25, 1995 and was closed on June 16, 1995. The juvenile trap was operated by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife research personnel from April 1, 1995 through the summer to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  4. The administration of sulfonamide drugs to adult salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.

    1968-01-01

    Mass treatment is the most convenient way to combat fish diseases. For example, drugs can be administered per os in diets, or chemicals can be added to the water. These methods are mostly ineffective in treating systemic infections of adult salmon because mature salmon do not feed, and many fish diseases cannot be controlled by chemical baths. Thus, effective treatment would require administering drugs to each individual.

  5. Ovarian receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and effects of IGF-I on steroid production by isolated follicular layers of the preovulatory coho salmon ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Maestro, M A; Planas, J V; Moriyama, S; Gutiérrez, J; Planas, J; Swanson, P

    1997-05-01

    In this study, receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in isolated theca-interstitial layers and granulosa cells of the coho salmon preovulatory ovary were characterized, and the effects of IGF-I on ovarian steroidogenesis were examined. Specific receptors for insulin and IGF-I were found in granulosa and theca-interstitial layers. In both follicular layers, IGF-I receptors were greater in number and higher in affinity than insulin receptors. The effects of IGF-I on in vitro production of testosterone (T) and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OH-P) by theca-interstitial layers and of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) by granulosa cell layers were evaluated during the preovulatory period. Both human and salmon recombinant IGF-I inhibited the basal and GTH II-stimulated T and 17OH-P production by theca-interstitial layers throughout the preovulatory period. In contrast, IGF-I stimulated the production of both E2 and 17,20 beta-P by granulosa cell layers prior to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) but only stimulated the production of 17,20 beta-P by granulosa cell layers after GVBD. The inhibitory effects of IGF-I on steroid production by the theca-interstitial layer and the opposite stimulatory effects on steroid production by the granulosa cell layer, coupled by the presence of specific IGF-I receptors in both follicular layers, suggest that IGF-I may play a role in the regulation of steroidogenesis in the preovulatory coho salmon ovary.

  6. Industrial Education and the Coho Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerwick, Lowell P.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the past, present, and future of industrial education, particularly its position in the contemporary mainstream. The title's "Coho syndrome" refers to the salmon who know where they have been and where they need to go but cannot seem to comprehend where they are right now. (MF)

  7. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  8. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1996-1997 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1996-September 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1997-12-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 30, 1996 to August 26, 1997. A total of 2,477 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 646 adult, 80 jack, and 606 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 618 adult and 24 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,194 adult and four jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 22 summer steelhead; 18 adult and two jack fall chinook; five adult coho; and 407 adult and three jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,245 summer steelhead; 70 adult, 51 jack and 520 subjack fall chinook; 593 adult and 24 jack coho; and 1,130 adult spring chinook released at Threemile Dam I In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 551 adult and 25 jack fall chinook; and 600 adult spring chinook were collected for broodstock. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts, The canal was open for a total of 210 days between December 16, 1996 and July 30, 1997. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 175 days and were trapped on 35 days, An estimated 1,675 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5), Approximately 80% of the juveniles transported were salmonids, No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from October 4 to November 1, 1996 and from March 26 to July 7, 1997. The juvenile trap was not operated this year. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  10. 78 FR 2725 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lower Columbia River Coho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...We, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), propose to designate critical habitat for lower Columbia River coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Puget Sound steelhead (O. mykiss), currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The specific areas proposed for designation for lower Columbia River coho include approximately 2,288 mi (3,681 km) of freshwater......

  11. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THERMAL REFUGE USE TO MIGRATING ADULT SALMON AND STEELHEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. The importance of cold water refuges for migrating adult salmon and steelhead may seem intuitive, and refuges are c...

  12. Linking physical monitoring to coho and Chinook salmon populations in the Redwood Creek Watershed, California—Summary of May 3–4, 2012 Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday, May 3, 2012, a science workshop was held at the Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) office in Arcata, California, with researchers and resource managers working in RNSP to share data and expert opinions concerning salmon populations and habitat in the Redwood Creek watershed. The focus of the workshop was to discuss how best to synthesize physical and biological data related to the freshwater and estuarine phases of salmon life cycles in order to increase the understanding of constraints on salmon populations. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends (S&T) Program National Park Monitoring Project (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/brdscience/ParkMonitoring.htm), which supports USGS research on priority topics (themes) identified by the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) and S&T. The NPS has organized more than 270 parks with significant natural resources into 32 Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Networks (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/networks.cfm) that share funding and core professional staff to monitor the status and long-term trends of selected natural resources (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor). All 32 networks have completed vital signs monitoring plans (available at http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/MonitoringPlans.cfm), containing background information on the important resources of each park, conceptual models behind the selection of vital signs for monitoring the condition of natural resources, and the selection of high priority vital signs for monitoring. Vital signs are particular physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems that represent the overall health or condition of the park, known or hypothesized effects of stressors, or elements that have important human values (Fancy and others, 2009). Beginning in 2009, the I&M program funded projects to analyze and synthesize the biotic and abiotic data generated by vital signs

  13. Feasibility and Risks of Coho Reintroduction in Mid-Columbia [Tributaries] Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James L.

    1999-10-01

    The long-term vision for the coho re-introduction project is to reestablish naturally reproducing coho salmon populations in mid-Columbia river basins, with numbers at or near carrying capacity that provide opportunities for significant harvest for Tribal and non-Tribal fishers.

  14. Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

  15. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  16. Interspecific habitat associations of juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Diel variation in habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), subyearling coho salmon (O. kisutch), yearling steelhead (O. mykiss), and yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during the spring in two tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1318 habitat observations were made on juvenile salmonids including 367 on steelhead, 351 on Chinook salmon, 333 on Atlantic salmon, and 261 on coho salmon. Steelhead exhibited the most diel variation in habitat use and Chinook the least. Juvenile salmonids were generally associated with more cover and larger substrate during the day in both streams. Interspecific differences in habitat use in both streams occurred with Atlantic salmon (fast velocities) and coho salmon (pools) using the least similar habitat. Chinook salmon and Atlantic salmon used similar habitat in both streams. These findings should help guide future management actions specific to habitat protection and restoration of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries.

  17. Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1981 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil

    1982-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, began conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing in 1978. The juvenile marking phase was completed in 1980; over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released in 23 experiments. The primary objectives were to determine: (1) a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint, (2) if a single imprint or a sequential imprint is necessary to assure homing, and (3) the relationship between the physiological condition of fish and their ability to imprint. Research in 1981 concentrated on: (1) recovering returning adults from previous experiments, (2) analyzing completed 1978 steelhead and 1980 coho salmon experiments, and (3) preliminary analyzing 1979 and 1980 fall chinook salmon experiments. Seven experimental groups are discussed: four steelhead, two fall chinook salmon, and one coho salmon. In four groups, survival was enhanced by the imprinting-transportation procedures. Homing back to the hatchery area was successful in two groups, and generally, unless there were extenuating circumstances (eruption of Mount St. Helens, disease problem, etc.), greater returns to user groups were evident.

  18. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  19. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  20. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  1. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  2. Persistent Salmon Patch on the Forehead and Glabellum in a Chinese Adult

    PubMed Central

    Barankin, Benjamin; Hon, Kam Lun

    2014-01-01

    Salmon patches are present in approximately 44% of all neonates. The lesions tend to fade with time and those on the glabellum, eyelids, nose, and upper lip are rarely detected after the age of 6. We report a 33-year-old Chinese female with a salmon patch on the forehead and glabellum. To our knowledge, the occurrence of a salmon patch on the forehead and glabellum in adulthood has not been reported. The persistent salmon patch on the face of an adult is benign and not associated with any neurocutaneous syndrome or underlying vascular abnormality. The color of the lesion can be ameliorated with laser therapy if cosmesis is a concern. PMID:24963301

  3. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  4. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1988-1989 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-03-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation test the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock); the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1989. 2 tabs.

  5. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1987-1988 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1988-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1988.

  6. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1984-1985 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, David L.

    1986-04-01

    It is believed that hatchery feed nutritional quality plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with meal proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. The basic hypothesis of this investigation is that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved hatchery production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River and its tributaries and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used to prove this hypothesis involves a comparison of the hatchery growth response, survival and return of coho and chinook salmon reared on nutrient dense rations containing a very high quality fish protein complement and commercial ration relying on commercial fish meals as a source of protein. Coded wire tagging experiments are being conducted on replicate brood years of test and control fish to determine the influence of ration protein on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982 and 1983-brood replicates of coho salmon and 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon. The 1984-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1986. Planning was completed for rearing a 1985-brood replicate of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1983-brood coho and the 1984-brood fall chinook (tule stock) replicates. Duplicate lots of coho salmon were reared on two test rations containing vacuum dried salmon and hake meals and a control ration composed of the Sandy hatchery supply of Oregon pellet feed system rations from 1 June 1984 to release on 30 April 1985

  7. Radio tag retention and tag-related mortality among adult sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, Kristina M.; Woody, Carol Ann

    2003-01-01

    Tag retention and tag-related mortality are concerns for any tagging study but are rarely estimated. We assessed retention and mortality rates for esophageal radio tag implants in adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Migrating sockeye salmon captured at the outlet of Lake Clark, Alaska, were implanted with one of four different radio tags (14.5 × 43 mm (diameter × length), 14.5 × 49 mm, 16 × 46 mm, and 19 × 51 mm). Fish were observed for 15 to 35 d after tagging to determine retention and mortality rates. The overall tag retention rate was high (0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-1.00; minimum, 33 d), with one loss of a 19-mm × 51- mm tag. Mortality of tagged sockeye salmon (0.02; 95% CI, 0-0.08) was similar to that of untagged controls (0.03 (0-0.15)). Sockeye salmon with body lengths (mid-eye to tail fork) of 585-649 mm retained tags as large as 19 × 51 mm and those with body lengths of 499-628 mm retained tags as small as 14.5 × 43 mm for a minimum of 33 d with no increase in mortality. The tags used in this study represent a suite of radio tags that vary in size, operational life, and cost but that are effective in tracking adult anadromous salmon with little tag loss or increase in fish mortality.

  8. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  9. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  10. COHO SALMON DEPENDENCE ON INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2006, the US Supreme Court heard cases that may affect whether intermittent streams are jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act. In June 2006, however, the cases were remanded to the circuit court, leaving the status of intermittent streams uncertain once agai...

  11. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  12. Searching for a life history approach to salmon escapement management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E.E.; Symmes, E.W.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of Pacific salmon populations have already been lost and many others throughout the range are in various states of decline. Recent research has documented that Pacific salmon carcasses serve as a key delivery vector of marine-derived nutrients into the freshwater portions of their ecosystems. This nutrient supply plays a critical biological feedback role in salmon sustainability by supporting juvenile salmon production. We first demonstrate how nutrient feedback potential to juvenile production may be unaccounted for in spawner-recruit models of populations under long-term exploitation. We then present a heuristic, life history-based, spreadsheet survival model that incorporates salmon carcass-driven nutrient feedback to the freshwater components of the salmon ecosystem. The productivity of a hypothetical coho salmon population was simulated using rates from the literature for survival from spawner to egg, egg to fry, fry to smolt, and smolt to adult. The effects of climate variation and nutrient feedback on survival were incorporated, as were density-dependent effects of the numbers of spawners and fry on freshwater survival of eggs and juveniles. The unexploited equilibrium population was subjected to 100 years of 20, 40, 60, and 80% harvest. Each harvest scenario greater than 20% brought the population to a reduced steady state, regardless of generous compensatory survival at low population sizes. Increasing harvest reduced the positive effects of nutrient contributions to population growth. Salmon researchers should further explore this modeling approach for establishing escapement goals. Given the importance of nutrient feedback, managers should strive for generous escapements that support nutrient rebuilding, as well as egg deposition, to ensure strong future salmon production.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  14. Susceptibility of captive adult winter-run Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to waterborne exposures with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Arkush, K D; Mendonca, H L; McBride, A M; Hedrick, R P

    2004-06-11

    Sexually mature female Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with no prior history of exposure to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were susceptible to experimental infection induced by additions of virus to the water. The resulting infections resembled those observed among naturally infected hatchery and wild populations of Chinook salmon. Virus was detected as early as 4 d post-exposure (p.e.) and subsequently in all virus-exposed fish that died or that were examined at 14 d p.e. when the study was terminated. The greatest concentrations of virus, up to 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu) ml(-1), were found in the ovarian fluid at 13 to 14 d p.e., but the virus was also found in high concentrations in the gill, kidney/spleen and plasma. In contrast, the virus was not recovered from unexposed control adult salmon that died or were sampled at the end of the study. Despite detecting concentrations of IHNV in excess of 10(7) pfu g(-1) of tissue, no specific microscopic lesions were found in IHNV-exposed compared to unexposed control salmon. The results of this initial study suggest that virus in the spawning environment, either from adult salmon or other sources, may contribute to its rapid spread among adult Chinook salmon, thereby considerably increasing the prevalence of IHNV infection in both wild and hatchery populations of adult Chinook salmon.

  15. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1995-1996 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1995-September 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1996-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  16. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1995-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs and Imeques C-mem-ini-kem acclimation facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O, kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. In the spring of 1994, juvenile summer steelhead were acclimated at Bonifer and Minthorn. At Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, juvenile spring chinook were acclimated in the spring and fall. A total of 92 unmarked and 42 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 1, 1993 through May 2, 1994 and held at Minthorn. An estimated 234,432 green eggs were taken from 48 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and early rearing. Fingerlings were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for final rearing and release into the Umatilla River in 1995. Fall chinook and coho salmon broodstock were not collected in 1994. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla River releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries. Total estimated juvenile adult survival rates are detailed in this document.

  17. Adult chinook salmon passage at Little Goose Dam in relation to spill operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepson, M.A.; Caudill , C.C.; Clabough, T.S.; Peery, C.A.; Beeman, J.W.; Fielding, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spill patterns at Little Goose Dam in 2007 were modified in anticipation of a spillway weir installation intended to improve downstream passage of juvenile salmonids. However, in spill pattern was associated with reduced daily counts of adult salmon passing the dam. Consequently, the behaviors and upstream passage times of radio-tagged adult spring–summer Chinook salmon were evaluated in response to three spillway discharge patterns at Little Goose Dam during 2008. Simultaneously, tailrace conditions were characterized by monitoring the downstream paths of GPS-equipped drogues. Two of the spill treatments (i.e., Bulk and Alternate) were variations of patterns thought to mimic those produced if a spillway weir was installed. The third treatment (Uniform) was characterized by spilling similar volumes of water through most spillbays.

  18. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  19. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  20. Recent salmon declines: a result of lost feeding opportunities due to bad timing?

    PubMed

    Chittenden, Cedar M; Jensen, Jenny L A; Ewart, David; Anderson, Shannon; Balfry, Shannon; Downey, Elan; Eaves, Alexandra; Saksida, Sonja; Smith, Brian; Vincent, Stephen; Welch, David; McKinley, R Scott

    2010-08-27

    As the timing of spring productivity blooms in near-shore areas advances due to warming trends in global climate, the selection pressures on out-migrating salmon smolts are shifting. Species and stocks that leave natal streams earlier may be favoured over later-migrating fish. The low post-release survival of hatchery fish during recent years may be in part due to static release times that do not take the timing of plankton blooms into account. This study examined the effects of release time on the migratory behaviour and survival of wild and hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) using acoustic and coded-wire telemetry. Plankton monitoring and near-shore seining were also conducted to determine which habitat and food sources were favoured. Acoustic tags (n = 140) and coded-wire tags (n = 266,692) were implanted into coho salmon smolts at the Seymour and Quinsam Rivers, in British Columbia, Canada. Differences between wild and hatchery fish, and early and late releases were examined during the entire lifecycle. Physiological sampling was also carried out on 30 fish from each release group. The smolt-to-adult survival of coho salmon released during periods of high marine productivity was 1.5- to 3-fold greater than those released both before and after, and the fish's degree of smoltification affected their downstream migration time and duration of stay in the estuary. Therefore, hatchery managers should consider having smolts fully developed and ready for release during the peak of the near-shore plankton blooms. Monitoring chlorophyll a levels and water temperature early in the spring could provide a forecast of the timing of these blooms, giving hatcheries time to adjust their release schedule.

  1. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  2. Identification of the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Phillips, R B; DeKoning, J; Morasch, M R; Park, L K; Devlin, R H

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a probe to the male-specific GH-Y (growth hormone pseudogene) was used to identify the Y chromosome in the karyotypes of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The sex chromosome pair is a small acrocentric chromosome pair in chum salmon and the smallest metacentric chromosome pair in pink salmon. Both of these chromosome pairs are morphologically different from the sex chromosome pairs in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The 5S rRNA genes are on multiple chromosome pairs including the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon, but at the centromeres of two autosomal metacentric pairs in pink salmon. The sex chromosome pairs and the chromosomal locations of the 5S rDNA appear to be different in all five of the North American Pacific salmon species and rainbow trout. The implications of these results for evolution of sex chromosomes in salmonids are discussed.

  3. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  4. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  5. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  6. The behavioural homing response of adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta to amino-acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, E Y; Leonard, J B K; Ueda, H

    2016-11-21

    Adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta homing behaviour in a two-choice test tank (Y-maze) was monitored using a passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tag system in response to river-specific dissolved free amino-acid (DFAA) profiles and revealed that the majority of O. keta showed a preference for artificial natal-stream water and tended to stay in this maze arm for a longer period; natal-stream water was chosen over a nearby tributary's water, but not when the O. keta were presented with a non-tributary water. The results demonstrate the ability of O. keta to discriminate artificial stream waters containing natural levels of DFAA.

  7. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  8. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  9. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  10. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units and Counties Containing Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Critical Habitat for Central California Coast Coho Salmon, Tribal Lands Within the Range of the ESU, and Dams/Reservoirs Representing the Upstream Extent of Critical Habitat 5 Table 5 to Part 226 Wildlife and... COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT Pt. 226, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 226—Hydrologic...

  11. Effects of petroleum-contaminated waterways on migratory behavior of adult pink salmon. Final report, 1987-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.J.; Whitmus, C.J.; Nevissi, A.E.; Cox, J.M.; Brocklehurst, L.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the effect of oil-contaminated water on the migratory behavior of adult pink salmon. Salmon behavior with and without oil contamination was examined during migration through Jakalof Bay in Alaska. Behavioral responses were measured in horizontal and vertical movement patterns, swimming speed, and duration-of-return to the home stream. Three control and three treatment experiments were conducted. The treatment group was exposed to a solution of aromatic hydrocarbons, similar in composition to Prudhoe Bay crude oil, which was injected into Jakalof Bay midway between a salmon holding pen and Jakalof Creek, a migratory stream. The study found that (1) migrating salmon do not appear to avoid oil-contaminated water with hydrocarbon concentrations at levels of 1 to 10 ppb, but do experience disorientation; (2) disorientation behaviors include searching and negative rheotaxis (retreat); (3) disorientation temporarily disrupts migration, but salmon eventually return to the home stream. These findings suggest that, even at concentrations too low to cause tainting or mortality, salmon exposed to hydrocarbons during migration retreat to re-establish orientation.

  12. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams.

  13. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  14. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  15. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  16. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1981-1990 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ``fitness`` of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990.

  17. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  18. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents progress from October 1992 through September 1993 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls, Maxwell, Westland, and Feed Canal dams on the Umatilla River, and in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River. Also reported is an effort to evaluate delayed mortality and stress responses of juvenile salmonids resulting from trapping and transport at high temperatures. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the matilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon and chinook salmon, as well as enhancement of summer steelhead.

  19. Effects of a Novel Fish Transport System on the Health of Adult Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Linley, Timothy J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2016-12-01

    Movement past hydroelectric dams and related in-river structures has important implications for habitat connectivity and population persistence in migratory fish. A major problem is that many of these structures lack effective fish passage facilities, which can fragment spawning and rearing areas and negatively impact recruitment. While traditional fish passage facilities (e.g., ladders, trap and haul) can effectively enable fish to pass over barriers, their capital or operational costs can be significant. We evaluated the utility of a novel transport device that utilizes a flexible tube with differential internal air pressure to pass fish around in-river barriers. Three treatments and a control group were tested. In two of the treatments, adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation were transported through the device via two lengths of tube (12 or 77 m) and their injury, stress, and immune system responses and reproductive function were compared to a third treatment where fish were moved by a standard trap and haul method and also to a control group. We observed no significant differences among the treatment or control groups in post-treatment adult survival, injury or stress. Indicators of immune system response and reproductive readiness were also not significantly different among the four groups. Egg survival was significantly different among the groups, but the differences were highly variable within groups and not consistent with the duration of treatment or degree of handling. Taken together, the results suggest the device did not injure or alter normal physiological functioning of adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation and may provide an effective method for transporting such fish around in-river barriers during their spawning migration. Keywords: Whooshh, transport, in-stream barriers, hydropower

  20. Pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Burke, J.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was determined in eight organs and two body fluids from each of 60 adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Included in the sample were 4 males and 56 prespawning, spawning, or spent female fish. All fish were infected, and virus was present in nearly all organs. There was an overall tendency for the mean concentration to increase in many of the organs over time as the fish progressed in ripeness. In prespawning females, IHN virus could be detected in all organs and in ovarian fluid but not in serum; the incidences were highest in the gills, spleen, and pyloric ceca, and the titers were highest in the pyloric ceca and liver. Incidences of infection in the organs were higher in spawning than in prespawning females and higher still in spent females in which the incidence of virus was 100% in all organs except brains (78%) and sera (67%). Virus concentrations in organs or fluids ranged from 5 to 4.0 × 109 plaque-forming units per millilitre. In males, the highest incidences of virus were found in gills, pyloric ceca, and liver. The gills were the only organ in which the virus concentration in males exceeded that of females.Key words: infectious hematopoietic necrosis, IHN, fish virus, viral pathogenesis, sockeye salmon

  1. Mycobacterial infections in adult salmon and steelhead trout returning to the Columbia River Basin and other areas in 1957

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1959-01-01

    The degree of incidence of acid -fast bacillus infections in adult salmonid fishes was determined. The disease was shown to be widely distributed in the area examined. It is believed the primary source of infection is derived from the hatchery practice of feeding infected salmon products to juvenile fish. One group of marked adults that had been hatchery reared for 370 days showed a 62 percent incidence of infection. A statistical analysis indicated that length of fish is independent of infection

  2. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  3. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  4. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  6. Transportation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts in the Columbia River and effects on adult returns

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, were captured at Little Goose Dam in the Snake River during their seaward migration and transported 400 km downstream to the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Their survival was increased from 1.1 to 15 times as compared with control fish which passed by seven mainstem low-level dams and reservoirs. Variations in survival were mainly dependent on species and environmental conditions in the river during the period fish were transported. The homing ability of the adult fish was not significantly diminished; less than 0.2% of strays occurred among adult returns from groups transported. Transportation did not affect ocean age or size of returning adult steelhead, but ocean age of returning adult chinook salmon may have been affected. Steelhead returned to Little Goose Dam at a substantially higher rate (1.4 to 2.7%) than chinook salmon (0.1 to 0.8%) from groups transported. The timing of adult returns of both species to Little Goose Dam was not related to the time of capture and downstream release of smolts.

  7. Salmon redd identification using environmental DNA (eDNA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Laramie, Matthew B.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionThe purpose of this project was to develop a technique to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to distinguish between redds made by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and redds made by Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to distinguish utilized redds from test/abandoned redds or scours that have the appearance of redds. The project had two phases:Phase 1. Develop, test, and optimize a molecular assay for detecting and identifying Coho salmon DNA and differentiating it from Chinook salmon DNA.Phase 2. Demonstrate the efficacy of the technique.Collect and preserve water samples from the interstitial spaces of 10 known redds (as identified by expert observers) of each species and 10 gravel patches that do not include a redd of either species.Collect control samples from the water column adjacent to each redd to establish background eDNA levels.Analyze the samples using the developed molecular assays for Coho salmon (phase I) and Chinook salmon (Laramie and others, 2015).Evaluate whether samples collected from Chinook and Coho redds have significantly higher levels of eDNA of the respective species than background levels (that is, from gravel, water column).Evaluate whether samples collected from the interstitial spaces of gravel patches that are not redds are similar to background eDNA levels.The Sandy River is a large tributary of the Columbia River. The Sandy River meets the Columbia River approximately 23 km upstream of Portland, Oregon. The Sandy River Basin provides overlapping spawning habitat for both Chinook and Coho salmon.Samples provided by Portland Water Bureau for analysis were collected from the Bull Run River, Sixes Creek, Still Creek, Arrah Wanna Side Channel, and Side Channel 18.

  8. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  9. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  10. Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (erα2 and erβ2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mörrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for erα2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the erα1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mörrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mörrum. The erα2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mörrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available.

  11. Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 Chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream. Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of the behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon in the Chehalis River, southwestern Washington, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Hurst, William R.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Kock, Tobias J.; Zimmerman, Mara S.

    2017-01-30

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. A preliminary evaluation of the movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River was conducted using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors. A total of 12 spring Chinook salmon were captured, radio-tagged, and released in the main-stem Chehalis River between May and late June 2014. Tagged fish were monitored from freshwater entry through the spawning period using a combination of fixedsite monitoring locations and mobile tracking.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2014 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and August 2014 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean monthly discharge was 90–206 percent of the discharge in previous years. Overall, 92 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 102 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Seven tagged fish (58 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (5–8 d, 57 percent), or within about a month (34–35 d, 29 percent). One fish (14 percent) remained near the release location for 98 d before moving upstream. The final fates for the seven fish that moved upstream following release included six fish that were assigned a fate of

  13. Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Hayes, Sean A.; Duffy, Walter; Gallagher, Sean; Michel, Cyril J.; Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Migratory salmon move nutrients both in and out of fresh waters during the different parts of their life cycle. We used a mass-balance approach to quantify recent changes in phosphorus (P) fluxes in six coastal California, USA, watersheds that have recently experienced dramatic decreases in salmon populations. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported 8.3 and 10.4 times more P from the ocean, respectively, than they exported as smolts, while iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than they exported as kelts and smolts. Semelparous species whose life histories led them to import more nutrients were also the species whose populations decreased the most dramatically in California in recent years. In addition, the relationship between import and export was nonlinear, with export being proportionally more important at lower levels of import. This pattern was driven by two density-dependent processes — smolts were larger and disproportionately more abundant at lower spawner abundances. In fact, in four of our six streams we found evidence that salmon can drive net export of P at low abundance, evidence for the reversal of the "conveyor belt" of nutrients.

  14. Survival and behavioral effects of exposure to a hydrokinetic turbine on juvenile Atlantic salmon and adult American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Haro, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon (N=75) and upstream migrating adult American shad (N=208). Controlled studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded by the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine to what extent these effects are likely to influence free-swimming fish.

  15. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  16. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  17. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner.

  18. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  19. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, Paul A.

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  20. Population-specific consequences of fisheries-related stressors on adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, M R; Hinch, S G; Raby, G D; Patterson, D A; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fisheries-related stressors differently influence two populations of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with shared migration timing and location but where one population (i.e., Harrison) spawns 1 mo after the other (i.e., Weaver). Four stressor treatments were used following beach seine capture: (1) immediate release, (2) release after 10-15 min in the beach seine, (3) an additional 3-min gill net entanglement and 1-min air exposure, and (4) an additional 3-min tangle net simulation and 1-min air exposure. A comprehensive acoustic telemetry array and manual tracking revealed that survival was low overall, with more Weaver fish (34.2% of 38 tagged) reaching spawning areas compared to Harrison fish (17.8% of 78 tagged). For the Harrison population but not the Weaver, the gill net treatment influenced immediate (i.e., survived treatment) and short-term (i.e., 5-d postrelease) survival as well as survival to reach spawning areas. Harrison fish were more likely to be injured by the treatment, and reflex impairment predicted their short-term and long-term survival. Physiological condition did not differ between populations at the time of release, although both populations showed signs of severe physiological disturbances from the gill and tangle net simulations. These results suggest that even short durations of gill or tangle net entanglement can result in profound population-specific physiological disturbances and mortality. The notion that there can be population-specific variation in response to fisheries encounters adds complexity to management and provides further evidence for intraspecific differences in migration success.

  1. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  2. Behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Chehalis River Basin, southwestern Washington, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Holt, Curt; Jennings, Lyle

    2016-09-14

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon. Based on the extended period between freshwater entry and spawn timing, spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. The movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River were investigated using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors, combined with water temperature monitoring throughout the basin. A total of 23 spring Chinook salmon were radio-tagged between April and early July 2015; 11 were captured and released in the main-stem Chehalis River, and 12 were captured and released in the South Fork Newaukum River. Tagged fish were monitored with a combination of fixed-site monitoring locations and regular mobile tracking, from freshwater entry through the spawning period.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2015 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and July 2015 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean daily flows were 30–70 percent of the flows in previous years. Overall, 96 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 62 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Of the 11 fish released in the main-stem Chehalis River, six fish (55 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (2–7 d, 50 percent), or following a short delay (12–18 d, 50 percent

  3. Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Part II, Smolt Monitoring Program, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaha, Willis E.

    1985-07-01

    The report describes the travel time of marked yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) between points within the system, and reports the arrival timing and duration of the migrations for these species as well as coho salmon (O. kisutch). A final listing of 1984 hatchery releases is also included. 8 refs., 26 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Changes in fish communities following recolonization of the Cedar river, Wa, USA by Pacific salmon after 103 years of local extirpation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiffney, P.M.; Pess, G.R.; Anderson, J.H.; Faulds, P.; Burton, K.; Riley, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    Migration barriers are a major reason for species loss and population decline of freshwater organisms. Significant efforts have been made to remove or provide passage around these barriers; however, our understanding of the ecological effects of these efforts is minimal. Installation of a fish passage facility at the Landsburg Dam, WA, USA provided migratory fish access to habitat from which they had been excluded for over 100 years. Relying on voluntary recruitment, we examined the effectiveness of this facility in restoring coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon populations above the diversion, and whether reintroduction of native anadromous species affected the distribution and abundance of resident trout (O. mykiss and O. clarki). Before the ladder, late summer total salmonid (trout only) density increased with distance from the dam. This pattern was reversed after the ladder was opened, as total salmonid density (salmon {thorn} trout) approximately doubled in the three reaches closest to the dam. These changes were primarily due to the addition of coho, but small trout density also increased in lower reaches and decreased in upper reaches. A nearby source population, dispersal by adults and juveniles, low density of resident trout and high quality habitat above the barrier likely promoted rapid colonization of targeted species. Our results suggest that barrier removal creates an opportunity for migratory species to re-establish populations leading to range expansion and potentially to increased population size. ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, C.A.; Nelson, Jack L.; Ramstad, K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

  6. Flesh quality of market-size farmed and wild British Columbia salmon.

    PubMed

    Ikonomou, M G; Higgs, D A; Gibbs, M; Oakes, J; Skura, B; McKinley, S; Balfry, S K; Jones, S; Withler, R; Dubetz, C

    2007-01-15

    This study compared the flesh quality of farmed and wild sources of British Columbia (BC) salmon with respect to concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans and their associated toxic equivalents, total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and selected fatty acids of known importance for human health viz., omega-3 (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) and (n-6) fatty acids. Skinned fillets from known sources of farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110) and wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91) were examined. Atlantic salmon contained higher PCB concentrations (means, 28-38 ng/g) than farmed coho or chinook salmon, and levels in these latter species were similar to those in wild counterparts (means, 2.8-13.7 ng/g). PCB levels in Atlantic salmon flesh were, nevertheless, 53-71-fold less than the level of concern for human consumption of fish, i.e., 2000 ng/g as established by Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA). Similarly, THg and MeHg levels in all samples were well below the Health Canada guideline (0.5 microg/g) and the US-FDA action level (1.0 microg/g). On average, THg in farmed salmon (0.021 microg/g) was similar to or lower than wild salmon (0.013-0.077 microg/g). Atlantic salmon were a richer source (mean, 2.34 g/100 g fillet) of n-3 HUFAs than the other farmed and wild sources of salmon examined (means, 0.39-1.17 g/100 g). The present findings support the recommended weekly consumption guidelines for oily fish species (includes all BC salmon sources) for cardio-protective benefits as made by the American Heart Association and the UK Food Standards Agency.

  7. Persistent infections of fish cell lines by paramyxovirus isolates from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lannan, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of a paramyxovirus from stocks of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to coastal rivers of Oregon, USA (Winton et al 1985). The isolates were obtained from kidney and spleen tissues using the chinook salmon embryo cell line, CHSE-214. Initial cytopathic effect (CPE) was slow to develop, requiring 28 days incubation at 18°C. The virus replicated in CHSE-214, chum heart (CHH-1), kokanee ovary (K0-6), coho salmon embryo (CSE-119), and fathead minnow (FHM) cell lines where it produced a lytic type of CPE.The virus was stable at pH 3-11 and iodo-deoxyuridine did not inhibit wiral replication. Infectivity was lost after treatment with chloroform indicating the presence of essential lipids. The density of virions in CsCl was 1.2 g/ml. The virus hemagglutinated cells of 11 of 14 species of birds, mammals, and fish tested. Electron microscopy of infected cells revealed enveloped particles 125-250 nm in dia. containing coiled nucleocapsids and examination of freon-treated virions showed the nucleocapsid was a helix approximately 18 nm in dia. and > 1000 nm in length (Winton et al 1985).In addition to causing hemagglutination, members of the Paramyxoviridae are known for the ability to establish persistent infections of cell lines (Choppin and Compans 1975). The purpose of this study was to determine if the paramyxovirus isolates from salmon were able to establish persistent infections in fish cell lines and to study the nature of the infection.

  8. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  9. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  10. Using cure models for analyzing the influence of pathogens on salmon survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Adam R; Perry, Russell W.; Som, Nicholas A.; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2014-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens influence the size and stability of wildlife populations, yet many population models ignore the population-level effects of pathogens. Standard survival analysis methods (e.g., accelerated failure time models) are used to assess how survival rates are influenced by disease. However, they assume that each individual is equally susceptible and will eventually experience the event of interest; this assumption is not typically satisfied with regard to pathogens of wildlife populations. In contrast, mixture cure models, which comprise logistic regression and survival analysis components, allow for different covariates to be entered into each part of the model and provide better predictions of survival when a fraction of the population is expected to survive a disease outbreak. We fitted mixture cure models to the host–pathogen dynamics of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch and the myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta. Total parasite concentration, water temperature, and discharge were used as covariates to predict the observed parasite-induced mortality in juvenile salmonids collected as part of a long-term monitoring program in the Klamath River, California. The mixture cure models predicted the observed total mortality well, but some of the variability in observed mortality rates was not captured by the models. Parasite concentration and water temperature were positively associated with total mortality and the mortality rate of both Chinook Salmon and Coho Salmon. Discharge was positively associated with total mortality for both species but only affected the mortality rate for Coho Salmon. The mixture cure models provide insights into how daily survival rates change over time in Chinook Salmon and Coho Salmon after they become infected with C. shasta.

  11. Juvenile Salmon Usage of the Skeena River Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S.; Moore, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2–8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations

  12. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    PubMed

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  13. An assessment of oil-spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Adults and escapement

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W.; Brannon, E.J.; Gilbertson, L.G.; Moulton, L.L.; Skalski, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents results of a field program designed to monitor the status of wildstock pink salmon populations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Field counts of spawning salmon were conducted each year from 1989 through 1992 to test for spill effects o the distribution nd abundance of pink salmon adults spawning in selected streams in the southwestern portion of Prince William Sound, including streams from the most heavily oiled areas. Counts of whole-stream and intertidal escapement density were statistically compared for 40 study streams in 1989 and for a subset of those streams in successive years. Measurements of residual hydrocarbons were made from stream-bed sediments to test for correlations with spawning behavior. Adult pink salmon in the postspill years of 1990 and 1991, progeny of the year classes considered most vulnerable to the oil spill, returned in high numbers, with the wildstock spawners exceeding their parent year returns. In 1989, adult returns reflected the relatively weak run for that year with a mean spawner density of 0.68 fish/m{sup 2} in reference streams and 0.69 fish/m{sup 2} in oiled streams. In 1990, mean escapement density for reference streams was 1.40 fish/m{sup 2} and 1.55 fish/m{sup 2} for oiled streams, indicating the strongest run of the four study years. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations for the majority of oiled streams show a general decline from 1989 to background levels by 1990. 45 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. FDA Approved Registration of Erythromycin for Treatment of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in Juvenile and Adult Chinook Salmon : Annual Report, Reporting Period March 10, 1989 to March 9, 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffitt, Christine A.

    1991-04-01

    Erythromycin is a therapeutic substance useful against bacterial kidney disease in salmon. In 1989 we began a multi year project to learn more about erythromycin applied to juvenile and adult salmon, with the goal of achieving registration of erythromycin with the US Food and Drug Administration. To begin the study, we studied the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin administered to both adult and juvenile chinook salmon. We monitored blood plasmas time curves from individual adult fish injected with two forms of injectable erythromycin using one of three routes of administration. In addition, we began experiments to evaluate hatchery applications of erythromycin to individually marked adult salmon, and we recovered blood tissues from these fish at the time of spawning. To determine how to use erythromycin in juvenile salmon, we evaluated the adsorption and elimination of erythromycin applied arterially and orally to individual juvenile fish. In feeding trials we determined the palatability to juvenile chinook salmon of feed made with one of two different carriers for erythromycin thiocyanate. 35 refs., 4 figs. , 3 tabs.

  15. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Elisabeth J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Buckley, Raymond M.

    2005-07-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8 °C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6 °C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts

  16. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  17. Density of the Waterborne Parasite Ceratomyxa shasta and Its Biological Effects on Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Ray, R. Adam; Hurst, Charlene N.; Holt, Richard A.; Buckles, Gerri R.; Atkinson, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta is a significant pathogen of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest of North America and is limiting recovery of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon populations in the Klamath River. We conducted a 5-year monitoring program that comprised concurrent sentinel fish exposures and water sampling across 212 river kilometers of the Klamath River. We used percent mortality and degree-days to death to measure disease severity in fish. We analyzed water samples using quantitative PCR and Sanger sequencing, to determine total parasite density and relative abundance of C. shasta genotypes, which differ in their pathogenicity to salmonids. We detected the parasite throughout the study zone, but parasite density and genetic composition fluctuated spatially and temporally. Chinook and coho mortality increased with density of their specific parasite genotype, but mortality-density thresholds and time to death differed. A lethality threshold of 40% mortality was reached with 10 spores liter−1 for Chinook but only 5 spores liter−1 for coho. Parasite density did not affect degree-days to death for Chinook but was negatively correlated for coho, and there was wider variation among coho individuals. These differences likely reflect the different life histories and genetic heterogeneity of the salmon populations. Direct quantification of the density of host-specific parasite genotypes in water samples offers a management tool for predicting host population-level impacts. PMID:22407689

  18. Evaluation of 1991-1992 Brood Overwinter-Reared Coho Released from Net Pens in Youngs Bay, Oregon : Final Completion Report Youngs Bay Terminal Fishery Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Funding from Bonneville Power Administration was provided to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s Fisheries Project to identify and develop terminal fishing opportunities. The 1991 and 1992 brood fingerling coho from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries were successfully reared during the winter period to smolt stage in Youngs Bay utilizing floating net pens. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries during 1991--93 from 2-week net-pen acclimation releases, total accountability of coho adults averaged 40,540 fish, with the Youngs Bay commercial harvest accounting for 39%. With reduced ocean harvest impacts during 1994 and 1995, 92% of 51,640 coho in 1994 and 68% of 23,599 coho in 1995 (based on coded-wire-tag recoveries) were accounted for in the Youngs Bay commercial fishery for combined 2-week and overwinter acclimation net-pen releases. Overwinter net-pen acclimation coho accounted for 35,063 and 15,775 coho adults in 1994 and 1995 with 93% and 68% accountable in the Youngs Bay commercial harvest. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries, less than 1% of the adults resulting from releases at Youngs Bay net pens strayed to hatcheries, while none were recovered on spawning ground surveys during 1991--95. The highest survival rates were observed for 1991 and 1992 brood overwinter coho released in early May. Time of release, not rearing strategy, appears to be the determining factor affecting survival in Youngs Bay.

  19. Thyrotropic activity of salmon pituitary glycoprotein hormones in the Hawaiian parrotfish thyroid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Swanson, P; Grau, E G; Helms, L M; Dickhoff, W W

    1988-02-01

    The thyrotropic activities of salmon pituitary extract, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (GTH), and glycoprotein fractions obtained during purification of salmon TSH and GTH were measured using the parrotfish thyroid culture system. Purified salmon TSH was approximately 1,000 times more potent than bovine TSH in stimulating thyroxine release into the culture medium. Most of the forms of salmon GTH had no thyrotropic activity. One of the forms of salmon GTH (GTH-F) and three chromatofocusing fractions (CF-B, -C, and -E) that were devoid of activity in the coho salmon in vivo had some thyrotropic activity in the parrotfish thyroid culture. Whether the activity of these fractions was due to contamination with TSH, less potent forms of TSH, or inherent thyrotropic activity of a form of GTH is discussed. These results indicate that the parrotfish thyroid culture system can be used to detect thyrotropic activity of fractions obtained during the purification of teleost TSH.

  20. Thiamine status in adult salmonines in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hnath, J.G.; Wolgamood, M.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In 1996 and again in 1999, hatchery personnel noted that some Lake Michigan coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from fall spawning runs on the Platte River weir exhibited abnormal wiggling behavior that was similar to the behavior exhibited by thiamine-deficient Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, from the Baltic Sea. Samples of eggs or gonads, muscle, and liver from salmon and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush exhibiting abnormal behaviors were collected to determine the extent to which the behaviors were related to a thiamine deficiency. We compared these values with those found in normally behaving fish that produced offspring with high embryonic survival. In all adult fish exhibiting abnormal behavior, tissue residues of thiamine were among the lowest observed in the Great Lakes. Where embryonic survival was assessed, abnormal adult behavior was also associated with very high levels of offspring mortality due to early mortality syndrome. While the overall ecological significance remains to be determined, it appears that adult fish also exhibit neurological dysfunction and mortality associated with thiamine deficiency.

  1. Immune and endocrine responses of adult spring Chinook salmon during freshwater migration and sexual maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Schrock, R.M.; Slater, C.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C. B.

    1996-01-01

    The immune –endocrine responses in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined during their freshwater migration and final maturation. In 1990, migrating fish had high plasma cortisol titres (means 200 ng ml−1) and generated relatively few antibody-producing cells (APC) from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (100 –200 per culture). After three weeks acclimation in constant environmental conditions, plasma cortisol was reduced and APC increased. There were no changes in number or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. Concentrations of several sex steroids correlated with APC in females, but there were no such correlations in males. In 1993, fish in a hatchery had significantly greater cortisol concentrations in primary circulation than in secondary circulation, but sex steroid concentrations did not differ between circulations. Mean lysozyme activity in the primary and secondary circulation did not differ in June. In August, activity in the primary circulation was significantly less than that of the secondary, perhaps the result of acute stress associated with sampling. While some sex steroids correlated with lysozyme activity, the fact that in both years all endocrine and immune variables that correlated with each other also correlated with the date of sample, raises the question as to whether or not these are cause-and-effect relations.

  2. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  3. Predictability of multispecies competitive interactions in three populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Houde, A L S; Wilson, C C; Neff, B D

    2015-04-01

    Juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three allopatric populations (LaHave, Sebago and Saint-Jean) were placed into artificial streams with combinations of four non-native salmonids: brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Non-additive effects, as evidenced by lower performance than predicted from weighted summed two-species competition trials, were detected for S. salar fork length (LF ) and mass, but not for survival, condition factor or riffle use. These data support emerging theory on niche overlap and species richness as factors that can lead to non-additive competition effects.

  4. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  5. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  6. Basis of acoustic discrimination of Chinook salmon from other salmons by echolocating Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Horne, John K; Jones, Christopher

    2010-10-01

    The "resident" ecotype of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the waters of British Columbia and Washington State have a strong preference for Chinook salmon even in months when Chinook comprise less than about 10% of the salmon population. The foraging behavior of killer whales suggests that they depend on echolocation to detect and recognize their prey. In order to determine possible cues in echoes from salmon species, a series of backscatter measurements were made at the Applied Physics Laboratory (Univ. of Wash.) Facility on Lake Union, on three different salmon species using simulated killer whale echolocation signals. The fish were attached to a monofilament net panel and rotated while echoes were collected, digitized and stored on a laptop computer. Three transducer depths were used; same depth, 22° and 45° above the horizontal plane of the fish. Echoes were collected from five Chinook, three coho and one sockeye salmon. Radiograph images of all specimens were obtained to examine the swimbladder shape and orientation. The results show that echo structure from similar length but different species of salmon were different and probably recognizable by foraging killer whales.

  7. ELISA-Based Segregation of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon for Control of Bacterial Kidney Disease: Annual Report 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1993-02-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS), a serious disease of salmonid fish worldwide. The disease has a major impact on spring chinook salmon populations in the Columbia River system. There is strong evidence that RS can be transmitted from parent to progeny, and segregation of progeny based on levels of antigen detected in adult fish may obviate this mode of transmission. Results are presented from the third year of a four year study to investigate segregation of broodstock as a tool for controlling BKD. Segregation of adult fish infected with RS has been achieved using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELlSAs) optimized in the first and second year of this project. Gametes from both 1990 and 1991 broodstock, either injected with erythromycin or receiving no antibiotic injection were successfully segregated into groups having either high or low levels of the RS soluble antigen. Offspring have been monitored every three months from the 1990 broodstock and are being monitored from the 1991 broodstock. Antigen levels in the offspring from the 1990 segregation experiment at Marion Forks Hatchery were low and clinical BKD was not observed in any of the juvenile fish. At Carson National Fish Hatchery, antigen levels were also low in fish which were sampled December 1990 through July 1991. Total mortality was low throughout these sampling periods. An increase in mortality was observed in November-December 1991, and preliminary evidence suggests that motality may have been due BKD. The epizootic appears to have equally effected both offspring from high and low RS antigen level parents. Antigen levels in moribund fish are being examined to confirm the prevalence of RS infection.

  8. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0°C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19°C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon

  9. The Use of Electromyogram (EMG) Telemetry to Assess Swimming Activity and Energy Use of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon Migrating through the Tailraces, Fishways, and Forebays of Bonneville Dam, 2000 and 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2002-10-16

    In 2000, PNNL conducted a two-year study for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to investigate energy use and swimming performance of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawystcha) migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study were to 1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; 2) estimate the upper critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of adult spring chinook salmon; and 3) monitor electromyograms (EMGs) of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Laboratory results showed rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. In the field studies at Bonneville Dam, EMG radiotelemetry was used to examine the amount of energy spring chinook salmon expend while migrating upstream past the dam?s tailraces, fishways, and forebays. Aerobic and anaerobic energy use rates were determined. Energy use was estimated for different specific sections of each fishway also. The rates of energy used (kcal/kg/h) by spring chinook salmon were significantly higher in the tailraces (2.80 kcal/kg/h) than in other parts of the dam. Among all fishway areas, Cascade Island fishway appears to be more energetically costly than other fishways. Also, section 12 of the Washington shore fishway appears costly. Energy used during fallouts was substantial (11.5% to 18.8% of the amount of energy used for successful fishway passages).

  10. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  11. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  12. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  13. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  14. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be intensively

  15. Salmon Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the web application to assist pesticide users' with an understanding of the spatial extent of certain pesticide use limitations to protect endangered or threatened salmon and steelhead in California, Oregon and Washington.

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of histology for diagnoses of four common pathogens and detection of nontarget pathogens in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael L; Benda, Susan; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Schreck, Carl B

    2013-05-01

    Histology is often underutilized in aquatic animal disease screening and diagnostics. The agreement between histological classifications of infection and results using diagnostic testing from the American Fisheries Society's Blue Book was conducted with 4 common salmon pathogens: Aeromonas salmonicida, Renibacterium salmoninarum, Ceratomyxa shasta, and Nanophyetus salmincola. Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Oregon were evaluated, and agreement between tests was calculated. Live and dead (both pre- and postspawning) salmon were collected from the Willamette River, Oregon, its tributaries, the Willamette Hatchery, and after holding in cool, pathogen-free water during maturation at Oregon State University. Sensitivity and specificity of histology compared to Blue Book methods for all fish, live fish only, and dead (pre- and postspawned combined) fish only were, respectively, as follows: A. salmonicida (n = 105): specificity 87.5%, 87.5%, 87.5% and sensitivity 38.6%, 14.8%, 60.0%; R. salmoninarum (n = 111): specificity 91.9%, 85.7%, 97.7% and sensitivity 16.0%, 7.1%, 27.2%; C. shasta (n = 136): specificity 56.0%, 63.3%, 28.6% and sensitivity 83.3%, 86.2%, 71.4%; N. salmincola (n = 228): specificity 68.2%, 66.7%, not possible to calculate for dead fish and sensitivity 83.5%, 80.5%, 87.3%. The specificity was good for bacterial pathogens. This was not the case for C. shasta, likely due to detection of presporogenic forms only by histology. Sensitivity of histology for bacterial pathogens was low with the exception of dead fish with A. salmonicida. Kappa analysis for agreement between Blue Book and histology methods was poor to moderate. However, histological observations revealed the presence of other pathogens that would not be detected by other methods.

  17. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; ,; Gillikin, Daniel; ,

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  18. Use of electromyogram telemetry to assess swimming activity of adult spring Chinook salmon migrating past a Columbia River dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.S.; Geist, D.R.; Mesa, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to estimate the swim speeds of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating upstream past a Columbia River dam. Electrodes from EMG transmitters were surgically implanted in the red muscle of fish captured at Bonneville Dam, and output from the tags was calibrated to defined swim speeds for each fish in a tunnel respirometer. The fish were then released below Bonneville Dam and radio-tracked as they migrated through the tailraces, fishways, and forebays of the dam. On average, swim speed was significantly higher when tagged salmon were moving through tailraces than when they were moving through other parts of the dam. Specifically, swim speeds for fish in tailraces (106.4 cm/s) were 23% higher than those of fish in fishways (84.9 cm/s) and 32% higher than those of fish in forebays (80.2 cm/s). Swim speeds were higher in fishways during the day than during the night, but there were no diel differences in swim speeds in tailraces and forebays. During dam passage, Chinook salmon spent the most time in tailraces, followed by fishways and forebays. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  19. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  20. Marine-derived nitrogen and carbon in freshwater-riparian food webs of the Copper River Delta, southcentral Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brendan J; Wipfli, Mark S; Lang, Dirk W; Lang, Maria E

    2005-08-01

    After rearing to adulthood at sea, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) return to freshwater to spawn once and then die on or near their spawning grounds. We tested the hypothesis that spawning coho salmon return marine N and C to beaver (Castor canadensis) ponds of the Copper River Delta (CRD), Cordova, southcentral Alaska, thereby enhancing productivity of the aquatic food webs that support juvenile coho salmon. We sampled three types of pond treatment: (1) natural enrichment by spawning salmon, (2) artificial enrichment via addition of salmon carcasses and eggs, and (3) ponds with no salmon enrichment. All ponds supported juvenile coho salmon. Seasonal samples of stable isotopes revealed that juvenile coho salmon, threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), caddisfly larvae, leeches, and chironomid midge larvae were enriched with marine N and C. The aquatic vascular plants bur reed (Sparganium hyperboreum), pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus), and mare's tail (Hippuris vulgaris) were enriched with marine N only. Riparian vegetation (Sitka alder Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata and willow Salix spp.) did not show enrichment. Artificial additions of adult carcasses and eggs of coho salmon increased the delta15N and delta13C values of juvenile coho salmon. In this dynamic and hydrologically complex coastal environment, spawning coho salmon contributed marine N and C comprising 10-50% of the dietary needs of juvenile coho salmon through direct consumption of eggs and carcass material. Invertebrates that have assimilated marine N and C yield a further indirect contribution. This perennial subsidy maintains the productivity of the ecosystem of the coho salmon on the CRD.

  1. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  2. Ocean Carrying Capacity : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 6 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lichatowich, Jim

    1993-06-01

    The northeast Pacific is comprised of four fishery production domains: The gulf of Alaska, a coastal downwelling zone, a coastal upwelling zone and a transition zone. Salmon from the Columbia River enter the sea in the upwelling zone. Marine survival of coho salmon in the Oregon Production Index area has been the subject of extensive study. Variability in marine survival of coho salmon appears to be determined in the first month at sea while the fish are still in local marine areas in the upwelling zone. There is stronger evidence that upwelling might influence vulnerability to predation. A broader ecosystem view which considers salmon as a member of a complex marine community offers additional insight and raises new questions regarding the marine mortality of salmon. The pelagic fish community in the upwelling zone has undergone dramatic change in the last 50 years. That change is consistent with the historical record, however, the system has not completed a full cycle of change (as it has in the past) since the stocks have been subjected to intense commercial and sport exploitation. Salmon seem to be responding to shifts in productivity in the coastal upwelling zone.

  3. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line

  4. Etiology of sockeye salmon "virus" disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1959-01-01

    Violent epizootics among hatchery reared sockeye salmon fingerLings ( Oncorhynchus nerka) caused by a filterable agent have occurred. In 1954, one source of this infectious, filterable agent was found to be adult sockeye viscera used in the diet for the fingerlings. The results of observations on an epizootic in 1958 indicate that the infection may be transmitted to fingerlings from a water supply to which adult sockeye salmon have access.

  5. Salmon's Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  6. Preferred stream discharges for salmon spawning and rearing in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stream discharges preferred by salmon for spawning were determined from relationships between discharge and spawnable area at 84 study reaches on 28 streams in Washington. Preferred discharges for spawning were found statistically equivalent for chinook, pink, and chum salmon. Regression equations developed for estimating discharges preferred by these species for spawning at other stream sites had standard errors of estimate of 40 percent where a relationship with toe-of-bank channel width was used, and 55 percent where basin drainage area was used. Similarly, equations for estimating the preferred discharge for spawning by sockeye and coho salmon (also statistically equivalent) had standard errors of 48 percent using channel width and 61 percent using drainage area. In general, the discharges preferred for spawning by salmon ranged in magnitude from about 0.3 to 11 times the median monthly mean discharges for September and October and about 0.1 to 6 times the median monthly means for November and December--the four months when spawning is greatest. Stream discharges preferred by salmon for rearing were determined from relationships between discharge and wetted perimeter at the study reaches. Those discharges ranged from about 0.7 to 4 times the median monthly mean discharge for September, when low flows are usually most limiting on the rearing capacity of streams. Equations developed for estimating preferred rearing discharges at other stream sites had standard errors of 57 percent using channel width and 81 percent using drainage area. (Woodard-USGS).

  7. Use of Electromyogram Telemetry to Assess Swimmng Activity of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon Migrating Past a Columbia River Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2006-02-28

    Electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to examine the amount of energy expended by spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating upstream past a Columbia River dam. Electrodes from EMG transmitters were surgically implanted in the red muscle of fish captured at Bonneville Dam and output from the tags was calibrated to defined swim speeds for each fish in a tunnel respirometer. The fish were then released below Bonneville Dam and radio-tracked as they migrated through the tailraces, fishways, and forebays of the dam. On average, the rate of aerobic energy used by spring Chinook salmon was significantly higher when they were moving through tailraces (1.27 kcal•kg-1•h-1) than when they were moving through other parts of the dam. Specifically, the rate of aerobic energy use for fish in tailraces was 14% higher than that used by fish in fishways (1.11 kcal•kg-1•h-1) and 27% higher than the rate used by fish in forebays (1.00 kcal•kg-1•h-1). Most (80%) of the aerobic energy used by fish to pass this dam was expended in the tailrace (25.5 kcal/kg), while only 18% (5.6 kcal/kg) and 2% (0.6 kcal/kg) were used in the fishways and forebays.

  8. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater→50% seawater→freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration.

  9. Coastal coho salmon research in the West Fork Smith River: Patterns of coho salmon size and survival within a complex watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires the ability to anticipate fish population responses to altered habitats. The EPA has conducted network-scale research to document habitat-specific growth and survival of juvenile salmonids in a complex watershed. These findings ha...

  10. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous salmonid stocks have declined in both the Grande Ronde River Basin (Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Status Review Symposium 1998) and in the entire Snake River Basin (Nehlsen et al. 1991), many to the point of extinction. The Grande Ronde River Basin historically supported large populations of fall and spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye (O. nerka), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) (Nehlsen et al. 1991). The decline of chinook salmon and steelhead populations and extirpation of coho and sockeye salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin was, in part, a result of construction and operation of hydroelectric facilities, over fishing, and loss and degradation of critical spawning and rearing habitat in the Columbia and Snake River basins (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Hatcheries were built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to compensate for losses of anadromous salmonids due to the construction and operation of the lower four Snake River dams. Lookingglass Hatchery (LGH) on Lookingglass Creek, a tributary of the Grande Ronde River, was completed under LSRCP in 1982 and has served as the main incubation and rearing site for chinook salmon programs for Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers in Oregon. Despite these hatchery programs, natural spring chinook populations continued to decline resulting in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listing Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon as ''threatened'' under the federal Endangered Species Act (1973) on 22 April 1992. Continuing poor escapement levels and declining population trends indicated that Grande Ronde River basin spring chinook salmon were in imminent danger of extinction. These continuing trends led fisheries co-managers in the basin to initiate the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program (GRESCSSP) in order to prevent extinction and preserve options for use of endemic fish stocks

  11. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    The populations of many native species have increased or expanded in distribution in recent decades, sometimes with negative consequences to sympatric native species that are rarer or less adaptable to anthropogenic changes to the environment. An example of this phenomenon from the Pacific Northwest is predation by locally abundant pinnipeds (seals and sea lions) on threatened, endangered, or otherwise depleted salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. We used survey sampling methodology, acoustic telemetry, and molecular genetics to quantify the amount of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) predation on a depressed run of coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to determine whether some seals consumed a disproportionately higher number of salmonids than others. Based on a probability sample totaling 759.5 h of observation, we estimated that seals consumed 1161 adult salmonids (95% CI = 503-1818 salmonids) during daylight hours over an 18.9-km estuarine study area in Oregon during an 84-d period in fall 2002. Simultaneous tracking of 56 seals via an acoustic telemetry array indicated that a small proportion of marked seals (12.5%) exhibited behavior that was consistent with specialization on salmonids. These seals spent the majority of their time in the riverine portion of the study area and did so disproportionately more at night than day. Genetic analysis of 116 salmonid structures recovered from 11 seal fecal samples suggested that coho salmon accounted for approximately one-half of total salmonid consumption. Though subject to considerable uncertainty, the combined results lead us to infer that seals consumed 21% (range = 3-63%) of the estimated prespawning population of coho salmon. We speculate that the majority of the predation occurred upriver, at night, and was done by a relatively small proportion of the local seal population. Understanding the extent and nature of pinniped predation can provide important inputs into risk assessments and other modeling efforts designed to

  12. AAVshRNA-Mediated Suppression of PTEN in Adult Rats in Combination with Salmon Fibrin Administration Enables Regenerative Growth of Corticospinal Axons and Enhances Recovery of Voluntary Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conditional genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice enables regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study addresses three questions: (1) whether PTEN knockdown in adult rats by nongenetic techniques enables CST regeneration, (2) whether interventions to enable CST regeneration enhance recovery of voluntary motor function, and (3) whether delivery of salmon fibrin into the injury site further enhances CST regeneration and motor recovery. Adult rats were trained in a staircase-reaching task and then received either intracortical injections of AAVshPTEN to delete PTEN or a control vector expressing shRNA for luciferase (AAVshLuc). Rats then received cervical dorsal hemisection injuries and salmon fibrin was injected into the injury site in half the rats, yielding four groups (AAVshPTEN, AAVshLuc, AAVshPTEN + fibrin, and AAVshLuc + fibrin). Forepaw function was assessed for 10 weeks after injury and CST axons were traced by injecting biotin-conjugated dextran amine into the sensorimotor cortex. Rats that received AAVshPTEN alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas rats that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin had significantly higher forelimb-reaching scores. Tract tracing revealed that CST axons extended farther caudally in the group that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin versus other groups. There were no significant differences in lesion size between the groups. Together, these data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly improve voluntary motor function after SCI by enabling regenerative growth of CST axons. PMID:25057197

  13. AAVshRNA-mediated suppression of PTEN in adult rats in combination with salmon fibrin administration enables regenerative growth of corticospinal axons and enhances recovery of voluntary motor function after cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Gail; Steward, Oswald

    2014-07-23

    Conditional genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice enables regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study addresses three questions: (1) whether PTEN knockdown in adult rats by nongenetic techniques enables CST regeneration, (2) whether interventions to enable CST regeneration enhance recovery of voluntary motor function, and (3) whether delivery of salmon fibrin into the injury site further enhances CST regeneration and motor recovery. Adult rats were trained in a staircase-reaching task and then received either intracortical injections of AAVshPTEN to delete PTEN or a control vector expressing shRNA for luciferase (AAVshLuc). Rats then received cervical dorsal hemisection injuries and salmon fibrin was injected into the injury site in half the rats, yielding four groups (AAVshPTEN, AAVshLuc, AAVshPTEN + fibrin, and AAVshLuc + fibrin). Forepaw function was assessed for 10 weeks after injury and CST axons were traced by injecting biotin-conjugated dextran amine into the sensorimotor cortex. Rats that received AAVshPTEN alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas rats that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin had significantly higher forelimb-reaching scores. Tract tracing revealed that CST axons extended farther caudally in the group that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin versus other groups. There were no significant differences in lesion size between the groups. Together, these data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly improve voluntary motor function after SCI by enabling regenerative growth of CST axons.

  14. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized.

  15. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Facilities at Water Diversions in the Umatilla River; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1993-03-01

    We report on our progress from October 1991 through September 1992 in evaluating juvenile fish bypass facilities at Three Mile Falls and Westland dams on the Umatilla River. We also report on our progress from October 1991 through June 1992 in evaluating adult fish passage in the lower Umatilla River and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). These are the study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR: (1) Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile fish bypass facility in the West Extension Irrigation District Canal at Three Mile Falls Dam and document juvenile salmonid passage through the juvenile fish bypass facility and east-bank adult fish ladder. To measure velocity and develop trap designs at Westland Dam. (2) Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  16. Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish Species in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington, Prior to the Removal of Condit Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the composition and relative abundance of fish species was collected by a rotary screw trap and backpack electrofishing in the lower White Salmon River, Washington. The information was collected downstream of Condit Dam, which is at river kilometer (rkm) 5.2, and is proposed for removal in October 2011. A rotary screw trap was installed in the White Salmon River at rkm 1.5 and operated from March through June during 2006-09. All captured fish were identified to species and enumerated. Daily subsets of fish were weighed, measured, and fin clipped for a genetic analysis by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. *Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were captured in the highest numbers (n=18, 640), and were composed of two stocks: tule and upriver bright. Almost all captured fall Chinook salmon were age-0, with only 16 (0.09 percent) being age-1 or older. *Tule fall Chinook salmon, the native stock, generally out-migrated from mid-March through early April. The tule stock was the more abundant fall Chinook salmon subspecies, comprising 85 percent of those captured in the trap. *Upriver bright fall Chinook salmon comprised 15 percent of the Chinook salmon catch and generally out-migrated from late May to early June. *Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead trout (O. mykiss) were captured by the rotary screw trap in all years. Coho salmon were caught in low numbers (n=661) and 69 percent were age-0 fish. Steelhead were slightly more abundant (n=679) than coho salmon and 84 percent were age-1 or older fish. Trap efficiency estimates varied widely (range, 0-10 percent) by species, fish size, and time of year. However, if we use only the estimates from efficiency tests where more than 300 wild age-0 Chinook salmon were released, there was a mean trapping efficiency of 1.4 percent (n=4, median, 1.3 percent, range, 0.3-2.4 percent) during the tule out-migration period, and a mean trapping efficiency of 0.8 percent (n=2, range, 0.3-1.2 percent) during

  17. Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host–parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in treated versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

  18. [Parasitic helminths infection in Coho salmón, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during their return to Simpson river, Chile].

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Aedo, E; Figueroa, L; Siegmund, I; Silva, R; Navarrete, N; Puga, S; Marín, F; Aedo, E

    2000-01-01

    Between may and july 1994, 17 adult returning salmons, Oncorhynchus kisutch, were collected in the River Simpson, Chile. All fishes showed infection by plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium sp. in different locations: stomach, spleen, liver, mesenteries and gonads. Infection with larval cestodes of an unidentified species of Phillobothriidae was determined in the intestine of seven (41.2%) salmons and its prevalences of infection showed significant differences between female and male salmons. The 94.4% of total plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium were isolated from the stomach wall. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection by Diphyllobothrium sp. did not show significant differences between fishes of different sex.

  19. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    PubMed Central

    Kuzishchin, Kirill V.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3–12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99–1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  20. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    PubMed

    Malison, Rachel L; Kuzishchin, Kirill V; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3-12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99-1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  1. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  2. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  3. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  4. Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River, Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Liscom, Kenneth

    1985-09-01

    Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and on weekends) would be beneficial to the power producers. This storage procedure is called ''zero'' river flow and is now permitted on a limited basis when there are few if any actively migrating anadromous fish present in the river system. Requests were made to extend ''zero'' river flow into periods when anadromous fish were actively migrating and a study was initiated. Radio-tracking studies were conducted on the Snake River between Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dams to determine the effect of ''zero'' river flow on the migration of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri. From July through September, 1981, a total of 258 steelhead and 32 chinook salmon were radio-tagged. The rate of migration was used to determine differences between test and control fish and a gamma distribution model was used to describe the migration rate for radio-tagged fish. Estimates of the parameters of the model were used to statistically compare ''zero'' flow and normal river flow conditions for the radio-tagged fish. The results show that the ''zero'' flow condition delays the migration of adult chinook salmon and steelhead; therefore, extended periods of ''zero'' flow to store water are not recommended when fish are actively migrating in the river system. 16 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  6. Pop-up satellite archival tag effects on the diving behaviour, growth and survival of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at sea.

    PubMed

    Hedger, R D; Rikardsen, A H; Thorstad, E B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of large, externally attached pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were compared with those of small implanted data storage tags (DSTs) on adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during their ocean migration in regards to depth utilization, diving depth, diving rate, diving speed and temperatures experienced. Additionally the return rate and growth of individuals tagged with PSATs was compared with those of small acoustic tags and DSTs. Overall, the depth distribution of individuals tagged with PSATs was similar to that of those tagged with DSTs, reflecting the pelagic nature of S. salar at sea. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, dived less frequently and to shallower depths, and dived and surfaced at slower velocities. Sea surface temperatures experienced by individuals tagged with PSATs were similar to those experienced by those tagged with DSTs for the same time of year, suggesting that there were no large differences in the ocean migration. Return rates did not depend on whether individuals were tagged with PSATs or not, indicating that survival at sea was not impacted by PSATs in comparison to small internal tags. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, had a smaller increase in body mass than those tagged with acoustic tags or DSTs. It was concluded that PSATs are suitable for use in researching large-scale migratory behaviour of adult S. salar at sea, but that some effects on their behaviour from tagging must be expected. Effects of PSATs may be largest in the short term when S. salar are swimming in bursts at high speeds. Even though individuals tagged with PSATs performed deep and frequent dives, the results of this study suggest that untagged individuals would perform even deeper and more frequent dives than tagged individuals.

  7. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  8. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., sockeye Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho, Cohoe, medium red, silver Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink Oncorhynchus keta... of a container, or a composite mixture of product from small containers that is sufficient...

  9. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., sockeye Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho, Cohoe, medium red, silver Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink Oncorhynchus keta... of a container, or a composite mixture of product from small containers that is sufficient...

  10. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., sockeye Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho, Cohoe, medium red, silver Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink Oncorhynchus keta... of a container, or a composite mixture of product from small containers that is sufficient...

  11. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., sockeye Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho, Cohoe, medium red, silver Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink Oncorhynchus keta... of a container, or a composite mixture of product from small containers that is sufficient...

  12. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., sockeye Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho, Cohoe, medium red, silver Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Pink Oncorhynchus keta... of a container, or a composite mixture of product from small containers that is sufficient...

  13. ELISA-Based Segregation of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon for Control of Bacterial Kidney Disease, Annual Report FY 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen L.; Winton, James R.

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a serious disease of salmonid fish worldwide. The disease has a major impact on spring chinook salmon populations in the Columbia River system. There is strong evidence that R. safmoninarum can be transmitted from parent to progeny, and therefore culling of gametes from infected parents should obviate this mode of transmission. This report presents the results from the first year of our four year study to investigate segregation of broodstock as a tool for controlling BKD. The segregations will use Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) as detection systems to identify, in tissues of infected fish, proteins produced by R. salmoninarum. A first step in the development of the described detection systems was the optimization of the production of important antigenic proteins from R. salmoninarum. Different culture media were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated for their ability to support production of cellular and soluble proteins. The major factor affecting antigen quality was the presence and absence of calf serum. Media components and R. salmoninarum growth products could not be separated during harvest of proteins from the cultures containing serum. This caused problems with the quantitation of actual bacterial proteins in the preparation. Thus media without serum is currently employed. Two independent ELISA techniques for the identification of infected parents were examined. One technique is based on polyclonal antisera produced in rabbits and the second is based on mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). To develop the latter system, several Mabs against a major R. salmoninarum antigenic protein were produced. These Mabs were used for the detection of R. salmoninarum antigens in infected fish and also to characterize proteins produced by the bacterium. Both ELISAs were deemed suitable for the segregation of parents into the high and low BKD groups required for this study. An

  14. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Ford, Michael J; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-22

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species.

  15. Clock polymorphism in Pacific salmon: evidence for variable selection along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G.; Ford, Michael J.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal timing of life-history events is often under strong natural selection. The Clock gene is a central component of an endogenous circadian clock that senses changes in photoperiod (day length) and mediates seasonal behaviours. Among Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal timing of migration and breeding is influenced by photoperiod. To expand a study of 42 North American Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations, we tested whether duplicated Clock genes contribute to population differences in reproductive timing. Specifically, we examined geographical variation along a similar latitudinal gradient in the polyglutamine domain (PolyQ) of OtsClock1a and OtsClock1b among 53 populations of three species: chum (Oncorhynchus keta), coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). We found evidence for variable selection on OtsClock1b that corresponds to latitudinal variation in reproductive timing among these species. We evaluated the contribution of day length and a freshwater migration index to OtsClock1b PolyQ domain variation using regression trees and found that day length at spawning explains much of the variation in OtsClock1b allele frequency among chum and Chinook, but not coho and pink salmon populations. Our findings suggest that OtsClock1b mediates seasonal adaptation and influences geographical variation in reproductive timing in some of these highly migratory species. PMID:20610428

  16. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  17. Olfactory Transcriptional Analysis of Salmon Exposed to Mixtures of Chlorpyrifos and Malathion Reveal Novel Molecular Pathways of Neurobehavioral Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Espinoza, Herbert M.; MacDonald, James W.; Bammler, Theo K.; Williams, Chase R.; Yeh, Andrew; Louie, Ke’ale W.; Marcinek, David J.; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon exposed to sublethal concentrations of organophosphate pesticides (OP) have impaired olfactory function that can lead to loss of behaviors that are essential for survival. These exposures often involve mixtures and can occur at levels below those which inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this study, juvenile Coho salmon were exposed for 24 h to either 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 ppb chlorpyrifos (CPF), 2, 10, or 50 ppb malathion (MAL), or binary mixtures of 0.1 CPF:2 ppb MAL, 0.5 CPF:10 ppb MAL, or 2.5 CPF:10 ppb MAL to mimic single and binary environmental exposures. Microarray analysis of olfactory rosettes from pesticide-exposed salmon revealed differentially expressed genes involved in nervous system function and signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, xenobiotic metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Coho exposed to OP mixtures exhibited a more pronounced loss in detection of a predatory olfactory cue relative to those exposed to single compounds, whereas respirometry experiments demonstrated that exposure to OPs, individually and in mixtures, reduced maximum respiratory capacity of olfactory rosette mitochondria. The observed molecular, biochemical, and behavioral effects occurred largely in the absence of effects on brain AChE. In summary, our results provide new insights associated with the sublethal neurotoxic effects of OP mixtures relevant to environmental exposures involving molecular and cellular pathways of injury to the salmon olfactory system that underlie neurobehavioral injury. PMID:26494550

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in wild and farmed Chilean salmon and preliminary flow data for commercial transport.

    PubMed

    Montory, Monica; Habit, Evelyn; Fernandez, Pilar; Grimalt, Joan O; Barra, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study documented the occurrence and levels of brominated flame retardants in the tissues of farmed and wild salmon in southern Chile. Samples of Coho salmon and rainbow trout were obtained from fish farms, rivers and lakes in the Patagonia in Aysen Region, Chile. The samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Negative Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the different polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Contaminants were observed in all the samples, and the congeners BDE 17, 28, 47 and 66 were observed in all both farmed and wild samples. The concentrations were higher in the farmed Coho salmon, presenting significant differences with wild salmon. The levels reached 182 pg/g wet weight (ww) vs. 120 ww. In the case of the rainbow trout, the concentrations were lower, although the congener profile was quite similar. The levels reached an average of 100 pg/g ww in the farmed fish versus 110 pg/g ww in wild fish, and no significant difference was observed between the species. In both species, the congener with the highest concentration was BDE 47. Based on this information, the BDE flow was estimated for commerce, which is a form of pollutant transport not usually considered in POP pollution studies. A preliminary estimation indicated that the quantity of PBDEs mobilized by commerce was in the order of kg, and in the case of Chile might reach almost 1 kg.

  19. The survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) eggs in two Wisconsin tributaries of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1976-01-01

    The extremely low mean (2.83 C and 2.67 C) water temperatures of Fischer Creek and Little Scarboro Creek were an added cause of egg loss. In response to low temperature, planted eggs hatched after a prolonged development period of approximately 145 days. Gravel shifts caused by variable stream flow in Fischer Creek may also be responsible for killing naturally deposited eggs there

  20. MODELING THE EFFECT OF STREAM NETWORK CHARACTERISTICS AND JUVENILE MOVEMENT ON COHO SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulation modeling can be a valuable tool for improving our scientific understanding of the mechanisms that affect fish abundance and sustainability. Spatially explicit models, in particular, can be used to study interactions between fish biology and spatiotemporal habitat patt...

  1. Patterns of coho salmon size and survival within a stream network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. Network-scale investigations of habitat-specific growth and survival of juvenile salmonids have provided critical insights that can now better inform and help priori...

  2. JUVENILE COHO SALMON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL ACROSS STREAM NETWORK SEASONAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding watershed-scale variation in juvenile salmonid survival and growth can provide insights into factors influencing demographics and can help target restoration and mitigation efforts for imperiled fish populations. We assessed growth, movement, and apparent overwinte...

  3. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    We report on our progress from October 1993 through September 1994 in evaluating juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and juvenile salmonid passage through ladder facilities, and investigating passage conditions for juvenile fish at diversion dam facilities on the lower Umatilla River in northeastern Oregon. We also report on our progress in evaluating adult salmonid passage at and between dams on the lower Umatilla River and upriver migration using radio telemetry. Two principal studies are also included. Report A (ODFW): To evaluate the juvenile salmonid bypass facilities a Feed and Furnish canals, juvenile salmonid passage through fish ladders at Stanfield, Feed Canal, Westland, and Three Mile Falls dams, and the juvenile salmonid trap and haul procedures at Westland Canal. To investigate passage conditions at all passage facilities. Report B (CTUIR): To examine the passage of adult salmonids past diversions in the lower Umatilla River and their movement in the upper river after transport, using radio telemetry, and to assess factors for successful homing. These studies are part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin, including restoration of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), as well as enhancement of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

  5. Are inland wolf-ungulate systems influenced by marine subsidies of Pacific salmon?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.; Farley, Sean D.; Stricker, C.A.; Demma, D.J.; Roffler, G.H.; Miller, D.C.; Rye, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in North America are considered obligate predators of ungulates with other food resources playing little role in wolf population dynamics or wolf-prey relations. However, spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhyncus spp.) are common throughout wolf range in northwestern North America and may provide a marine subsidy affecting inland wolf-ungulate food webs far from the coast. We conducted stable-isotope analyses for nitrogen and carbon to evaluate the contribution of salmon to diets of wolves in Denali National Park and Preserve, 1200 river-km from tidewater in interior Alaska, USA. We analyzed bone collagen from 73 wolves equipped with radio collars during 1986-2002 and evaluated estimates of salmon in their diets relative to the availability of salmon and ungulates within their home ranges. We compared wolf densities and ungulate : wolf ratios among regions with differing salmon and ungulate availability to assess subsidizing effects of salmon on these wolf-ungulate systems. Wolves in the northwestern flats of the study area had access to spawning salmon but low ungulate availability and consumed more salmon (17% ?? 7% [mean ?? SD]) than in upland regions, where ungulates were sixfold more abundant and wolves did or did not have salmon spawning areas within their home ranges (8% ?? 6% and 3% ?? 3%, respectively). Wolves were only 17% less abundant on the northwestern flats compared to the remainder of the study area, even though ungulate densities were 78% lower. We estimated that biomass from fall runs of chum (O. keta) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon on the northwestern flats was comparable to the ungulate biomass there, and the contribution of salmon to wolf diets was similar to estimates reported for coastal wolves in southeast Alaska. Given the ubiquitous consumption of salmon by wolves on the northwestern flats and the abundance of salmon there, we conclude that wolf numbers in this region were enhanced by the allochthonous subsidy provided by

  6. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  7. Salmon escapement estimates into the Togiak River using sonar, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1987, 1988, and 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irving, David B.; Finn, James E.; Larson, James P.

    1995-01-01

    We began a three year study in 1987 to test the feasibility of using sonar in the Togiak River to estimate salmon escapements. Current methods rely on periodic aerial surveys and a counting tower at river kilometer 97. Escapement estimates are not available until 10 to 14 days after the salmon enter the river. Water depth and turbidity preclude relocating the tower to the lower river and affect the reliability of aerial surveys. To determine whether an alternative method could be developed to improve the timeliness and accuracy of current escapement monitoring, Bendix sonar units were operated during 1987, 1988, and 1990. Two sonar stations were set up opposite each other at river kilometer 30 and were operated 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Catches from gill nets with 12, 14, and 20 cm stretch mesh, a beach seine, and visual observations were used to estimate species composition. Length and sex data were collected from salmon caught in the nets to assess sampling bias.In 1987, sonar was used to select optimal sites and enumerate coho salmon. In 1988 and 1990, the sites identified in 1987 were used to estimate the escapement of five salmon species. Sockeye salmon escapement was estimated at 512,581 and 589,321, chinook at 7,698 and 15,098, chum at 246,144 and 134,958, coho at 78,588 and 28,290, and pink at 96,167 and 131,484. Sonar estimates of sockeye salmon were two to three times the Alaska Department of Fish and Game's escapement estimate based on aerial surveys and tower counts. The source of error was probably a combination of over-estimating the total number of targets counted by the sonar and by incorrectly estimating species composition.Total salmon escapement estimates using sonar may be feasible but several more years of development are needed. Because of the overlapped salmon run timing, estimating species composition appears the most difficult aspect of using sonar for management. Possible improvements include using a larger beach seine or

  8. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation; 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1992-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to supplement steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and fall chinook salmon and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance of pumps, equipment and facilities was performed in 1991. Major repairs to one Minthorn pump were required and flood damage at Minthorn necessitated the replacement of rock and gravel around the pump house and steelhead brood holding area. Several modifications to the steelhead brood holding pond were also made to help reduce mortality. These changes appeared to be successful as evidenced by the reduced number of mortalities. Total prespawn mortality in 1990-91 was 10.4%. This compares to 20.0 to 39.0% for the previous three years at Minthorn. A total of 202 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from November, 1990 through April, 1991 and held at Minthorn. Utilizing a 3 x 3 spawning matrix, a total of 410,356 eggs were taken from 64 females. The eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and initial rearing. The fish were then transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for further rearing and later release into the Umatilla River. A total of 347 fall chinook salmon were also collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam and held at Minthorn. Using a 1:l spawning ratio, a total of 601,548 eggs were taken from 159 females. They were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation, rearing and later release into the Umatilla River. Acclimation of 100,505 spring chinook salmon and 42,610 summer steelhead was completed at Bonifer in the spring of 1991. At Minthorn, 152,974 coho and 79,672 fall chinook salmon were acclimated and released. In the fall, 81,144 spring chinook salmon

  9. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  10. Food Shortage Causes Differential Effects on Body Composition and Tissue-Specific Gene Expression in Salmon Modified for Increased Growth Hormone Production.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, Jason; Panserat, Stéphane; Welker, Thomas; Plagne-Juan, Elisabeth; Sakhrani, Dionne; Higgs, David A; Audouin, Florence; Devlin, Robert H; Overturf, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon possesses markedly increased metabolic rate, appetite, and feed conversion efficiency, as well as an increased ability to compete for food resources. Thus, the ability of GH-transgenic fish to withstand periods of food deprivation as occurs in nature is potentially different than that of nontransgenic fish. However, the physiological and genetic effects of transgenic GH production over long periods of food deprivation remain largely unknown. Here, GH-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and nontransgenic, wild-type coho salmon were subjected to a 3-month food deprivation trial, during which time performance characteristics related to growth were measured along with proximate compositions. To examine potential genetic effects of GH-transgenesis on long-term food deprivation, a group of genes related to muscle development and liver metabolism was selected for quantitative PCR analysis. Results showed that GH-transgenic fish lose weight at an increased rate compared to wild-type even though proximate compositions remained relatively similar between the groups. A total of nine genes related to muscle physiology (cathepsin, cee, insulin-like growth factor, myostatin, murf-1, myosin, myogenin, proteasome delta, tumor necrosis factor) and five genes related to liver metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase) were shown to be differentially regulated between GH-transgenic and wild-type coho salmon over time. These genetic and physiological responses assist in identifying differences between GH-transgenic and wild-type salmon in relation to fitness effects arising from elevated growth hormone during periods of long-term food shortage.

  11. Migratory salmonid redd habitat characteristics in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Non-native migratory salmonids ascend tributaries to spawn in all the Great Lakes. In Lake Ontario, these species include Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), steelhead (O. mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). Although successful natural reproduction has been documented for many of these species, little research has been conducted on their spawning habitat. We examined the spawning habitat of these four species in the Salmon River, New York. Differences in fish size among the species were significantly correlated with spawning site selection. In the Salmon River, the larger species spawned in deeper areas with larger size substrate and made the largest redds. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified redds by species 64–100% of the time. The size of substrate materials below Lighthouse Hill Dam is within the preferred ranges for spawning for these four species indicating that river armoring has not negatively impacted salmonid production. Intra-specific and inter-specific competition for spawning sites may influence redd site selection for smaller salmonids and could be an impediment for Atlantic salmon (S. salar) restoration.

  12. The importance of genetic verification for determination of Atlantic salmon in north Pacific waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Williams, I.; Sage, G.K.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of two unknown but putative Atlantic salmon Salmo salar captured in the Copper River drainage, Alaska, demonstrated the need for validation of morphologically unusual fishes. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (control region and cytochrome b) and data from two nuclear genes [first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence and growth hormone (GH1) amplification product] indicated that the fish caught in fresh water on the Martin River was a coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, while the other fish caught in the intertidal zone of the Copper River delta near Grass Island was an Atlantic salmon. Determination of unusual or cryptic fish based on limited physical characteristics and expected seasonal spawning run timing will add to the controversy over farmed Atlantic salmon and their potential effects on native Pacific species. It is clear that determination of all putative collections of Atlantic salmon found in Pacific waters requires validation. Due to uncertainty of fish identification in the field using plastic morphometric characters, it is recommended that genetic analyses be part of the validation process. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Modeling the Effect of Geomorphic Change Triggered by Large Wood Addition on Salmon Habitat in a Forested Coastal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, R.; Segura, C.; Lorion, C.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood (LW) additions are often part of fish habitat restorations in the PNW where historic forest clear-cutting limited natural wood recruitment. These efforts' relative successes are rarely reported in terms of ecological significance to different life stages of fish. Understanding the effectiveness of LW additions will contribute to successfully managing forest land. In this study we quantify the geomorphic change of a restoration project involving LW additions to three alluvial reaches in Mill Creek, OR. The reaches are 110-130m in plane-bed morphology and drain 2-16km2. We quantify the change in available habitat to different life stages of coho salmon in terms of velocity (v), shear stress (t), flow depth, and grain size distributions (GSD) considering existing thresholds in the literature for acceptable habitat. Flow conditions before and after LW additions are assessed using a 2D hydrodynamic model (FaSTMECH). Model inputs include detailed channel topography, discharge, and surface GSD. The spatial-temporal variability of sediment transport was also quantified based the modeled t distributions and the GSD to document changes in the overall geomorphic regime. Initial modeling results for pre wood conditions show mean t and v values ranging between 0 and 26N/m2 and between 0 and 2.4m/s, respectively for up to bankfull flow (Qbf). The distributions of both t and v become progressively wider and peak at higher values as flow increases with the notable exception at Qbf for which the area of low velocity increases noticeably. The spatial distributions of velocity results indicates that the extent of suitable habitat for adult coho decreased by 18% between flows 30 and 55% of BF. However the area of suitable habitat increased by 15% between 0.55Qbf and Qbf as the flow spreads from the channel into the floodplain. We expect the LW will enhance floodplain connectivity and thus available habitat by creating additional areas of low v during winter flows.

  14. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-lethal sampling of adult spawning Chinook salmon for Ichthyophonus was developed using known infected fish and live returning spawners. The method consisted of taking punch biopsies of skin and muscle and culturing the biopsy tissue in vitro. A 100% correlation was made between known infected fish and cultured biopsy tissue. 

  15. 2004 AND 2006 COHO SMOLT MOVEMENT IN THE YAQUINA RIVER AND ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migratory fish passage is an important designated use for many Oregon estuaries. Acoustic transmitters were implanted in coho smolts in 2004 and 2006 to evaluate how estuarine habitat, and habitat loss, might affect population health. Acoustic receivers that identified individu...

  16. Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecquerie, Laure; Johnson, Leah R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    To determine the response of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) populations to environmental change, we need to understand impacts on all life stages. However, an integrative and mechanistic approach is particularly challenging for Pacific salmon as they use multiple habitats (river, estuarine and marine) during their life cycle. Here we develop a bioenergetic model that predicts development, growth and reproduction of a Pacific salmon in a dynamic environment, from an egg to a reproducing female, and that links female state to egg traits. This model uses Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to predict how life history traits vary among five species of Pacific salmon: Pink, Sockeye, Coho, Chum and Chinook. Supplemented with a limited number of assumptions on anadromy and semelparity and external signals for migrations, the model reproduces the qualitative patterns in egg size, fry size and fecundity both at the inter- and intra-species levels. Our results highlight how modeling all life stages within a single framework enables us to better understand complex life-history patterns. Additionally we show that body size scaling relationships implied by DEB theory provide a simple way to transfer model parameters among Pacific salmon species, thus providing a generic approach to study the impact of environmental conditions on the life cycle of Pacific salmon.

  17. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the

  18. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  19. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  20. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

  1. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  2. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume I of III; Narrative, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1988-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released, and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: (1) develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and (2) provide fishery managers with the information necessary to increase the returns of salmon and steelhead to the Columbia River system and to effectively distribute these fish to the various user groups. Our imprint methods were grouped into three general categories: (1) natural migration imprint from a hatchery of origin or an alternate homing site (by allowing fish to volitionally travel downstream through the river on their seaward journey), (2) single exposure imprinting (cueing fish to a single unique water supply with or without mechanical stimuli prior to transport and release), and (3) sequential exposure imprinting (cueing fish to two or more water sources in a step-by-step process to establish a series of signposts for the route ''home''). With variations, all three techniques were used with all salmonid groups tested: coho salmon, spring and fall chinook salmon, and steelhead. For the single and sequential imprint, fish were transported around a portion of their normal migration route before releasing them into the Columbia River.

  3. Oil spill impact on Pacific salmon (g. Oncorhynchus) of northwestern Sakhalin (Tengi River Basin as a pattern)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander N.; Tarasov, Nikolay N.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

    2001-01-01

    Northern Sakhalin is a region of the intensive oil and gas transportation by oil-pipe lines. In July 2, 1997, the oil spill has happened at the oil-pipe line 'Okha-Komsomolsk-on- Amur.' Oil pollution spread over the basin of Tengi Rive (Amur estuary). The Tengi River is a spawning area for endemic and important commercial fish. There is a reserve on the river. Genus Oncorhynchus (pink and chum salmon) prevail in ichthyofauna. A satellite data analysis (NOAA-12, NOAA-14) was a success to accurate the oil distribution over the Amur estuary. As a result of the accident, more than 120 t of oil have been spilled. 26.3 km of the river area, more than 60 km of the Amur estuary coast and about 850 km2 of its water area were polluted. In the basin of Tengi River about 58000 m2 of spawning area were lost. The main damage (89%) was caused to the fry feeding near the coast. The loss of fish production has constituted about 1800 t. By species the damage was as follows: 53% -- pink salmon, 29% -- chum salmon, 11% -- masu salmon and 7% -- coho salmon.

  4. Overview of the Performance of PIT-Tag Interrogation Systems for Adult Salmonids at Bonneville and McNary Dams, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.

    2003-06-01

    During winter 2001, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) installed a prototype orifice-based PIT-tag interrogation system into the Washington Shore Ladder at Bonneville Dam (BWSL). Detectors were installed into 12 weirs: 4 downstream (Weirs 334-337) and 8 upstream (Weirs 352-359) from the fish release point (i.e., the exit ladder for the Adult Fish Facility). NOAA Fisheries (National Marine Fisheries Service--NMFS) tagged and released salmonids during 2001 to determine tag-reading efficiencies for different salmonid populations. Data analyses focused on the upper eight weirs. The 2001 tagging results for spring chinook salmon indicated that having detectors in four consecutive weirs would have been sufficient to yield a reading efficiency of 95%. The BWSL orifice-based system performed well until the coho and fall chinook salmon migrations began. Coho and fall chinook salmon appeared to use the weir overflows, and thus avoid detection, at much higher rates than biologists expected. During 2001, technology advances led to the development of significantly larger antennas than had been available earlier, and thus it was possible to build antennas of approximately 2 x 6 ft. Consequently, it became feasible to design interrogation systems for ladder locations where all fish would have to go through the antennas and thus could not avoid detection by using the weir overflows (Fig. 1). Destron Technologies by Digital Angel designed a prototype interrogation system with two antennas that was installed into the counting-window area in the Oregon Ladder at McNary Dam, where its performance could then be directly compared to that of the orifice-based system in the same ladder. Although the orifice-based systems appeared less effective than the fisheries community wanted for fall chinook and coho salmon, the decision was made to proceed with installations planned for Bonneville and McNary Dams because valuable data would still be

  5. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume I, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of post-seasonal analyses including timing and relative magnitude of the outmigration, travel time for marked hatchery releases, and survival in mid-Columbia and lower Snake River index reaches. Travel time of marked yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) is measured between specific sampling points in the system. Marked groups usually represent major hatchery production stocks. Survival estimates are computed for specific spring chinook and steelhead marked groups. Arrival time and duration of outmigration of the chinook, sockeye, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead runs are reported at key sampling points. Hatchery and brand release information for 1986 is also listed.

  6. Juvenile and adult fall Chinook and chum salmon habitat studies below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Annual report 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Garland, R.; Rondorf, D.; Skalicky, J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal changes in subyearling fall Chinook salmon rearing habitat and areas dewatered below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to predict water velocity and depth data. By combining two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling with a predictive model of subyearling rearing presence, we were able to illustrate spatiotemporal changes in subyearling rearing areas, areas dewatered by flow reductions, and percentage of dewatered locations that were initially subyearling rearing areas. By using a geographic information system, we located areas of persistent subyearling rearing and areas frequently dewatered at 1-h change intervals from 1 April through 31 May, 2003. We validated predicted water velocities and surface elevations using empirically collected water velocities and surface elevations. We beach seined to collect subyearlings at random locations within the study area to validate predictions of subyearling presence.

  7. Impacts of Climatic Change and Fishing on Pacific Salmon Abundance Over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Sweetman, Jon; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2000-10-01

    The effects of climate variability on Pacific salmon abundance are uncertain because historical records are short and are complicated by commercial harvesting and habitat alteration. We use lake sediment records of δ15N and biological indicators to reconstruct sockeye salmon abundance in the Bristol Bay and Kodiak Island regions of Alaska over the past 300 years. Marked shifts in populations occurred over decades during this period, and some pronounced changes appear to be related to climatic change. Variations in salmon returns due to climate or harvesting can have strong impacts on sockeye nursery lake productivity in systems where adult salmon carcasses are important nutrient sources.

  8. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  9. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  10. Retention of mercury by salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1970-01-01

    Consuming fish that have been exposed repeatedly to mercury derivatives is a potential public health hazard because fish can accumulate and retain mercury in their tissues (Rucker, 1968). Concern has been expressed in the United States because mercurials have been used extensively in industry and as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in fish hatcheries. Rucker and Amend (1969) showed that yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to mercurials accumulated excessive amounts of mercury in many tissues. Further, Rucker and Amend (1969) concluded that wild fish that ate mercury-contaminated fish also could contain high mercury levels. Although mercury was eliminated from most tissues within several months, substantial levels remained in the kidney for more than 33 weeks after the last exposure. Since high levels of mercury can be retained in the kidney for an undetermined time, it is possible that returning adult salmon exposed to mercurials as juveniles could constitute a potential hazard to public health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such fish contained high residual levels of mercury.

  11. Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

  12. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  13. Microbial ecology of the salmon necrobiome: evidence salmon carrion decomposition influences aquatic and terrestrial insect microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric

    2016-05-01

    Carrion decomposition is driven by complex relationships that affect necrobiome community (i.e. all organisms and their genes associated with a dead animal) interactions, such as insect species arrival time to carrion and microbial succession. Little is understood about how microbial communities interact with invertebrates at the aquatic-terrestrial habitat interface. The first objective of the study was to characterize internal microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for aquatic insects (three mayfly species) in streams with salmon carcasses compared with those in streams without salmon carcasses. The second objective was to assess the epinecrotic microbial communities of decomposing salmon carcasses (Oncorhynchus keta) compared with those of terrestrial necrophagous insects (Calliphora terraenovae larvae and adults) associated with the carcasses. There was a significant difference in the internal microbiomes of mayflies collected in salmon carcass-bearing streams and in non-carcass streams, while the developmental stage of blow flies was the governing factor in structuring necrophagous insect internal microbiota. Furthermore, the necrophagous internal microbiome was influenced by the resource on which the larvae developed, and changes in the adult microbiome varied temporally. Overall, these carrion subsidy-driven networks respond to resource pulses with bottom-up effects on consumer microbial structure, as revealed by shifting communities over space and time.

  14. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  15. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen

    1988-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem, and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's fourth year was to test the immunogenicity and prophylactic value in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of various--chemical conjugates of Renibacterium salmoninarum cell and major antigens. This was accomplished by assessing the serum antibody response, the cellular immune response (chemiluminescence), and the kinetics of mortality after lethal injections of the bacteria. The studies completed this year have: (1) identified immunization procedures which enhance the induction of high levels of antibody; (2) identified functionally distinct serum antibodies which may possess different abilities to protect salmon against BKD; (3) begun the isolation and characterization of anti-R. salmoninarum antibodies which may correlate with varying degrees of protection; (4) identified chemiluminescence as a potential method for assessing cellular immunity to bacterial kidney disease; and (5) characterized two monoclonal antibodies to R. salmoninarum which will be of benefit in the diagnosis of this disease.

  16. Bypass system modification at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River improved the survival of juvenile salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, J.W.; Sandford, B.P.; Reagan, R.E.; Gilbreath, L.G.; Meyer, E.B.; Ledgerwood, R.D.; Adams, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1987 to 1992, we evaluated a fish bypass system at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 2 on the Columbia River. The survival of subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha released into the system ranged from 0.774 to 0.911 and was significantly lower than the survival of test fish released into turbines and the area immediately below the powerhouse where bypass system flow reentered the river. Yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and yearling coho salmon O. kisutch released into the bypass system were injured or descaled. Also, levels of blood plasma cortisol and lactate were significantly higher in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon that passed through the bypass system than in fish released directly into a net located over the bypass exit. This original system was then extensively modified using updated design criteria, and the site where juvenile fish reentered the river was relocated 2.8 km further downstream to reduce predation on bypassed fish by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Based on studies conducted from 1999 to 2001, the new bypass system resulted in high fish survival, virtually no injuries to fish, fish passage times that were generally similar to water travel times, and mild stress responses from which fish recovered quickly. The mean estimated survival of subyearling Chinook salmon passing through the new bypass system was 0.946 in 2001, which was an usually low-flow year. Survival, physical condition, passage timing, and blood physiological indicators of stress were all useful metrics for assessing the performance of both bypass systems and are discussed. The engineering and hydraulic criteria used to design the new bypass system that resulted in improved fish passage conditions are described.

  17. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  18. Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

  19. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7 g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L. salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHIIβ(+) and IL-1β(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L. salmonis is modulated by maturation.

  20. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggerone, G. T.; Nielsen, J. L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean.

  1. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF STREAM NETWORK-SCALE HABITAT OF A COASTAL OREGON WATERSHED ON COHO SALMON AND OTHER NATIVE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Western Ecology Division is undertaking research addressing catchment-scale dynamics of freshwater habitat productivity for native fishes. Through partnerships with state and federal agencies and private landowners, current field efforts focus on linkages among stream chemi...

  3. Application of restoration scenarios to basin-scale demographics of coho salmon inferred from pit-tags

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  4. 76 FR 62375 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist Coho Salmon Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...; and (4) is accompanied by the appropriate supporting documentation in the form of bibliographic... Secretary to conduct a status review of the species. The ESA defines an ``endangered species'' as ``any... data available, after conducting a review of the status of the species, and taking into account...

  5. INFLUENCE OF SUMMER STREAM TEMPERATURES ON BLACK SPOT INFESTATION OF JUVENILE COHO SALMON IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High summer water temperatures can adversely affect stream salmonids in numerous ways. The direct effects of temperature associated with increased metabolic demand can be exacerbated by other factors, including decreased resistance to disease and increased susceptibility to para...

  6. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 226.210 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the...

  7. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 226.210 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC..., Office of Protected Resources, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, or at the...

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Weldert, Rey F.; Crump, Carrie A.

    2003-03-01

    This is the fifth annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation techniques are being used to restore spring chinook salmon fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2002: (1) Plan for, administer, coordinate and assist comanagers in GRESCP M&E activities. (2) Evaluate performance of supplemented juvenile spring chinook salmon. (3) Evaluate life history differences between wild and hatchery-origin (F{sub 1}) adult spring chinook salmon. (4) Describe life history characteristics and genetics of adult summer steelhead collected at weirs.

  9. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  10. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  11. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1987-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BRD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon of the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon of Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem,and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's third year was to test the immunogenicity and prophylactic value in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of various chemical conjugates of Renibacterium salmoninarum cells and major antigens. This was accomplished by assessing the serum antibody response, the cellular immune response (cellular proliferation), and the kinetics of mortality after Lethal injections of the bacterium. An important facet of this research is the identification and isolation of virulence factors. These studies are not only important to the dissection of the mechanism of pathogenesis of bacterial kidney disease, but the purification of such a factor(s) will insure the production of a more potent vaccine. The studies completed this year have: (1) identified antigenic material which protect; (2) identified antigenic material which can exacerbate the disease; (3) identified a possibly major mechanism of pathogenesis via the interference with antibody; (4) the general ability to produce delineated a western blot technique for identification of infected fish; (5) described the use of

  12. Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1986-06-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BRD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem, and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's second year was to chemically modify the major antigens of Renibacteirium salmoninarum, immunize coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to test the immunogenicity of the preparations used. Immunogenicity of the antigenic material was tested by (1) admixture experiments, using whole KD cells with muramyl dipepetide, Vibrio anguillarum extract, E. coli lipopolysaccharide, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Freund's complete adjuvant. In addition to these goals a number of important techniques have been developed in order to facilitate the production of the vaccine. These procedures include: (1) the use of the soluble antigen for diagnosis in the ELISA and Western blot analysis, (2) detection of salmonid anti-KD antibodies by an ELISA technique, (3) detection of cellular immune responses to the soluble antigen, and (4) development of immersion challenge procedures for bacterial kidney disease (BKD).

  13. Variability in scale growth rates of chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate changes in the late 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunju; Kim, Suam; Seong, Kibeik; Kang, Sukyung

    2006-02-01

    Fish scales were used to investigate the interannual variability in chum salmon growth rates at specific ages in relation to climatic/environmental changes during the 1980s-1990s. Scales were obtained from adult salmon returning to the east coast of Korea between 1984 and 1998. Assuming proportionality between scale size increments and fish length, distances between scale annuli were regarded as the growth conditions in different habitat areas with respect to the life stages of chum salmon. In estuarine and coastal areas, growth rates of fingerling salmon were higher in the 1990s than in the 1980s. Zooplankton abundance off the east coast of Korea increased after the late 1980s, which may have provided favorable growth conditions for young salmon in the 1990s. Growth of juvenile chum salmon during the first summer (Okhotsk Sea) was relatively stable, and neither SST nor zooplankton biomass fluctuated significantly during the study period. However, in the Bering Sea, salmon growth rates between age-2 and age-4 (i.e. ocean-phase immature salmon) were higher in the 1980s than in the 1990s. Variability in salmon growth in the Bering Sea was correlated to zooplankton biomass. These results suggest that the climate regime shift of 1988/1989 in the subarctic North Pacific affected salmon growth mediated by changes of zooplankton biomass, revealing a bottom-up process.

  14. Aniakchak sockeye salmon investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamon, Troy R.; Pavey, Scott A.; Miller, Joe L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve provides unusual and dramatic landscapes shaped by numerous volcanic eruptions, a massive flood, enormous landslides, and ongoing geological change. The focal point of the monument is Aniakchak Caldera, a restless volcano that embodies the instability of the Alaska Peninsula. This geological instability creates a dynamic and challenging environment for the biological occupants of Aniakchak and unparalleled opportunities for scientists to measure the adaptability of organisms and ecosystems to change. The sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is one member of the Aniakchak ecosystem that has managed to adapt to geologic upheaval and is now thriving in the park. Aside from just surviving in the harsh environment, these salmon are also noteworthy for providing essential marinederived nutrients to plants and animals and as a source of food for historic and present day people in the region.

  15. SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  16. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may

  17. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  19. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Nolan N.; Hinch, Scott G.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST. PMID:27827382

  20. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  1. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bekaert, Michaël; Taggart, John B; Christie, Hayden R L; Bassett, David I; Bron, James E; Skuce, Philip J; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  2. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  3. Diphyllobothriasis after eating raw salmon.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J W; Bass, J W; Demers, D M; Myers, G B

    1997-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy in Hawaii passed mucus and a moving object in his stool. The object was identified as a segment of the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium species which is not indigenous to Hawaii. Diphyllobothrium ova were also found in the stool. The only raw fish he recalled eating in previous months were tuna sushi and lomi-lomi salmon which usually contains raw but previously frozen salmon. Of these two fish, only salmon which is not native to Hawaiian waters, has been incriminated as a significant source of diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm infection. Freezing kills this parasite, however, we speculate that the raw fish in the lomi-lomi salmon that our patient had eaten had not been pre-frozen or was not adequately pre-frozen. Eating raw salmon without certainty that it has been adequately pre-frozen carries the risk of diphyllobothriasis or fish tapeworm infection.

  4. Interactions between brown bears and chum salmon at McNeil River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peirce, Joshua M.; Otis, Edward O.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Follmann, Erich H.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on returning runs of adult salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can have a large influence on their spawning success. At McNeil River State Game Sanctuary (MRSGS), Alaska, brown bears (Ursus arctos) congregate in high numbers annually along the lower McNeil River to prey upon returning adult chum salmon (O. keta). Low chum salmon escapements into McNeil River since the late 1990s have been proposed as a potential factor contributing to concurrent declines in bear numbers. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of bear predation on chum salmon in McNeil River, especially on pre-spawning fish, and use those data to adjust the escapement goal for the river. In 2005 and 2006, 105 chum salmon were radiotagged at the river mouth and tracked to determine cause and location of death. Below the falls, predators consumed 99% of tagged fish, killing 59% of them before they spawned. Subsequently, the escapement goal was nearly doubled to account for this pre-spawning mortality and to ensure enough salmon to sustain both predators and prey. This approach to integrated fish and wildlife management at MRSGS can serve as a model for other systems where current salmon escapement goals may not account for pre-spawning mortality.

  5. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-03

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines.

  6. Soil bioretention protects juvenile salmon and their prey from the toxic impacts of urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Hinman, C; Macneale, K H; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L; Stark, J D

    2015-08-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI), or low impact development, encompasses a diverse and expanding portfolio of strategies to reduce the impacts of stormwater runoff on natural systems. Benchmarks for GSI success are usually framed in terms of hydrology and water chemistry, with reduced flow and loadings of toxic chemical contaminants as primary metrics. Despite the central goal of protecting aquatic species abundance and diversity, the effectiveness of GSI treatments in maintaining diverse assemblages of sensitive aquatic taxa has not been widely evaluated. In the present study we characterized the baseline toxicity of untreated urban runoff from a highway in Seattle, WA, across six storm events. For all storms, first flush runoff was toxic to the daphniid Ceriodaphnia dubia, causing up to 100% mortality or impairing reproduction among survivors. We then evaluated whether soil media used in bioretention, a conventional GSI method, could reduce or eliminate toxicity to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as well as their macroinvertebrate prey, including cultured C. dubia and wild-collected mayfly nymphs (Baetis spp.). Untreated highway runoff was generally lethal to salmon and invertebrates, and this acute mortality was eliminated when the runoff was filtered through soil media in bioretention columns. Soil treatment also protected against sublethal reproductive toxicity in C. dubia. Thus, a relatively inexpensive GSI technology can be highly effective at reversing the acutely lethal and sublethal effects of urban runoff on multiple aquatic species.

  7. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  8. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice.

  9. Historical growth of Bristol Bay and Yukon River, Alaska chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in relation to climate and inter- and intraspecific competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agler, Beverly A.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Wilson, Lorna I.; Mueter, Franz J.

    2013-10-01

    We examined Bristol Bay and Yukon River adult chum salmon scales to determine whether climate variability, such as changes in sea surface temperature and climate indices, and high pink and Asian chum salmon abundance reduced chum salmon growth. Annual marine growth increments for 1965-2006 were estimated from scale growth measurements and were modeled as a function of potential explanatory variables using a generalized least squares regression approach. First-year growth of salmon originating from Bristol Bay and the Yukon River showed increased growth in association with higher regional ocean temperatures and was negatively affected by wind mixing and ice cover. Third-year growth was lower when Asian chum salmon were more abundant. Contrary to our hypothesis, warmer large-scale sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska were also associated with reduced third-year growth. Negative effects of high abundances of Russian pink salmon on third-year growth provided some evidence for interspecific interactions, but the effects were smaller than the effects of Asian chum salmon abundance and Gulf of Alaska sea surface temperature. Although the relative effects of Asian chum salmon and sea surface temperature on the growth of Yukon and Bristol Bay chum salmon were difficult to untangle, we found consistent evidence that high abundances of Asian chum salmon contributed to a reduction in the growth of western Alaska chum salmon.

  10. Reconstruction of Pacific salmon abundance from riparian tree-ring growth.

    PubMed

    Drake, D C; Naiman, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    We use relationships between modern Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) escapement (migrating adults counted at weirs or dams) and riparian tree-ring growth to reconstruct the abundance of stream-spawning salmon over 150-350 years. After examining nine sites, we produced reconstructions for five mid-order rivers and four salmon species over a large geographic range in the Pacific Northwest: chinook (O. tschwatcha) in the Umpqua River, Oregon, USA; sockeye (O. nerka) in Drinkwater Creek, British Columbia, Canada; pink (O. gorbuscha) in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; chum (O. keta) in Disappearance Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; and pink and chum in the Kadashan River, southeastern Alaska, USA. We first derived stand-level, non-climatic growth chronologies from riparian trees using standard dendroecology methods and differencing. When the chronologies were compared to 18-55 years of adult salmon escapement we detected positive, significant correlations at five of the nine sites. Regression models relating escapement to tree-ring growth at the five sites were applied to the differenced chronologies to reconstruct salmon abundance. Each reconstruction contains unique patterns characteristic of the site and salmon species. Reconstructions were validated by comparison to local histories (e.g., construction of dams and salmon canneries) and regional fisheries data such as salmon landings and aerial surveys and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climate index. The reconstructions capture lower-frequency cycles better than extremes and are most useful for determination and comparison of relative abundance, cycles, and the effects of interventions. Reconstructions show lower population cycle maxima in both Umpqua River chinook and Sashin Creek pink salmon in recent decades. The Drinkwater Creek reconstruction suggests that sockeye abundance since the mid-1990s has been 15-25% higher than at any time since 1850, while no long-term deviations from natural cycles are

  11. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon and steelhead trout adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop habitat enhancement mitigation accounting based on increases in wild/natural smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. The project to date has developed good information on the relationship between chinook salmon adult escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. Adult chinook salmon escapements have been too low for us to test carrying capacity. For steelhead trout, they have developed a relationship between parr populations and smolt production at low to high seeding levels, with limited information on carrying capacity.

  12. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  13. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1993-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CT'UIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to supplement steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and fall chinook salmon and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Acclimation of 109,101 spring chinook salmon and 19,977 summer steelhead was completed at Bonifer in the spring of 1992. At Minthorn, 47,458 summer steelhead were acclimated and released. Control groups of spring chinook salmon were released instream concurrent with the acclimated releases to evaluate the effects of acclimation on adult returns to the Umatilla River. Acclimation studies with summer steelhead were not conducted in 1992. A total of 237 unmarked adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from October 18, 1991 through April 24, 1992 and held at Minthorn. Utilizing a 3 x 3 spawning matrix, a total of 476,871 green eggs were taken from 86 females. The eggs were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation, rearing, and later release into the Umatilla River. A total of 211 fall chinook salmon were also collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam and held at Minthorn. Using a 1:1 spawning ratio, a total of 195,637 green eggs were taken from 58 females. They were also transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation, rearing, and later release into the Umatilla River. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and fall chinook salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Cell culture assays for replicating agents, including IHNV virus, on all spawned fish were negative. One of 60 summer steelhead tested positive for EIBS virus, while all fall chinook tested

  14. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  15. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  16. Expression of olfactory receptors in different life stages and life histories of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Johnstone, K A; Lubieniecki, K P; Koop, B F; Davidson, W S

    2011-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that salmonids use olfactory cues to return to their natal rivers and streams. However, the key components of the molecular pathway involved in imprinting and homing are still unknown. If odorants are involved in salmon homing migration, then olfactory receptors should play a critical role in the dissipation of information from the environment to the fish. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of a suite of genes encoding olfactory receptors and other olfactory-related genes in the olfactory rosettes of different life stages in two anadromous and one non-anadromous wild Atlantic salmon populations from Newfoundland, Canada. We identified seven differentially expressed OlfC genes in juvenile anadromous salmon compared to returning adults in both populations of anadromous Atlantic salmon. The salmon from the Campbellton River had an additional 10 genes that were differentially expressed in juveniles compared to returning adults. There was no statistically significant difference in gene expression of any of the genes in the non-anadromous population (P < 0.01). The function of the OlfC gene products is not clear, but they are predicted to be amino acid receptors. Other studies have suggested that salmon use amino acids for imprinting and homing. This study, the first to examine the expression of olfactory-related genes in wild North American Atlantic salmon, has identified seven OlfC genes that may be involved in the imprinting and homeward migration of anadromous Atlantic salmon.

  17. Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sean C; Cunjak, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    The current paradigm of fish community distribution is one of a downstream increase in species richness by addition, but this concept is based on a small number of streams from the mid-west and southern United States, which are dominated by cyprinids. Further, the measure of species richness traditionally used, without including evenness, may not be providing an accurate reflection of the fish community. We hypothesize that in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids, fish community diversity will be affected by the presence of the anadromous species, and therefore be influenced by those factors affecting the salmonid population. Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada, provides a long-term data set to evaluate fish community diversity upstream and downstream of an obstruction (North American beaver Castor canadensis dam complex), which affects distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The Shannon Weiner diversity index and community evenness were calculated for sample sites distributed throughout the brook and over 15 years. Fish community diversity was greatest upstream of the beaver dams and in the absence of Atlantic salmon. The salmon appear to depress the evenness of the community but do not affect species richness. The community upstream of the beaver dams changes due to replacement of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus by salmon, rather than addition, when access is provided. Within Catamaran Brook, location of beaver dams and autumn streamflow interact to govern adult Atlantic salmon spawner distribution, which then dictates juvenile production and effects on fish community. These communities in an anadromous Atlantic salmon dominated stream do not follow the species richness gradient pattern shown in cyprinid-dominated streams and an alternative model for stream fish community distribution in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids is presented. This alternative model suggests that community distribution may be a function of semipermeable obstructions

  18. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  19. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook... River salmon (except reaches above impassable natural falls, and Dworshak and Hells Canyon...

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  1. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  2. In stream habitat and stock restoration for salmon otter creek barrier bypass subproject. Restoration project 94139-b1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, K.; Gillikin, D.

    1995-05-01

    In 1994, two barrier falls on Otter Creek, Bay of Isles, Knight Island, Prince William Sound were modified to provide upstream passage to adult pink salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha). The falls were modified by using wire basket gabions, rock drills and wooden weir structures. In addition, an existing set of Alaska steeppasses were maintained and slightly modified for efficient passage of salmon.

  3. Genetic analysis of paramyxovirus isolates from pacific salmon reveals two independently co-circulating lineages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, W.N.; Falk, K.; Winton, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Viruses with the morphological and biochemical characteristics of the family Paramyxoviridae (paramyxoviruses) have been isolated from adult salmon returning to rivers along the Pacific coast of North America since 1982. These Pacific salmon paramyxoviruses (PSPV), which have mainly been isolated from Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, grow slowly in established fish cell lines and have not been associated with disease. Genetic analysis of a 505-base-pair region of the polymerase gene from 47 PsPV isolates produced 17 nucleotide sequence types that could be grouped into two major sublineages, designated A and B. The two independently co-circulating sublineages differed by 12.1-13.9% at the nucleotide level but by only 1.2% at the amino acid level. Isolates of PSPV from adult Pacific salmon returning to rivers from Alaska to California over a 25-year period showed little evidence of geographic or temporal grouping. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these paramyxoviruses of Pacific salmon were most closely related to the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV) from Norway, having a maximum nucleotide diversity of 26.1 % and an amino acid diversity of 19.0%. When compared with homologous sequences of other paramyxoviruses, PSPV and ASPV were sufficiently distinct to suggest that they are not clearly members of any of the established genera in the family Paramyxoviridae. in the course of this study, a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that can be used for confirmatory identification of PSPV. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  4. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker. PMID:26879952

  5. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-02-16

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker.

  6. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  7. Alternative mating strategies in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vazquez, E; Moran, P; Martinez, J L; Perez, J; de Gaudemar, B; Beall, E

    2001-01-01

    By screening variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, multiple paternity within clutches has been found in wild populations of southern European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). For Atlantic salmon, we determined the relative contribution of alternative male phenotypes to the next generation. Individual males that are morphologically juvenile yet sexually mature fertilized a large proportion of eggs, and they thereby contributed to an increase of genetic variability in wild populations via (1) balancing the sex ratio, (2) increasing outbreeding, and (3) enlarging the effective population size, in part a consequence of (1) and (2). In addition, these precocious males ensured that interspecific spawns involving Atlantic salmon females and brown trout males (a fairly common occurrence in southern Europe where the two species are sympatric) resulted mostly in Atlantic salmon progeny. For brown trout, preliminary genetic results indicated that multiple paternity, when present, was not due to alternative mating strategies by males, but rather to successive fertilizations by adult suitors.

  8. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XV : Evaluation of the 2007 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead Smolts to Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Jim; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-12-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2007 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 26 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU Chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, one PIT-tagged wild stock of sockeye salmon to McNary Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams. Nineteen stocks are of wild yearling Chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2007 and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2007 migration. These stocks originate in 19 tributaries of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. Seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and the steelhead runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville dams.

  10. Vector potential of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Jakob, E; Barker, D E; Garver, K A

    2011-12-06

    To better understand the role of vector transmission of aquatic viruses, we established an in vivo virus-parasite challenge specifically to address (1) whether Lepeophtheirus salmonis can acquire infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) after water bath exposure or via parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and if so, define the duration of this association and (2) whether L. salmonis can transmit IHNV to naive Atlantic salmon and whether this transmission requires attachment to the host. Salmon lice which were water bath-exposed to 1 x 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) ml(-1) of IHNV for 1 h acquired the virus (2.1 x 10(4) pfu g(-1)) and remained IHNV-positive for 24 h post exposure. After parasitizing IHNV-infected hosts (viral titer in fish mucus 3.3 x 10(4) pfu ml(-1)) salmon lice acquired IHNV (3.4 x 10(3) pfu g(-1)) and remained virus-positive for 12 h. IHNV-positive salmon lice generated through water bath exposure or after parasitizing infected Atlantic salmon successfully transmitted IHNV, resulting in 76.5 and 86.6% of the exposed Atlantic salmon testing positive for IHNV, respectively. In a second experiment, only salmon lice that became IHNV-positive through water bath exposure transmitted IHNV to 20% of the naive fish, and no virus was transmitted when IHNV-infected salmon lice were cohabitated but restrained from attaching to naive fish. Under laboratory conditions, adult L. salmonis can acquire IHNV and transmit it to naive Atlantic salmon through parasitism. However, the ephemeral association of IHNV with L. salmonis indicates that the salmon louse act as a mechanical rather than a biological vector or reservoir.

  11. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    PubMed

    Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  12. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981–1985; 1998–2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes. PMID:26675673

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The

  14. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  15. Bioaccumulation and transport of contaminants: migrating sockeye salmon as vectors of mercury.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew R; Schindler, Daniel E; Holtgrieve, Gordon W; St Louis, Vincent L

    2009-12-01

    Biological transport by migratory animals is increasingly recognized as important to the long-range dispersal of toxic contaminants. Mercury (Hg) contamination is a widespread environmental concern with serious health implications for humans and wildlife. Due to their unique life history, anadromous salmon may act as important vectors for this contaminant, transferring Hg between marine and freshwater ecosystems. Previous analyses have considered contaminant transport by salmon to be unidirectional. These studies have evaluated Hg import to freshwater by spawning adults, but have not quantitatively assessed export through the migration of juveniles to the ocean. To determine the total Hg burden to freshwater systems by sockeye salmon, we reconstructed the net transport of Hg to the Wood River System in Bristol Bay, Alaska accounting for fluxes in (via adults) and out (via juveniles) of the system. Hg concentrations were higher in juvenile than adult salmon. Hg export from freshwater systems by salmon ranged from 3 to 30% of total import. Proportional export by smolts may be higher for populations under heavy exploitation with strong density dependence in juvenile recruitment. Full consideration of contaminant loading by migratory species requires attention to the relative contaminant flux at all life history stages and the effects of density dependent growth and survival.

  16. The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Ikediashi, Charles; Billington, Sam; Stevens, Jamie R

    2012-10-01

    By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (2001-2011). We have used assignment analysis with a recently compiled pan-European microsatellite baseline to identify their most probable region of origin. Fish entering the Mersey appear to originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion (45-60%, dependent on methodology) assigning to rivers in the geographical region just north of the Mersey, which includes Northwest England and the Solway Firth. Substantial numbers also appear to originate from rivers in western Scotland, and from rivers in Wales and Southwest England; nonetheless, the number of fish originating from proximal rivers to the west of the Mersey was lower than expected. Our results suggest that the majority of salmon sampled in the Mersey are straying in a southerly direction, in accordance with the predominantly clockwise gyre present in the eastern Irish Sea. Our findings highlight the complementary roles of improving water quality and in-river navigability in restoring salmon to a river and underlines further the potential benefits of restoration over stocking as a long-term solution to declining fish stocks.

  17. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  18. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1400 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Alosa alabamae Striped bass: Morone saxatilis Rainbow smelt: Osmerus mordax Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar Chinook, or king, salmon: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Coho, or silver, salmon: Oncorhynchus kisutch Pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka Chum salmon: Oncorhynchus...

  20. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1996-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservoir (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead, fall chinook and coho salmon. Personnel from the ODFW Eastern Oregon Fish Pathology Laboratory in La Grande took samples of tissues and reproductive fluids from Umatilla River summer steelhead and coho salmon broodstock for monitoring and evaluation purposes. Coded-wire tag recovery information was accessed to determine the contribution of Umatilla river releases to ocean, Columbia River and Umatilla River fisheries.

  1. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  2. Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1982 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil

    1983-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service, under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, began conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing in 1978. The juvenile marking phase was completed in 1980; over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released in 23 experiments. The primary objectives were to determine; (1) a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint, (2) if a single imprint or a sequential imprint is necessary to assure homing, and (3) the relationship between the physiological condition of fish and their ability to imprint. Research in 1982 concentrated on: (1) recovering returning adults from previous experiments, (2) analyzing completed 1979 steelhead and chinook salmon experiments, and (3) preliminarily analyzing 1980 fall chinook salmon experiments. Six experimental groups are discussed: two steelhead, two spring chinook salmon, and two fall chinook salmon. In four test groups, survival was enhanced by the imprinting-transportation procedures. Homing back to the hatchery area was partly successful in two test groups, and generally, unless there were extenuating circumstances (eruption of Mount St. Helens, disease problem, etc.), greater returns to user groups were evident.

  3. Long-Term Studies of the Effects of Salmon Spawners on Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloner, D. T.; Lamberti, G. A.; Cak, A. D.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-05-01

    To determine the ecological effects of salmon-derived nutrients (SDN) transported into fresh waters by spawning adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), we monitored several ecological parameters in Fish Creek, Southeast Alaska from 2000 to 2004. Pink and chum salmon spawn in the lower reach of Fish Creek, but cannot move further upstream because of a waterfall, 4 km from saltwater. We estimated spawner densities and measured dissolved nutrient concentrations and epilithon abundance before, during, and after the salmon run, in reaches above and below the waterfall barrier. Salmon spawners increased streamwater concentrations of ammonium (2.3 - 148x) and soluble reactive phosphorus (0.4 - 17x), and epilithon chlorophyll a (14 - 29x) and ash-free dry mass (1.4 - 4x) in lower reaches. However, the duration and magnitude of these effects varied widely among years, and did not appear to vary solely with spawner densities. Our results suggest that although SDN can stimulate primary production through increased nutrient concentrations, other environmental factors, such as temperature, irradiance, and discharge, can modulate the influence of salmon spawners on stream ecosystems. To better assess the ecological influence of SDN, future studies should consider the influence of key environmental factors and their temporal and spatial dynamics.

  4. Migration of precocious male hatchery chinook salmon in the Umatilla River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Stonecypher, R.W.; Hayes, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, precocious yearling males of hatchery-produced fall and spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha composed 3.6-82.1% of chinook salmon runs to the Umatilla River, Oregon. These yearling males are smaller than typical jack salmon, which spend a full winter in the ocean, and are commonly referred to as "mini jacks." Minijack fall chinook salmon are characterized by enlarged testes and an increased gonadosomatic index. Our goal was to determine if minijacks migrated to saltwater between the time they are released from the hatchery and the time they return to the Umatilla River, a period of 4-6 months. During 1999-2000, we collected otoliths from an adult male fall chinook salmon, 12 spring chinook salmon minijacks, and 10 fall chinook salmon minijacks. We measured strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios from the age-1 annulus to the edge of the otolith to determine whether these fish had migrated to the ocean. The Sr:Ca ratios increased from low values near the age-1 annulus, similar to ratios expected from freshwaters, to higher values near the edge of the otolith. The Sr:Ca ratios increased to levels similar to ratios expected in saltwater, indicating that these fish had migrated to saltwater before returning to the Umatilla River. Analysis of published water chemistry data from the Columbia and Snake rivers and rearing experiments in the main-stem Columbia River confirmed that high Sr:Ca ratios measured in otoliths were not the result of high strontium levels encountered in the freshwater environment. Previously assumed to remain within freshwater and near the point of release, our results suggest these minijack salmon migrated at least 800 km and past three hydroelectric dams to reach saltwater and return to the Umatilla River.

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIV; Evaluation of 2006 Prediction of the Run-Timing of Wild and Hatchery-Reared Salmon and Steelhead at Rock Island, Lower Granite, McNary, John Day and Bonneville Dams using Program Real Time, Technical Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Program RealTime provided monitoring and forecasting of the 2006 inseason outmigrations via the internet for 32 PIT-tagged stocks of wild ESU chinook salmon and steelhead to Lower Granite and/or McNary dams, one PIT-tagged hatchery-reared ESU of sockeye salmon to Lower Granite Dam, and 20 passage-indexed runs-at-large, five each to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams. Twenty-four stocks are of wild yearling chinook salmon which were captured, PIT-tagged, and released at sites above Lower Granite Dam in 2006, and have at least one year's historical migration data previous to the 2006 migration. These stocks originate in drainages of the Salmon, Grande Ronde and Clearwater Rivers, all tributaries to the Snake River, and are subsequently detected through the tag identification and monitored at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, seven wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large of Snake or Upper Columbia River ESU salmon and steelhead were monitored at McNary Dam. Three wild PIT-tagged runs-at-large were monitored at Lower Granite Dam, consisting of the yearling and subyearling chinook salmon and the steelhead trout runs. The hatchery-reared PIT-tagged sockeye salmon stock from Redfish Lake was monitored outmigrating through Lower Granite Dam. Passage-indexed stocks (stocks monitored by FPC passage indices) included combined wild and hatchery runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout forecasted to Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  7. Predation on juvenile pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. in downstream migrant traps in prairie creek, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, W.G.; Bjorkstedt, E.P.; Ellings, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Downstream migrant traps are a widely applied fishery management tool for sampling anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss smolts along theWest Coast of North America and elsewhere, yet predation on juvenile salmonids in traps has not been studied quantitatively.We assessed the frequency of occurrence and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the stomachs of coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii, coho salmon O. kisutch, steelhead, and prickly sculpin Cottus asper (>70 mm fork length) captured in traps and in nearby stream habitats. All four predator species took juvenile salmonids with much greater frequency in traps than in stream habitats. Among free-swimming predators, only coastal cutthroat trout were observed with salmonid fry in their stomachs, but they took fewer salmonid prey and appeared to rely more heavily on insect prey than did coastal cutthroat trout captured in traps. Predators consumed up to 25% of the available prey over a broad range of prey abundances. Over the course of the study, predators consumed 2.5% of all salmonid fry captured in traps, but this fraction ranged from less than 1% to more than 10% in any given year. The number of prey taken in traps increased with predator length and with prey abundance in traps, and predation in traps peaked during the period of most intense downstream migration by salmon fry. In contrast, live-box design and trap location had little or no effect on the total number of prey taken by individual predators.We estimated that the predation mortality of juvenile salmon increased by 0.5-1.0% due to in-trap predation (i.e., a 9-10% relative increase over natural predation rates). We found no evidence that predators selected for prey on the basis of species. These results should motivate additional research on methods that reduce or eliminate predation in trap live-boxes and protocols for efficiently measuring predation associated with the trapping of downstream migrants. ?? American

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  9. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  10. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  11. Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  13. PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  14. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Ogburn, Parker N.

    2003-03-01

    This is the second annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2001: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (4) Plan for data collection needs for bull trout. (5) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2001. (6) Collect summer steelhead. (7) Monitor adult endemic spring chinook salmon populations and collect broodstock. (8) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (9) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations. (10) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (11) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agencies. (14) Communicate Project results to the scientific community.

  15. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag